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55121148 Encyclopedia of Mythology

55121148 Encyclopedia of Mythology

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THT ExCYCLoPEDIA oF

MnHoLoGY

rrc GnEex AnrnuR CoTTERELL .THE ExCYCLoPEDIA oF MYTHOLOGY ClassrcAL Cel.

lf a characteris included in a specialfeature spreadit is noted at the end of their indMdual entry.com @ AnnessPublishlng Ltd 1996.r. electronic.wrthout the prior written permission of the copyright holder A CIP catalogue record is available from the British Library Publisher: Joanna Lorenz Editorial Director: Helen Sudell Project Ediror: Belinda Wilkinson Designer: Nigel Soper. fax 020 7633 9499 info@anness. Nick Beale. Special feature spreads examine specific mythological themes in more detail. more than one name exists for a character the entry is listed under the name used in the original country of origin flor that particular myth. 88-89 Blackfriars Road London SEI BFIA tel 020 7 401 2077 . recording or otherwise. 1098765+32 . Names in iralic caDitalletters indicate that rhat name has an individual entry. Glenn Steward Printed and bound in China Frontispiece: The ForglngoJthe Sampoby A GallenIGllela This page: TheRape oJGanymede PeterPaul by Rubens Author's Note The entries in this encvcloDedia are all Iisted alphabetically.This edition is pubiished by Hermes House Hermes House is an imprint of Anness Publishing Ltd Hermes House.stored in a retnevalsystem. Wft. 2006 Al1 nghts reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced. photocopl'rng. mechanical. Millions Design lllusrrators: James Alexander.or transmirted in any way or by any means.

Z e u s 2 0 Heroes 30 Oracles and Prophecies 40 Voyagers 50 Monsters and Fabulous Beasts58 Forcesof Nature 6B G i a nt s 7 6 Founders B4 CeLTIC MyTHoLOGY 9O Introduction 92 Celtic Otherworlds 104 S a g e sa n d S e e r s l l 4 Magic and Enchantment I24 Wondrous Cauldrons 132 Celtic Romance 140 Single Combat L48 Heroic Quests 156 Fabulous Voyages 164 NoRSE MyTHOLOGY L72 Introduction I74 Nature Spirits 186 T r e a s u r e sa n d T a l i s m a n s 1 9 6 Norse Heroes 204 T h e V a l k y ri e s 2I2 Sorcery and Sp eIIs 220 Tragic Lovers 228 Rings of Power 236 Ragnarok 24+ s P r c r u R EA c r x o w L E D G E M E N r2 5 2 Ixnnx 2 53 .CONTENTS PneFACE 6 CInSSICAL MYTHOLoGY B Introduction l0 L o v e r s o f .

with a variety of after-life possibilities including rebirth.4 wild Greehcentaur. the violence of men. but later abandoned his helper. the sadness of betrayal and treachery. especially on the battlefield or in single combat. the effect of enchantment upon the mind and body. Unlike the Greel. the incidence of misfortune and luck. c^NvAs. plus the whole issue of fate. Celtic and Germanic myths touch upon the fundamental issues of existence. the cycle of fertility in human beings and animals. So in lreiand rhe inability of the power of love.ties to abductHeracles' new bide whileJerryingher the across RfuerEvenus GHE oFDEhNTMGurDo . bored by rhe steady pace of everyday events. the conflict between the generarions. between mankind and the gods. but not least. Celtic and Norse. the mischief of the trouble-maker. the horror of madness with its disruption of human relations. Theseus forgot the agreement made with his father abour changing the sail of his ship from black if he escaped death himself. last.PREFACE PnEFACE H I S C O M B I N E DE N C Y C L O P E D I A f o mythology contains the three ourstanding traditions of Europe Greek. which causes disasters ro occur. Full of his success against the bull-man. his hlling of Conlai. however. rhe relation between human and divine. Theseus' father committed suicide by leaping from the Athenian acropolis when rhe black sail was sighred. the crearion of the world and the origins of sociery. But heroes and heroines find themselves in unreiated circumstances facing the same basic problems in Greece. They form the core of European mythological thought. They reveal successfu\ confronted the Minotaur on Crete. In Norse myth. even a beheading game. plus the growth of plans.<s NEssuS. rhe challenge of the unknown. the Cretan princess Ariadne. the mystery of dearh. The Athenian hero Theseus Aoifa. the sadness of illness or accidenral injury. it is the pride of the gods or their opponents. nor least within a family or a group of colleagues. the nature of the universe. wherher a voyage into uncharted waters or a quest fot a sacred object. Different myths rackle these great quesrions in distinct ways. his own son by the Amazon the old and rhe new. As a result of this moment of carelessness. and. For the stories related in Greek. the frost giants. with its accompanying anxiery Cuchulainn ro srop and think for a moment led to and jealousy. the personal danger of a contest with a monster. ) R^pE RrN/ By 1621 . rhe early ideas and notions which underlie our present-day consciousness. ireland and Scandinavia.

Attempts may be made to slow down the operation of fate's decrees.re-Jorgehiswondroussword With . but one stands out clearly: the refusal of King Minos of Crete to sacrifice the white bull from the . The tangled web of difficulties which besets Theseus can thus be traced to a number of actions. ln consequence of this sacrilege Minos' wife Pasiphae was consumed with passion for the beast. Srgurd sltv the dragon. the doom of the gods.helpshismmtor. Odin can do nothing about his future death at Ragnarok. Before Theseus Ieamed the truth. but for her stepson Hippolytus. the chief god of the Greeks. is real owner. The abiding interest of mythology. another daughter of Minos. sometimes to thwart them entirely. The Athenian hero's entanglement with Minos' family did not stop with the abandonment of fuiadne and the death of his own father. {wuto aavtNc. donglestwo worriors high absvehishead.thegreatNorsehero. He delighted the tough Northmen. For Theseus married Phaedra. the one-eyed god of batrle and the inspirer of the dreaded berserkers. while the wariors in tum lift twoboa6. Fafnir. is is frankness about such basic human drives. but they never work. She too was cursed with an illicit passion. has a duty to see that fate takes its proper course. and the Celts. Usually myths reveal an interwoven pattem of circumstances ourcide the control of both mortals and gods. The Celtic sun god Lugh cannot save his son Cuchulainn on the battlefield. and her mating with it led to the birth of the bull-man known as the Minotaur: hence Theseus and his combat with the strange creature. however. the slowwitted but honest champion of the gods. and thus reveakhis awesomepwer. the German peoples of northern Europe did not develop a heroic tradition of any significance. He cannot control events. showingtheir c GiDDsILwR. European or otherwise. Yet those who undertook raids as Vikings had a more suitable patron in Odin. A CELTIC Drrv. and then lost his exiled son in a chariot accident. he banished honest Hippolytus on Phaedra's denunciation of his evil intendons.) supremaq overanirncls (curosrnupcauDRoN.l2rH cENruRY) it. The great hero was Thor. It could almost be described as sacred literature undisturbed by theologians. not for an animal this dme.Regln. who appreciated how his allergy to frost glants naturally led to skullsmashing encounterc in fields and halls. Fate and destiny in European mythology are almost beyond manipulation. Srcuto. posib! Dogda. lN Bc. The raw and ragged ends of existence are still visible in is tales of both men and gods.PREFACE sea to Poseidon. And even immonal Zeus.

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a l t h o u g h t h e y h a d s o u g h t sanctuaryin a temple dedicatedto Zeus.t h e A t h e n r a n sw a t c h e d t h e g r e a t cyclc of plays that Aeschylusstagedabout the Trojan \Var All this would have been famrliar to the Athcnians beforeAcschylus' treatment of the r m 1 ' t h b e g a nu r t h . *T rh author. whiic Neptunc's putto .ftY \1 ( during hrs abscnceat the s l r r t r d y t h r ' s r ' w h ol i s r e n c t1 . . ' t h r l o v e r r ' l A g a m e m n t t ns . g n i z . but a bloody quarrel of their own had also added to the family mrsfbrtune A to dispute over the succession Pelops'throne at Mycenae led Atreus to kill three oI T h y e s t e s ' s o n s . afrerwhich he dared to their feet and hands Atreus show Th1'estes paid for the outrage wrth hrs life at the hands of Thyestes' sumving son. and warned hrs followers tcr beu'areof its seductrve charm The strcngth of Greek myrholog'. Aegisthus. t h c y r v e r ea l r e a d y a w a r e o f t h c m a i n c h a r a c t e r sa n d t h c i r actlons The audienceknew how the House fated to of Atreus. neirher the murder o[ Agamemnon. { t \ ' ( n t 5 . N T P T L N F P 4 r r ry r R ( ) N E s EA N L l0 .F K 5 w l : Rt g r e a t nr r I MAcEDoNtA l l m y r h m u k . ' d h e p o w r ' r r h a t resided in myth. Likeall active traclitions.anies a seasheil. their half-brother Chrysippus. ' l l c ru. but we are fortunate in halrng the MAR5 AND NEpruNE.lay in rrs collecrivcnature Unlike a story composed by a partrcular stood on its ou'n. Agamemnon'sfather. supemamralor othenvlse Although he lived in an age thzrtwas increasingly scrtntrllc in o u t l o o k .nor Orestes'punuit by thc Funes for sheddrnga mother's blood What would have fascinatedthe audiencewas the dramatist's approach to these tangled incidents. r * t r l E u r o p cT h t ' ) e r e n tl J i g l r c u s r h c n r m e h 1 'w h r r h u e refer today to the amazrngstonestold about gods.t . { g a m e m n ( ) n e t u r n i n g homc liom the Trojan War Some of the audience doubtlessrecalledan even older curse laid on l'elops himself by the messengergod H e r m e s P e l o p sh a d p r o v o k e d t h e g o d b y relusing a promiscd gift to one of his sons rncludedin hrs plays Nothing that Aeschylus was unexpected. for kLllrnghis favounte chrld.men and animals Around 400 Bc the Arhenian philosopherPlatocoined the word rnythologia n order to drstinguish r b e t w e e n r m a g i n a r i v e z r c c o u n t so l d i v i n e a c t t o n sl n d f e rr u a i i t ' : t r t p t i o n r ( . ricir over m u r d e r o I A g a m em n o n . symbol oJ thr god's dominion ttvar lhd watves {Mq* r:l BY r C .lytemnestra l b or dramattst making use o[ tt When.guarding itr mrhtary und monnmt putLo above Mdrs burs h$ rntcrests At klt. who l r r t c r h e c a m . for i n s t a n c e . his'raew of motive. two gocls of ancrent Romc. nor the revenge of his son Orcstes. 't h q 5 1 1 ' r y .P l r t t o r c c .r[eC. l x t I E N I C R I . an aifiomt hr)rsd's h(lmcl.'"vas c n d u r e a t e r n b l e p e n o d o [ d o m e s t i cs t n f e Not only had Atreus and hrs brother Thycstes bcen cursed by rherrown father. Pelops. a m)'th ah. henres. the murderer then served the bocliesof his nephews up to his brorher at a banquet. guilt and expiation For that reason another dramatist was able to tackle the same srory later in Athens during the fifth cenrury sC It needs to be remembered that such drama remained very much part of ancient religron Today we cannot expect to appreciate the full meaning of these performances.INTRODLTCTI()N IxTRODIJCTION fl r r r. thc Ettnol (-rq'."'ays a plot and a set of charactersreadily underE RUs 4E . a n d n o l o n g er i n c l r n e d t o b c l i e v e cvery detail related about gods and godt d e s s c s . the supreme god Even worse.

who included his own morher. a shape that had been collectively recognized for longer than anyone could remember Even now. the doomed leaderof the Greek expedrtion againsrTroy. the myths themselves Myths retain much of rheir power. rhe means by which Troy was raken. rhe leader of the refugees {rom Troy His adoption as a SIcILIAN SEA TYRRHENIAN SEA . Theseus. but The Aeneid. although rhey chose to impose a rypical restraint on Greek extravagance Roman heroes could never compare wrth Heracles. as rhey are in this encyclopedia Because Greek myths were fashioned and refashioned over so many generations.the epic poem abour Aeneas written by Virgil in the 20s sc. wine and ecstasywas by no means a comfortable deity for the Greeks. . we conrinue to be fascinated by the stories of Oedipus. of rhe labours of Heracles. Jason. o[cunning Odysseus. of the unbeatable champron Achilles. of the hapless Pentheus.who sailed acrossrhe Black Sea ro disranr Colchis in order to ferch the Golden Fleece. they acquired their essential form.victim of Dionysus' ecsraric worshippers.. of the Athenian hero Theseus. rhe Minotaur. Perseus or Bellerophon Something s)'nthetic can be felr in the story of Aeneas.-'! Venone o <-r{ 0 \t "n tcn&ifii "'*. but the Romans were more deeply disturbed by his orgiastic rites In 186 nc rhe Roman Senarepassed severe laws against the excesseso[ his worshippers h is likely rhat severalthousand people were executedbefore the cult of the native wine god Bacchus discarded those aspects of Dronysus which mer wrth official disproval This taming of a Greek god. rhey adopred it wholesale and identified many of their own haiian deities wrrh those in rhe Greek panrheon. even when told in summary. of rhe great voyagerJason. slayer of the strange bull-headed man. IONIAN AFR ICA AFRICAN SEA founder-hero made him of particular concem to the lirst Roman emperor Augustus. rhe man who murdered his father and married his morher. myrhs were fictitious stones rhar illusrrared rruh The Romans were no less impressed by the range and interesr of Greek myrhology Indeed. turned out ro be a balanced celebrarion of Roman aurhoriry rather than an exciting heroic narrative The hero heededthe call ofduty and abandoned the woman he loved. and many others As Greek lMng before and afrer Plato evidently understood. one of rhe bravesr of the Greek and the inventor of the Wooden Horse. as Roman heroes were expected to do rn every myth ll . Zeus' own son and the only hero to be granted immortaliry. even adopring others for whom they possessed real equivno alent The unruly Dionysus gave Rome considerable rrouble Thrs god ofvegetation.INTRODUCTION raw materials from which they were made. albeir Thracian rn ongin.of Agamemnon. could stand for rhe enrire processby which Greek and Roman myrhologr merged in rhe second century BC There were just too many myths for rhe Romans to resist.

s to arms was sounded and the D l / l ' 4 \ A i i i i I l \ L ' 8 t \ L 1 \ t 1 \ l S L i l l P# "F. the leader o[ the Greeks lt may be that he was our Achilles therr chances of angeredby Agamemnon'suse o[ ro beating the Trojanswere sLtm.a call ( A ( H i l | r ! f u i l r \ r . h e a p p e a r sr o h a v eb e e n s o m c t h i n g of a barbarian His anger was as legendaryas his prowess The uncerrainnatureof Achilles is apparentin the story of his brrth wanted Both zEL'sand pttsr-iitrt. Agamemnon intended to sacnfice of which he did by means a tnck Haung tracedthe young man to ACHILLES.rrh lrom a noisoncd anow shot from the bow ol PeRts Achrlles learned the skills of warfare from CHIRON.'-s. had wamed them that her offspnng would be greaterthan his Iather Anxious ro avord the emergcnceof a powcr qupenorto r h e m s e l v e s ..s. TZ . for she had been told she hero At last. A M r M ! ( ) N ! N l l s s l \ c t : f .r h e g o d s c a r e f u l l y arranged the mamage of Thetis to a mortal Because she was scr attached to Achilies. although in compansonwith acar'tlllxov and the other Greekhngs who went on r h c e x p e d r t r o na g a i n s tT r o y . .t to have a son by the beautiful The tis. whereas was sent to discover AchiLles. Achilles had no choice but to sail for Troy There he bitterly quanelled wrth Agamemnon. the world of the dead knew that he was doomed to die at Troy rf he went on the expedition So Thetis arrangedfor him to be disguised as a grrl and hrdden among the women at the palaceof Krng Lycomedeson rhe islandof Sc1'rosThe Greek felt that wrth- Since Thcris had to hold him by the heel. s A ( . hrlles de. reluingbnde hrstentwth we hrs Scpos. thrs one spot was left vulnerable and at Troy brought about A. Thetis tried to make him immorral by various mcans Thc bcst known wrs drpping the new-born baby in the Sryx.Patroclus. b .but his name to bring IPHIGENTA no one could identify the hidden Aulis. but PROMETIlirt. who irnplorc tht moodyhero to needed w c o m p a n i o n s c r r a d m i r i n gr h c retum Lobattle whereht s sorely of crafrsmanship rhejewels. . who also fed him on wild game to increase his f'erocity Chrron's care Achilles Under became renowned as a courageous lrshrcr bur hi' immortal mothcr . ' .l:NlAt/R.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ACUtt-leS was rhc son of Krng Peleus of Thessaly and the sea nymph THETISHe was the greatesr of the Greek wamors. palace Whrle Achilles' female (right). Odysseusplacedweapons hs tompdnion.g i v i n g h i m s e l I a w a y Unmasked. lcomes (centre) arul Aiax Odysseus among some jewellery in the comratles. I warrior quickly reached for the w e a p o n s . cunning oDYssEUs was to marry Achrlles. fire the god. rhe rrver rhat ran through HADE-S. le ader of the c.

When Aegeus outrage. him a srcgand was apart hisovn he torn by he placed a sword and a pair of (IuusrunoN DlcnoNARy hounds. entered the fray. gave Achilles a mortal Meantime. to ensure a favourable wind for the Greek fleer For a long time Achilles srayed in his rent and refused to fight the Trojans. futemis tumed him into a sug and he was chased and devoured byhis own hounds. Theseus forgot the agreement to changehis sail from black to white. of whom he killed hundreds. and farher of tne nero THfslus Ha!1ng twrce manied wirhout begetdng any children. vir$ngoddess the tumed into undersrood what had happened. he was to bring these steed XeivlHUS. Theseusgew up and was eventuguided by rhe god of prophecy ally reunited with his father. bulla headed man. Medus. When he sought advice from his friend Pittheus. A Greek hunter trained by CHIROw.Aegeus the vessel threw himself off the Athenian acropolis to certain dearh AEGEUS out sees .Patroclus had bonowed Achilles' armour. 1995) I3 .But bad Iuck continued to dog Aegeus and wentually causedhis death. Ioohing to sea. Actaeon may have boasted of his superior skill as a hunrer. the sorceressMEDF-A. or annoyed the goddessby seeingher bathing naked. unril Chiron carved a statue of Acaeon so lifelike that they were satisfied. To stop his boasring.rnrEMISand paid wirh his life. the ship bringing him home was to fly a white sail: if unsuccessful. If Theseus was successfulin his dangerous mission ro kill the Minotaur. who asked for respect to be shown for his body if he was defeated. at the hands of the Trojan HEcToR. Pittheus made Aegeus whounluchily upon chanced thepoolwhae drunk and let him sleep wirh his Artemis woebathing andher nymphs In daughter Aethra. wirh the result rhar. before rhe FURIES rokens to him in Athens on reachstruck the divine creature dumb. But thesefaithful animals were broken-heaned at the loss of their master. slew Hector with his spear and draggedrhe Trojan hero round rhe tomb of Patroclus for rwelve days.N 8v Nlck 8uLE. FRoM oF sandals beneath an enormous C6srclANTreuns. (Seealso HEROES) suggesrion Theseus was sent to fight the wild bull of Marathon. He even persuaded his mother to use her influence with Zeus to let the tide of war go against the Greels. Aegeuswent to consult the Delphic Oracle bur received only the ambiguous answer that he should nor untie his wine skin until he reachedhome. into aJterhurled wards named Aegean the (lrr/srMr. To securethe sewices of such ACTAEON asayoung w Greeh hunter a man. He rold the princessthat if she bore a son who could move had been wamed about by his the rock. partoJ hao'sbody.(. Heroic yet also arrogant.withblach all sails hoisted that had Thinhing hisson died. his squire and lover. Aegeus himsef thesea. a serious obligarion for the living. In brand-new arrnour Achilles sought out Hector.At the commencementof char Medea did everything she his Asian campaign against rhe could to thwart Theseus. Once Aegeusrecognizedhis son. some the ln guided Apollo Pais' bw. There are several reasons given for his terrible end. (ArcLLo was rhe son of a ACfnfON the shys shot anow. which had been forged by the smith god HEPHAISTOS. Thus it was that An arrow from the bow of Paris. Retuming to Arhens after an incredible adventure in the Labynnth at Knossos. Backin rhe flght. in othm.the youthful Alexander pardcipared in funeral games that were held at Troy in memory of Achilles. the latter realizedrhat the oracie had foretold how Aegeuswould father a heroic son. But Achilles was roused to action by the death of Patroclus.Achilles refused. Ar her Persians. ry w^ftRconu{. straight Achilles' theonlymortal Jor myths. which he walk ACHIIJ-E Jalls S bneath theTrojan . AnCeUS was the son of King Pandion ofAthens. 1869) ACHILLE FMNZST ssEN. seenhere a minor royal god and Auronoe. Only Thetis could persuade her son to le! the Trojans recover the corpse and arrange a funeral. hisson's ships retuminghome. ceouus. Aegeus had married wound. thegod. another ruler. daughrer of. For it was agreed that Theseus should travel ro Crete with the seven girls and sevenboys sent as ribute each year to feed the MINOTAUR. god his shot ParisThesun aims arrow by heel. But his own life was coming to an end. Achilles struck fear into the Trojans.ClesstcAr- MvrHoLocY her to the goddess ARTEMIS. Medea returned in disgust ro her native Colchis on rhe Black Sea. a black sail would signalhis dearh. APOLLO. and but he cameup againstHectorwho easilydefeatedhim. whose magiAchilles was rhe myrhical figure cal powers had given him another most admired by Alexander rhe son. which he captured alive. upon seeing with is black sail. lt was for this reason Great.he offended rhe goddess. ing manhood. ) l89l boulder.

the Trojan champion. She took him on a visit to the battle and A-ENE{S hiscomrddes witha hwer JbchoJraglnghorpieswho abwe canyofl the in them thesky. Aeneassaw her ghost and leamed from it that he would found a new Troy in distant ltaly. the fleet came to Epirus seagod. So.Becauseofher own flrght to Carthage.where the small fleet Aeneas commanded stopped at a number of islands. who was a renowned prophetess. After sailing through the Aegean Sea. Upstart Rome was only too aware of its lack of tradition and history in comparison with Greece(there was a nouble absenceof a glorious past peopled with mythical heroes and gods). But young Aeneas distinguished himself againsr the Greeks. the widow DIDO. Aeneaswent to consult the SIBYL. Time passed pleasantly for the lovers. but before sense of piety gave him strength enough to launch the fleet again.hs ha htsfamily: blind Jathcr (ANs AND and wiJe Cmtsa thar tvtosons. having run herself HERA. Although Venus wamed him of the impending fall of Troy.1995 resume the voyage Honified by his ) ouuiRfloN Nrcx inrention to leave. Dido bitterly reproachedAeneas. having been renderedblind or lame for boasdng about his reladonship with Venus. messageto Aeneas.pillan.waitingto lwrts sheher Prsidc weah wovndcl. was conthroughout the voyage Only the sumed by the flames When the Trgans finallylanded dmelyhelp of rurm. and ir seemed as i[ Italy AENFAS in while temple Carthage. the Roman was a Trojan hero and AfNneS the son ofAnchises and vENUs. Dido welcomed the Trojan refugeeswith geat hndness and unlimited hospitaliry. as Aeneas and Dido soon in laly. and the new sute to be founded on In its shoreswere both forgotten. Augustus. rhe chief Roman than. the Roman equivalent o[ prepared and.recalling him to ale aredecorated the with famous oJ his dury and commanding him to anil Aenens theTrolans BY BuE.thequeen. the great trading port founded by the Phoenicians (which was located in present-day Tunisia). and a son was born named AscANlus. who fearedhim second only ro urcron.beams are watchful.the Roman goddess of love He was the favourite of the Romans. doors Around the walls god. HE CoMpNloNs FlGm frE ll^mEs rv Fwcors I'ERroE crwtr. But him welroma to heraotic hingCom and.ulo. saved the fleet from shipwreck At the ciry of Canhage. took a personal interest in the myth.but his deep on the eastem Adriatic coast From there it made for Sicily. reaching the Iulian mainland itwas diverted to North Afnca dunng a Then the weeping queen mounted sudden storm sent by the goddess a pyre which she had ordered to be . ln gradtude PRIAM gave Aeneas his daughter Creusa to have as his wife. near the city of Cumae. ond Anchls. Drdo. Anchises refused to quit the city until two omens occurred: a small flame rose from rhe top ofAscanius'head and a meteor fell close by. dispatched urncuRv wirh a oJ while Jabulous made bronze. who harassed Aeneas rhrough with a sword. Aeneas managed to escape Troy with his father and his son Somehow Creusabecame separatedlrom the party and disappeared Later. carryrng Anchises on his back. who believedthat some of their eminent families were descended from the Trojans who fled westwards with him from Asia Minor. lt was not a coincidence that the first Roman emperor. after the Greek sack of their city. During the Trojan WarAnchises was unable to fight.Nr.uetrrR.ClnssrcAr- MvrHoLoGY gdzes wonder the at decoratwe became. Venus ensured that Aeneas fell in love with is beauriful queen. so the exploits o[Aeneas conveniently provided a means of reassertingnational pride. 161#7) l4 .

into slaughtering a flock of sheep it did not speak to him and the goddess o[ the forest and wild brother. order and she took Aegrsthusfor a lover in to appeaseJuno. of erRrus and the brother of first pretended how pleased she Artem(: but at the last moment.withJlamingtorches. according ro Agamemnon's father. In the light of dawn. From for his safe retum. the daugh. long of Spana. He rhen rerired to a barhroom had been forged by the smirh god father's ghost. the MENEIAUS.uken ro Taurus to becomea priesrter of King Larinus lt had been ess in the goddess'stemple foretold that for the sake of the Clytemnestra never forgave longdom Laviniamust marryraman Agamerhnon for lphigenia's loss.lans.. but rifice in order to appease ARTEMIS.death there was a contest for rhe against Troy The causeo[ the war ter of PRIAM. the prophetic daugh. was the son husband's retum. NEM.Anchiseshad However. HEPFIAISTOS. and fell che mouth of rhe River Tiber. a was his citadel at Mycenae. king.AX -as rhe son of Telamon of goddess henef rebnted and. rhar ciry wirh PARI5.hopewas suddenly overwhelmed by a Afterwards. (Seealso VOYAGERS) the brother and enemy of Atreus. Aeneassreered for was therefore sent to Aulis under to settheGreeh ships alight 0uusmnoru fear of his evil intentions. Latins' rraditions and language. but his enthusiastic ourline Agamemnon then realized that he nighr attack on his comrades. waxha coolly ahis daughtu. the defeated Trojan armour of this great warrior. lphigeniawas sacriinhabirants. Ajax became died of old age during the smy in delayed at Auhs by conrary winds net over Agamemnon and twisted mad with. descending married ro CLyTEMNESTM. Afrer Achilles' BAmsr^. On her it around his body. powerful aid to the Greeksin their Jromheavat shecarried Iphignia ofl to Tdurus OHE SACruNCE IPHIGENN GIOVNNI OF 8Y Argos.or nearby crossed the threshold ofhis palace. but accordingto another.she longed But peacewas made when was savedby Artemrs herselfand Aeneas mamed l-avinia. rhe Greek fleer was Clytemnestra quickly threw a large awarded the armour. When ODY55EU5 was the destiny of Rome. ro in order to change his clothes. rendering him Greek mythology.ficed. like ACHILLES. Wical mightandcourage Beside his htm. There Aeneasmet his was the flight of Menelaus' wife.but of the future encouraged his son.AJAXheads theTrqan onslaught of wth rhe goddesserHrNA deceived him Aeneas also saw Dido's ghost. which underworld. the local one tradition. 1770-) the Greek to join the expedition cAssANDM. i885 ) on his sword and died whose river banks the ciry of Rome married to the Greek champion would be built centuries larer. His daughter IPHTGENIA theTrojans who. aims bow his at instead. Iphignia.ealousy He planned a Sicily. is ofered a a "sacnfciallamb" to apryase theanger oJ AGAMEMNON I5 . Tatcerthearcher. adopred the during the ten-yearsiegeofTroy. Aegisthus was rhe son ofThyesres.ClassIcAr- MyrHoLocY ACnunuNON. on the pretexr rhat she was to be rRoM STORIE FROM HoMER. He was wzlsto seehim Thanlcng the gods A. Clytemnesrraar an easy targerfor Aegisthus' axe. he sent out a summons to ignoring the warning o[ his slave assault on Troy. would have to make a human sac. Agamemnon Salamisand. Ajax humedly rumed away animais. and hero ACHILLES According ro Conflict with rhe latins. was bloody and pro. from abroad The Tro. who showed him HELEN.

goddessof the foresr the and wrld animals. here portr(lyed is setting alight pyre her was a beneath She saved by a heawnly dwnpoursent Zeus by (lrLLsruTr)I 8YNtcKBilu. many suitors appeared and her father set a test to discoverwho would be the most suirable husband. Alcestis was to be the wife of the firsr man to yoke a lion and a boar (or. Zeus could not hide hls sarisfaction from his wife HERA who realized what had happened Shesent the goddessof childbirth. Amphitryon was enrageduntil ALCMENE6ght) wasote oJrheslEgod Zeus' many loers.CI.q. Pelias.sslcAL MYTHoLoGY AlCfSftS. on Admetus was theonly to hero yohe beasts. the god of prophecy.a bear) to a chariot. he might continue to live. rhe son of Amphirryon. She married Amphitryon. .winning the so (trrt'srurror srorur thehand Alcestis oJ rnov r R o MG R r ( L A N DR o M r .l995) the seer TIRESIAS explained that zEUs had come ro Alcmene disguised as her husband in order to father a monal who would aid the gods in their forthcoming battle against the GIANTS. was the daughrer of Krng Pelias of Thessaly When she was o[ an age to marry.and the morher of urnacrrs.son of pEFsrus.a:e.was so impressedby this complete devotion rhar she restoredAlcestis to Admetus. extracted from rhem a promise that if anyone elsewould die on Admetus' behalf. and they had two sons who later took part in the Greek expedirion agarnstthe city ofTroy. and always protected Alcmene. who Amphitryon.'ns. I6 . Alcescisgaveher life for him prnstpuolr. Eileithyia. 1 9 2 0 ) AlCUeNt was rhe daughrerof Electryon. Hera then put snakes into Heracles'cradle. anives o chaiotdrawn who in by Iions bears. a neighbounng monarch named Admetus succeeded this in seemingly impossible task But at the wedding he forgot to make the necessarysacnfice in gratitude ro ARTEMIS. Ioohs in disbelieJ. fu no one would volunteer. and so found his wedding bed full of snakes Once again Apollo came to the king's assistanceand. the son o[ Zeus. Once Amphitryon tried ro bum her for infidelity. So Alcmene became pregnant with rwins: Heracles.but wos punished Jor herinlideliry herangry by husband. Wirh rhe aid of epoLro. by making rhe FATES drunk. near Mycenae in the Peloponnese. but was stopped by a sudden downpour. rhe undenvorld goddess. This the king did. and whileAlcestis' Jather. in some versions. but a trick savedAlcmene and her two sons. When Alcmene died naturally of to old age. according ro Greek mythology. but when he retumed he was amazed to learn from Alcmene rhat she believedshe had alreadyslept with him. and lphicles.Zeus sent HERMES bring her body to the ElysianFields. Admetus. ALCESTIS her below)welcomes suitor.llyinjur e Heracles. Alcmene refused to consummate her marriagero Amphitryon undl he had avenged the murder of her brothers.ro frusrate the delivery. king of Tir. the infant but hero strangled them ku s never ler H era f.

she sees husband. young Hector's wtJe. 1885 ) violent and tempestuous temper urs wrth her. herson and hurled Jrom thecirywalls. Andromache went on to marry Helenus who. tahesthem home (ttlsrurrul rRoM sroRrEs l ROM Ll\a.One of Heracles'famous labours was the seizure of a girdle belonging to the Amazon queen Hippolyta. ord.the twin sonsoJ Rhea Silviaand the war god Mars.parens. a theft that required considerablenerve. a king of Mysia in Asia AUUIIUS. husband throne of Alba Longa from his and son . brothers. his father when he rurhlessly killed the Trojan hng. andseven her brothers Jather hilledby Arhilles. while Jalls a pize oJ she as war to Achilles' son (cAf lvr: ANDRi)MAcHli D) L0RDLErcHroN. 1890) c ANonOveCHE. cnNVAs. Minor.was killed during the younger brother Numitor and Trojan War. god laas. and in consequen'ce suffered the hatred of his barren Greek wrfe When Neoptolemusdied. was a Trojan captive Her finalyearswere spent in fuia Minor at Pergamum. The adventures of borh rurnecrES and ll-tt5tu) lnvolveo Datlles wltn Arnazons. drowned be in the Tiber Bur rhe rwo boys escapeda watery death and grew up in the countryside Once rhey realized their parenrage. But thq are eventually who Jound fo a she-wolJ suchles them until a shepherd. her bows head captivity oJthe in One noblest most but ll-starred ofheroines. like her. Romulus and Remusretumed ro Alba Longa and lalled their uncle Amulius. ANDROMACHE. forced Numitor's daughter RHEA Andromache was taken off into SILYIA become a Vestal Mrgin so captlvityby Neoptolemus. Amulius imprisoned her and ordered that her rwin sons. Faustulus. rhe altar ar of zrus'remple.CLASSIcAL MYinoIocy AMUIJUS (Iet't) casts outhis nephews. rhe son to as to deny her father an heir When of the great Greek hero ACHILLES RheaSihra was raped by the war Neoptolemus had shown rhe same . PRIAM. After the sack of Troy.which was a new ciry founded by one of her sons. was the wlfe of nncton.eing that thq be drownedin the nver Tiber.He usurped the family . in Roman my'thology. Romulusand Remus. rhe was a descendant of the Trojan foremost Trojan warrior Her entire hero AENEAS. Andromache bore Neoptolemus three sons. the daughter of Eetion. REMUS ANDROMULUS. He even slew a comrade who mentioned it Fascination with Amazon power affectedother heroesbesidesAchilles.

sandals carrying the head of the ANDROUEDA and Cepheus. the sighr of which tumed all living things to stone. iolating NrcK ilrE 1995 B diine l. The meaningo[ her name is uncertain. Antigone refusedto accept this impiety and spnnkled earth over the corpse as a token burial For this she was walled up in a cave. Her brother Polyniceshad been killed ANNOPN LOYER5 SCC OFZEUS was the Greek APnnOOtfE goddess o[ Iove. There are a number of different versionsof the myth. The constelsacriliceAndromeda to the beast Iation of Andromeda lies close to and both Cepheus and she was chained to a rock at that of Pegasus.Andromeda settled in Tirfns. when her distraught father gained some hnd of peacejust before his death. he cu* Andromedafree and REH$ slaysthe monster (PERSEUS ANDRoMED EyJflcHtMwlflEi. near Athens. beauty and fertiliry Unlike her Roman counterpan yENUs.||n 04usrunoN By ) ANDROMEDA Q$). although the ancient Greek came to believe it refened to foam Quite possibly this belief arosefrom the story ofAphrodite's l8 . wrthout which a soul couV not rest. and his body was condemned to rot unburied outside the ciry. the foot of a cliff.wtr. but they all castAntigone as the heroic victim of a family wrecked by a terrible deed. buial wasa sacredduty.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ANTIGONE (abwe) sp'inhlesmrth on as the body oJha brother.king ofThebes. the sea to mamage if he defeatedthe monnymphs. 1630) in an uprising against the new ruler cREoN.theheroPerseus on his way Swoopingdwtn on thewinged hone. She was with him at the sancuary of Colonus.with whom she was idendfied. This Perseusdid by using seagod PosEIDoN He avengedthis Medusa's head. but her troubles were not over. plete disaster it was decided to which Perseusruled. and his wrfe and motherJocasta On leaming of their unwitting incest. Oedipus tore out his eyes while Jocastahanged herself. She retumed to Thebes. Aphrodite was not only a goddess of sexuai love but also of the affection that sustains social life.king Gorgon Medusa He fell in love ter o[ Cassiope of the Ethiopians When Cassiope with Andromeda. Polynices. saw her as he flew past on winged was rhe daughrerof ANilCONE IEDIPUS.where she hangedhenelflike her mother Jocasta. a symbolicat oJbunal For the Greelu.The penitent Oedipus was then guided by Antigone in his wanderings round Greece. chainedto a roch os a sacifice m a seamonster. s whilehlgh owrhead. they complained to the ster. ha uncle. and obtained boasted that Andromeda was more both her and her father's consent beautiful than the Nereids. insult by flooding the land and sending a seamonster to devastate After sorne time.yet Creon.can only pray. was the daugh. Perseus and Cepheus'kingdom To avoid com. Pegaw. a had daied Polynices bunnl. There PERSEUS and Cassiopewere also commemorated in the stars.

pull the chaiot. Although Ares had no wife of his own. so accomplished was Asclepius in medicine that Zeus slew him with a thunderbolt for daring to bring a man back to life.and the twin brother of the goddess ARTEMIS. he had three children byAPHROOIr. Adonis became the object of admirarion for both Aphrodite and pERsEpHorur. ) l8ll5 .ClnssrcAr- MyrHoLocY I. When rheTiran CRONOS cur off the penis of his farher Ouranos with a sharp sickle. There were in fact sanctuaries dedicared to her on many islands. "panic".Aphrodi? Ael).vs and srna. the god of the sea. virgin hunrress. Indeed.This Anchlscs fails to do. but wams him to keep the parentageof their son Aeneasa secret. Apollo took its place. of was bom Jrom theJoam ol the su. the hand of the most beaudful woman in the world. where it floated amid white foam Inside the penis Aphrodite grew and was then washed up at Paphos on C1prus. When Hephaisros found out about Aphrodire's passion for rhe war god Ares. a means for some of the Trojans to escape and flourish anew in ltaly. alwaysaccompanied him on the bardefield. ashoreon Cyprus At hu sile. the Roman version o[ ln this myth Venus herself is deeply attracted ro rhe Trojan. however. or annual festivals commemorating Adonis' death. which issued revelations through a fissurein the rock so that a priestess. Poseidonand Apolb (cntre) wouV oJtm ad the Trojans.t). infuIl atmour. He the was one of the most important deities of both the Greek and Roman religions. and as a resuk suffers blindness or a disability of the Iimbs. $rthon was an offspring of GAIA. and for a third part with Aphrodite. Their birter quarrel was only ended by zrUs. archery and music The origrn of his name is uncenain but it is probably non-European A light with the gigandc earthserpent Python at Delphi gave Apollo rhe sear o[ his famous oracle. througlr the leadership of Aeneas. urgcs the sun-chaiot ta ise in the slty This unusual wsion oJ themythhas Apollo. Perhaps Aphrodire's grearesr Iove was for rhe handsome yourh Adonis. could give answers to any questions that might be asked. Aphrodire was But not content to be a hithful wife and she bore children by severalorher gods. Once she arrived. sherose stepping lrom the waveson a seashell. Phobos.the $nhia. has nothing of Ares' fickleness APOILO (abate). Zeus causedAphrodire ro fall in love wirh Anchises. andFlora. who ruled that for a rhird of the year Adonis was to dwell with himself. Howarcr. and Deimos. TEMpEv. the gods were not im4rtial. (THE BomcEur. Apollo's interest in healing suSges6 an anclent assoclatlon with the plagueand is conrrol. the farher of AENEAS. So it was rhar rhe ancient Greels accommodated a West Asian mother goddessand her dying-and-rising husband. Zeus rwice forced Apollo to be the slave of a mortal man to pay for his crime. ln Greek mythology. Ares. He called rhe other gods from Mount Olympus ro see the pair. ruallingthe linh fuween lzo anil the sun. and was the god of prophecy.mother earth. the GreekAphrodite actually helped to causethe Trojan War. and was Iater idenrified with the Roman war god uens. 1482 c ) binh.1870) s. her sacred BrRrH vENUs sANDRo oF By flower. Ares is depicted as an instigator of vrolence. (H{oEBUs Arcrc By EMoN RMEtrcANv c . queen of the dead.PHRODITE. a tempestuous and passionatelover and an unscrupulous fnend The Roman god Mars. Indeed the Adonia. His son ASCLEPIUS also identified was with healing and connected with sitesin nonhem Greece Indeed. andlbns. APOILO was rhe son of zEUs and the Timness LETO. but they only lauglred at his shame. for a third parr wirh Persephone.luik the gods into battle. (Seealso FORCES OFNATURE) AnrS. rhe ourraged smith god made a mesh of gold and caught the lovers in bed togerher. persuaded Hephaisros to release Aphrodite and Ares. though he had to do penance in Thessalyfor the hlling. ARES @lov. the spingblow her gently uhore in a showeroJ roses. another West Asian deity. as ider. goddess lwe andbeauty. whilc Hqa anil Athena (ri$t) supporttt the Greek.After he slew the eanh-serpent. the sun gd. While the Roman goddess provided. kingof Spana. Killed by a wild boar. he casr rhe immortal member into the sea. This fatefully rumed our ro be HELEN. was the Greek god of war. including DIONYSUS and ARES. which suggesrsrhar she was a Westfuian goddesswho was brought to Greeceby sea-traders. son of pRraU rhe hng of Troy. in war. the goddessof Iove The rwins. "[ear". rather tlnn Helios. the son of zr. wife of vrruruqus. were celebrated in many pars of the eastemMediterranean Becauseof her unruly behaviour. and posenoru. ln order to ensure that he would name her zlsthe most beautiful of the goddesses. insteadoJ horses. Ztphyus. the west wtnd. orurmroN noM SroruBrcM HoMER. the ancient Gree}<smarried her in their mythology to the crippled smith god HEPFIAISTOS. Aphrodite promised PARIs.

her husband. Hera.r/u rrvergrtl. s r r m c t i m c sa s a m o r t a l m a n .pursuing without mercy his loversand their offspring.r F( R(n'A I)^rrr) B) 20 . 152125J CALLI-S1-O (ahrrr'). hun(t r.ghl) ucrs ir(rrr(/ l^ Zt'ti\ In t h ( ' \ h d 1 l i . ltdvrng lo ( l l h N AA \ r ) ( r \ | r \ r ( r t r I ' r r f RP 4 r R rB t N \ . wrshrrrg to hrclL htr lrom I lcra.The antagonism between the two could be viewed as a clashbetween different religious traditions or local cults. Baar Hrre. she ts homr selulrlv Jown to rhr sea.a s a s w a n . or lry Htru htrvll A\ d btdr rhc was shol hv srrns I ht' r'anous \tug6 rrprr'sr'ntcd htrt on tht klt.K s rRtKtNG maritai conilict between the two chicf and deities. Ztus nr()unl5 tLc bull tntouruged ht ls tcrflr'nrss On the nght.Arlemrs on.l wus plared among fht stcrs ds tht 5h. t n t t t g t d / r r r n rl h t n t l l c s o n t l t a n t L t l h r t r n r l h r st'a trr (. r al\vAs l6J640 ) (Trlr R{n . dtstrtiscc. each cult recognizing a different lovcr who was often regarded as the anccs[orof a ruling family d d w(r\ior((1 Zeustn tht lom LtJ sdtvr. t(rfhr( \ ry' thr Lhctsc. /b o r r h t t t t c t s o n . A t i a s FI/ROPA lr.mrs rn thr /orcsr aar. Hera rvas notoriously jealous and r.Zeus loved countlesswomen and he as courtcd them in as many forms. surrounciccl lrr th..rtft whcri'shr bort hun Lhrtt ol th( hdntu drt -Shcw. an earth gc-rddess.rr\rr)$1S{r\R8}Atr1)\rr(i)tsRr('(r).sucl grrd be-side ct vttuthlul sutl'r. and erren in the form of a golden shower.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY LovERs oF Zr.l ht r m m p h s r o n r / o r t ( a i l r s t o p o s s r b i va f t er h i ' r (n(ount(r wrth th" ovemhclmtng god. as Atlphtotrurcl Zrlhus tlerc. somctimes a bull. a s a s a t y r .t.(r\l:A-\. w'rlh mrlnl Lltlt I:rotcs (Lrr sprnts) horenng rn lhr riry I rnulh shc foats happiy htr moukns away. / i r b c a L r t r / r lh u l l r . /r.us lhcn .gcnliv sfiaJrrAntrrpe /rom thr sunwhilcshcsicrps Oflove td. ['uropu Arl.roil \f\r'u)rf /r r\nr\(. l t r . hl ANTIOPE (uhort). Eros.rlt nrrnph und (()ntfdnl()il()/Atfttnl\ rn t/tr thrlSa trcts l o \ a ( 1h : r r i \ r t n t .l gout-lihc crtaturt 5hc iorl hrn twlr soils. Zcus.l rnlo u bcur erlhcr la ZLus. rlrughtir.Zus.us is thc N4yt-tIt)Lt)GY op ASpEC-T GRr.engeful. suprcmc power on Olympus One of the most amorous gods in mytholo gy.

t (1\\1\ ltiq6) .t\r4\'rM()RF.s( FRr lry Dictls (llrr \rMrr( Bl(rrr T { \ ( .apptarshtre huggrng mothcr. homed godscems be a fusion oJ Hudrs und Pun to (l( filR4NrSl\1lrr r) a. -Senreic consumed thc /icrrnes unLl.ht tdsthothoJ thtm out to the seain a woodenchest. anclbort hun o son.M YTTt o childlry Semdt. the us to heaven placed arnong stars her and red ThyoneThisEtmsrdnmitror is borde with iw. r )M which was l)tonysus' sutred plant (lrrr \ ru rr()N n( Ir()\ARY ) 1895 DR Hs Cliss(il Dr( SvI DANAE below) u.whrle thet)arh.whilc Apolkt his s t c r n J s w r t hu h u yt t r t ( l r t r i i t r ' h raised ntothrt hts Dionystrs becanta goc. thq ftoattd ushorc hut wherethqt wert rtt uttl on the Isleol Senphos )rFR )\' )! )Rc[. gavc brrth prtmuturdy to Diorrysus. [ u ( x ) r ) T A l( 5] 9 2 C 1 t SEMELE (klt) encourugtd Htro.l. dymg. ptrsuudtd 14' in Zcrs lo shor hrrnscl/ all his qlenJour Whenh. thegeat godrodutes 5-ynrbolist chrldhtdrng A Itery.bloodredhghtnrng winged bc from thehght coulcl Dionysus.lt s/roxd . Pcrsrus When htr lttthtr drstoveretl baby.usconfinedin a brazt'n tLtwer lry her father whofearedan oracleprtdtctrng thut ht woukl be hilledby o gundson In htr lout'r shs n wds visiledby Zeusn tfu lonn oJa golc.' apptarttl beJorthcr as tht radiunt gil ttl thwtdtr was iry anrl lightning. whom Zeussavedlrtnn tht Jirt In thrspowerful veirion oJ the myth.

visited strange lands and snake that never slept overcame many obstaclesbefore The DELPHIC OMCLE encoul. guarded by an enormous marvels.Aeson. THE ARGONAUTS (top) commissioned Argus to build theArgo. however. where Hera used to the goddessof love APHRODITE agedJason undertakethe quest ro Hera inspired a group o[Thessa]ran make MEDEA.where was the nghtful their leader. Julfilling parl oJ an oracle that ahalJ-shod man would tahe Pehas'throne Thepeacoch beside Hera denoLes all-seeing her vision (ItusrurrcN FROM TANGLEWOOD TALI.Jasondeterminedto return to Iolcus and reclarm che throne During the joumey. who was wamed at the time how he would in tum be overthrown by a man wearing only one sandal In order to protectJasonfrom Pe]ias.while out Athenamahes sails Behindher. c I 920 ) wamors to Join his expedition and they became known as the Argonauts. he was tested by the goddess HERA. symbolizes wisdom (lLLUsrMroN her rRoM DI(TIoNARY oF ChsSIcAI ANTIQUITIEs ]89] ) JASON (abne IeJt). who was disguised as an old woman She begged him to carry her safelyacrossa swollen river. her sacred creature. Pelias a religrous could not krll his nephew wrthout the nsk o[ suffenng divine disfavour So the king toldJason that he could have the throne provided he obtained rhe Golden Fleece.s. possibly her believing to that shewasdestrned marry a god (ir l l'srRAnoN FRoM I Alcl s. throughthe Itfuyinth AItu hilling the bull-Iihebeast. ( 1924 ) which Jason did at the cost of one of his sandals Thus the prophecy was fulfilled: a man weannS only one sandalarrived at lolcus to chalmade lenge Pelias BecauseJason his intentionsknown ar the time of festival.perched on a pillar.CrnssrcAL MYTHoLoGy I I I i THE AncoNAUTS were very earlyexplorers. Jason'sfather. he sailedaway with her.the owl. was deposedby his half-brorherPelias. with Medea'shelp. a ARIADNE (qbove) hands the vital shetnto whirh allows hrm to trach his way Theseus.which was an apparently impossible task This miraculous fleece belonged to a ram which had flown to Colchis.ooDTALES ( lg20 ) ORPHEUS Castor and Polydeuces. in the Ltbynnth.of BoR-EAS rhe hero HTMCLES ern Georgia It hung from a tree Together they crossed a sea of there. seconddaughter rhe 22 .S.mosr likely rhe first Greek voyagers to the Black Sea They sailed from Thessaly.enty oars Hereht carues thestem. Jiery credtures (lLLUsrMTpN FRoM TA\GI l. to iike many other heroes On reaching manhood. k r n g o f I o l c u s A c c o r d i n gt o r h e myrh. the crew of the ship Argo Among their number were IASON (abne). but then deserted on Dia.TAsoN.ooD IAr Es. disguised as an old woman. rhe poet. Aeson had secrerlysent his son to CHIRON educatethe young man.helpsHera.the Minotdur. Calaisand Zetes the sons and distant land identified wrth mod. a ship with th.dcross stredm In the the cunent he losesa sandal.reaching Colchis.she anointshim wtth a salveto protect him Jromlire and steel ploughsthe Jreldswith the bulls oJ Aietes He was the fvst hero to yohe thewlld and.

which dated from the pre-Greekera of Cretan history. or any harm done to her favourite animals. Aries the ram. oJ resisted love attentions the always or of men Whenthehunter Actaeon sawhoin thenude. so as ro rcsrorc his youth. for during the pursuit of rhe Argonauts across the Black Sea. Anemis liked to roam the mountains with a companion band of nymphs Cenainly the virgin goddess resented any kind of inmrsion into her domain. AnfgUtS was rhe daughter of the Tiraness LETOand ZEUS. and slay the armed men who would at once rise from the gound. whom Jason had promised to marry once back in Thessaly The Colchian princessseemsro have been associatedwirh rhe rires of dismemberrnent as well as magic. rhe god of ecsmsy and wine. AruON VOYAGER5 SEC ARTEMIS. The hero was required to yoke a team of firebreathing bulls. Only a promise to sacrifice was enough his daughter PHIGENIA to appeasethe goddess. in Greek myrhology.although there are differing accounts as to whether the girl was acually hlled. But first Aietes set Jason a challenge that was intended to result in his death. She employed her magic once again to deal y"ith the unsleeping snake. Actaeon actually tried to approach the naked goddess hidden beneath a stag's pelt To the Romans.1556-59) aNv By atAulis. He secrerly planned to attack the Argonaus. The king hated Greek but he kept his feelings hidden from the Argonaus. found of his fleet sranded by contrary winds 23 . hu she tumedhimintoa sta&which indignantly (Durrrro wasset upon hisownhounds fo AcAEoNTrruN. t-ater. Apsyrtus. the MINOTAUR. rhe ruler of Knossos on the island of Crete. Another monal punished by Anemis was ACTAEON. Local legend would suggest such a connection.bathingwith nymphs. He even consented toJason's attempt to capture the Golden Fleece. fuiadne gavehim a sword and a skein of thread that allowed him to escapefrom Daedalus'kbynnth after a bloody struggle with the dreaded bull-headed man. s. ArunONf. Most of all. a "bull-homed god" who was full of powerand feniliry.4n and King MINos. although the whole story of the Minotaur was probably no more than a garbled version offar older tales of the spon of bull-leaping. and in hlling him avenged rhe disgrace of Jason's htherAeson. who was also a goddess of light as well as of the wild. forcing the Colchians to gather up the remains for a decenr burial.virgin goddessthewild. now Jason's lover. The Golden Fleece also appear in the heavens as the first constellarion of the Tndiac. For killing a sug sacred to Artemis. Theseus and Ariadne then fled from Crete. was the daughter of pestprl. according to a different version. When the Athenian hero THESEUS came to Knossos to pay the annual tribute of seven young men and seven girls.ClesslcAI- MvrHoLocY of King Aietes. Piecesof Apsynus' body were thrown overboard. butMedeahlled rhis riral and her own children byJason. King AGAMEMNON Mycenae. Jason died in Corinrh as a result of a rotten piece of rhe Argo hlling on his head. She was in all likelihood averyancient deity whom the Greeks adopted as goddess of the wild Traces of human sacrifice could still be found in her worship. With the assistance of Medea's skills in the magic arm. Dionysus himself was known to the Greeks as "the roanng one". Jason accomplished Aietes' task within a single day.and the rwin sisrer of APoLLo. After a few years he deserted her for another wonvul. This they did. plough and sow a field with dragon's teeth. the leader of the Greek expedition against Troy. Medea also persuaded the daughters of King Pelias ro cur rheir father to pieces and boil him. The desened princess may then have become the wife of DloNysus. However.andJasonseized the Golden Fleece The Argonaus quickly rowed away from Colchis with the fleece and Medea. who were wamed by Medea. Jason and Medea led an unsertled life in Greece. fall in love with Jason. Artemis was closely identified with their goddess Diana. Medea slowed the Ileet of her hther Aietes by hlling and cutring up her own brother. Bur the hng of Colchis was not prepared to give up the Golden Fleeceso easily. Afterwards rhe gods raised the ship to the skyand made it into a constellarion. in Thessaly. but for some unknown reason the hero abandoned the princess on the nearby island of Dia. had the He misfonune while hundng to come upon the goddess as she was bathing She changed him into a stag and he was chased and tom apart by his own hundng dogs.

oJ Close in a mantle Jatho. fuclepius would seem Ascanius was hng of lavinium fol. he founded the city of through Ascanius. brought peace and unity to the god of prophecy. and before whose skills became known he left to take up residence in a throughout Greece: his cult evennew ciry at Alba Longa.62 79) AENW. This experience may have inclined her to manly pursuits. Only the stories of Asclepius' went to avoid marriage. there enraged Apollo sent his sister were many who admired Atalana's beauty and paid the price against ARTEMISto kill the lake nymph with a disease. in Greek mythArnreNfn. This would mean that major deiry. None could catch her. was rhe son of epotto. Venus. the serpent-bearer. Despite the secret a monal as a second lover. Lavinium within three years of which suggess his late arrival as a landing.to have been a Thessalianhealer Iowing Aeneas' death. the arrival of the Trojan refugeesin Ilium being the old name for Troy Italy. was the daughter of Iasus of Arcadia and was known as a famous hunness. zls Ophiuchus. fiSOw ing power. Atalanra's most famous myth enr abiliry to renew its youth each concems the lengths to which she year by sloughing off is own shn. Apollo felt sorry for his was fu\ clothed Finally. a l-atin ASCrnPtuS. the Greek god of princess whose marriageto Aeneas healing. Zeus decided that Asclepius should be punished for threatening the gods' monopoly over immortality. whose Imowledge was so great that zEUshimself fearedthat Asclepius mrght leam a way of overcomrng death. Thus was Asclepius young man named Melanion and bom.causejealousies amongst them. She even tried to enlist but believed to embody the god's heal. Aeneas' divine wtth of dacends heaven a spng Jrom whiletheGreeh surgeo\ healingilittany. Early rilalry tually took over the sanctuary at between the two cities probably Epidauros in the Peloponnese explains the removal myth. She said birth and death were ever well rhat her husband must first beat known to the Greek and Romans. As an unwanted daughter she was exposed and left to die on a mounainside. the love unbom son and removed him from goddess ernnoorn took piry on a the corpse. Aateas mother. However. olory.Cr-RssrcAL MYTHoLocY ASO{NIUSweeps baidehLswounded by. ANoN. an awful consequence of losing. Sacred snakes resident there were 24 . claimed descent from Aeneas the Romans. The ancient associadon refused herbecause the presenceof between snakes and medicine is one woman on rhe ship mighr probably due to the snake's appar.with the ARGONAUTS. In myrhology he her honour that Aeneas founded is a somewhat shadowy figure. When he did succeed in resurrecdngone of his patients. An altemadve radirion makes Ascanius' mother l-avinia. but at Apollo's request the god of medicine was placed among the stars. It was in nFmph Coronis..He was taught medicine by provided him with a way to delay ASCANIUS was rhe son o[ The family ofJulius Caesar. who was also AIba Longa thirry-rhree years after called Iulus llus ("made of llium"). her in a race and any man who lost When Coronis dared to take in would be put to death. as the herspeed. Asclepius was slain by a thunder-bolt. So impressed were the Romans with Asclepius' cult that during a time of plague they requested aid from Epidauros and a sacredsnake was duly shipped to Rome. and the lake L-arinand Trojan peoples. pullsoutthearow-headwrthhis Iapyx. AD AND /orceps(wouxoeo the CentaurCHIRoN. mrst.rhe AENEAS and Creusa According to Julii. bur was suckled by a bear and later brought up by hunters. although they ran naked while she flames of the funeral pyre bumed Coronis.

not leastbecausefor the firsr nme even the FURIES acceptedOresres' deliverancefrom guilr ATIAS was a rlTAN. she offer him protection. rhe daughter ofzrus and rhe Titaness gredtesthealer.r rr. . wds Not matncide ORESTES only did condemned to shouldu heavms the Jorever. rhe son o[ Iapetus and the Oceanid Cl)'mene He was thought by the ancient Greek to hold up the sky.the miraculously disappearedso rhat the semen of the smith god fell to the ground.v seaand found their own empire It SToRrEs FRoM GREECE AND RoME. she FRoM TANGLTooD TALB c 1920 ) ASCLEPIUS. Zeus.l930 ) was during this period that the Parthenon was built on the hero took over his job of holding Athenian acropolis up the sky When Atlas returned Athena was alwaysregarded by wrth the appleshe suggestedthat the Greeks as an active goddess.ghting slEgod the Jor also arranged for him to be rried Zeus (Iuvsrunou moM DrcnoNAfr oF cwsrql and acquitted of his terrible crime ANrreurilE.thegreat Titanglant. goddess wisdomarul craJts. Here which An early myth relares how sW themonstrous wiWboar has ravaglngthe oJCalydon Hephaistos tned to rape Athena been plains (lltusrunoN To avoid losing her virginity.the gtJtedhuntress dnd unusually athletic huoine. the Athenians later bndlewith whichto tameand mount tht went on to achievemasteryof the wingedhorse. rhe companion of the smith god. back the island of Ithaca. She gave him three adopted her cult when an olive tree golden apples. were given a box by Athena and told not to look inside it Ignoring this command. GAIA. and went insane However. war and crafts Although a fierce mtraculous oncercune(ling d mortalJrom death His attibutes. female guardiansof the fruit that morher earrh. he should deliverthem himself. i89l ) by the ancient court o[ the Areopagus. afrer he had swallowed the Melanion either forgot a vow to pregnant Metis The smith god Aphrodite or consummated their HEPFIAISTOS assistedrhe birrh wirh union in a sacredplace To pay for a blow from his axe Quire likely the sacrilegeboth he and Aralanta this intervention accounts for her were tumed into hons.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY AfnfNn. was the Greek goddess o[ p(Nters. title of Hephaistia. it was she who eventuallygot ODYSSEUS to adjust the weight on his shoulder.the semiserpent who first ruled Athens.AsclepiuswasglJted wrth Metis. POSEIDON. Athena connnued to protect Athens.HERACLES askedifAt]as would take the world for a moment so that he could and prRsrus Also. who stopped three times to pick spnng of brackish water Arhena up the apples So Melanion won sprang into being fully grown and the race and Atalancaas a wife. Bur armed from the head of her father in his hasre to make love to her. oJ the ciry fell into enemy hands dur. where it grew into the serpent Erichthonius The three daughterso[ Cecrops. Greeh god oJhealing tends a man on his sichbedA sonof ApoIIo. The Romans in theequally idendfied her wirh MINERvA.the in 480-479 nc. somerimesArhene. 1995 ) delighted in being a city-goddess. which featured ATAIr{NTA. which he placed at grew on its acropoiis: the other different points on the course diune nval for worship was rhe god who produced only a Curiosiry gor the better o[Atalanta. she did not shun men but on the contrary setwL sign{ypowerandrnaval oJhJe (IIUsBfloN BYNICK B4E. most notably at Athens. labours was to obtain the golden apples of the HESPERIDES. but she aspunishment j. found themselves gazing upon Erichthonius. followrng his so tncking Atlas into resuming his epic voyagehome from the Trojan lonely duty (SeealsoGIANTS) War PerhapsAthena's most significant aid was given ro the ATIAS. and his name means"he who cames" His most famous encounter was wirh one of whose the hero HEMCLES.guidedand helpedherJavouites Here she with ing the Persianinvasion of Greece visits thehero Bellerophon a g'Jt . Athena's symbol was the wrse owl. Although ATHENA. JAsON. Athens The verdict in meant an end to the blood-feud.Pegdsus{tulsrmn.. stafl and urgin like ARTEMIS. her Jound match on Athenian coins. two of them looked inside. godresourceJul arugetic and a Melanion theheroic huntand pair dessofwrsdom and the arts. This city Atalanta.presented ro HERA ar her mamage LozEUs Atlas offered to fetch them for Heracles if the . as involved in the affairs of men She Heracleswas doing so well The helped several heroes such as hero pretended to agreeand then BELLEROPHON.

arose about the ownership of a golden ram.Myrtilus (ll r usrMroN By NrcK BTAIE. the goddessofdawn. further difficulties. the home important Corinthian becausein exile he changed his name from of the gods. was the queen Stheneboeafor him caused son ofEos.he wasdepicLed the Zephyrus DR s oJ Temple Winds (llusrunoN FRoM SMrrH CHSIaL DIOIoNARY. Hipponous to Bellerophon ("hller of Bellerus") Although he was who was lamed for life. Atreus served his t'orepartoJa lion. 1995 ) Family misfortune stemmed from the action of Pelops. may have slain Atreus in revengefor this outrage Cenanly he became the lover of cryrrvNrslRa. rhe passion of the local BORBS. which had sprung out of firsr he is credited with a brutal the GoRGoNMedusa's blood when revenge on the false Argive queen.the hero was able to overcome the monsuous Chimaera. ArnruS an early king after whom the Peloponnese southern Greeceis in named. Bellerophon's problems began. or Argos. In contrast to Zephynrs. as his own name indicates. zEUs in anger caused Pegasusto unseat Bellerophon.srMroN FROM TANGTTmD TAL6. rhe messenger god A terrible cycie of murder and revengewas ended only by the tnal Ln Arhens of Atreus' grandson oREsTEs a charge of matricide on cherished golden ATREUS. and even become the champion of Lycia A constelladon BnUnnOPHON was a Greek was named after his fabulous hero from the city of Corinth and winged horse Two mlescast a cenain shadow the son of Glaucus. and Hippodaemia The house of Atreus was infamous for rhe heredimry curse laid upon it by the son of urRvrs. whistling through his conch He oJtn helped sailorsilth aJiendlJ breeze Alongwtth his brother winds. c i920) Proteusdspatched Bellerophon ro southem Asia Minor. Ln and Notus. sonoJPelops. and not least and the Titan Asraeus. Thyestesand Chrysippus.then Thyestes seducedAerope. Eurus. but service in the local hng's lorces saved his life Mounted on Pegasus. oneoJtheJour wnds. The By pretending that he really loved she was beheadedby PERSEUS gave Bellerophon her. tame Pegasus. blew Jrom the north. where he was supposedto meet his end. Aegisthus. did the curse of Myrtilus come to an end BOREAS. He possessed a wonderful winged horse named over Bellerophon's character. a double-edged of the god Hermes treasureto Atreus. Atreus showed his brother rhe hands and feet of his dead sons and told him what he had consumed ln horror the sun halted in its course Thyesres'only survmng son. a wondrous animal placed in Atreus' flock by Hermes First. whose husband was AGAMEMNON the eldest son of Atreus and his successoras king of Mycenae. winged horse's back in mid-air. In the PEGAsus. The godgave thecoveted hopingto sowstiJe and discordm the houseoJ Pelops. including the Amazons. Chrysippus was murdered by Atreus and Thyestes. Bellerophon persuaded the goddessATHENA queen to elope with him on a specialbridle in order to help him only to pushher off the Pegasus. i895 ) 26 .Srheneboea accused him of attempted rape and the enraged Sea. Arreus. which is siuated to the nonh of theAegean advances. the wrfe of Atreus. a glJt ram.Pegasus. or to have caused him great grief by refusing to make a promised gift Fnctron berween the sons of Pelops. the finished eating. Not until Clytemnestra and Aegisthus had murdered Agamemnon. the fatherofAreus He seemseither to have brought about the death of Hermes' son Myrtilus. the nonh wind.defeatneighbouring peoples. with a The second nle almost ends in the murder He evidently killed an hero's death when he attempted to fly ro Mount Olympus. throughthe smoheandJlamesoJ thefireslew Aerope and exiled Thyestes At a banquet supposedly for breathingChimaera. His home becausehe steadfastlyrejected her was rhought to be Thrace. thehindpart ol a dragon brother Thyestes with the flesh of and its middleJormedfrom a goot his children When Thyestes had (lrlr.a monsterwith the reconciliation.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY was the son o[ prLops. given refuge in Argos by King Proreus.in revenge the murder Jor oJ his son. and were hlled by Agamemnon's rhemselves son ORESTES. in order to gain her help in seizing BELLEROPHON swoopsdownJor the hiII diving the golden ram An enragedAtreus on his wingedhorse.

BRUTUS. much to their amusement. which his name implies. he helped the Greek cause by damaging the Persianfleet at the battle of Anemisium in 480 sc Boreas abducted Orithyia. he then wrapped her up in a cloud and canied her off to Thrace.condemns sonsto his deathJor isingagainst the gwemment Brutus. a daughter of King Erechtheus of Attica. act of violation was the lasr srraw for the oppressed Roman aristocracy. The Oracle told the Romans that the first person in the delegation to hss his mother would be the next ruler of Rome. the qplcally Roman idea of self-sacrifice appears as part of is foundation myth. became she ottangled some in and Artemis changed ftshingnets. The princes drew loa to decide who was to hss their mother on their retum home. Coming across Onthyra dancing near a stream. with great digniry. was celebratedin his honour BRITOMARTISI JromRin Minos ed g who pursuedho ninemonths. but Brutus tnpped and kissed the earth. She bore Boreas twin sons.But this fulfilment of the Oracle was soon to cause him grief. which means "net" (I[UsIMfloN BY NICX BuE. who were lcrown as the Boreades At birth these boys were enrirely human in appearance. wrse\ and duttfuIly. r nls tA.but later they sprouted golden wings from their shoulders. Theywere hlled by the geat hero HEMCLES.in desryir. trial and executlon Thus. when a conspiracy to restore Tarquinius Superbus to the throne was found to have the suppon ofTitus and Tiberius. . when ho intoa god&ess washnavn she as Dictynnd. Brutus. 27 . Calais andZrtes. especiallywhen it was leamed rhat Lucreria had subbed hdrselfto death The outrage was cleverly used by Brutus as a means of overthrowing the monarchy and setting up a republic. Boreas was worshipped in the city of Athens. two princes travelled to Delphi to ask the Oracle to explain this event and Bruus accompanied them almost in the role of a jester. was the founder of the Roman Republic Like most Roman myths. During the Persian invasion of Greece. one o[ the rwo highest offices of scate.CLASSIcAL MYTHOLOGY gende west wind. Dunng the early part of his life Bnrtus was regarded as a simpleton. at the moment of the new Republic's triumph. who was rhe sister o[ He TARQUINIUS sUPERBUs. 4s his name implies. The lcng finally gaveup the pursuit when the Cretan goddess sought sanctuary in the sacred grove ofARTEMtS. Indeed. thefirst consuloJthe new republicoJ Rome. where she spent her rime as a hunuess l(ng MINos of Knossos tried to make Britomanis his mistress But she fled from him and in her desperation to preserve her virginiry threw herself off a clilf into rhe sea. The now eloquent Brutus was elected consul. BRUTUS was said to be the son of Tarqurnia. where an annual festival. known as the Boreasmi. he led the tial againsthis rebelsons (IrLUsrMroN FROM SToruE FROM Llw.I885 ) Shortly after their return to Rome. rwo of Brutus'own sons As he was the chiel magistrate. the youngest prince raped LULRLI a Koman matron. shelmpt thesea into Luchily. even though in this instance it invojved the sacrifice of two sons.t'agned idioq but was noJool.She lived on the island of Crete. the last Elruscan king to rule Rome When a snake was found in the king's palace. becameher and close associate The myth is almost certainly an account of the amalgamation of rwo ancient culs. 1995 ) ("sweet maid") BruroueRrlS was said to be the daughter of zEUS. the story o[ Lucius Junius Brutus lays emphasison dury to the sute. at until Jor Itst. oversaw their arrest. Boreaswas capable of great dessucdon. he was something of a joke in the court of Tarquinius Superbus.

krng of Troy. heallowed no for PROPHECIES shades retum to dead. arms and chestof a man but He was to follow the animal and wedding and gavewonderful gifts the legs and lower half of a horse build a city on the spot where it The unusual union o[ mortal and They lived in Thessaiy.trcularly success[ul offspring. the daughter hound.Cadmus then Pentheus.where at last it however One of their descendans. These strange creatures had the a moon-shaped mark on its flank the gods themselvesartended the head.Cadmus a wife . Herbeaurywas asremark.none other than believed Jor she Jated beignored CeNfeUnS. includthe tutor to several (Seealso MONSTERS that they might sacrificethe animal tom to piecesby the god's female ing ACHILLES to ATHENA But rhesemen were worshippers when he spied on ANDFABULOUS BFAsTs) attacked by a serpent sprung from their secret rites.to become was raped. whosecity Cassandraforetold the Trojan punished this sacnlegeby killing Europa was forcibly taken to Crete CadmusJounded the site on War. whom she was to able as her power of prophecy. Cassandra Cadmus and his four brothers were met her own end at the hands of sent after her. the offspringof rwo mondessAthena adnsed him to remove of Cadmus and Harmonia sters.r When ancestos oJthe Thebans. was to according to Greek ho tled Cadmus himself was told by Harmonia. eachother OnlyJivesuwived. and the brother of ruRop. 1995 ) Wooden Horse and the murder of voyagehome However. (IIU5IMIIoN 8Y NICX BAE.armed acknowledged the importance oI men arose. son of ARE5. the god. and his wife Hecuba. they After a penod of penance for clearly War see FouNDERs the cncRops Joresaw Trolan andthe seem to have had an impact on the killing Ares' serpent.eSSnNonn of pruaivl. hence. armed wantors. wrth instructionsnot that the Theban aristocracy was CASSANDM.v. has slain.CLASSTcAL MYTHoLocY CERBERUS snafuandgrwlsby the oJ hound mouth HodesA threz-headed CEICNES SCE OMCLE5 AND witha snahe a uil. princes failed in their task. sus. they fell upon introduction from Phoenicia of an fetch Cerberus. disguised as a bull. 1995) mythology.who loved her.own mother. 28 . his divrne ro rerum to the land of rhe living.nnga goddess. shrine a to Aphrodite is known to have been erected based on the goddess'schief temple in Phoemcra. uenrs.which lies off the southem Peloponnese. drunken followers of ololysus. Agave.AGAMEMNON. stones among them so that. and so the goddess rruth but never ro be believed. Europa and instead find a cowwith Since he was marr.rng immortal was not blessedby parand were given to riotous behavfound the cow and followed it east.aghast thesight dt olho an PROPHECTES) Although the five Phoenician who survived the mutual slaughter predictions wtth she GiJted propheq. awarded as part of his share of the which was said to have been a gift spoils But ultimately Cassandra CECUS SCC GIANT5 CADMUS sowsthe teeth oJa dragon he from APoLLo.but wrly Cadmus rhrew Cadmus' reign. was he heroes. Zeus gave hchery theWoodet Horse. through Agamemnon's wife CLYIEMNESTM nd Jlees (Seealso ORACIESAND to return home without her. and instantly the soil bnstles wtth becauseshe refusedhis advances When Troy fell./rcn seer. she had sought was rhe son ofAgenor.1995 5w ) C. Among the frenthe war god enrs After Cadmus zred worshippers was Pentheus' was a three-headed CfnngnUS had killed the monster. on the island of Cythera. noone but oJ places where they eventually set. the daughter of Ares (IuusrMfloN BvNrcK BilE. sank in exhaustion. the true purpose of the many of the Greeks during rheir by zEUs. were said to be the the Oracle at Delphi to forget about and epuRoottr.suffereda homble fate who was except for wise CHIRON sent some o[ his men for warer so Having insulted DIoNYsus.wife He was credited with the One of grRacLES'labours was ro pecting each other. though a Jromthe by ol Ju slipped wtththehelp thegds Hts see Lowks oF zEUs darhdn opened theStyt( onto alongwhxh CRt-t-sro the CharonJemed ikad Qrusrunop w was rhe daughrer GUNN m.and Telephassa. allowed him ro are in fact a number o[ ancient accounts o[ Phoenicianactiviryin the Aegean Sea For instance. goddessoflove of descendanm xlo. iour They were usually depicted as wards to Boeotia.fed on meat chose to lie down and rest Har.TYPHON Echidna He was and its teeth and sow half of them in The ancient Greeks always the watchdog of the Greek underworld and stopped anyone trying the ground lmmediately. descended from the five wamors bumingTrq. but had her revenge on the Greeks.a challengethe god themselves lt was later believed alphabet o[ sixteen letters There of rhe dead. who sping up to attnch CenUUS he condemned her to prophesy the sanctuaryin ATHENA's temple but i<rngof Phoenicia.

musrc and propheq Uniihe his in brother Centdurs. a n ei g h bounng lralian tnbe To defeatthis voted to appolnr threat. Lnnatusmight abuse his pos-fheir ition fears proved groundless and. r. c I/70) CtNctNNerUS wasa Roman hero who was instrumentalin saving the early Republic ln 458 nc.who Lndulged iotous revelnes..v He lived rn a cave on -fhessaly. quietly he retumed. Cerberuswas so dreadful to behold that anyone who looked upon him was turned to stone He was brother to the Hydra and the Chimaera CHTRON was rhe son of PhilJra.rtqtn. and the Titan CRoNoS. and the armsand hcad of a rnan His unusualparentagc explains why Chiron was so wrse. medicine. hlsJanfl (lrrr.the Senate C i n c i n n a t u sa s d r c t a t o r . after the dcfeat o[ the Aeqr-ri. daughter of ocEANos. thar he was unarmed Like thc GORGONS. who had adopted the form of a horse to hide from his wrfe RHrAhis passion for Phillra. Mount Pelionin and when he died zru-sscr him rn thc slryas the constellation Centaurus 29 .for he was leamcd i n m u s i c . c l wlth the body and legsof a horsc. aANn-s. E N t A t r R . warfare He was a fnend of 'cPot-t rl and the ruror ro several Greek heroessuch asACHILLES.m e d i c i n e h u n t i n g a n d .".a t e m poraryofficevcstcdrvith unlimired powers A deputationwas senr ro his small farm. in hunting.LEPlL/-S andTeso. thc ordinary people.CLASSICAL MYTHoLoGY the CHIRON (elt) instructs youthJul Achilles the afts oJwar. which is why Chiron had the a p p c a r a n co f a r y p i c a ( .u to 5r()Rlr5 rR()MIr\ry.. Chiron was noted his wisdom Jor (THr oF l and gtntleness Er)uGlloN A( Hil I t 0v PoMPEo BAToNr. feared that ( in.". the plebeians. unlikc other Centaurs. rvhich was the s m a l l e s tl a n d h o l d i n ga l l o w e d t o quah$'for citizenshrpThe senators found Crncrnnatus work tending ar hi< . A-Sa. Romc was in danger of berng b d c s t r o l ' e d .rn< Hr u'as rnld 6[ thg S en a r e ' s d e c r s i o n a n d r ' " . rhel""oted Crncinnatus a golden wreath at the end of his sixty days of office He then returned to his fields and was remembered as the perfect example of a r'rnuous and dutilul Roman citizen CINCINATTUS. 188-5) but only on condition undertake. oneoJthe mostmodest and a modeloJ Roman oJ Romanheroes integnry AIter 60 daystn ot'fice. a s a l u t e d s as dictaror However. r h e A c q u i .

CrassrcAr-

MvrHoLocY

HERoES
HE MYTHS OF ALL CULTUREScontain inspiring individuals who express ideal traits and talens, such as the courage

of Achilles, might of Heracles, wit of Odysseus and endurance of Oedipus. A classic hero is a champion rn every sense, overcomrng trials, ridding the world of troublemakers , blazrng trails and winning through despite all the odds. Yet he is neither inr,ulnerablenor immortal, though often helped, and sometimes hindered, by the gods. Greek mythology is unusually rich in heroes and heroines of every kind. Some, such as Achilles and Hector, are wartime champions; others, such as Odysseus or Theseus, are heroes for peacetime, some are positive and outgoing, such as Heracles or Perseus; still others are heroes of attitude rather than action, such as Oedipus, Antigone, or Hector, who, at the end, remained steadfastin the face of hopeless defeat.
who racedaway wth his HEMCLES (bdow) shoots poisoned his anows at his oldJoe, the Centaur Nessu.s, Deianira the glJtof his wile, Deuntru, whik lerrying her acrosstheiver EvenusThe dying Centaur olJered which Heracles the bloodus u sulve prcseruing loveo[ HeraclesThe lovephiltre provedto be a futal tnch Lry lor tlied manyyears later, tragcally, by the handsoJhis insecure loting wife, Deiantra, who in her sorrow but h i l l e d h e r s t(llll.r R ( L U s ^ N r ) N r \ \ L r \ a i F R A N : \ ( ) N - s r r i . r k , . ^ N v A s l 8 6 J l 9 2 8 )

(above), best hnow Jor his mighry labour:, was aII his hJea helper oJ godsand men, setting theearthJree oJmany monstus and rascak HEMCLES as as Worshryped a heroand deity,he was invohed d saviour; the herooJ as labourand strug,le,he waspatron deity oJthe gmnasium In art he appears and graveocpression This as the ideal oJ manly strength, wrth massivemuscles leantngon his club, draped the Greehsculptureshows hero in repose celebrated Bc c FANrsri HrRcuL Bv E GLY.oN. 200 ) wth thefamous lion's shin (THL

CIeSSICAI-

MyTHoLoGY

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l i O R A T I t r . S ' i ? h r ) \Ir / r r d 1 r ' R , r r l u r/ r L o h i l , l r l r , r l \ t t b l t ,t r t t t/ J i l r i L tI t l l t l r ! r r( ( ) l ] i l ( t r \ ( r l q . / t i t \ l / t r / t l l l l s ( r 0 ) / r t r m t , W / r / r ' h t h t l , l o l l l h r ' F l r u s r r r r r s ,l h r i l r r r r r r r r rh a r h r r / s t it c b l , l t r h r ' h r r r Jh r r r r r l l j l ( l t ( ( ) J L / l ) \J I I , r r r r L , ' , l r / r r r , h

(lgdinst ll()nr( But \h( (lup(d

w a s s u s 7 ; r r r r . l c r . / f r urb r u n t h o l t t n d t h h 1 ( r n

d( rllst lhr / r,b0 lrr lirrrrrr \{rhen l/rt ii()ritdI\ \r,Il }tr'i bd( li t r ) I ) a r A d t i t d ,h a r " d s r , , / ( { h r ' nn L / t r I L ( / l / d r f n , t l r r t l h a \ c l htr lrct'wtlh:ornc ot|rr hoslagi,s rirrri guvc htr t spk'nJitl

15 t t t t l t r g r r t l r / , \ r t r r r r( ' r 1 1 J 1 1 1 r t s g r r ' u f l r r l t , r r r I i chj l r \ t t / r : s l, l r r h r r r q i y ' ( r r l i r r s l V r t / rt l r r h L l p o l 1 p , t 1 7 , 1 1 ,t ' , , t n , l h t s r r r r r r ' s s, \ I c d c a ,J t r r r r l r t c r r t l t h i L t n g o l ( . r r i ri r r s / a s r r n

l i l \ r ( ) f r i ( i r /\r H ( ) r r / l i r i r l , l l l . r j r r r r r r o r t r lt j r , j r r r , l ( , / , l l \ l l t r ' n / t r ' s r [ 0 n l d \ . ] / r t \ ' ( r (f 1 r \ \ l / r r r r t g r r r gI t l l r , , r r r r r Jr l 0 r r V ,lnrlrr 1 / t , \ f t t t c r , r i l ( ( 1 r\ tl { t l r i rr r ) l | 5 i t ( ) | 1 ) | irl t t / t (

h r r t r e l J r ' r r r h c r r d r r l r r l r r p h a l r l h t , , f r r r J o n r n ' r l i rh L r r ( ) n l p t l l l l { ) l l \ r . r r i \ i , ' .r r ' | \ ' , , , i , , . t l i , . rl 5 r ,

, J r r t n r t r l l r , ' L i T r f l r r Lr r r r r u f i h / r r / r / r i r g o n l h r r r r r r r l i i t d l l r ,

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

CIRCE Q4t), an enchantingnynph, b inites Odysseus dnnhJrom ho maglc cup, containingd potion which tums men has into swine But Odysseus ben forewamed and, immunized with the herb moly, he dnnls wtthout coming to ham
(IIUSIMTION FROM TANGLMOOD TALEs, C I92O)

CLYTEMNESTM

(abwe), the estrangd

wife oJAgamonnon, watchesand waitslor the ships from Troy,binglngho husband home Yet no hero's welcomeawaits the retumingwarior, onlybetrayaland andher lover murder by his wrJe
(IrLUsTMfloN BYNICX BUE,1995 )

CtnCr, daughter of ruruos, the sun god, was a powerful witch who had porsoned her husband, hng of the Sarmatians,before going to rhe fabulous island of Aeaea.Her magmen ical powers tumed ODY55EU5' into swine when they landed on Aeaea on their way home from the Troy. Aided by HERMES, messenger god, Odysseuswas immune to Circe's magic and restored his crew to human form, and also gained the witch's aid for the next part of his joumey For ayearhe stayed as her lover, before she told him how to navigate through the waters o[ the Sirens and between Scylla, a monster, and Charybdis, a whirlpool. Srylla had been a nval of Circe, who had rumed her into a monster when one of her many lovers had shown an interest in the unfortunate girl ln some accounts, Circe eventuallymanied Odpseus' son Telemachus.

either as sacrificial wars. He said that unless the pledess ARTEMIS, beians, the ordinary people, were victim or as pnestess Like her sister HELEN,whose willing to restore to the nobiliry is was the CLrrnunrsrRn caused the full ancient privileges they should daughter ofrpoe and Tyndareos, elopement with PARIS king ofsparta, and the estranged Trojan War, Clytemnestra felt no expect no charity Hounded from Mfe of eceurMNoN. Sometimes loyalry towards her husband. She Rome for such an opinion, he openly conducted an affair with joined the Volsci and evenrually Ied she is poruayed as a weak woman, easily persuaded by her lover Aegisthus, Agamemnon's cousin, a Volscian army against the ciry. All Aegisthus to assistin the murder of and ruled Mycenae with him. The seemed lost until his mother end of the war required desperate Volumnia spoke to him, asking her husband on his return from the Trojan War Otherwise it is measures.When he rerumed home Coriolanus whether he saw her as Clytemnestra who rs the strong Agamemnon was butchered by his own mother or as a prisoner of character,the insdgator of the mur- Aegisthus, usinga wo-headed axe, war. As a result he quit the battleder, while Aegisrhusis little more while Clytemnestra had him en- field and went into exile. CLOTUASCC HEROES than a weakling Even before the the Greek force departed for Troy, Clytemnesrra already had good reason to hate her husband. In order to gain a fair wind to Troy, he agreed to sacrifice her favourite child tpntcrruin Even though the had promised champion ACHTLES to defend the grrl againstall threats, rhe Greek host had its way and lphigenia was offered to the godungled in a net For this terrible crime, Clytemnestra was herself hlled by her son oREsrEs in Greek mythology, CneON, was the brother o[Jocasta and a reluctant ruler of Thebes He was wasalegendary regent during the uncertain period COruOUNUS Roman traitor o[ the fifth century afrerKing LAIUS, Jocasu'shusband, BC Conscious above all of his had been killed near the ciry Creon noble birth, Coriolanus objected to offered the throne and the hand of the Senate'swish to distribute free Jocastato any man who could solve and thus bread to poorer citizens, who were the nddle of the SPHINX starving becauseof Rome's endless rid Thebes of this bloodthirsty

32

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

was a com god whom they associated with the Golden Age CUPTU was rhe Roman god of love and son of the love goddess IENUS.He was deprctedas a beautiful but wanlon boy, armed with a qurver fuli o[ "arrowed desires" Some of his arrows, however, would um people awayfrom those who fell rn love wrth them CREON, reluctanthing oJThebes, his Iost According to one myth, Venus wasjealous ofpsycHE ("the soui") son, wiJeand niecein a traglcqde oJ suicidescausedby his infteible will His and told Cupid to make her love crushingJatewas to endurea hJeof the ugliest man alive But Cupid fell solitary gneJand remorse olrl'srurk)NBr in love wrth Psycheand, inv'rsible, NICK 8arE, I995 ) nsired her everynighr. He told her nor to rry to see hrm, but, overto keep chained up. In gratitude, come by curiosity, she did try and the Cyclopes, the single-eyed he left her Psychesearchedthe giants, fashioned for Zeus his world for him, until the sky god famous hghrning and thunderbolts JUPITER granted her immortality so In a subsequenr struggle for that she could be Cupid's consmnt power, Zeus and hrs brothers companion The couple's daughter successfullydealt wrth all the might was named Voluptas ("pleasure") and power that Cronos could playt'ully the CUPIDJshes amongst waves direct against them After his portrayed a cute, as defeat, Cronos was either banished Heis usually with capncious withwings oJten a child and to a distant paradise, or he simply to love slowly faded awayas an unimpor- quiver arowsor a torch inJlame oJ tant deity The Romansequated in the hearts oJ gods and men (cr prDFrsHrNG WArrs,-sfprA ]890 ) L who B) C;E()RG[ FREDER(( Cronos with their SATURN,

As a result of this act of defiance, Creon hadAnngone walled up in a cave. lne seer llRt5iAStoro Lreon to bury the dead and disinter the living, but he refused The result was personalgnef, when his own son committed suicide on leaming of Antigone's dearh, and hts own wrfe soon followed suit monsrer. jEDIPIIS managed ro Although Creon was well achieve the apparently lmpossible known ro the ancient Greek, his task, then took over the kingdom, own character seemslessimponanr in myth than his role as regent in marriedJocastaand raiseda family Not until a piague threatened the troubled ciry of Thebes. Thebes and the Delphic Oracle was consulted about irs cause,did ir CRONOS, in Greek myrhology, become known thatJocasrawas was the son of Ouranos, the sky Oedipus' mother and that he had god, and GAIA,rhe earth morher. lolled L-aius. Oedipus blinded him- With the help of Gaia, Cronos self,Jocastacommitted suicide and emasculatedOuranos and seized Creon became regent once more. control of the universe He then A quarrel between Oedipus' married his sister nHEAand folsons, Eteocles and Polynices, Iowed the example of Ouranos in caused another penod of dismay, disposing of his children by swalhe eventually leaving both of them lowrng them, because had been dead and Creon on the throne. wamed that he would be displaced Whereas Eteocleswas regardedby byone ofhis sons Rhea,however, Creon as a patriot and properly gavehim a stone wrapped in swadbuned, the body of the rebel dling clorhesinsteadof the infanr Polynices was thrown outside the ZEUS, youngest son, who was his city walls and forbidden burial. taken secretlyto Crete in order to Such a situationwas unaccepmble gow up safelyon the island When a Roman marched exile. CORIOLT{NUS. his against oA cirywithandmy oJ just Vokcians, encamping outside Rome There, ignored entreaties peace he aII Jor (centre), wiJe by his until visited hismother matrons, whose tears andtheRoman stern rRoM softenedhis heatt(IuusrmroN FROM 1885 STouEs Llw. ) to ANTIGONE, Oedipus' daughter and companion during his wandenngs around Greece,and on her retum to Thebes she sprinkled Poll'nices' corpse with earth, so as to give her brother a token burial Zeus came ofage, he forced Cronos to vomit up hrs brothersand sisters - POSEIDON, HADES, HERA, HESTIA and orl,trrrR - and to releasehis uncles and aunts, especially the Tians, whom Cronos had chosen

Cle,ssrcAr-

MyrHoLoGY

CURTIUS baps into the chasmin the RomanJorum The seersdeclared that the ,hasm could only beJilled by Rome's greatest treasure,and so Curtiusymped in, declanng that therewasno greater treasurethan a gallant Romancltizen
(lra|srMTft)N FRoM 5r()RrEs r,RoM Lrw, 1885.)

DRNen was rhe morher of the breeK nero PtR5tuJ ano Ine daughter ofAcnsius, long of Argos in the Peloponnese lt had been foretold that her son would cause the death ofAcrisius, so he locked her in a bronze tower But ZEUS visited her as a shower of golden see GrANrs Cyct-oPts rain and Perseuswas conceived DngP,qlUS, according to Greek The kingbanished the morher and mytholory, was said by some to be her son, but after many adventures the son of Alcippe, the daughtero[ Perseus did accidentally kill the war god eREs,and by others to Acnsius when throwing a discus. be the son of Merope It is agreed, (Seealso LOv'ERs OFZEUS) though, that he came from Athens He was a gifted craftsman and was employed by khng MINOSar his palace of Knossos in Crete. Daedalus designed and built the Labynnth for the dreaded vtloTAUR This was the offspnng of PASIPFIAE, Minos'wife, and a great bull Daedalus had designed an anificial cow inro which rhe queen could place herself and so be able to mate wrth the bull Thus was the Minotaur conceived Minos later impnsoned Daedalus for revealing the secretof the Labynnth, but he managed to escapeby constructing DAPHNE,a iver nymph, bvedby was her Apollowhopursued untll,on thebanlzs oJher prayedJor and help iver, she Jather's
was at oncechangedinto a laurel tree Here. herJather, the iver god Penaus, weepstnconsolably, whlle Apollo strohts her Ieafi arms tn wonder CApoLLo DApHNL AND 8y (ANvAs. Nr()ut P(tr,55rN. c 1627)

is the subject of a CURTIUS srrange incident in Roman mythology Around 362 nc a grear chasm appeared in the Forum in Rome, which led straight down to the underworld It had appeared becausethe Romansforgot to make an appropnate sacrificeto the dead Marcus Curtius therelore plunged on horseback into the bottomless pit and was seen no more

wrngs olwax and feathersfor himself and his son lcarus Despite his father's waming, Icarus flew too close to the sun, the wax of his wings melted and he fell into the sea and drowned. Daedalusmanaged ro amve safelyin Sicily, where he amused the daughters of l(ng Cocaloswith his invendons When Minos eventually caught up with the fugitive craftsman, a battle of wits ended in Daedalus' favour: Mrnos was lolled by boilingwater, DANAE (above) was impisoned in a or oil, which Daedaiuspersuaded bronze tower by ho Jather, becatsehe Cocalos'daughters ro pour down a Jeareda propheq that he woull be ktlled by pipe into the king's bath. his grandson Yet even htdden away in her
to tower, shewas still accessible the god Zeus, who came to her as a goWat shower Thq had a son,Perseus(Drrreauour
GoLDEN RAIN BY TITIAN, cANvAs, i554 )

D{ED{[US

(nght) craftedwtngs of

feathus, heWtogetho by wax, to escary t'rom Crete, anl taught hrs son, Iccrus, hon, toJl, waminghim that he must notJty too closeto the sun But lcarus wasdrawn to thelight ol the sun so his wings meltd and heJeII into the sea, now named the lcaian
(DAEDALUS AND IGRU5 By CMU laNmN, 1799)

DePHNn, in Greek myrholory, was the daughter of the river god Peneius.She was similar in many ways to the goddess ARTEMIS, in that she was also a virgrn huntress who happily roamed the wrlderness One day, the love god enos shot a flurry of arrows in response ro taunts from APOLLO, god of the prophecy The first ofEros'anows

was a gold-tipped shaft and when it struck Apollo it made him fall immediately in love with Daphne The second one, however, had a lead tip and caused Daphne to become even more indifferent than she aiready had been to any lover Apollo, however, pursued Daphne relentlesslyuntil, in desperation, she tumed herselfinto a laurel uee

34

ocy .CTASSTcAL MyrHor.

rhe abundant soil with she was especiallyassocrated com Demeter possessedmysteri. s1 DEMETER. of theEleusian mystenes rcntred Daneter which and on (MARB:E c 490 ) herworship RELTEF.Zeus had to intervene and rule that Hadesmust grve up Persephone she would not conif senr to stay with him As she had by then earen something in his realm. ZeuS.and of QeJt) Persephone.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY :{. was the her worshippers recalled the loss and rediscovery of her daughter daughrer of cRolos and RHre Like her Roman equivalent. exotic oJ when traglcally stabbed herselJ hr lover to and Aneasdesmedher fufilhisdestiny. where gowth and decaywere with a dyng and closely associated reviving deiry For the Greek. which was a natural extersion of her mother the com goddessDemeter.as well as the resting-placeof the ous powers of growth and even dead (which were known by the resurrection She was the focus of Atheniansas "Demeter'speople") OMCLES ANDPROPHECIES Dnlpntc ORACLE s. animals ceased to multiply and people feared lor their future Eventually. torth. queer Carthage. PERSEPHONEDemeter means "mother eanh" . a mystic herdaughter. agreed to his brother FIADES' request that Persephoneshould be his bride and rule the underworld wuh him Hadeswas impatient and rose from the earth and abducted Persephoneas she plucked flowers in a field Bur in rhe world of the The story of Demeter and is Persephone clearlyancient lt has parallelsin the mythology of Wesr fuia.so henceforth Persephone would dinde the year equallybetween her mother and her husband DIDO @elow). Persephoneas Kore ("the maidsn"). while in the world of the lirnngher mother iost all interestin fertiliry. rhe Greekgoddess of when. vegetadonand fruitfu]ness. her father. consecrate the theJirst to sow man relieJ was com This at site Jound Eleusis.it was deemedthat she had not completelyrejectedHades.so thar plants languished. ]995 ) d l7 just an important cult at Eleusis. where ntes were celebrared annually in the autumn DEUETER. soul endures traglc alone her Jate OLLUSTMTON 8Y NICK BULE. south o[Athens. through music and dancing. wrthout even consulting Demeter. lead people Rome heroine his to The isportrayedby aso noble Virgl and generous who." Her myth tums on the disappearanceof Persephone When the girl was a child. goddesstheeanh. holding yung Tiptolemus.Ceres. theclassic in tradition. 36 . BC dead she pined and refusedto eat any food. was identified as rhe power within the com i6elf.

in Phoenicia. rhe maenadssoon discoveredhim and. Dido became so over.and oI in some city-stateshis wrld. who was also one o[ the and ordenng him to resume his leading maenads. but the chains fell off him and the prison doors could not be closed Dionysus then told Pentheus that he could observe at lirst hand the secret rituals performed on a mountain close to the city. In Roman mythology he is representedby the god Bacchus.the grape Entwined in his hair is a wreath oJ vine. but the Roman in their ecsraticfrenzy.not a lion but her son.In Greek mythology. the vital and beautifulGreeh god oJunc whirls in a state oJblisslul euphoia inducedW his own Jruit.known as the "bullhomed god" because he ofren adopted the form of this powerful beast. a pyre left Thebesand went into exile (Seealso FOUNDERS) (Seealso LovERs zEUs) oF DIOO. together vnth her that she stabbed herself and then parents. The most famous attempt to prohibit his worship was by King Pentheusof Thebes The king even tried to imprison Dionysus.CLAssrcAL MYTHoLoGY DIONYSUS. became rhe tragic queen of Canhage and rhe abandoned love of AENEA5. desdny to found a new Troy in Italy Agave.thought that god luetrrn senr MERcuRv wirh a he was a lion and tore him limb messagereminding Aeneasof his from limb. orgrastic ntes were outlawed. when the latrer ascended the throne ofTyre. CADMUs and Harmonia. and coveinghis shouldersthe shin oJ a lyrw. Afterwards his mother. soon fell in love. where she purchased enough land to found the ciry of Canhage The local ruler agreed to sell her as much ground as a bull's hide might contain. he rs a youthful god o[vegetation. Onginally. the ancient Greeks were well aware o[ rhe strangecharacter Dionysus.so Dido cut the skin into strips in order to obtain an adequateplot When the Trojan hero Aeneas arrived in Carthage. he may have had a mythological role somewhat similar to that of the goddessDEMETER ("mother earth") His cult in later times. having been blown offcourse on his way to Italy from Troy. Agave. leapt inro the flames of. developed into one of personalsalvation. who was a Theban princess.wine and ecstasy. realized to her voyage at once When Aeneas horror thar they had dismembered sailed away. Dido welcomed him and his fellow refugeeswith great understanding Aeneasand Dido 37 . Dido escaped from Phoenicia with a small band of followers and sertled in present-day Tunisia.Her husband had been murdered by her brother. but only if he disguised himself as a woman. After his whelmed by the loss of her lover bunal. The hng readily took the bait and spied on the maenads from a hidingplace in a tree However. however. origrnally a princess of Tyre. one oJ the oeatures sdcredto hifi DtOtttYSUS was rhe son of zEUs and sruELr.particularly for women worshippers who were known as maenads From the beginning.

AUS They murderers brought their sister safelyhome to Sparta. shes oJten deprcted hoveing tn the slry.Lttcr she was overwhelmed were ranged against the Athenian by remorse.tJomeJ m a goldtn m. the twelve-year-oldHelen pnor to her dertieswho wreakedvengeance on mamage to King MENEI. heroic daughttroJ ELECTRA (ubove).and even set up a rival to ENOYUTON was rhe king o[ a Theseus the throne o[Athens on in small ciry-state the Peloponnese. ! /l : ltt' 'I. and rhe other half on Mount Olirmpus wrth the gods They are shown togethe rn the constellation r of Gemini In their youth the Droscun("rhe DIOSCURI (aboLe).soldiers . and ro the Romans as Castor and Pollux They were brothers oI HrLrruand CTYTIMNESTM Around all rhese rhilrlro.rneets Agamemnon her tibd brothtr Ortstt's outside EOS (bdow).-pnr al\/tp' m n e srfa . 1 8 8 5 ) Agamtmnon'stomb It was Electruwho her rescued brotherfrom theflii lntentrons lry o/Aegrsthus helpinghim escupt Having htm thoughtthat shewouk) neversee ugain. queen of Sparta.CLASSICAL MYTHoLOGY E {'ffi "\\ i. Orcstes retumed to Mycenaeas a grown man Electra m r t h i m a t t h c t r r m br r ft h c i r m u r sons of Zeus") were ARGONAT/TSdered father and gave hrm advrce D u n n g r h e e x p e d r t i o nr o r e t n c v e and encouragementIn at leastone the Golden Fleece.lt \r. Greth goddess thedawn.lESTM.. thty.r r \\r) LL | ( | R\ vlRil r ( 1D ]00 I 38 . .l i v i n g h a l fr h c y c a r beneath the earth with the dead.rniry b c t w e e nt h c n r .rctones was rhe daughter of EUCfne A C A M F M N T Tk i n g o f M y t c n a e .were known to the Greek as Castor and Polydeuces.tnllc Shcs accompaned hert by her starry daughters ( J rr l \ T M r i r ) \ F R o M 5 r ( ) R l t s I R o M l l ( ) M t R .swore rhrt thc nrrscn. and rhe sister \ o l t n e m a ln c l o e ( r R L 1 L \ n e r name (whrchonce may havemeant " f i r c ' o r " s n a r k ' ) r e { e r sn a m h e r t When Agamemnon rerumed from the Trojan War and was murdered by his wrfe and her loverAegisrhus. oJ n\f\ rLrrflea. and Clyttmnestra. truns Castor ant) Pollw. while her distraught n e r o r H L 5 t u 5 .strrr and Pollux on a battlefieldsecuredlor agarnst the odds all them r.i"e'i T H E D t o s C U R I . N. t h em y s r e r L -THE ous twin sons of LHI)A. and rnountetl on snow wirrtt sfeels. trayed as berng so consumed by king of the savageBebryces.tory ( l t r \ r R { I t r ) \L t i r \ r L \ \ s r j r \ \ r r \ r R a \ i l 1 8 .rr to announ\cthecomrng ol tht sun Shewas the daughteroJ Hypenonund Thcia ttnd sisterto the sun god Helros In worhsoJart.and it may well be chat they were ancrentdeiries whose worship had dechned so that their exploits could be told as the mythological actionsof mortal ("the rulers Castor and Polydeuces heavenly twins whom the cornbearingearth holds") wereregarded as bcing both dead and alive ln one story. Polydeuceswas the r m m o r r a s o n o f z t u s w h i l eC a s t o r l was rhe mortal son of Kng Tlrrdareos At Polydeuccs'request the twins shared the dl. Electra rescuedher young brother Orestes and ensured thar he cstapedAcgrsthuscvrlintcntions Years later. sht r seenhtre rqoicing in his ri'[um l()Rr . retumed to ccrrtir to help thc Romon ranhs dgoiist JohldBatle tn I anns Ln tht I \r.[ed thL Rom.w n o c a m c oo l l t n c brother fled before rhe FURIES.t h e r c h r r n p a d e f i n i r r -s e n s c o f diunc parentage. Ihc Drorr un wcrc revcrcd by the Spartansand rhe Romansrn particular Roman . / .who hatred ior Clytemnestrathat she were a people hung in AsraMinor participatesin the act of revenge O n a n o t h c r o c c a s i o nt h e t w i n s herself. and cttrnv. her roEJbm .h J.]ns l() vi. ol h/re RegrilusAdom(durth gltuming urmLtur. Polydeuces versionof thc myth Electra poris hlled with his bare handsAmycus. . r' of I .pY.

was rhe son of Erebos and the Night. to defend his realm (Seealso LovERs zEU oF S) 39 . of war As the youngest of the gods and the companion of apHRoottr. deep sleep However. she forgot about etemal youth and ended with a lover made helpless mth age Thereupon. in Greek mythology. MINOS. he appeared enjoy mahng asmuch to mischief as he could by firing his arrows of passion into the hearts of gods and humans alike His connection with homosexuallove may have derived from his supposed relationshipto Ares. had a four-horsechariot to indicate his greaterstatus. disguisedas a white bull. 1895) ) in all likelihood Elis According ro Greek mythology. a city in Phoenicia. son of Laomedon. it is said that zEUs grarrredEnd)rynion his wish that he might be allowed to sleep loreverin a cavewrthout ageing EOS *rs rhe Greek. swam to the island of Cretewrth Europaon his back There she bore the god RFTADAMANTHYS rhree sons. The Romanscalled her Aurora Eos had a repuation for passion and fell in love with a largenumber of young men. she locked him in a becamethe cicada(an insectnoted for im complaining sound) EruXYES SCE FURIE5 EROS. who assumed the lovers at dawnIn theslg.which was a group of one hundred and fifty pairs of lovers who were all killed by the Macedonianarmy at the battle of Chaeronia in 338 nc After the battle l(ng Philip of Macedon granted them a specialbunal EUnOPe.for he was rhe patron divrnity of the SacredBand of Thebes. the sun god riruos. Selene put her youthful lover into an everlasting. accordingto different versions of the myth.ClessrcAr MvrHoLocY (abne) waslmedby ENDYMION Selne EUROPA (nght) wasa Phoenician whovisited in hisetenal sleep . Nyx chaiot. according to some Greek rraditions. was the daughter ofTelephassaand of King Agenor of Tyre. he became the lover of the moon goddessSelene (frequentlyidendlied wrth Diana). Agenor's five sons. Taios. in another version of the myth.the part theJom oJa great white bull He swam to goddess spinhles beJore sundot the the island. while in others he god was the son of ARES. Zeus gaveAstenus a mighry bronze man. c 1591-1665 a/NvAs.pulied by her horsesShiner and Bright Her brother. on a oJdarhness her (SLLENE about ANo ENoyMroN the rulerol Crete (luusrur()N DR FRoM sMtrH's By Nrcous PouJSrN. ClaslGl DlcroNARY. Cretewith Europandingon oJ while eanh draws curtain his bach Sheoentually mamed Asteius. him Here pnncessbome away by Zeus. king of Troy When Eos asked zrus ro make Tithonus immorral. and saRprporu.beforemanying rhe local ruler Astenus By way of compensatlon for Europa's vrrginity. to look for their sister after ZEUS. including the particularly handsome Tithonus. were sent out including CADMUS. who bore him fifty daughters Because she could not endure the thought that Endymion would eventually die. wrnged goddess of the dawn and the third child of the TITANS Hyperion and Theia Shewasseenasa charioteer riding across the sl<yjusr before sunrise.

t L .spoke through a p n e s t e s s . r .rItr f\rhdn.. prophesied for politicai purposes. t t r t l / t . n .S.h rvhoucruralc/y prrrlitlcd the :ohtai1. . if ever. r r . l ' . \ ' 1 5 i h i ' k n r ] . r t i(ll l. lots. r . .b o t h l i v i n g a n d d e a d . i r r ( ) r n t o b et g r o r . lr . r 1t l r . worll uln'uys rqnrrrrJ Ihs powefulpornayulry'(r:rar. D r r l l r t \ r . i i r .c dS h n u s t ' r r J o n t r i r r h o/ broke pnph. t r i r r i s t / r . i r \ i r t \ \ I l r t ItrrLLl. t t i r l : . 1 l t . r r ! /lrr t n n a i l i i n g l / ( l l r . r \ . . r 1 / .S. usually inspired by the gods. h l .tl h . r t r i .CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ORACLES AND PnOPHECIES Ar people beheved that the future couid be revealed.l 3 8 a ) g j l . . r ( r r l r l i J l d r a l l n r r ' 1 l .ull :r'rrirr irtrL/. t r h r ) r / i . /i r r t r / r .y' thc sorrowful secr.I r r ft: ulrrr ) /rrrrrstcluLLghterl\tant urtJ lirr tilu wtr' a gr/teJ C-I. 1 . r t .Kfdr thepronttse ho Llr \\''hrnshtr \r'r J hdr rrrrrl.1poi1. ht lrrinrsht ho hy lccrrcingthat hat prophilk \. such as the fall of dice. l l t .rrr /'r \ t l r . r l ]t r. . l r r l J 5 ( . . . r ! . r r . / r r l r i l t u r r J x r r r o f t d r r i r s T r r r i l i ' r t h . Dreams afforded another type of oracle. D R [ . \ : . / . . Prophecieswere also sought from s e e r s . g . r r . they frequently consulted oraclesof every kind for personal and politlcal purposes. r i L . or bumt offerings. l r ' I r l . . . i r r . r i ' r r . . i I I .rl h'.1NDR'1 oJ h d n \ c h r r tl n i L r L r L r .il\ n \Ju K r i r ( . r r . rhc sccr-god. A l t h o u g h t h e Romans consulted lorc (or sorres) for personal problems.ij5\i\it'. t r t r t . r J 4 R B r r . j .r. ir i l s i n r r t r l .jr. J t i i t/ tl lt t. . ' r i r . . r i r l t . /ai I o/ Itrl' i( \!\\\r./ru rtrrals lhc . The most famous was the Delphic Oracle where Apollo. h{rw( trar.t t ' t . they rarely. . T h e f u [ u r e w a s a l s o r e v e a l e db y oracular signs. sometimes to mrslead. r l l l { ) i r l r\ d / a l } i . t t . t r l i t . l P . . i .i llir.

r .iil...rr i . t . . . . I \ L . r l r \ L . t ! l \1 1 . 1. j .rr ir ') l.. . . r l r i L t l t r L . . . i r 'n i i t . i . .'. l i t ' t'r / I. r r r L\ L i Lr . ' . i . . 1 ' r 1 i . l . .CIeSSICAL MYTHOLOGY '. \ t . i r .t+nl.rr r i! Lji rrL/!\ \ L j r ) i ri i r l \ i.'.i. 5l(i\5 tx ()Ifl:N\ r.1 i. i t !. r ) i r i r . . r L .. r ' . r r i r i \ .jr. r ( .i' . r . l / r r l . 1 r 1 7 r . l L . i i t i r i j l L ' . . ! r \ l L r r .. L 1i . 1. r r l r i . i .lt {\'dl r 1 r r . i ' 1 1. i 1 1 r i j r . 1l i i .i. . . i r i l . r 6 i l r r l .

or the Mdfie.were three goddesses lmown to the Greeks as the Moerae Their origins are uncertain. on Gaia's advice. an ancient seagod PosEtDoN.frile lzchais. Furiae.weredelightlulbut capicious crmtures. all Cronos. So passionate was their reladonship and so overwhelming Ouranos' embrace that their offspring could not emerge lrom her womb. although some called them daughrers of night. the Fates played little direct parr (Seealso OMCLESAND PROPHECIES) FnUnUS was rhe Roman god of the countryside and identified with the Greek PAN. however. The Furies ("the soothed ones") in Greek myrhology. cution of Orestes after his acquitul including his future wife HEM. Gaia may have savedZeus hom a fate similar to that of Ouranos and Cronos when she wamed him that a child of his bom by Metis 42 . 1895) him. who insteadof the infant ZEUS. however.nce Fuiespursued The wrthout ed this as the golden age of the merqin l{e andin death wrong-dom TITANS. goddesspunishmnt.c 1890) Tnr FefES.who sometimes plaguedmen's sleepwith nightmares (tLLr/srMr()N DR FRoM SMilHCrAssrql s DrcroNARy. his son.god of the mounuinside Faunus was said to be rhe grandson ofsarunN and was credited with prophetic powers. hall-mn. cub it of G cornrN THRF rvJ M D SnuDMcK orloNc{N s. youngestson. was the king of the Latin people ar rhe time of erNnqs' arrival in Italy after the long voyage from Troy. scourge spears thetook dnd.to disgorge his brothers and sisters. Clotho.ClassrcAr- MyrHoLoGy THE FAIES. It is clear. oJho RHEA a wife.which on occasion inspired the Romans to renew effons on the battlelield in the face o[ defeat Perhapsrhis is the reason for Faunus sometimes FAUNUS. who was avengedhis father AGAMEMNON's secretly taken to Crete in order to murder by killing CLYTEMNESTM. however. One of these buried children. he was still subjecr to the decisions of the Fares. the earth. The Greeks regardas vengeo.when CRoNos. Gaia conceived the FURIES. Lachesis ("the apportioner") and Atropos ("the ineviuble") A late idea was that the Fatesspun a lengrh ofyam which represenred rhe allorred span for each mortal Alrhough zEUs was the chief Greek god. a spiil oJthe plainsandJields. u.the god of rhe Athenian council presided over by underworld FIADES and DEMETER. the goddess ATHENA. the less-threatening Eumenides. at the $. FLORA SCCFORCESOF NATURE Tnn FUruES. the by the Areopagus. the blood of Ouranos that fell into whose name was then changed to rhe womb of cete. avenging goddesses the who pursued murderers. who was her son and husband.The verdict the goddessof vegendon. he compelled his father persuaded to abandon their perse. grow up there in safery When Zeus his mother The Furies were only was grown. wblds oJ a ruled the universe. Latinus. He had been wamed by an oracle that he would be displaced were ponrayed as uglywomen$lth by one of his sons. so he swallowed snakes enrwined in their hair. rr.hnown as Fauni.who came out of Chaos and gavebirth to Ouranos the sky god. gave had wrongly shed blood They him a stone wrapped in swaddling relenrlessly pursued oREsrEs. was Gnn. halJgoats. and thus the executor of destinyrather than its source Hence the great importance to both gods and humans of oracles which indicared the ineutable drift of events ln mythology. and his children as soon as they were were pitiless to those mormls who bom Rhea. nasum the lengh of a lp. Sometimes were Embolizng out to be as tyrannical to his own (tlruirunoN family as Ouranos had been before the*t{tness theirvengeance oJ FRoMSMrrH's DR C6slGLDrcrroNARy.rhar at a certain period they ceased to be concemed with death and became instead those powers which decided whar must happen ro individuals. CRONOS.tr tilJolsd dtblfth aod6ide d nrani dattrny O/ten dqictod as spinnm. Fatae. ) 1895 being seen as a descendant of the war god MAR5 His mortal son. at the dght. Ouranos then faded from the mythological scene and Cronos A FURY. the decided to overthrow Ouranos. The Greeks knew them as Clotho ("the spinner"). tumed thq winged. castratedhim. from rhe Roman name. Gaia conceived a great sickle which Cronos used to cut off his father's penis within the eanh womb The god was emasculatedand the sky separated from the earth From Ouranos' blood. from rhe Roman. were the avenging goddeqses Greek mythology and of were known as the Ennyes ("the angry ones") Theywere bom from calmed the anger of the Furies. and Atropos. with a spindlespinsout the thftdd o/lf. with the shean. Jrolics alongwith aJriendly goat Faunus' children. uhng his sister torch.

brt off and swallowccl hrs fathtr's pe ttis As a rcsult of hts unr. . l 1 r g 1r r . ' .excitttl GANYMEDE. hlcl in rherr rnt.s bducted him and tc-rok hrm to Mounr Olympus ILrbc hls cupbearer Ganymede lt was believed thar also bccame Zcus' zt-s thc lover. f / l a i l .'ccl \'1etis iln(l latcr tl-ie godclcs: A /l l/ NA sprang frorn hrs heacl 'l'hc srorv r)l fhe separatl()lt l r r ' l \ \ tL ' l tt l < r . / t h cr h r t r l t h bu.CIaSSICAT MYTHOL-OCY I 1l' "'. K r . ' r r b r r t s / t r 't r u ' r i r r . J r r t h x h o . l r r L i r . r . . r / r Intl.teoe 1 .ltl0 h0 r d l l sh a r . r r r t hr t r t h h c r g r f t i . and brother of llus He was such a beautr{ul young man a thar ZFi. olre ol whom at Lastove rthrerv hln'r k nr LJrce mllh GnNYIr.r m a r b ib c c l r m c prcgnant wirh tcmble deitres. . L r tt//rr ci i l t t f L r l . d g ( r l d f s \ i .rhs thc ntost I Lolcnt \ crsron of the sk1's ctnascltlaIltltt Kurnarbr.r. a handsome rhc passionof Zrus whtr. borehim uwnyto Mount OrymPui (IHr R A f t o F G A N Y M Tr ) r B l P F r F R P A r l R l 8 t N \ (ANVA5 1577 )640) . who lncd ()n the borclcrs ol nrodem-furkcy nncl lraq. ' r r f ro-. the equivalent of Cronos. a <t h c ' . fa l l u n J l h r r o u n s / t c r o / 1 .{. \r i r\ r . ( / l t i i i \ j')'ra r i l r r l \ i r \ i i L . thl krnA "l of Phrygia.l ( l l l onc lt rs ior:nd rn e valieq'ol ftrrnls Ln \\'cst Asian rnythologl' I hc I lumans.io untlabund. h o * ' e v e r . r n r l( . and gained hls immonality thc consrellation water-camer Aquanus. 1 ' .rsr-ral a t t r o n . r 6 [ \ l i ( " r h o u g h t " ) w o u l d r ep l a c e h i m i r s rht' sr-rpremc gocl So Zeus st:tLLru. l r l l l l i J l l 1 l l . r 1 6 s y .lrr( Nt)t on! xtts sht . boy.c r rr i l l l r l r .l t GAIA i h r 5 r .n the grustol ttn uglt. ' l i 5 h r ' \ t J r r .

Tnr GonGoNs were chree CLES through a morral woman sistersnamed Srheno("strengrh"). their names were Aglaia. on wamors' shtelds. When the Gianrs tumed to withing snahesby a vengeJul attacked Olympus. ) COUrAge By 1994 THE GIANTS (above)weregigantic creatures with snahe-Iihetails After thq were defeated the gods.Persephone. Heracles ("wide-leaping"). THg GneCES. and were rhe played a decisive pan. finishing off children of Phorcys. Gradae. from rhe blood thar [e]l THE GORGON MEDUSA (abwe) was into GAIA'S womb ftom Ouranos' onte a beauttful woman whoseloclu were severed penis. who were rhe old. would not be able to defeatrhem. rhe gods stood goddessThe imageoJhu fnghtfulJace was their ground.sisrers. the love goddesses of Greece and Rome respectir/ely. from rhe Roman each opponent wirh poisoned The only mortal of rhe three was name. son o[ GAIA.CLASSIcAL MYTHoLoGY HADES (abwe) . I895 ) HECTOR Aelow).s oFIERGAMIN. from rhe Roman name. +4 .she had snakesfor hair and Greela and rhe Romans According est generadonof rhe gods and were one look at her lace could tum any to the most widely accepted led by CROwOS. gentlenessand friendship. living man or rhing ro srone myth. charmsand amulets (tuusrMroN because the Gians could nor be FRoil DR SM|TH s CNSIGL DtcTtoNARy. and were that the Giants are quire differenr hero PERSEUS Like her immorul minor goddesses to both the from the TITANS. in Greek myrhology. who are gadedby Hermes Hades appedrs with typically darh lools and unntly hair wer which he often worea h o^ D s m a g l c e l m e tr l r l u s r M r / r p o M F M l l H ' CHSIGL DICTIoNARY. It is important to realize Medusa. by thq werebuied beneathvolcanoes Herewe seethe hound oJ Artemts hilling a glant at the battle of the Giants and thegods (zEL. Zeus' farher. small son He wasportrayed as both a raglng warior and a gentle family man who had taughthimself to be valiant out oJdury rather than any natural (LLUsrMrraN AUNLEE. ALIAR ^TARBLE. 1895 ) killed by divine hands zEUs rherefore fathered rhe great hero HEM. receivesthe souk oJthe dead. They were attendants to APHRoDITE and YENUS. snatches fioment oJpeoce with his loving a wtJeand. Giganres. but knew rhar they cawed. the victim of rhe Greek of zEUs and Eurynome. had human shape. excepr for the snake-like tails thar were attached to their legs They were bom at the same time as rhe FURIES. the Graces were thought to represent beauty.lihe an etl qe. Euphrosyne and Thalia. Dunng the geat batrle berween rhe Medusa ("queen") and Euryale gods and rhe Giants. city walls.A favourite subject for artiss.were the daughters arrows. the Trojan champion. 8C) c 180 THe GnNrS. lord oJ theundewvorld . with his wiJe.

who gave the husband and the mother equal shareso[ her time As a dyrng-andrising goddess.in the day she was supposed to have a benign influence on farming. Such was Achilles' anger rhat for rwelve days he dragged Hector's corpse round Parroclus' tomb. In the tudes who had died and come ro earliest worlu of art. the Gracesappear in his kingdom. He mistakenly killed Patroclus. only those (whose name means "the HeoeS ghosts who could pay the fare unseen") was rhe Greek god of rhe CERBERUS. rhree-headed the dog. graced the eyes when making a sacrifice. to the boarman THEE GucEs RAPMET-W@D. and once a month they placed offerinp of food at crossroads. When Persephonediscovered this. Hecareis usually portrayed with three faces.and of Hades as an evil force like Satan Hades the underworld.Hector's body was retumed and properly buried. Persephone sank and rose annually from the underworld. ever thoughr took the sky. Achilles sought out Hector and compelled him to fight to the death. only to be slain by Hector.ANPTNS SEE MONSTER5 AND FABULOUS BF/5TS was believed by some HfCefe to be descendedfrom the tltexs. ) BY c I50l Charon who ferried acrossrhe Sryx. however. 45 . rhe Greek hero. the place where the At the division of the universe after sun sets. but during the hours of darknessshe was interested in witchcrafr. Roused from his lethargy. and rhe brorher of. JAsoN'srejected Colchian princess. reuming to the world of rhe living.zrus.HERA. the earth in Chrisdaniry. ghosrsand tombs ln many ways similar to the vegeution goddessDEMETER. the Hestia. He forcibly married Greek associated the undenvorld PERSEPHONE. the squire and lover ofAcHlttES. where her influence was said to be feh. a subtenanean river. A Greek goddess with two quite separate aspects. The bravest of rhe Trojan wamors. but Parroclusborrowed his divine armour in order to nlly the Greek. The Athenians were parricularly respectful towards her. In rhe end zEUs himself intervened. Poseidon the sea. grim and implacable deiry. The ghosts of rhe dead were escortedby HERirarS. who was the daughter of Demeter and his brorher Zeus. guests") on accounr of rhe muldIiJting the spints oJ godsand men. mint H. by sending Achilles' mother THETIS stop this to humiliadon. in tune with rhe narural rycle of sowing and hawesting. however. In order to avoid any reference to the nature of the underworld it was usual to call Hades by the drle of Pluto ("the giver of weahh") Hades'chief myth concems the abducdon ofPersephone. Polydegmon ("receiver of many wodd with beauty. Zeus the Romans. guarded the ennance to the underHe was the son of cnoruos and world and prevented anyone from RHEA. HnCfOR was rhe eldesr son of pRmv. she became so jealous that she tumed the nymph into the sweet-smellingherb. the realm of the dead. POSEIDON. or Chaities. Achilles had quarrelled with AGAMEMNoN and refused ro fighr. bloom and billiance. DEMETERand tu in Egrydan mythology. He was cenainly a was to be shared among them. Neither the Greeks nor the ovenhrow of their father.CInSSIcAL MYTHoLoGY Although usually a faithful husband. rhe king of Troy during rhe Greek siege. Persephone was abruptly taken underground by Hades when she beheld a special narcissus planted by the earrh mother GAIAro please the god of death. but bter on thq woe dqicteil a:snudes $xr messengergod. underworld. the lwing chitons. So in exchange for a great treasure. The wrrch MEDEA. veiling their beauty. The conflicr berween Hades and Demeter over Persephone's fatewas decided by Zeus. Hades at one time became enamouredof the nymph Minthe. Demeter's daughter. used to invoke Hecate in her magic arts. and Another name for Hades was worshippers always averted rheir THE 6RACES. wirh the west. Hecate uncomfortably combined ferriliry with death as a power of the eanh. he was unbearen on the battlefield.

So angry did Zeus become that he flung his son from the top of Mount olympus and let him fall heavily on the volcanic island of Lrmnos. along its south-westem descnbed as a nver. shewas ako. smith god. It was rhought that Helios. There.sailed during the night around the earth in a golden bowl on the encircling waters of oc&{Nos.) HEUOS. god nnrs. HEUOS was rhe Greek sun god and son of the ntqN Hyperion. At the time of her mamage to Menelaus. ln another version. only to be thwaned by sea nymphs who took him to a beach. Both rhe Greeks and the Romans held that the inhabited world was a large many other children. onginally from Asia Minor. Helios had uation. from it and when Helenhatched shebroughtherup asa member of the royalfamily. Hera ried to drown her imperfect child. After the fall of Troy. with the help of the love goddessAPHf.oDlrr. Once Hephastos but he quickly lost conuol. gpen to seft mochery anl6ygT 4wre oJ themiserycausedbyha BY or W[s oFTRoY Lop bgaul (Hrreu rHE lEcHril. m)|stenous DIOSCURI. Their reladonship steer his father's radiant chariot. The Olympian gods Phaethon fell from the vehicle and merely laughed at Hephaistos'sitonly was drowned. gaixed Helen's a[ec[on.and the cause the Tro. Agamemnon assembled a great army to help his brother Menelaus For ten years the city o[ Troy was besieged and then only captured through the tnck of the Wooden to Mount Olympus.{us.. Throughout this long war the sympathies of Helen were mainlywith the Greeks. the seagod PoSEIDoN 46 . he was persuaded by his friend DIoNYsus to unlock the cunning device and let so Helios saw everything atdwu iwohd DR his mother escape 4s 4 witness oJo4tlu {t*rsrut oNFrcM Hephaistos seems to have come 1895 ) SMIrH's CrAsl(}LDrcloNeY. CIRCEand PASIPHAE gigantic statue of the sun god was erectedat the harbour of Rhodes. the younger brother o[ Agamemnon. and so arrived back in the eastjust before dawn. so Hephaistos was invited to retum permanendy of HnffN wasthe daughter ttrDt and zrus. and not merely the mistress.and. but was toppled by an earthquake around 226 Bc. the wrfeof rhe Spartan o[ hng urrurf. god oJ the svn. it stretched shore. as she also came to Greece rhe death o[ his son PMETHoN Once thu impetuousyouth med to from West Asia. of Pans. c 1880. appearsin worhs oJart as a strongardbeautfulyouth wrth gluming cyes. They even eloped with a part o[ Menelaus' treasury.wife of in theSpartan hng Tyndareos. after crossing the slcy. whose smithy lay beneath the crater of Mount Aetna in Sicily. Helen and Menelauswere reconciled and they lived undisturbed at Spana. an island sacred ro him.anWar Her immortaliryas the Greek thedaughterof supreme wasonce deitysuggesF Helen that and that her incorpora goddess ation into myth as an unfaithful queen only occurred when her q796|ripwaslargelyforg. but then PARts. His rnarriage to the love goddistance and into the unimaginable dess APHRODIIEmay have somefar lrom anyshore thing to do wrth this eastem conOne myth of Helios concems nection. desirable bnde in Greece. When the Trolars refrrsed to retum Helen and lhe stolen lreasure. At first Menelaus and Helen were very one of the happy.Ledalaid an egg. Only rhe dmely acrion of zEus steadied fashioned a trap to catch his its runaway horses and prevented unfaithful wife in bed with the war the earth from catching fire. Zeusmatedwrth Leda. However. hersister arrd unfaithfuI wasKingAcAMaalvoN's wlfe CLYTEMNESTM. was almost as tumultuous as that of Zeus and Hera. A sequel to this rale has the smith god gain his revenge as a fully grown man by making a golden rhrone for his mother which was actually a trap. among them A Augeas. was the son of HfPHetSfOS andwas the Greek zEUs and HERlt. many sons of King rrueu ofTroy.. Helen was the most HEI-EN (abovd pcces thewqlLsoJTroy The nostbeeuttJulwoman of the arcimt woid. cav J. where iron rnines date from a very early by an ocean island sunounded period His cultwas strong in Cana Although Oceanos was sometimes and Lycia.a crwn oJ laming rays Just 4s th€ sun's rcys ynetrate everylhere. in the nonhem part of the Aegean Sea. a thoughtful heroine. This socalled Colossus was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. None of the gods could releaseHera. under the influence of dnnk. accordingto Homei. visited Spana and. Hephaistoswas lame as a result of having interfered in a quanel between his parents.CrnssrcAL MYTHoLoGY Horse. His Roman equivalent was vULcAN.otten. although she was reated as the proper wife.Helen'sbrothers the were Castotand Polydeuces. the guiseof a swan. To the Romans he was known as Sol.

which was a major city in the Peloponnese It was claimed rhat she was the daughter ofcRolos and RHEA.1885 r R()v ) in his cradle However. the season which shemaried in Zgus (lrri'srurnrl rR()I1 SroRlrs Lrw.CLASSICAL MYTHoLoGY means "lady" and was HnRn undoubtedly the title of a powerful mother goddess whom the Greek inhented from the earlier inhabitants of Argos. and Hebe. Hera succeededin dnvinq Heracles temporanly mad There are a number of myths about Zeus' courtship of Hera ln one of them he disguisedhimseif as a cuckoo and took shelter inside her clothes during a hear. oJ Jashions god J'tre.16J0 aNv ) HEM. againsrthe Hepharstosfell in love wrth Athena. the cupbearer of the gods Another child was the smith god HtPflAlSlu5. queenoJheaven. Zeus had led to disaster for gods. her promised some remedy if he agreed addition to the Greek pantheon to releaseAphrodrte and Ares was not an easy or straightforward A myth about ATHENA's binh matter.symbolilngher statusas Zeus' bicle Her sceptreB trpryd with d cuchoo. when she relentlesslyperonce he realized she was pregnant secutedZeus' mistresses and their wlth a powerful deiry Later.sacred to her as the messenger oJ sping. men. children For example. rewakthathiswtJe. rhe goddess of birth Eileithyra. as the ceaseless conflicts recounts how Hephaistos split benveenher and her husband zrus open Zeus' head wrth an axe in readily bear wrtness Often her fis order to release the fuily grown of jealousy and quarrelsomeness goddess Apparently. Ioves resoltes trap Ares. Zeus resumed his normal shape and promised to marD/ Hera Later she bore him the war god eRrs. leans oneleg Byhim stands he on who ApoIIo. gcWen worles hls Jorge exquistte in Jiery Lame. baby HEMCLES. (Seealso FORCES OFNATURE) but the infant hero strangledthem HEPIIAISTOS. however. Hephaistos and to theguilty palr (THE oF FoRCE vuLGN DrEGo By VEAseuEz.wno ls salo rn some mlths to have been the son of Zeus and Hera. di'rectsHelios across slry She is crownedwitha the dadem and vetl. Metis.ydownpour Once out of the rain. but in others the offspring of Hera aione Herawas worshipped wrth particular reverence in Crete and at Samos. whom Zeus had but was rejected by her and his fathered in order to help rn the semen fell to earth where it gave coming battle against the GIANTS. where a great temple was said to have been built for her by the ARGONAUTS 47 . Aphrodite. birth ro the serpent Erichthonius she senr two serpenrs ro kill him. later in his life. heroesand swallowedAthena's mother.s.

the Hydra. The lasr Iabour that the hero performed in the Peloponnese was the removal of the Stymphalian birds. nips at his heek AJter buning away the lTydra's eight morul huds. which plagued the countryside of Arcadia. HoaclcsliJshim highaba. Zeus intended Heraclesto be ruler of Mycenae or Tiryns.etheurth. Although they had steel-dpped feathen with which they killed borh men and animals. because Heracles had received help from his nephew. ND crErcum ANTEUS AmcoBRoNzE By PrH . but this plan so well frustrated that the hero became the slave of Eurystheus.c strongholds Hera close to Argos. and ctusheshimin mid-air Thisbronze c:'prnses classical the idealoJhcrot shillandmight. the son otzeus and was ALCMENE. It Iived in a swamp at [€ma. On the island of Crete the hero tracked down the bull that utlos had failed to sacrifice to the seagod PosEIDoN.ES slays the llydra.Heraclesfetch the girdle of Hippolyta. him to caprure the Erymanthian boar.whlle a crab.. But with assistance from his nephew lolaus he was able to triumph. sent by the vengeful goddess Htra. When he retumed ro Eurystheus. After overcoming the lion. in the course of which he hlled his wife and their three sons with arrows. Nessus. Heracleshad to capture the Ceryneian hind. he cured the skin and wore it as a trophy. After this labour Heracles brought back the golden apples of the HESPERIDES. rhe wild. I(ng Eurystheus told Heracles to remove the immense piles of dung from the stables. To the Romans he was known as Hercules. beast-like men who lived in woodlands. The son of the sun god. female guardians of the fruit that the eanh goddess GAIAgaveto Hera on her 48 . which he pastured in the hngdom of EIis in the westem Peloponnese. He rrapped it with a neq and during the hunt Heracles encounrered a band of crxteuns.601528 .ClnssrcAL MYTHoLocY with Anaats. which was a goddessof beasrsacredro ARTEMIS. According to different accounts. The chosen mother was Alcmene.the king refused to count the exploit as a labour.a circumstance that firmly ties the hero to Argos. (HERCULE frE Hmn^ A F ND vAs. The name Heracles means "Hera's glory" . To atone for this terrible deed he had to become Eufrstheus' dependent and undertook his famous rwelve labours. BecauseZeus needed a mortal champion in the forthcoming battle berween the gods and the GIANTS. the site of the goddess HEM's temple lt remains a mystery that Heracles should have been persecuted so much by Hera. The fifth labourwas the cleansing ofAugeas'stables. not far from Argos. These labours began with the killing of the Nemean lion. king of Tiryns. One of them. queen of the frerce AM. and they added various encounters in ltaly to his already large cycle of adventures. Heraclesburied iu ninth immoftal head undr a huge roch in the swamp. Another labour reouired HgnnCt rS. His next opponent. which the goddess ATHENAhad specially made for Heracles. The next labour was not quire so bloody. a feat he achieved by divening rhe course of a nearby river.was Iater to cause the hero's death. these birds were frightened away by the noise of a rattle. which he subdued after feeding them on their master's flesh The last four labours were quite different in nature. the bull-headed man slain by the Athenian hero THESEUS Heracles captured Poseidon'sbull alive and brought it back to Tryns. PASIPFIAE. The bull had mated with Minos'wife. was a nine-headed serpent sacred to Hera. It took Heracles to Thrace in pursuit of the man-eating mares of Diomedes. Augeashad vast herds of animals.4ZONS Then he captured the catde of Geryon. which could not be harmed by arrows. The problem that the hero encountered when fighting with the Hydra was that for every head he cur off with his sword two new ones grew in its place.three bodies and six hands. HERACI.c 1920) GoRauET. who then gave birth to the MNOTAUR. the geatest of all the Greek heroes. a westem king who had three heads. where he let it go free at the end of this seventh labour.he fathered Heracles at the court of Thebes. The eighth labour was more gruesome. She struck Heracleswith a fir of madness. he retumed to Tir)ryrs with either its golden antlers or the hind iself. the Theban queen. for Iolaus bumed the srumps of the necks as soon as Heraclesseveredeach head.. ) Heracles had to fight it with his bare hands and a wooden club.a glant HEMCLES wra tles whodrawshis strmglhJrom eanh To the wmhenthegiant's might. even going mad at one point during his life. First of all Eurystheus had.

ro bnng bnefly back to Tinns rhe three-headed hound crn-arnus As a result of this labour.who gavethe hero's second wife a poisoned galrnent for him to wear Realzing that his death was near. hat and wrnged sandals.lvtES leadsEurydice(centre)and Orphns (nght) throughthe undemorld As Hermesconductedsouls psychopomp. was the work o[ the Cenuur Nessus.inspirerlthe love ol the watr nymph SalmacisHut.eath Hddes (ruusrurrcr in FRoM D crroNARy ot. Salmacis prayed to the gods that she might be etemally united wrth him The wish was granted HEnUgS was rhe Greek messenger god. dr BARrHoloufl ( SPMN(.which representsthe Nemean Lion.. near the Black Sea HER. though some drstance [arther north at Lampascus. 4Ntes. carrynng a lor this West Asiangod intention. rhe goddessoilove According to one Greek myth.wrth some help from PERSEPHONE. wedding to Zeus The last exploit of Heracles was the mosr testing.tR.vtApH. and the son o[zrus and Maia He enloyed playrng tncks and games Dunng the TrojanWar. whiLe the gnome-like Pnapus was [amous for his cnormous Like that o[ Hermaphroditus. queen of the underworld. hard-working Heracles attainedimmortality for himself No other hero gained this honour Heracles'death on earth.H e r m e s .the crab that was allegedly sent by Hera to help the Hydra (SeealsoHEROES) HEnMAPHRODITOS was rhe bisexualoffspnng of the messenger god urRvrs and APnRootrr. underworld This dury rhe helps to explain the later idenrification of the Germanicgod Odin even dunng time of war Hermes' greatest passion was for the love goddess APtIRoDITE The nvo sons that are attnbuted to them were borh renowned their unusual sexualiry for HER. the beau uJul son oJAphroditeand Hermes. whrch told him to build a funeral ppe rn Thessaly When the dyrng hero climbed on to it. unawart oJ hrsbeautful admirer on tht iver banb ( s A LM A ( r s A N D H E M p H R O T T T ( ) s /58.CrAssrcAl ANleutTil. who was a nymph of a founrain nearto the ciry of Halicamassus in Asia Minor When the young Hermaphrodirosignored her artentions. rt was Hermeswho wzs alrvayssent to stealsomethingthat was otherwrseunobtarnable Beforethe sea n y m p h t r u rt t 5 p c r s u e d c d c r s o n h A ( H i L L t St o s t o p m u r i l a r i n gt h c corpseof HECTOR. and Cancer. an event that the Greeksexpected to precede his translarion to Mount Olympus as a god. such as Leo. the realm of the dead From there the hero managed.CrnssrcAr MyrHoLoGY when he bathed in some waiers with the Roman equivalent of and she mergedwith him physr.coEs.. gods conthe sideredrhat the simplesrsolutron m i g h t b e r o l e t H c r m e s s t e a lt h e broken body Hermes was the god wlo most easilycrossed the line betweenthe lir'rngand rhe dead. Jrom l{e on earth to d. the goldn boy bathesm a showeroJ sunlryht. penis the cult of Priapus originated rn Asia Minor. rhis handsome boy excited the passion of Salmacis. for the Greeks believed that he guided the dead to the realm of H. c h a m p r o n o [ w a r r i o r s a n d t h e hencethe term hermaphrodite But father of the slarn Hermaphroditoswas not emascuHermes is usually depicted as a lated like Attis.b n m m e d Phrygian morhergoddcssCybele.h e r a l d ' s s t a f f c r o w n e d w r t h t w o ally cut off his own manhood snakes In ancient Greece this staff assured the messenger safe passage HERMAPHRODIT O S.lor it meanr a descent into the underworld.s l89l ) 49 . M E R C U R Y O d i n w a s t h e caLly The result was a femaleboy. Heracles consulted the Delphic Oracle. the lover of rhe y o u n g m a n w i t h a w i d e . R O P I T O Sw a s t h e f i r s r f e m a l e b o y . there was a great flash of lighrning and Zeus took his son to loin rhe immortals Someof the labourso[ Heracles arereflected rhe namesof certain in constellations.

lt1Rrrl. attracts underworld. be.lore ily I)elos to (.CT-eSSICAL MYTHOLOGY VOYAGERS oF HE LURE THEuNKNowN prompts all restiessheroes to stnke out on a new path in search of a fabulous treasureor shining dream. perhaps. or for the sheer joy of discovery and adventure. lortttr Here Owheus whib Htmes (IeJt).tht' untltrvorltl.rttt and onwurdsto . Poseidon. Three intrepid explorersstand out in Classicalmphology: Jason.thc AenertJ.urydice hr' uppr:rworld as long as he did not knh bach untrl dear s of Haclt /ust as thty wtre about b stepoul mto tht E u h g h t . world oJ shudts lcacJ [urrJiic buh LhroughLhc (lilR\1t\ l:r [\T)t(r lNri()Rfr]rL5.t ) r 1 / r e uts n t c Jr o u n do n i yt o s c e u r y c lrr ts l l p bachml<ttht worlclol shades .urydue (--hairrrrng shadcs wrlh his ttnLl ewn Ptrstphonc thr to bath ttt the rnusrr. or a f. and found his way out again.while Aeneas' ar seven-ye voyage after the fall of Tioy led him to the site of future Rome.Lobnngbachhrswilc. ily sailcJ trr . Most famous and appealing. Aeneasand Odysseus. he found his way home after ten years' wandertng through fabulous lands. Atnt'us.rnvohing gods the uo. The lure of the into a monster's den. Aeneas and Odysseusboth joumeyed to the underworld in searchof prophetic counsel. beJore ovtrbourd llrr'jrMrr)r rR()MTA\(lrlw(x)DT^ll\ ( 1920) 50 .yntalpoetund ctharaplqer. was th'e fabled Odyssey of the shipwrecked wanderer. Odysseus.he wusrohbcd I andlorril toleap owrboard thc sarlors. ( 4208( ) alter tfu lull ofTroYwas s*en yearvoyagt AENF. uas allowcci taht F.Sir ancJ herool he reachLng Ltlrum n ltalywhere bttamc theuntestrul is amvtngon Deios. 9)7 ARION 0rght). Iry whert' hc was bome uway to safcry song-loving tlolphtns Here. port a Roman lestibed rn Virgrl's OdysseyAlttr fleeingwth hs father dnLlsonlrttnt buming Tnty' Thrar and sarled awuyIrywayLtJ At ncasanl his contraclcs Cunhttgt. F. A\ l M r4 / r yK i n g A n i a s( A r N r ir N ) tL ( ) s .l tht thr shrp.AS'Qbove) rn eprrtale. ORPHET/SQtlt) wtnt down tnlo I lddes. Anon playshis rlhara on tht prow oJ leuping o. hlndlywelcomrd theRomanr Hert. Jason set sail with his fearlesscrew of Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece. r j o r r ^ l r \ r1 . such as Theseuswho went into the Labyrinth to slay the Minotaur.waits to bils /arcwcii to Euryclrce. Tossed from shore to shore by the angry sea god.too.oray many heroes.Sir b tuhcpdrt in tt magltul conteslwhrch he won On hrsway homcrn a Lonnthian ship.a l.

/ r n u l l y u r r I lrrrrn . ht btttthtd ut -Srt ol one-qed gants. Oc. ! I l \ r l r r l a 8j I 5I . rs Lrrrl ()r lri ()iur roat hy l'hcicacian iai/orr Ar prcJittcc/ hv lfic sctr. the Cyt lopcs l3olclrrncl i n q u i s i r r v r . / r ] .irr # ffi i. hltrufuclthc trant arrcl s L p p e c i u t . . O d y s s c u sw a n d c r c r Jr n l o a ( . [ sl 1! u / u r t r r g i c t n r ' c d l r t s t d t u a ( ) / A r c s r n l h c s u c r c c i p r t rL Jo / . 1 \ t ) R\l1 i . L \ r r r . hornr ry' thc luwlcss rar c I roy. \ r\ r ( ) ! r r\ | F ( . ( . / r c l c l c nr n J c r s h c c p r ' b c / l i r s I l t r c o and hts r onrarlt s prcrt L thc vrclrl i :rnllt Oc.only d/lar nrdny vacl\'ilclrc/arlrL Orrtt bath on his islanc/ htnutlon ol ithara. . /crrt rrs/tcp. rc g. Ji. rvas rcnowntd lor hLswil. \ r a l . ! . r r r t : r r ' r . ) Nt lt l .rr rly. ODYSSEUS (obovt). /or hrs unntng.lysscus / 4 c w i l h c rs h a r y c n c cs t a h r ' l r r l l r \ i i \ ( L l \ t f r i t \ t ' H t \ 1 l1 ] ..rl ti(d .ilsscur rrar hcJ irrrnrcu/onc rrn u /ortrgrr shrp. tralt ancl rrrrosify On hrs wuy horne /rrrnr JA5oNfclru')satlcdacrossthf5('ds()napcrrltlas\1}}'c/g('lt/tts/cttntlls:/rrp.s dncl silvdr l(rnguc. ctltbruted trcl'cllcr. ir f i r r \ . / u s o n a n J h i s A r . q o n u u t s s a r l c J a r r . r u r r r r r g r ' g us . 4 .CLASSICAL MYTHoLoGY ODYSSEUS (above). / a t l r r nu s t u l s p d s lr l ] h r s r r r ! . i \ \ r \ ( e t ' r ' t h r r rn l t J(. irc haci arorircr baLtk Lo lighL w r l h l h e s u r k r r sr y 'h r i w r / c hrfort hc couk/ rzecin hrs thronc anrl sctlit Jrrrvn n'rlir P e n t l o p t t l t r t \ r R r r r .y r l o p s J c n w h e r t h e a n t l h r s r o m r a d c s h c r a n r t l r u p p c r /h t i r c hostilc granl To csrrrpc. Trrtsiar.qrl'c]((ll]l)(li]lL'J a g t I h t l u t ' n t r n s c a r r hy t h r ( i o l l t n r t h eJ n r g o n ' s r 1 e . 4 j t \ .thrAr. thn.

The Etruscansmounted a surpnse attack and attempted to capture Rome by crossing a poorly defended bridge over the Rrver Tiber With two comrades. Garden of the Hespendes on rhe (nght) HERO(below) JorherLeander. mothnight. and secret.Horatius held the enemy back untrl the Romans had destroyed the wooden bndge As the final supports were sawrr away. calling Hero was barred from mar.the evening star Their nameswere nage. ) HOnqftUS was a Roman hero who saved the early Republic from the Etruscans. 186973) slopes of Mount west Atlas in the far the For one of his labours hero HFMCLES tncked the Titan ATI-{S into getting him the golden apples. offenng ro hold up the heavens in his stead HORATIUS (below). ln order to keep their affair Hespera. wtth nuo oJhis comrades.Hero threw herselffrom the Dardanelles. he held o[f the entmy until the last moment whenheleaptinto thestredm and swamto FROM 1885 saJety(LrusrvnoN FROM SroRl6 Llw.1880 ) EDWARD BURNE-JoNE5. rANvAs. he ordered his comrades . while Leander her tower and died lived on the Asianside of the channel at Abydos They met and fell in Tne HTSPERIDES were suplove.held a the Sublician Bndge. he would swrm back at dawn One Greek gods This tree stood in the stormy night the light blew out. guided by a light that she er earth. Romanhero. but becauseoI her religious posedly rhe daughtersof Hesperus. they arrangedthat Leander they were the guardians o[ a tree of should swim acrossto Hero each golden applesgrvenby GAIA. Aegle and Erytheis.when they tned to restore TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS to the Roman throne by force of arms.N rHr: HrspLRlDEs or By LErcH()N cANviS . lxt wArcH oF HERoByLoRD by Heracles (TH[ cARl)r. to the goddess HERA on placedin her tower Next moming her marriage ro zELls chief of rhe . Ioohs who THE HESPERIDES guarded the usually swam heracross Hellespont golden to the apples the in garden thegodsThe oJ guided a lightin hertwer Butherlight serpent by reallsthemyth thedragon oj ltdon blew in a storm lttinderwas out and whoguarded apples hewasslain the until drowned |Jm.against the ELruscan amy ''ly'hile other Romanshached down the bidge.ClnsstcAr- MyrHoLocy Hnno AND LEANDER were Leander lost his senseof direction one o[ the great pairs of loversin and he drowned in the cold waters Greek mythology Hero was a When his bodywas washed ashore pnestesso[ epnnoorceat Sesros in at Sestos.

but Horatius was obhged jealous and vengeful wrfe of Zeus."as the daughter of the river god Inachus. where she was retumed to her human form Surprisingly. son senger god. and placed in Zeus'own rhigh unril Greeh shores a maine deity who aided as the Phoenicianhng of Thebes. The unbom Dionysus. ar sailors in distressand guided ships through Harmonia ln Greek myrhology. Because lo had been bovine in shape on her arrival. 8y HYPNOS ("sleep"). Semele had been However. Hera prayer saved the hero as he dodged ity of her lover by relling him to made Ino kill her own children the Etruscan arrows and struggled come to her in his rrue form This After she had done this Ino killed across the waters of the Tiber Zeus was also tricked into doing. Then. was uken from her womb drowning Shewas honoured along the INO was rhe daughrerof cADMUs. one-eyed man was erected near the bridge in his honour He was also given as much land as he could drive a plough over in a day (Seealso HERoES) thrauinghimher veil which saves himJrom INO rescues shipwuhed Odysseus by ILUS SCC FOUNDERS IO . F6co. though tradition saysrhar an ancienrsarue of a lame. Theyjust tricked by the goddessHERA. IO. he tumed Io into a beautiful heifer. 1580) of zrus and Semele. however. rhe could nor be thwarted wirhour made it. possibly because he had already come close to having a thunderbolt hurled at him He was saved by taking refuge with Nrght. dead sister. and never saw the sun. c 1635) ARGU5 PEEn Plur RUBENJ. he appeared to Semeleas lightning her infant son Melicertes leaptinto Whether he was wounded in the and thunderbohs. such a powerful goddess back to the Roman bank. the night goddess. rhe suggesrionof Hpnvrs.and it was time for his birth. whose power Zeus alwap respected. It seemsthat Zeus eventually made love to lo on a cloud over Egypt. and was one of the mortal women who bore children by zEUs. she and Cocles ("Horatius the one-eyed").who was Ino's child and kept him safefrom Hera. wulwed byZeus who changeilho ahaJo in ordo toavod into jealous Hera Heraordered his w{e allseang Argus wakh Io. in Greek mphology. the realm of nnors. was his son. Although Io was a virgin priestess of nrRe. the god of dreams. and would have mated with her at once had not Hera guessed his intentions and sent a gadfly to prevent the animal from standing still. great personal cost. this did not prevent Zeus from having her expelled from Argos so rhar he could make love to herwithout any difficulties According to one version. "thewanderer". 53 .and the brother of Thanaros ("Death").butZfus. was the son of Np<. she was forgiven by Hera. she became identified with the Egptian cow goddess Hathor. at her tempie in Argos. lno suckled the divine the AEsNDRoArcfl. herself by jumping off a cliff into His full name was Horatius and the unfonunate resultwas that the sea. Morpheus. When she to swim back in full armour Only who advised her to resr rhe divindiscovered the deceprion. In another myth. Zeus's wife. On severaloccasionsHERA asked Hypnos to lull her husband zEIJs to sleep so rhar she could attack his son HEMCLESHypnos usually refused ro anger Zeus. Hypnos lived in the underworld.in his to tum. sent Hermes lull Argus sleep to n by theilreamynota o! his AND lute (Mt:rcuRy gNv s. and she was the sea and became marine deities eye remains uncertain.CInSSIcAL MYTHoLoGY killed. rhe messtorms (ODyssEUs THE AND coDDs INo8y she brought up DIONYSUS.

was and andhe invohed mwards ourwards. voYAGERS) 54 . his double. although his exrra eyesdid on one occasion enable him to catch the nymph Carna. simply because or Becausehe was polluted by this would berter for the boy if he were unprecedentedact. Thessalian Magnesra However.Agamemnonpretended that lphigenra was to be married there to the Greek hero After she and champron ACHILLES discovered his true intention. while the hrghpriest Calchasraiseshis difficulties arosewhen Aeson. when Zeus the throne of lolcus by a man wearmade an exactcopy of Hera from a ing only one sandal So rhe usurping king was amazed and fnghtcloud and enticed the unwary hng to rapeit The punishmentfor such ened when a matureJasonarrived IPHIGENIA. including medifor lxion At first lxion was grateful cine. a town in who wasangry wrth Agamemnon Here. Alone and depressed.it was in in lact the goddess HERA disguise Unable to harm the unwelcome guest becausehe had arrivedat the time of a religious festival.Pelias decidedto rid himselfof the threat he represented by sendrngJasonon an impossible quest He offered to proname Jason as his successor uded he should bring home from belongColchis the Golden FIeece ing ro a wonderful ram which had flown there from lolcus Jason gathered together his companions. seeingthat Peliaswrll not honour his promise to Jason. theyoung daughteroJ was Agamemnonand Clytemnestra. sail off to Connth after failing to capture Iolcus Jason seemsto have accepred exile in Connth with Medea.people bothbackwards Jomards hissins Tartarus.wrthout his wife Clytemnestra'sbecoming suspicious. (Seealso HERoES. ruler of Iolcus. though some say his father was ARES.she placed king could not properly rule his him in the care of the weseCentaur land Perhapsa secret passion for CHiRoN. olt'ered sacrilegious cnme was to spend eremiry in Tartarus.who hved in the ThessaDia prompred zEUs himself to lian woodlands Chiron was skilled devrsespecial rites of punfication in many things. Artemis demanded that Iphigenia should be sacnficed To bnng the sacrificial victim all the way from Mycenae to the port of Aulis in Boeotia. the pnson beneath the underworld JANUS was a very old ltalian god with exprates whom the Romansassociated IXION. overcamedifficult task.. was a Greek hero and as o "sacnJicial lamb" to appease Artemts voyager. either by Agamemnon himself or by an action committed by his father ATREUS ln any event.M DR SMrrHs CKslqL DrcTroNARy. people to look backwards and for.srhr(rN fR(. over JANUS.The toil Sisyphus condemedendless and month of January . whomJasonmade of his wrfe wrrh the assistance the goddessATHENA On retuming to lolcus.CressrcAL MYTHoLocY was rhe eldest IPHtCgNfR and Qaughterof l(ngAGAMEMNON of Mycenae Queen CLYTEMNESTRA When Agamemnon and the Greek fleet were about to sail for Troy. prestdal in hJe allthatisdouble-edged Hisimage which both looh was on Jound cirygates. sr R ( ) M H ( ) M F R 1 8 8 5 ) it towardsJason.hell in heneath DR s gated temple in the Forum was in time (ItLustutto N FRoM SMITH Ct^sslGl Alongside Jellow him.god of war ln order to avoid payrng a bride-price to Eioneus for his beautiful daughrer Dia. Then rhe hero was offered the hand of a princessnamed Glauce. Clytemnestra never forgave her husband.who becameknown and as the ARGONAUTS. the Argonauts found that Peliashad assumedthat they had died in a shiprweck and murdered Jason's father Aeson Two versions of the myth exist from this point onwards In one of them Peliasis destroyed by means of Medea's magic.chained a rollingwheel. but it was not long the nameJason ("healer") The Delnhic Oracle wamed beforehe took an interestin HERA. contrary winds caused by ARTEMIS kept the ships at Aulis The goddessof the forestand wild animals had been offended. new yearwhen at thestartoJeach dayand in the city wrth only one of his sandals The hero had lost it while carrynng what seemedto be an old a lady across smft stream.a dual-Jaced. hrs old ship. the son o[ Aeson and Phili'ra.Agamemnon(nght) bows rn. defeateda guardianserpent and retumed vvith the magrcfleece Part of his successwas due to the aid of the Colchian princess and mtch." his headsorowJuliy {tur. lxion prepareda trap for his unsuspecting[ather-in-law a pit filled wrth fire Eioneus fell into it on a visrr ro Lanssaand died. crosseda seaof mawels. In another the Argonaum.was sacredtoJanus There are few myrhs conceming him. pisoners Sisyphus thetr always kept open in time o[ war DrcroNARY1895) snd Tontalus endure ownordeols to and closed in time of peace. Zeus' wife lt was thereforeIxron's Peliasthat he would be rumed off turn to be trapped. and may have given the boy to the god. vrtre.bom in Iolcus. a piece of rotten dmber fell and crushed his skull.a time for Tantalus to endless thirsl (tlu. and lxion thus became the first man to shed the blood of a krnsman JASON.1895 ) wards . When he desertedMedeafor her.the hero lingered at Corinth until one day. as he sat in the shade of the Argo. where for some ten yearsthey lived happily together and had three sons.srmrrcr brother Pelias Either because PhilyradisrrustedPelias' intentions 5 r ( ) r i L r . and years later on his retum from the Trqan War helped her loverAegrsthusto murder him IXION was a Thessalianking of Lanssaand supposedly the son of Phlegyas. Jason brought down on his own head the full fury and magical powers of the Colchian princess For Medea not only killed Glauce but she also destroyed her sons by Jason. to and looh a Hades beginnings ln Rome. the Thessalian educated elsewhere. was deposedby his halfarms in prayer. who liked to tease her lovers with sexual advances before suddenly running away Their son became a king of the important ciry of Alba Longa god.

she protected hm Jrom harm b1Jtre.fwomanhood. anri t r o n q u l l . chief rhe rhe god of the Greeks Juno was the queen of the sky and the wife of assoclateo JUPllt:R>ne wasalways wrth the Greek goddessof birth. goddessof wisdom and the arrs The festivalof Matronaliawas held in her hon.td rn ciassrral srylc. sat'rc hairsry/e.5) JUNO was rhe Roman equivalenr of HER. rrth a regdl diadtnt. p Juno became pregnant wlth the war god MARSJuno's own warlike aspectis apparentin her attire She often appearsarmed anclweannga goatskincloak. E i l e i t h y a .was lovedby tht darh sorceress Medea. atcompautd woman through life Jrotn brth wo1 to autn She ts here portrat. wrfe of zEUS. m d J e s t i c .ruron I March lou). a A N v A s . the goddess of f l o w e n n ga n d b l o s s o m r n g l a n r s . thecelebrated Argonauts.ClnssrcAL MYTHoLoGY herooJthe IASON Aeft). theRornan rquetn huten of JUNO (be oncl o.a n d w a s c a l l e db y t h e Romans"the one who makesthe child see the light of day" Ar the touch of a magicalherb specially grown by Flora.whosemaglc at:'shelpedhim slay thedragonguarding the GoldenFleece With salves and invoottons.a. 1 8 6 .rsthe gdrment favouredby RomansoLdiers on campaign In Rome she was worshipped on the Capitol hilL along wirh Jupirer and vtNrRlA. r l r ( l L N o\ \ ' f r D r 4 r )N l ! \ 1 A R 8 ]c 2 0 CB a ) E 55 .which w. dmon or sword UAsoN By G{'sr^Vr MoRetr.

for no himself for shame incorrecrly that Corinth was his Trolan lifted a hand to heip when In Thebes.who aloneamongmortals in welcomed godsas thq wandered the ANr) humanJorm throughPhryga guprrER MERcuRy wrH PHII FMON AND BAUCls. where as the man who warned the IAOCOONandhts were The g](mt sea-setpents by Rome were dedicated him ro the childless l(ng Polybus adopted Trojans not to acceptthe so-called death a pairoJ poets dfereddstotheserpents' him and gave him the name o[ Greek gift of the Wooden Horse andent thq sent or He even drove a spearinto its side oign.In the event the cunning plot worked *as the Roman s}<y god. they hid themselves and lightning. because l-aius tered laius. fulfilled As for the two serpents.monster Jocasta did not share the marriage and breastsof a woman.for he Laocoon was ignored Worse than in off for L^aius carrynng Pelops'young was desrined to kill his father and the fate of Cassandrawas that o[ son Chrysippus.ClnssrcAr ANreuilfii.thunder concemed to prevent the child's by some to be the brorher of sons to dearh. who were expelled a spike This action may havebeen his son's. cANvAs. then Troy would fall. of a lion and wlngs. said they had crushed Laocoonand his Jupiter was associated ments. who is weaing meal his trawllinghat. Oedipus travelled two great sea-serpentssuddenly his wrfe. but if they draggedit inside the ciry walls. and whether ltocoon wds innocent When Oedipus reached man.king of Oedipus ("swell-foot") that Apollo. l-aius tookJocasu as place of birth. was the father of orolpus and one of the most tragic figures hood he went to Delphr to ask inside the hollow belly could lurk a or guilry and ofwh. whether were byAthena I-etUS.connected wrth the Trojan War at 56 . who later hanged marry his mother Concluding Laocoon and his two sons. then the Wooden Horse was a guaranteeof Troy's safery.once from Rome around 507 nc At first.ClessrcAr MyrHoLocY JUPITER and Mucury. was simply punishing the priest for disobeying a divine command An altemative view was that the death o[ Laocoon and his sons was the work of ATHENA Poseidon for or causingdamageto the dedicatory horse A Greek named Sinon had informed the Trojans that it was an offenng to the goddessAthena: if they destroyed it. curse uttered by PELOPS revenge parens in a temble manner.to show his fellow country. son of Labdacus.us The cult of the prophecy. and a pnest of the sea in either the temple of Apollo or the temple of Athena the protector o[ the Roman people effect was quite rhe opposite A god tosrtooN Borh the Greek him and was their powerful ally in war shepherd heard the baby's screams and the Romansremembered to sons mtshed The games held in the crrcus rn and took him to Connrh.but it is wrth the ele. and the first part of the eventual overthrow and best and greatest")beganunder the feet havrng been cut through wrth L-aius' destructionof the besieged ciry Etruscan kings. but they had no children. as JUllteR the equivalent of zr. By PETERPA(rL RUBENS. full of wine.lt sin (lll'srur()N FRoM (n.'rnen Thebes. intended to hastendeath. /891l in Greek mythology The fate rhat about his parentageHe was told terrible danger to Troy However.howwhich rhe Delphic Oracle rold Thebes On the road he encounthem was fortunate. 1620 25 ) all The god ofprophecy. D( ItoNARy destroyed his family was due to a that he would be reunitedwith his like rhe prophetess CASSANDM. which was Laocoon's punishment was not Laius slept with her and Jocasta causing havoc in the Theban coun. among rhe Greeks or the was destined to be killed by his consult the Delphic Oracle about Romans about why Laocoon and a with the face his sons were killed by the seaown son For a time Larus and the SPHINX. Philemon and Baucis. enjoyawholesome with the hindly rustics. a fight ensued those warriors hidden wrthin the Jupiter Optimus Maximus ("the die on a distant mountainside.APoLLo.not impossible that Laiuswas also I-IOCOON was a Trojan. the body serpents One opinion was that bed Then one night. who was on his way to ever. especiallystorrns. conceived a son So as to overcome tryside Oedipus refused to stand for the benefir of the Greek. the baby was left to aside for the king. but he later became ghost from walking freely But the Anchises.his and Laius was killed Thus was horse began a slaughter that led to destiny. towards the north and approached amved and crushed them to death There was no agreement.

and HELEN.and she was one of the few Titanessesto be worshipped in ancient Greece However. seryent sent oJ children Zeus. a clutches whrle Artemis godol thearts.when in 490 BCtheir fleet passedby on its way to punish the Eretrians and Athenians for provrdrngaid to the Greek rebels who were fightrng Persrain Asia Minor trny clutthmghtr twins.whose fatherwas the god zEUs Leto may havegiven stcy birth to her dir. Agamemnon's MENEI-AU5. rymbol herrole goddess the wild . associated . oJten ntr recolling their unusual parentage Lr'r). her cult was commonly with those of her more associated famous son and daughter APoLLo and eRtrnzls.n From their union. but that Helen'sand Polydeuces' father was Zeus while Tyrrdareos was the father of the mortals Clytemnestra and Castor In the caseof Helen there rs little doubt that the myth of the Trojan War tumed a goddessinto a Queen She clearly has a connection wrth who were older Aegeangoddesses wrth birds and eggs. who was the unfaithful wife of brother. Ledaproduced eW.) ttttL \ r&4r()\ a) N( { BF. a gJant Jlees Hera bythewngeJul whorelentlessly lowrs Thebq. wife of ec. one contdrningthetwins. attibute Apollo. and the causeof the Trojan War Leda was also the mother of the DIOSCURI.and the otherthe Dioscun.qurMNoN.CInSSICAL MYTHOLOGY LEDA was lovedby Zns in the shapeoJa two swl. and one containedClytemnesrra Helen. the twinsdre depictedwi|h eg-shdpedhelmats. which a helpful PosEtDoNis sard to have fastenedpermanentlyto the bottom of the seawith a huge pillar Later. lor Leda was loveo oy lLU5 wno came to her disguisedas a swan Some say that as a result of therr union Leda produced two e8gs.I 99-5 LnnR was rhe daughter of l(ng Thestius of Aetolia. which was a statein north-westemGreece Her husband was Krng Tlmdareos of Sparu Two o[ Leda'schildren were the murderous CLYTEMNESTM. oJ as oJ tinybow. twrn sonsCastorand the Polydeuces Vanous accountsare given of the fathersof her children.Castorand As Polydeuces young men. LETO(below).\ rR LL()N/RD0 D^ VtN( r. ( l5l5 l6 ) was the daughter of the LnfO TITANS Coeus and Phoebe.one of Apollo's most important temples was built on the island Even the invading Persians respectedthis sanctuary. her pIoprcd husband's his as a pluchscithara. c1Nf3\.LE.rne children on the sacred island of Delos.

s past her cavem 1Lr{rsrMroN rRo!.MONSTERS AND EABI-]LoIJS Be. instinctive nature. AND THI STRENs y B aANv"s 1505-70 ) FMNcE-so . s u c h a s s a t y r s a n d Centaurs. PYTHON (above).guardeda precioustreasure. she snatches thecreruoJ Odysseus his up as ship sail.sonof Gaia. Although less awesome than demons. having advisedhis men to stop Lheir earswith war. S a v a g eb e a s t s . sometimes hideous. but sometimes bewitchitgly fair.such as Ladon. sometimes hallhuman and somerimes entirely demonic. he hadhimself b o u n dt o t h em a s ts o t h a t h ec o u l d h e a r the srrensmaglcsongvnthout being Iured oway (ol)yssfLis PRrM^rrcdo. they still harassedand haunted humans.other monsrers ravagedthe land. 1995 ) SCYLLTI (above).barhing monster Here. while the Sphinx guardedthe passro the city of Thebes. such as the Chimaera. part human and part animal. as when Poseidon sent a sea monster in response to Theseus' r a g e . Odysseus sailspast with hts crtw.Still others were raised by u curse.SroRlF:sFROM(. Iowd b1 Zus and Poserdon tum. hauntedthe caves of Pamassus until slainby Apollo with his frst anows Apollot'oundedthe to his ffthnn gamcs rcmmemorate tictory and wasaJtmuards named Apollo PhysiusThe monster's deJeat wascelebrated evay ninelears at the oJ Jestival Steptenaat Delphi and invofued enactmottoJthe whole an event lLLUsrMrpN By CLENN STryAD.a monstrous serpent. and some.RtF(F A\D RoMrr l9J0) THE SIRENS (ight) werebeauttfuI sea nymphswho charmed sailorsby tlrcir alluing songsAlthough iniially depicted as brrd-maids. until in changed the rculoug of Cru mto a by snapping. such as the Hydra and Chimaera.symbolizingcomplex evil. represent man's unruly. sea-clogs and sailors from her cayem m the Strait oJ Messina According Loone myth.a s*-headed sea monster.qSTS TASSICAL MONSTERS come in all shapes and colours. Greek mythologl is full of composirecrearures. Monsters generally symbolize the dark and unresolved forces in life and in human narure. fshed Jor dolphins. Not all monsrerswere cruel. thq later became Jair temptresses Here. she was oiglnally a beuutful seanymph.Sphinx and Scylla.

Cle.ssrcAt- MvrHoLoGY .

CLASSICAL

MYTHoLOGY

ARES, was more widelyworshipped than any of the other Roman gods, probably because his sons REMUS ANDROMULIJS were said to have founded the ciry Menfn was rhe daughrer of Aietes, king of Colchis, a country adjoining the Black Sea, and the first wrfe o[ the voyager JAsoN Medea means"the cunning one" -

a suitable name for a princess skilled in the magic ans ln fact, to rhe Greek she hovered somewhere between witch and goddess. Medea fell in love with the Thessalian heroJason as soon as he was rhe wife of landed in Colchis with the ARGOLUCRgffA and she used magic to help Tarquinius Collatinus and repre- NAI/TS, him gain the Golden Fleece, the sented the ideal of Roman womanhood. When Sextus, youngest son objecr of rheir expedirion On the of the Etruscan king TARQUINIUS hasty voyage back, when the SUPERBUS, raped her at dagger Colchian fleet gavepursuit, Medea point around 507 Bc,she made her sacnficed her brother to slow the pursuers. On their retum to lolcus, father and her husband promise to avenge her honour before she Jason's birthplace, she managed to stabbed herself to death. According to Roman legend, Lucretia's funeral roused the people and their anger was channelled by rhe inspiring eloquence of Lucius Junius BRUTUS into a desire for the overthrow of the monarchy. MARS, rhe son of ;ulo and a magical flower, was originally the Roman god of fenility and vegetation but later became associated with battle. As the god of spring, when his major fesdvalswere held, he presided over agriculture in general ln his warlike aspect he was offered sacrifices before combar and was said to appear on the battlefield accompaniedby Bellona, a warrior goddess variously identified as his wife, sister or daughter. Mars, unlike his Greekcounrerpan, MAFS,godoJwar, on forceshrmselfgentle Paxand Abundonti, spints peace oJ and plenty,whileMinemashifullysteers him an away Thealleguydramat4es age-old waringRoman conJlict, henly in the Jdt
heart (MrNERv^ DRrvrNG MAs BrJ^coR) RoB{,sfl TrNroREfio. c/NVAs,c lJ76 )

retumed. to LUCRETIA, aJterho suxide, "Jalse Tarquinius, Sextus", hauntSexns Etruscan hadraped thehigh-handed who her,incensing whole PameShe the oJ phantom who aryeasasa pale, shrouded through watches the oJ sings she as spins the night (llrusrmfloN LAys ANclENr FRoM oF

rejuvenate an old ram by boiling him rn a magic pot whereupon he tumed into a lamb. She also disposed ofJason'senemy, King Pehas of lolcus, by persuadinghis daughters to give him a similar course of beauty treatment, but which hlled him As a result, Jason and Medea were banished to Corinth The relarions betweenJason and Medea went badly wrong Jason put his firsr wife aside in order to marry Glauce, a Theban pnncess Medea, feelingvery insulted, took a terribie revengeonJason Glauce was bumed alive in a poisoned wedding dress, and Medea saw to it that her own children byJason were also hlled She then escaped to Athens in a magrc chariot, which was said to belong to her grandfather Hruos, the sun god In Athens, Medea married its krng, AEGEUS, bore him a son and named Medus. At this timeAegeus believed he was childless,although

he already had a son in the hero rHEsEUs.Through her wily skills, Medea prevailed upon Aegeus to reject Theseuswhen he came co Athens to claim his inheritance, and she may also have persuaded him to send Theseusto subdue the bull of Marathon. When Theseus succeededin this dangeroustask and at last Aegeusrecognizedhim Medea fled as his own successor, with Medus to Colchis, where they avenged the recent overthrow and death of Aietes Medus became a ruler of Colchis, but nothing elseis known of Medea kingof Sparta,was MTNEUUS, It rhe younger son ofATREUS. was to recover Menelaus' wrfe HELEN that his older brotherAGAMEMNON, king of Mycenae, led the Greek expedition againstTroy. ln spite of being wamed, Menelausnot only enrenained PAruS, eldest son of the King PRIAMof Troy, but he also

60

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

MERCURY (above),as the messenger god oJ the Romans, was closelyidnttJted with the Greehgod Hermes In worlu oJart, he typicallywearsa wingedhelmet, hat, and or wide-bimmed traveller's canies a herald'sstaft',the emblemof
Pedce (MFRCURy AND ARcus I6J5.) By PErIR PAUL

RU8EN5, DEIAII, GNV^s,

MEDEA, a ruthlesssorceress, Jrom Jlees Co\chiswith lason and the Colden Fleece the to across seas Greecewith herIather, , in Aietes, pursuit To slowhim down, she cut up her brotho and cast thc parts into to thesea,JorcingAietespichup thepieces By Jor a piousbunal (lxr 6<rorr FLLTcEH ./
DMPER, cANvAs, (: 1880)

by the intervention of the love godShe dessAPHRODITE was rndebted to Parisfor.;udgrngher more beauand tiful than the goddessesHER,+ in ATHENA; gatitude shehad grven him the love of Helen, the most

prosperity. He was apparently imported from Greece around the fifth century BC Mercuryis usually depicted in the same way as his with a Greek counterpart HERMES, wrnged hat and staff MIO.CS was sard to be the son of Gordius and Cybele, or to have been adopted by Gordius. He was the kmg of Phrygia and renowned for his wealth According to the Greeks, his fabulous riches were the result of a hndness he showed rhe ro 5ILENU5, old goar-like tutor of otoMsus, rhe god of vegetation, wlne and ecstasy So pleasedwas Dionysus wrth this behaviour that he offered Midas whatever he wished The king asked for everyrhing he touched to be tumed into gold At first Midas was overjoyed wrth the gift, but once he realized that even his food and drink were being transformed on touching his lips, he was homfied Out of pity

Dionysus told him how to wash away his golden touch, which Midas did in the fuver Pactolus, thereafter famous for the goid dust ro be lound on im bed Another my'th told about Midas concerns a musical competition berween rhe gods APoLLoand PAN, the divrne inventors of the lge and pipes respectively When the prize was awarded to Apollo, Midas incaudously expressedhis surprise at the outcome and received from Apollo a set of ass's ears for his foolish presumption was htng MIDAS. rhe Jabled of Phryga. a when ich, Jabulously yetchose, granted ncher by still, to wish thegods, become by to touched tum to everythinghe ashingJor joy wasganted,but quichly gold Hiswish neither eat when could he to tumed gneJ
nor dinh (llrrlsrMfloN ByNrcx B^LE, l9g5)

beautiful woman alive After the fall of Troy, Menelaus could not bnng hrmself to kill went off to Crete and left Helen Helen because of her ourctanding alone at Spanawlth the handsome beauty Once again the goddess visiror. Pansand Helen eloped, tak- Aphrodite cast her spell and they were reconciled and rerumed ro ingmany of the reasures forwhich Sparta,where rhey lived happily for Menelauswas famous During the ten-year strugSle many years When Menelausdied against Troy, Menelaus played a he went to hve ln the ElysianFields secondaryrole to Agamemnon and wrrh his immortal Helen the other Greek lcngs, ahhough he was no coward In single combat MeRCURY*as rhe Romanmeswlth Pans, Menelaus tried to settle sengergod, and was alsothe deiry rhe dispure berween the Greeks who watched over trade and comand the Trojans He won and was merce, as his name suggesm He only preventedfrom killing hs nval was associated wrth peace and

a MENEI-AUSAeJ)wasusually gentle, man, he even-tenpered buthere ftghts body over JaIIen oJPatroclus firercely the olJhis nahed, ApoIIo struch had wholies Jor ond helmeq splintered ash his speor brohet bare htscorselet, shppinghLm sothathe by would msilyhilled Hector olrusrurft)N be
FR()M SroRrfs r R()M HOMER, 1885 )

6l

CIeSSICAL

MYTHoLoGY

(whose name may MINgRve have originally meanr "rhoughr") was the Roman goddessof wrsdom and the arts, rhe equivalenr of the Greek goddess ATHEN, She was . worshipped rhroughout ltaly, though only in Rome did she rake on a wariike character Minerva is usually depicted wearing a coar of mail and a helmet, and carryring a spear The Romans dedicared the spoils of war to her. MtnOS was rhe son of zEUsand EUROPA and became the king of Crete, wrth his palace siruated at I(nossos The Greek regardedhim both as a jusr lawgiver and as a cruel oppressor To build his wonderful palace, Minos employed rhe Athenian craftsman DAEDALUS, whose creatronswere thought ro be almosr divine 5o lifelike were his sutues, for instance, rhat they had to be chained down in order ro stop them running away Minos was lesspleased, however,with the hollow cow thar Daedalusmade for his queen, PASIPHAE, thar she so might satisfy her desire for rhe whire bull which possooN had sent from the wavesas a sign that MINERVA (abne), the Romangoddess of Minos should ascend rhe Cretan wisdom, is depictedhere tamingd wiW throne. The MINOTAUR, man wirh a Centaur, who symbolizesthe darh unruIy a bull's head, was the outcome o[ sideoJhuman nature HtsJeaming Pasiphae's unnarural union This expression suggestsman's longlngJor monstrous creature was housed in divinity, despitehimsef {Mrnrnve rne ero the Labynnth, a special maze built CENTAUR By SANDRo BofttcEu, C/.NAS, c 1482) by Daedalusar Minos' request. Minos was known to the Greek Minos carried a shell and promised as an ancient ruler of the seas His to reward anyone who could passa naval strengrh could well have thread through ir Daedalusalone owed somerhing ro Daedalus' could soive the problem, which inventiveness Cenainly he was not eventuallyhe was unable to resist. prepared for anorher ruler ro enjoy When l(ng Cocalos,on Daedalus' rhe remarkable services of the behalf, claimed rhe prize, Minos craftsman. When Daedalusand his demanded that the craftsman be son Icarus Ieft Crere wirhour per- surrendered to him. But rhe daughmissron, Minos sailed ro Sicily in ters of Cocalos were unwilling to hot pursuit. There, in the ciry of Iose the inventive man who made IGmikos, Minos mer his death. rhem beautiful toys, and with his Daedalus had arrived in Sicily as a help they plotred Minos' dearh. refugee He quicklywent ro ground When rhey rook rheir royal guesr to and was hidden by King Cocalosof the bathroom, Daedalus led a pipe Kamikos ln order ro find our through the roof and boiling water, where rhe craftsman was hiding, or oil, was poured down upon rhe

unsuspeccing Creran king. After his death Minos became a srem judge in the realm of.Hlors, rhe uriderworld, the land of the dead. THe MINoTAUR was rhe monsrrous son of a whire bull, which was senr by the sea god POSETDON, pASrpI.IAE. wife and rhe of King MINoS of Crete When the child was bom it had rhe head of a bull and the body of a man, and was given the name Minomur ("Minos'bull"). The creature was fed on seven boys and seven girls sent annually as uibute by rhe Athenians. To free his counr)rmen of this tenible burden rhe hero tHrsrus came ro Knossos, entered rhe maze-like Labynnth where rhe Minotaur lived and killed it. He was assistedby Krng Minos' daughter ARIADNE, who gave him a ball of rhread, insructing him ro unravel it on his wayinto the mazeso thar he could find his way our again She also gaveTheseusa sword. In the srrange srory of rhe Minotaur the Greelcs recalledin a garbled form the glones of rhe older THE MINOTAUR (below) wrestles inhabitants of Crete It is now with Theseusin the labyrtnth, which is known that rhe bull games of rhe rtpresentedbythe meander pattem at the ancient Cretans involved young sides Thebull-baiters above illwtrate the athletes leaping over bulls, even sport oJbull-leaping, part oJ the mystoious attempring somersauls holding the bull-cult oJancient Crete GHE BULL-BArrEK homs Although some of them By DUNGN, rERcoLouR, ) w c ]880 doubtless sustained seriousinjury, JoHN or may wen have been hlled, rhere is nothing to suggesrrhar a maneating creature was involved MoenRg see FArEs

Tne MUSTS, from rhe Roman name, Musae, were rhe daughters of zfuS and Mnemosyre, a TITAN, whose name means "memory" They used to dance and sing ar parties held by the gods and heroes. For the Greek, cheMuseswere the inspiration of poetry, music and dance. Later, other intellectual activities were added ro rherr care. Although accounts of rheir number differ, it is generally accepted that

62

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

the echo of her votce Narcissus was then condemnedby Nemesis, goddess of retnbution, to spend the rest of his days adminng his own reflecdon in a pool At last he died and was tumed into rhe flower that bears his name was an ancrent NnPruNr Iralian water god whom the Romans identified wrth PoSEIDON Compared to Poseidon,however, Neptune plays a minor role in Roman mythology FORCES OFNATURE NOTUS SCC was a TrrAN,the son ocrnNos of Ouranos and Gete,but never an enemy of zEUs On the contrary, he prorected Zeus' wrle HEnA and when the gods fought mother RHEA rhe Titans As ruler of the encircling sea, which rhe Greek believed surrounded the world, Oceanos married his sister Tethys and they produced three thousandnvers. of OCEANUS 1eJr). Jather thenver with gods, depictedhere a rypically is tempestuous unrulylocluand face, the homed browAbwehim,Selene, and moon, a shedsmildlight; on crescent side AeJt) either lash thesars,Phosphorus (ight) (tununox o^uu andHespmts
DroloNAfr oF CLASSTGL ANTIQUlrl6, l89l )

THE MusEs, guidingspiritsoJthe arts, inspired aII $t'ted artists, though thq resentedany smots competition dnd oJ depnvedthe Sircns theirJeathosJor daing to be better than than in song The nine Musesappear hereamid the lsPiing Gxr anistsoJ theRenaiss4nce Rsrv or lHr CO5TA, uw6, c 1506) LouNzo Mus6Bv there were nine Muses altogether CIio, Euterpe, Thalia, MelPomene, Terpsichore, Erato, PolYhYmnia,

Urania and Calliope.

NNTNOS

SCCFORCESOFNATURE

NARCSSUS, myhology,

according

to Greek son of

was the beautiful

the River Cephissus in Boeotia and the nymph many who immortals Linope Among the

loved him, including and monals, was Echo,

who slowly pined away, leavingjust NARCISSUS (nght), a beaut{ul youth, wasknenfo thenymph&ho who,Joiling to attrdct him, dted of gtef He, in hs tum, Jelltn lne wrth ttts wn reiection and pned by away until changed the goik inn the jower that bearshis nanc (Ecrono Nficsus sYJ lY^roousE,w#, W IW )

63

ClesstcAL

MyrHoLoGy

ODYSSEUS ahghts theisland Aeau on oJ wherehe iswamedby Hermes the oJ honors Circe's oJ enchantingwine, which tumsmenintoswineThis has Jate already beJallen comrade soO$tsseus one and must heep guard(clRcE rHE hu wrH coMMDr oF ByA[ssANDRortrsco, ) ODssEUs A[oe, 1580 Greek warriors under his own command The Trojans dragged the Wooden Horse inside their walls when they leamed from a Greek, deliberately left behind when the rest put to sea, thar rhe offering would bring their ciry a guaranteeof divine protection. Bur during the night the Greeks emerged from it, and surprised the Trojans. Hence, the ancient saying "Never trust the Greeks bearing grfa" Although Troy fell, the wildness of the looting and the slaughter deeply offended the gods. [n particular, the goddessAIHENAwas enraged ar rhe rape of cesseruoRn within the sanctuary of her own temple. Odysseustried to appease Athena, and he escapeddrowning in the geat storm which the angry goddesssent to shatter the vicrorious Greek fleet on its homeward was hidden. Again, arAulis, where year struggle againsr rhe Trojans, joumey. But he could not entirely the Greek fleet was stranded by Odysseus was importanr not so avoid blame, and PoSEIDoN saw ro contrary winds, it was Odysseus much as a fighter but as a counsel- it that he was the last Greek leader who tricked Agamemnon's wife lor and a schemer. His eloquence to reach home, after a voyage lastCLYTEMNESTM into sending her was renowned, and ir was probably rn8,some ten years. daughter IPHIGENIA from Mycenae, Odysseus who thought of rhe The long period of wanderirrg supposedly ro marry Achilles. Wooden Horse, which gave rhe that Odysseus suffered was a lnstead, however, lphigeniawas to Greeksvictory. favourite story of both the Greek be sacrificedroARllMIs, goddessof Odysseus deceived the Trojans and the Romans. who knew the Ihe wild, in order ro obtain a fair wirh this horse built of wood voyager by the name of Ulysses. wind to Troy. Throughout rhe ren- whose hollow beN was filled with The exact route that he followed remains a mystery, not leasr because his travels took him beyond known territory and inro strange and dangerous lands. From Troy Odysseus sailed first ro raises ODYSSEUS hisgreatban ond,with nifltt, stretches bowst'ing the effonbss which suitorshad the struggJed invainto the funil. He thrn slays suianwhohne hk and wrle denured wealth plagued,hk home(tuustunon dunnghis voyage bng
FRoM SToRE FRoM HoMER 1885 )

OOYSSEUS, king of tthaca, was one of the Greek leaderswho took part in the Trojan War. He was celebrared for both his parr in rhis conflict and his remarkable voyage home to his island kingdom in the lonian Sea. A brave and clever man, Odysseus was sometimes rhoughr ro have been rhe son ofslsypHus, the trickster of Greek myrhology But his real farher was probably Laertes, whom he succeeded as king of lthaca. His morher was named Anricleia and his fairhful wife Penelope was rhe sister of King TyndareosofSparta. From the starr of the campaign againsr Troy it is clear rhat King AGAMEMNaN,the Greek leader, placed geat store upon Odysseus' cunning. He was sentwirh Nesror, the aged king of $os, to discover where the great warrior ACHILLES

64

his old comrade-in. Odysseus then defeatedan attack by the relations of the suitors and rerurned Ithaca to peace Zeus himself threw down a thunderboit to signalan end to the fighring. Odysseusand his companbecoming ions managedto escape his dinner They then amved on the floating island of Aeolus.including his father Laertes.tonsultsthe shadeoJ ghostly who wams hrm that rJhe olJends Tiresras. Odysseus was almost on Circe's advice. when he retumed home he had been murdered by awaicingOdysseus'rerum from the war. the island of the the voyagers were tempted by laier considered hunger ro slay some o[ Helios' enchantress CIRCE.her [ather-in-law.she sailed back towards Greece and had put rhem off for a while by was the only man who dared to pretending that she could not listen to the allunng song of the marry until she had finished Sirens. to be situated off ltaly Odysseus catrle Despite his warning. reached Aeaea.he was home The ghost of Odysseus' welcomed as an honoured guest mother also spoke of the dilliculdes and offered a passage back to being faced by Penelopein Ithaca Ithaca So it was that he was secretat the time The ghost of ly ianded near his own palace. Storms drove him to the land of the Lotophagi ("rhe Iotus-eaters"). and Irhaca He rold him that if the cat. Penelope agreed to marry the suitor who could bend and string Odysseus' great bow. I 885 ) filled his men's earswith wax and had himself bound urth strong cords to the mast Odysseusthen in a helpful direction A tragedy overcame the passedrhrough the strairsberween squadron of ships that Odysseus Sicily and ltaly. But Penelope unraveiled it each night. Akhough pressed to marry his wrfe and lover in the bathroom Turning eastwards.srAs Al EsitNDR() Ari ()R/.it was of little use on the voyagebecausethe cunosity of Odysseus'men got the beuer of them and they opened the sack and the winds no ionger blew westem edge of the encrrcling sea. Odysseus one of her many noble suitors. who rhen threw off his disguise and revealedhrmself as Odysseus. Helioshe will retum homealoneon a Joreignship only at'termatryyears' oDYssFUs 81 coL:Nsn-s wandeing (TrRr. whose diet made visitors forget their homelands and wish to suy on forever Then he encounteredin Sicily. as Tiresias had foretold. This challenge was proposed on the advice of the goddessAthena fhe only suitor who succeededat the challenge was a beggar. 1580 ) Thrace.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ODYSSEUS. human shape his men who had but were drowned in a storm sent been tumed to swine Afterwards. but according to the Greeks. (Seealso VOYAGERS) retums home the ODYSSEUS wanderer and Penelope twenty years embraces aJter her had to at last She rejused achnowledge her until husband hehadremincled of the which curued of was out of serret theirbed. where six of his a led among the Laestrygones.which he entered disguised with arms. After this bloody incident the places he touched upon are less easy to identify. a sack full of wrnds The idea appears in many different mythologies. Agamemnon. who shade ol rhe blrnd seer TIRESIAS cared for him and eventually progave Odysseus a special waming posed mamage But not even abour his homeward joumey to immortaiiry would tempt him. the resistedher spells.bird-women of storm He weaving a shroud for Laertes.Later they desertedhim.Odysseus dispatchedthe suitors and hanged the rreacherous maids Reunited wrth his family at last. race crew were seizedby the six-headed of giant cannibals Only his own monster Scylla On the island of ship survrved the attack and Thrinacia. where Charybdis In an exhausted state he dnfted to the wondrous island ghosts came from the underworld realm of riAprs ro meet him The of the sea nymph Calypso. Assistedby hrs son Telemachus and two loyal retainers.where he lost many of his men in battle. also wamed him about his Athena's aid as a beggar Penelope had been patientiy homecoming. and severalcows when Odysseuswas made the enchantressrestore to asleep.wrth the aid of desperaremen killed and cooked the messengergod nrRvls. Cyclops P)LWHEMU whose father was Poseidon By putting out Polyphemus'single eye when the gigantic man was befuddled with wlne. it was later believed. swallowed by the great whirlpool rhe realm of ocEaruos. in a greaL tree olive grown thecourtyard (ll-LL rsTMTrL)N |RoM 5l r)Rll 5 l ROM Hrwl R. FREs(tr.he sailedto the .after seven years the gods forced on tle of the sun god HELIoS the Calypso to let Odysseus set off isle of Thrinacia were harmed by again Shipwreckedonce more in him he would never reach his the land of the Phaeacians. who was the ruler of the winds There Odysseusreceiveda rarepresent. undl one ofher maids betrayed the tnck Finally. by zEUsat Helios' request Alone. after ten years. the s. on his way throughthe undenvorld.

1995) OEDIPUS pudes ner the Sphinx s Adilb. hismother. on hLs daughter Antigone. Oedipus was taunted that he was not Polybus'son.ellcrsn Thebesto solve Wha. ewn theFuiae. ashe s in anc. whose charioreerdeliberareiy ran over Oedipus' foot The result was rhat Oedipus killed everyone there. Delphi. Laius had taken sexualadvanrage of Pelops' young son Chrysippus. travelto Colonus thq where is destined Oedipus it that willJinally and grove find peace deathin a sacred (lLrusrMrfoN BY Ntcx BilE. wA. Oedipus discoveredits people were greatly distressed at the news of Laius' dearh and rernfied of the spnirux. except one of his father's servantswho ran away Arrivrng in Thebes. c 200 BC) 66 . on Orestes ocquittedfo Armpags is the (ORL5E. The dMne command he brought back to the city was to dnve our the murderer of Laius. the infant was pierced in rhe feet and left ro die on a distanr mountainside. adopted rhe boy and chose the name of Oedipus because of his damaged feet When he grew up. He was told thar he was desrined ro kill his farherand marry his mother. so he went ro ask OEDIPUS. sheJlingshetulf ina the cham below and datroys hmelf . pursued theFuries. a curse was laid on rhe ruling house of Thebes Indeed.a fairly common practice for unwanred children in ancient Greece However. Then a dreadful plague settled on Thebes. years wanderingsince aJto ol hs exrle Ieans loyal JromThebes. At is Orestes partly punJied Apollo.fnd rest In time. Oedipus decided ro rry or die in the attempt.Alrhough rhe famous seer TIRESIA5 announced the Delphic Oracle about his parentage. an ugly monster causing havoc in the countryside. whbh she chalbngesall trq'. a shepherd lound the baby and took it ro King Polybus of Corinrh. and Creon was sent to ask the Oracle at Delphi for a remedy. now he married his morher For a dme Oedipus andJocasm lived happily rogerher. When the regent CREONannounced thar whoever nd the ciry o[ rhe Sphinx would be offered the throne and the hand of ORESTES peace the at 6ght) fnds some shnne Apollo Delphiwhcreheha oJ in by aJter murdering led. who. By ourwirdng rhe Sphinx and causingics dearh. bur dnnk one night caused Laius to rhrow caurion to rhewnds and a son was duly conceived At birth. Oedipus outwits the Sphiw. l@) Jocasu. Ocdipus is portraydhere. as a calm and pensivehrro (oorpusND rBE SPHIM ByJilN AU6USTE lN6E. as a guest at the court of prLops. Polynices and Ereocles. by and asleep thealtar. ANTIGONEand Ismene. Oedipus unwittingly fulfilled his own destiny: he had killed his father. En route he encountered l-aius. and in horror he fled north. and two daughrers. an oracle wamed Laius that any sonJocasra bore him would hll him For a long time the king and queen abandoned the marriagebed.ClessrcAL MyrHoLocy OEOIPUS ("swell-foot")was rhe unluciy son of King L{IUS and of QueenJocasta Thebes Because. having no children. M^$LE.eil art. having a famiiy of two sons.

"the angry ones" OruON SEC GIANT5 d^y she died of a snake bite Orpheus was so saddened and grief-stricken by this sudden loss that he no longer sang or played Then he decided to risk his own life joumey ro the land in a desperate of the dead in the forlom hope of bringing Eurydice home.CINSSICAL MyTHoLoGY that Oedipus was the guiity one.becausein graritude for the sancuary he was given. the new hngwould not believe rhis was true until he rraced rhose involved in his own exposure as a child Convinced ar lasc of his excepdonalcrime. there was a hut used by Oresres. and they now relenrlessly pursued Oresres. and it was to avenge rhis crime that Oresteshlled his mother The grear horror feh by the Greeks over Orestes' actions runs deep in his myth Correcr though he was ro seekvengeance his father's murfor der.tssrocr DtcrloNARy. Oedipus had foretold rhat his bones would save rhem from any future attack by the Thebans OnfSfgS was the son of King AGAMEMNON of Mycenae and CLYTEMNESTM is renowned for and having commitred matricide In ancient Greece there were many placesassociated with his purification after such a tenible crime For example. they tore the singer to pieces excepr for his head. Orpheus was able to charm rhe boarman. a broken Oedipus evenually found spiritual peacein a sacredgrove at Colonus near Athens His death there was considered to be a good omen by the Athenians. but the rulers of the underworld. with orcr musical.MUSE epic poerry His of chief myth concems the dearh of his wife. vru rnov Dn SvrrH'sCr. 1895) throughout Greece When finally he went to Delphi for help.which was said to have been buik ro avoid receiving the pollured murderer as a guest in a normal house When Agamemnon left ro lead the Greek expedition againstTroy. and the rhree-headed CERBERUS rhat he could enrer so the underworld Even rhe ghoss of the dead were greatly moved by his song. His mother and wife. By using his miraculous music. since Apollo had advisedhim to slay his father's murderers. aJtuhts death. Charon. as the Delphic Oracle had advised him ro. thq arehere. HADES and his wife prnsrPHONE. ispictured bangconsulted and hue byaThracian maid Hishead ona rests lyrethatis encrusted seaweedbecause. however. some ten yearslater. Aegisthus When Agamemnon returned. ) departed wife thar just before rhey reachedthe surfaceof the ground. he could not resist a quick glance in the half-light The result was rhar Eurydice tumed inro a ghost again and sank back to Hades' kingdom forever Orpheus' own fate was to be dismemberedby Thracian maenads. The FURIES were avenging deities who tracked down all rhosewith blood on rheir hands. Wild-eyed and distraught. swirlingrobes. wine and ecstasyApparently. the Erinyes.eporto in Troezen. his wife Clyremnesrrarook a lover. The verdict in his favour calmed the Furies. and dishev snalubound ( uusr w elled. the rwo lovers murdered him.lt is likely. Jocasta.became an oracle. rhar the Greeks called them by this euphemism because rhey were afraid to use their real name. rhe early burial chambers of Christians in haly (Seealso yOYAGERS) ORPHEUS pursued tornapartby was and the who maenads. who femed him across the Styx. the female worshippers of DIoNYsus.in front of the sancruary of. as whirlingin with ecstary. were wtld the Jrenzed devotees Dionysus were oJ Thq usually depicted. He was said ro be the son of Calliope. hair. Oedipus blinded himself and left Thebes. Orestes wandered as an outcast ORPHEUS. the killing of a mother by her son could not be expected to bring anyrhing orher than dire misfonune. Orestes was told to go to Arhens and srand tnal by the fueopagus. which was rhen casr inro a river and went floating downstreamcalling out "Eurydicel" Ancient fascinarion with this romantic story was probably connected wirh religious ceremonies and rituals rhat were aimed ar securing personal salvation after death The worshippers of both Orpheus and Dionysus believed in some form of afterlife Painringsof Orpheus have even been found in the catacombs.an ancienrcouncil presided over byATHENA. the nymph Eurydice One . in deathhis even decapitated head floated had downstream Jor calling (A Eurydice TnrecnN wtrH HFID MAID rHE otOnpHrus syGusreve MoREAU. had akeady commirred suicide In the company of his daughter Andgone. so they were renamed the Eumenides ("the soorhed goddesses"). granted Orpheus his only desireon one condition: under no circumstances was Orpheus to look back at Eurydiceuntil borh of them were complerely rerumed to the land of rhe living But so overcome was the singer by love for his OnPHEUS was a Thracian singer much reveredin ancient Greece.the god of vegetation. 1865 ceruyes.

he is changingseasons awesome in seenhereresplendant frry light. of rymbol oJhissamagn pruer ovu allJorces ^ND By natureand all other go& guprrER SEMELE Gusttvt MOREAU.he dnves the sunchaiot on its courseacross the heavens (IrLusrn crroN rnovSronrEs nnou Lrw 1885 ) ZEUS QeJt). rymbolized not only sunlight. In addition to the great gods of stry. the symbolized might of the sea-stormHe dwelt in a goldenpalacein the depthsof the ocean.fields and nvers. part fsh) t'nsharoundhis chaiot which thq used to raise or blowngtheir conches. Sp.Jor ongnally Helios (the sun) radiateddaylightand wasonly Iater identifed with Apollo . For the ancient Gree}<s. god oJprophecy and god of the arts He withdrew in winter to sunny Lycius and returnedin spingto dispel winter Here. storrns and tidal waves. preceded by Eos who sprinkled moming dew from her vase.I{e-g:ing pure. thunder andlightning By strilcinghis clouds. c 1197 ) .hegwemed the An butbenigngod. c^NvAs.but alsothebngnt.god oJ light.the turbulentgod oJthe seas.ingtime came when Persephone. land and sea. gwemed thewinds and the rain.he could calm the elemants slE k theJatherof thehours. beannghis aeg1s. POSEIDON (above). drawn by sea-horses.or soothe the waves. the sea nymph Amphitite.FORCES OF NATTJRE H E W O N D E R SA N D M Y S T E R I E S F N A T U R E A T C O explained in mythology through the will and actions of the gods.while a schoolof titons (part men.who symboltzed the seed-com. rose from the underworld to live in the light of day with her mother. Samothrace to speeding Jastthathe passedJrom so him bashshis Aegaein threegreat stndes Beside APOLL0 (above). nature spints o nymphs infused the forests. sun rhe rose and set because Phoebus Apollo drove the glittering sun-chariot on a fiery course across the stry. healinglight oJ divtnity Apollo's light underlies other rolesas his god oJhealing. while mighty Zeus could strike from afar with a bolt of lighmirg or brighten the sly with rainbows. chiefdary. perxt1896 ) wife.and rode the wavesin his sea-chaiot. could stir up sea-storrns. AND CHARIoTMtR^BEuo By calm the wdves (PosErDoN Hrs Cavaroru. Demerer. The tempestuousseagod.but caused oeglshe and brighten the equally. Sunrise and sunset. summer and winter unfold as part of a divine drama. to stormsand tempests rage. Poseidor. goddessof corn.

in a palacein Thrace He was father oJ vase.the smith god.ery craft He hadforges beneathvolcanoes but olsoon Olympus where20 bellowsworhed athis bidding Famedfor hts artistry. r. Boreas. werehelpJul and healing nurturing fruits.as a wingeddeity.s.is herehonoured alavish tn parade Poussin's atmo sphenc v:idly scene raives the pagan splendour of the early Greehpostoral TruuupH or Jestivak (THe FLORA By Nrcol cANVAs. the broughtwrthit fog and rain Here.rrrn's CLAssr( L DrcnoNARY. dwelt with his brotherwrnd. especially.blooming Romangoddess spnng. thewestwind. he craJtedworhs of wonder. a theaticalfestivalwhenthe people deched themselves in a flowers and enjoyed great feast lastingJorsk days Flora. l89l ) ZEPLIYRUS(below). Achilles'battle steeds who gallopedwtththe speed oJwind (lt-t-us rnzcrtolJ FRoM RSr'ltrn's C r-rssr I D ca DrcrroNARY.FLOM (nght).benrgn spirits Naiad.thq and were usually sweet. the Nereidsand Oceanids the of oceans.Eos. dweltbeside runntn g water Lihe thar cousins.flowers and mortak Yet theyouth Hylas who went to draw waterJroma poolwasluredby the nymphsinto thewaterand never seen agatn (HYtAs AND rHE WArER NyrilpHS ByJ W WArERHousE. onett. such as Achtlles'shield. Xanthus and Balius. 1891) . muchas hrsmother. of was honoured year at every the time oJthe Floralia. 1627 ) HEPIIAISTOS (below).peaceand war (Apor rNrur. oF Hr. southwind. VELAseuEz. OreadsoJthe hills and the the Dryads of Jorests trees. orwater nymphs.embossed with a dramatic sceneoJ liJeand death.pHArsros av Dtrc<.. immersedrn hisf.serene andbenign.Notuspours ruin from a of dawn.goddess the rmmortalhorses. 1630 ) THE NAIADS (above). is typrcallydepicted as a grave intenseman weanng a worhman's cap and . c 1890 ) NOTUS (below).joy and gneJ. spinhlesdov Jrom a vase before sun-chanot the early the in morrung (l[usrnerroru DR FRoM Sr. cANVA-s. c NvAs. c s PoussfN.o FoRGr.

arousingsuddenawe and panic He is usuallydepictedwith shagt head. wse Athena had promtsed hirn Jame.all-g1fs". hng of Sparta. As a result. the judgeoJa diinebeauty chose Aphroditeas thewinnq contest.the bad as well the smith god. and she broke the seal. C/. she because oflredhim the woril'sJairest woman Behind her. Paris was a very handsome young man and wooed HELENso well thar she left her husband trlrrunutus. but also untold woes. Greekgod of fire and friend of men. When she went to live zrmongmen. he was responsible for causing the Trojan War. releasing solrow. means "all gifts" .she Inepressibly couW resist not jar. the men who originally comprised the human race gained a monal. His conch deeply worried kus' opponents. whib quenly Hua had offeredhim pwr.he was himself goat-homed and goat-legged. He rendered a similar service for ZEUS during the battle against CRONOS and the TITANS. He liked to play on a pipe. According to the Greeks.'upset PROMETHEUS. diseaseand conflict. goat's horns and hocves.Pan was gspecially associated with Arcadia. dancing or playing a synnx (tLLUsrMrroN nnov TnNclrwooD TALES. the pastures of sheep and goats. especiallyif disturbed during his aftemoon nap. the name Pandora and was created by HEPHAISTOS. She was the first woman Appropriately. the bringer of all sorrows for manhnd. and fled with her lover to Troy. But soon Pandora's great curiosity overcamea natural fear of what might be inside. For Pan could also be a frightening god when he blew on his conch Our " PANDORA(below). the Greek god fu of the mountainside. PARIS (abwe). thegods worh to mischieJJor men cuious. He was playful and energedc. opainga sealed containingthe horors and of life: stnJe sichness. the mountainous smte in cenral Peloponnese.I. on ZEIIS'orders in as the good. because he made the Persiansflee in panic. she was given a grft from the gods which was a sealed jar that contained all the misfortunes of existence. which was known as a syrinx after a nymph of that name who tumed herself into a reed-bed to avoid his advances. 1820 ) PnNOORA was the Greek Eve.but very irritable.CTeSSIcAL MyrHoLoGY PAt'l (abarc) playshs pipesat dush '4sa spint oJthe darhforest. and (luusrncttou sv NrcxBEA!f.wAS. sorrov. the was ta on createdby firstwoman appear earth. the order t6. (TueJuoceueur or PARrs BYJE{N REGN ULT. female companion. PnruS was one of the fifry sons of of King PRTAM Troy.he oJtenstartled solitary trav ellers.t gneJ. 1945) word "panic" derives from this aspect of his diviniry His worship spread from Arcadia to Athens immediately after the Athenian and Plataeanvictory over the Persiansat Marathon in '180 BC. His unusual attracdveness 70 . c 1920 ) PAN was the son of the messenger god HERIvfEs.

feast. but the king refused to sacnfice the animal when it emergedfrom the waves. Helen's husband. queen Crete. thar a saw curse afflicted the descendanrsof Pelops The consequences this of curse on the house of AIREUS. Pegasus threw him on rhe instrucrion of zrus PEGASUS. the The winged steed was born from missing piece of his body was blood which spilled from the sev. the basis for thar is family's tragic story PELOPS. godthe dessof vegetation. a magnificentwingedhorse. rhe Trojan champion HECTOR. ) PEIOPS was rhe son of Kirg TANTALI/S. During the long siege of Troy Pariscut a poor figure as a warrior.CInSSICAL MYTHoLoGY was believed to have been a gift from APHRODITE. boiled and bull Later. Tantalus goldenbidlegvn tohimby Athena was honoured by the gods as no (lrrusrncrro^J FRoM TANGLEwooD TALEs.Bellerophon urgeshim on The Possibly because of this divine hero had successJully tamed Pegasus with a favour shown to his son. c 1920 ) other morral He was allowed to ear nectar and ambrosia. he either rhrew Myrtilus into the sea.cno. pnor to the fall of Troy PeStPHeE. the in winnrngchanot.and strange Jor from hu wtththecreature bore dreadJul union she a the bull-man. rhe king's chanoteer.1995 Srrw. to remove the linchpins from his master'schariot. outstipprnghts Jast ival Oenomaus. the trach. in Greek mythology.the immortal shown to himself Pasiphae was to food servedto the deities on their be stncken with a passionate desire mountain home But Tantalus fell for the bull. Helen. In order to gratify her from divine favour and suffered lust. Tanulus cut up.anor avGLrrux . In retum for choosing her as Aphrodire the fairestof goddesses. was supposed to have settled the outcome of the whole war. rhe sun god. ruler of a kingdom rhe in fuia Minor Pelops'nameis still recalledin the Peloponnese("rhe isle of Pelops"). As a resuh.or he spurned him As a consequence. His singlecombar with Menelaus. the father of Myrtilus. goddess of the love. the greatcrafsman DAEDALUS etemal torrnent as a result made a cow. hng of Crete The seagod rosrlDoN sent a white bull as a sign of Minos' right to rule the island. races along Greeh. his heel Parishimself was hlled by an arrow. and wife of MINos.partook of the PECnSUS. was the daughter of Hruos.inadvertentlyeatinga piece of was the flytrg horse belonging to Pelops'shoulder Later.which is rhe large peninsulaof southem Greece .repiacedby ivory ered head of the GORGON Medusa. Instead it revealedParis as a coward. Minotaur. offered Paris the most beautiful woman in the world. dips and divesthrough theJlamesof the By favour of Poseidon the restoredPelopsbecamefamousas a champion charioteer. she gave birth to rhe served his own son Pelops to the ("Minos' Bull").his eidest brother.Pelops acceptedthe challenge But he had to agree that Oenomaus could shoot an arrow at him if he caught up with his chariot Thirteen contestantshad aireadyperished It was said that Pelopsbribed a certain Mptilus. king of Elis. in Greek mythology. offered his daughter Hippodameia in marriageand also his lands to anyone who could defeathim in a chariotrace. and Poseidonpronounced a curse in anger at the lack of respecr PASIPHAE. by Jashioned thegodsafterhe had beenpartly eatenby Demeter (Iuu-srR. treated him very badiy [t was an irony of fare thar a poisoned arrow shot from Paris' bow should have found the one vulnerable spot on the mighty Greek champion ACHILLES. whose chanotswewes and white shoulder crashesPelops' was madeof ivory. drawn oJ was irresistiblya mystmous bullwhich to white emrged the She a from waves dorcloped passion thebull.the Chimaera On his bach. which MINOTAUR gods in order to test their omwas kept in rhe Labynnth niscience Only DEMETER. was who hept hidden anunderground in maze (lrrusrRertorusv NrcxBEArr 1995) The seagod eosuDoN so loved Pelopsthat he sezed rhe youth and carried hlm off ro Mounr Olympus ftre-breathingmonster. Pelops'eldestson and the fatherof AGAMEMNON. who was alreadypregnanr by rhe sea god PoSEIDoN(a deiry always associated with bulls and horses) Bellerophon was given a magic bridle byATHENA help him tame ro PegasusWhen the hero tried ro fly to Mount Olympus.which was an accomplishmenr thar the ancient Greek regardedas one of the greatest So when Oenomaus.when the the Connthian hero BELLEROPHONgods retumed the youth to life. but when he won Pelops refused to acknowledge this assistance ln different versions of the story. who only escaped with his life through the intervention of Aphrodite. who was the messenger god HERMES. inro which Pasiphae Accordrng [o one version of the fitted and so could mate with the myth.

1 8 8 5 ) (luusrn. p H o N l . hept many she her Duinghislong to at suitors baybyrefusrng matryunttlshe whtch secretly she a shroud hadcompleted each unravelled night.untilthesuitors discovered her ploy r . n . Penelopekepr them at bay for a long time by prerendingto weave a shroud for her father-rnlaw Laertes Each night she would secretly unravel the day's work Eventually. two burning torches in her hands As a result the land was no longer ferrile Plans wrlted. Zeus promised his beautiful daughter to Hadeswithour consuldngher mother When Hades rose from rhe underworld and took his bride by force.reJlected the Medusarecalls thewater Bume-Jones' oJ beau4t the tranquil an and death-lthe cawedon amuletsand GreehMedusas charms.188/) of PERSEPHONE (Jar ngh). .rhe retum of Odysseus savedher from an enforcedsecond marriage.rrto^/Fno. n o vH o u t .she was celebrated her patience in waiting almost twenty yearsfor his retum from Troy Beset by suitors. caNves.rrtt.v tt. the ruler of for Ithaca.ClnssrcAL MvrHoLoGY PENEIOPE was the daughrerof Icarius.whichremrndus that shewasonce BtiRNEBy beauttful (THrBartrut HI:AD EDMUND Jorurs.D E T A I L . the the goddess corn Shesymbolizes oJ that is buned.but she remained cold towards her saviour until she was absolutelycertain of his identity Peneloperefused to be convinced that the new arrival really was Odysseusuntil he describedtheir bed. of pattentwtJe PENELOPE her s clev shared husband' emess Ody sseus.spentthe winter rn the underworld. eanh ter of zp.s s peer PERSEUS and Andromeda (above) rn glngerlyat theJaceoJMedusa. absence. M A R B L E . and a nymph Peribaea As the faithful wife of ooYssrus. goddess death. carved in part from a tree trunk still rooted in the ground PenSePHONE was the daughthe and DEMETER. nsesandJalls seed-corn agarnin a q. king of Sparta.Lts goddess.cleof constantrenewal a mysteies themecentralto the Eleusian ( P t ' R S t . Demeter was beside herself wrth grief The goddesswandered the earth searchingfor her daugh[er. animals (nght). nsing eachspnng to live with her mother.and becamequeen of the underworld as the abductedwrfe of HADESAccording to the Greeks.c +90 BC) 72 .

Her association with the dead may have a similar origrn.deathsAthena placed both Perseus son. here hersister seen with Aiadneandhusband Theseus. retumed his magrcalequipmenr ro Knossos Like her mother Pasiphae. Polydectes. Taygete. king of Argos Danaehad been shur up in a bronze tower in order to thwart a prophecy that if she had a son he would kill Acrisius. three old hags who shared a single eye Perseusseized the eye and obliged 73 . Perseusflew awayunseen by POSEIDON destroy Hippolytus.As.The protection of. Phaedra shoes and flew to the Gorgon's Because the accident the hero hanged herself and left a message of cavein the far west. She may well have been a pre-Greek goddess.Zeus.ONS. In rhe end. in order to escape from rhe passionateintentions of Orion. the charioteer THe PI-HADES were the seven daughrersof the Tiun ATl. nevertheless. the bull-headed nature of the Gorgons. Bur Zeus visited her as a golden shower and Perseus was bom A tenifred Acrisius placed mother and son in a wooden chest and cast it on the sea. disappearance and retum parallels the fertiliry myths of West Asia. daughrer of ocnnlsos He drove his father's four-horse chariot so fast that he lost control and threatened the world with a terrible heat ZEIJS stopped him with a thunderbolt. fetch the head of the to GORGON Medusa.zrus and oaruer. Theseusexiled his approached by watching her reflec.or doves.avery dangerous task. to her rwo sisters. Celeno. but for her srepson. Medusa'shead and stowedit in his srellations (Seealso HERoEs) Theseuscursed his son and asked bag. Zeus was obliged to intervene and ruled that Persephone should spend rime each year with both her husband and her mother. who were originally a non-Greek speaking people. where Perseusgrew up among fishermen On reaching manhood Perseus was sent by the local ruier. cet'tves. he married her. Perseus put on the man on the head by her passion for him. filled with were used to good purpose by of Crete According to the Greeks.iot accident In another version. Hippolyta. the giant hunter Their in appearance the nighr s\y in May coincides with rhe beginning of summer. which sent Phaerhon crashing to the eanh The great god may have also flooded the earth in an attempt to reduce rhe temperature Ir was believed rhat Phaethon's mad exploit could be rraced in the shape of the Milky Way.however.It was not for an anihim to stone. the was unfortunate daughter KingMinos of and Pasiphae CreteShe in love of Queen Jell Uthherstepson Hippolytus which oatually prarcd tobeher downJall Cfnrsrus wtrH ARTADNE AND PHAEDM By BENEDETTO Gr. they HERMES.arrival The prophecy was lulfilled. he than Argos On hearing of their ried to rape her. and were named Maia.ClnssrcAL MvrHoLocY bore no offspringand death sulked mankind. their three retumed safely to Danae Having creature kept in the Labynnth at dreadful sisters. Hippolytus. and the constellation of Orion then appears to be in perpetualpursuir of them First he visited the Grarae. who was later killed in a chartion in his shield Having cut off and Andromeda in the sky as con. Most important of all. sorrow. Careful not to chose to be king of Tiryns rather to Theseussaying that his son had look at Medusa directly. when Perseus was earliermarriageto the queen of the winged shoes and a bag for invited to compete in the gamesar AMAZ. PHAEORA was the daughter of which he did by sending a seaThe chilling powers of rhe head Kirg MINOSand Queen PASIPHAE monster Phaedra. referred to the dead as "Demeter'speople" PfnSnUS was the son of. He also received l-arissaon hearing of his grandson's mal this time. then killed herself Perseuson his way home Having the Arhenian hero THEsEUS made was the son of rhe PUegfUON sun god HELIoS and Clymene. have abandonedher sisterARIADNE but severalpeople had to be tumed not long after she helped him kill the Graiae to tell him about the to stone before he and his bride the MINOTAUR. the messenger god. informed him how a direcr glance Perseusvisited Argos only to find Phaedrawas soon overcomeby an from Medusa's eyes would turn that Acrisius had already fled to illicit desire.a deity worshipped by earlier setrlers of the counuywho was later incorporated into Greek religion. who gave birth to the Minotaur. When she Medusa's head Ready for the Lanssaand his discus hit rhe old saw how Hippolytus was homfied exploit at last. Asterope and Alcyone They may have become stars. 1702 ) saved the beauriful erupRoMEDA her his second wife He seems to from a seamonster. The Athenians. the son of Theseus' ly nymphs: a cap of invisibility. was enough to bring them safelyto the shoresof the island of Seriphos. Luckily for the hero the goddess ATHENAhated Medusa and insrructed him how ro proceed PHAEDRA. while he was reflectedin the constelladonof Auriga.vluenr rHE youNGER. Merope. Persephonecould never return entirely to the living world because she had eaten in Hades' realm: avery old idea that snicdy divided the food of the dead from that of the living The story of Persephone's abduction. Elecra. three useful gifts from some friend. daughrer of Acrisius.

King MINoS. his three sons divided the world between them: rode POSEIDON. though Poseidon frequently assertedhis independence Once he even chained up Zeus' Zeus. rnrsc<1. love with the nymph Galatea. a the Greeks. like SroRrES the sudden violence of an Aegean storrn His wife was Amphitrite. which majesticallyjuts ered head of Medusa sprang the surely a winged horse PEGASUS. home.although the maritime seanymph whose name recallsthat state of Athens did not always of the seamonster Triton This fear. a oneeyed giant. of rymbol hispower.NvvpH G. 1880) 74 .but she the scorned him. Earthquakeswere attributed to his anger. so they went away. a weapon capable city theplains eruo Ror'ar.pruNe cANvAs. FTADES underworld and Poseidon the sea. considering him drunk or mad ln the morning Polyphemusopened the entrance to the cave to let out his flock and feit the back of each animal as it passed to ensure no men escaped But Odysseus and his men tied themselvesto the undersides of the sheep and managed to leave undetected For this crime againsthis son. Athena as the deity of their ciry. while the land was ruled by all three It was agreedthat Zeus was the senior deiry.CIASSICAL MYTHOLOGY the ZEUS took the slqy.lovinginstead handsome Acrs In a jealousrage. Poseidonpromised revengeon Odysseus was the son of POSgtoON CRoNos and Rnra He was the Greek god of the sea. much to the annoyance the goddessArhena From the sev. Wtthhisthree-pr onged horses the shattered rochs. with the aid of HERA. and Hades was often afraid that the roof of the underworld would cavein becauseof the shaking Poseidongave the earth Poseidon was pictured riding rhe deep in a chanot pulled by golden seahorsesIn his handswas sa\tours a PRIAM. stood on the acropolis in Athens He even mated with the GoRGoN and Poseidon'sown sanctuarywas of conspicuously sited on Cape Medusa.enjoy the best reladonswith him Because the Athenians chose ful pre-Greek creature was tumed by the Greeks into the merman. circle of the (IrtusrwroN FRoM on below a mighry trident. ) oF GREECF 1930 of stirring the waters to fury.as she who the chieJtains Greehhost. with on moment rarepeace Helen the of descibes hings the and citywalk. oJtheoceans. thehingoJTroy.qrl-n av 1595. and the equivalent of the Roman NEPTUNE He was panicularly associatedwith horses and bulls After the overthrow of Cronos. but in responsero the other Cyclopes' questionshe cried our that he was being attacked by Nobody.) ANNTBALE CARMCCT. came to the island and asked for hospitality. wife. and his daughter ATHENA Possibly becausehis element was was the tempestuoussea.qt. c POI-YPHEMUS was rhe son of POSEIDONand the sea nymph Thoosa He was a Cyclops. c AND Hls HORSES By E K BIRCE. favourite of Poseidon Worship of the seagod was wrdespreadamong out into the AegeanSea Another naval power that offended Poseidon was Crete When its ruler. the sea god had many standing The temple of Athena other offspring by other partners. and was thoughr ro have lived on the island of Sicily during his longjoumey ODYSSEUS.Sunium.asked was in POLYPHEMUS. One of Poseidon's children by Poseidon flooded the countryside undl Zeusbrought about an underAmphitrite bore this name However. but called himseif Nobody Polyphemus indeed proved to be a dangerous hosr and treated rhe Greeksas part of his flock. a one-qedg1ant. shutting them up in his cave and earing them one by one for his evening meal Odysseus dared not kill the Cyclops during the night becausehis men lacked the strength ro move the boulder blocking rhe entrance to the cave So Odysseus thought of a cunning plan to enable their escape He got Polyphemus drunk on wine and then put out his single eye with a smke The rnjured grant roared wrrh pain.he and the calledJorth storms shooh earth (Nr.theglant crushed Aciswith a roch.Poseidon thought of as an unruly god. the god goldm seain waves a chaiotdrawnby tident.but Galateatumedher into a Srcilian iver beannghrs beloved ntme (PotypHr:MUS AND tHt.

.srl/ Lr L n. s r n r l r er t h a t h e d r o p p e r l a n u n o l \ ( ) n h r s / ( ) ( ) t . r -h r m \ \ ' h e n a t I i was the "sou1" . whom both Zeus and posrtDoN were pursuing.t^'-. r fT r o ) ' .. rr ryr rh riLr n h r r l l l r / L r l t cmcrged from thc \\ a\ es Rclrgrous ( llslom rpallired MtnOSt() s.".qssrc. IllNOlALrR. l. S I P H Ab e c a m e t h e b u l l ' s l o r . had hrdden fire away. . r r I r r .t \ (Se alsoFORCE. .CL. rd . t th( .R!) e OF PruenA was rhe son of Laomedon (.br .r t n m ) 'thol og) ' l a s r s h e d i c l .c he could lincl Brrt rvhcn Eros sar.softll tn love wrth hu hinr. who chained the rebellious Titan to a rock and senr an eagle to ear his liver As rhis organ was immortal. . l t t t . c t l o u -rs t t r l s c t t f h d s . .s ob e a t t t r l u l t l r r t r A p / t i r r r l i t t .r hr oc l r tc I r l r ' c r sr ' t ' u l J h t ' r r n i t r ' d l ( ) r e t e r n i t ) ' 75 . rhor-rgh Eros ftrrbadc Ps.{L MrrHOroGY P S Y C H E r \ .. but he chose not tcldo so. . s t t .. n l i k cP s v c h c l r r l l r n l o v c r i i t h t h e r r g l r t ' s lt r .A. t /d irr. and . l r i ' t r : .. rhe krng . . 1 . . Pnam rvas alu. t of the Rrver Scamander 81.rncrble bur immorral fighter Zeus' anger wrth mankrnd was on occasron explained by poor sacnfices Bur Prometheus himself was not a strarghtforward helper errher He gave [ire. ' .'ther \\'omen Although hc disapproved of the confllct urth the Greeks and lts callse. it grew at nrght as l r f e b u t o t h e r g r f t s* e r c p c r h a p s . pltrs ali the mr sene s that l ol l or vr hc di s m ption of'a simple wa1'of hfc s en t h e r s o n L I I ( ) \ t o r . the leader of the new and stronger gods..sprrt stche rrrrh rt |crssr0rr()r rllr r{th P / r i r r l r h L r t l t e u a s s o e r r t r ? n c c r lr r h t ' r r h . an essenria] of cnrhzed nor this drew Prometheus into confhct wrrh Zeus. the bull-headed man .S\A f L. . the newly 'urctonous gods protected themselves because her son turned out to be the warrior ACHILLES.r-^ r c .' .r' hcr hc fcll rn ltrrt' . ./ l l ( l sl:1ln n\' *\f nPnl2fl I f-|[fqt lHl\l.n j t t J . . u . l r.( d t t 5 L .. e r E f h c i r q r. would give birth to a son PSYCHE in Greekrehgrous bche e v e r t o l o o k r .^ .'. the trme of the Tro. . \ \ ' a s a l r c a d y a n t r l d m a n . J f L^.r rhr. r l l u \ ' . PROUETHEUS was a son of rhe IITAN Iapetus and one o[ the older Greek gods who sided wlth zEU-sin his fight against hrs father cRONoS His fame was due to his affection for mankind. .rirt r. lathcr ol'fift1 sons. an inr..\ lgrccd that the cncl to thrs s ac r i l egc ..r p t . thc rcst b. >t)mc hy his qllcen Hecuba. a J<r 5 to . but Prometheus stole it and brought lt to earth wrh hrm But mrghtrer rhan his farher 81'mai<rng sure that Thetis married a morral ruler.fo r nsr eadof a puR c tptr u put an hor. lr r tr L. tu .vever. .\. .l 1L .c . r' f r r ) u h P l l J r .vche fast as the bird could consume rr by day Prometheus was oniy released when he gave Zeus the informarron that the sea nymph rHEris. .rflclforgor his mother's commancl Thcl' became lovers.tenficL' the anrmal. iess hclpful O ut of the fl am r ng forgecameweaponsof rvarr.l . L1 .B t.lan War Pnam. 1r h c * . h c f l c c l i n f c a r o I n ' h a t r she was r ep r es ented a pnnc c s s A p h r o d i t c r i o u r L d c l o t o h r m n o u ' as so beautrful that peopleadorccl hcr t h e s e c r et \ \ ' l i s ( ) u t l n t h e e n d .2f ]n o en n i { ) n n r r r d r .'rth the result that his o\\'n \\'rfe P A .ays krnd to H E It \ throughout the l()ng5icge Shc had eloped to Troy wrth his son PARIS Pnam was killed in the courtyard of hrs palace whe n the Greeks sacked Tro1. I t u l . \\. r . to whom he gave fire Zeus...

and building the rnassive city walls of Tiryns . The gods themselves are g i g a n r i c . but Iarger than life. neither good nor bad. The Titans overthrew their father Ouranos. such as TaloS. who was in his turn dethroned by his son Zeus. and the Giants.the gigantic bro nze man who defended the island of Crete. preying on unwary travellers. rebellious shepherds who igtored divine laws and preyed on monals.CIeSSICAL MYTHOLOGY GIANTS IANTS SYMBOLIZE IMMENSE PR1MAL forces. who were beings with mighry torsos and snake-like legs.ntle" guardians. on ATIAS (nght). Zeus with the o shoulders. c AD 200 ) . e s p e c ia I I y t h e o l d e r g o d s . such as the Titans. Such a cosmic struggle between older primal gods and a younger generation is a common feature in world mythology. M^RBLE.Atlcs. the"bearer"or "endurer" bore theheavens his . puntshment havingfought agatnst us for that arose dwrne Titans Themythprobably Jrom thermpressron gr reJ story. reflecting their primal nalure. Equally. becausehe In mountainsbear theheavens another was tumed to a stonymountatn. the heavens depicted a celestral constellattons (THE FARNESE ATLAS. such as Geryon. were predators. the globe showing are as Here. making armour and omaments in the forge of Hephaistos. Later on they were also portrayed as moody.namedafter htm Perseus shelter. replacing him with Cronos. the Cyclopes were orginally creative beings. others. While Greek grants could be "g.

felt for Oion was suchthat it causeddivine lealouryuntil Artemtswaspersuaded shoothim with an to arrov/ on behalfoJthe gods He wasthen raisedto the starstoJorm a constellation(IttusrwrrctN NrcK 0y BEALE. such as Hades' rnvrstble helmer Zeus'thunderbolt and Poseidon's tndent Yet thq were alsoportrayed aslawless. ) tg95 CACUS (above). c 1670 ) . man-eattng shepherds One such. Jabulous one-qed glants. looms here over Odysseus andhts comrades who have rashlystrayed tnto his den QtrusrurtoN FRIM SroRrrsrnov Hovr-n.but accordingtoone myth. at'ttng special arrnour.rr r C. prryedon human berngs who strayedLtyhtscavenear Rome Cucusstole Geryon's cattle red whrlehe slept.ClassrcAr- MyrHoLoGy THE CYCLOPES raceof AeJt).but his Ees werehealedby the radianceof the sungod Hehos There are many diffenngstones concerninghis death.rcus av GLluaerrtstt leNcErrt.retnevrngthe cattle that he had onglnally stolen t'rom Geryon (Hr. who couldwalh through the oceanswithhis feet on the seabed and hrsheadabwe the waves Lrhehtsglant brother.naclt-s SLcys r r-1. Oion wasblindedin a quarrel.1885 ) ORION (abwe lef).w4s a glganticand handsome hunter. . oJ Hepharstos.the goddess the oJ dawn. a goat-hhe son and g1ant.thelwe that Eos. who wasoneof Posadon'sunruly sons. were initrally regarded as creative who craJtsmen helpedHephaistos his in volcantc cr t'orge. the one-eyed Polyphemus. GL.thecattlebeganto bellowand Heracles cameand slayedCacus. Polyphemus.and hid them in his Jrom Heracles cave Howater.

One day Numiror met Remusand guessed who he was and so the lost grandchildren were reunited with him.. Pygmalion fell hopelesslyin love with rhe statue.4SILVIAand MARS.tut-uS rhe rwrn sons of nnr.andborehim twin sons. but the god oJ the nver. Amulius On the nght. thereby ensuring rhat rherewould be no other claimant to the throne But the war god Mars raped her in his sacredgrove. eventually became widely known.Rome A quanel. however. he also forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgrn. sinceno real one measured up to his expectations Nor surpnsingly. Tibernus. an even more unsatisfactory fate than he had prevrously suffered Becauseof his obviously genuine disappointment. he commissioned an ivory statueof his ideal woman. 188] ) were Rruus AND ROtr. Romulusand Remus For violating the laws oJher holy order.a vestalvirgn. The nvins Qef) march tnumphantly from Alba Longa On theleft.and rhe two founders of Rome Rhea Silvia had been the only child of King Numitor of Alba Longa When Numitor's brother AMULIUSdeposed him. but instead they cast them on the Tiber Their cradle was carried swrftly away and evenrually came to rest on a mudbank To look after his children Mars sent his sacred animal.but the andwasJoundby a shecradlecameashore wolf.CInSSICAL MYTHOLOGY was a king of PYCN4ALION Cyprus According to rhe Greeks. and Rhea Silvia gave binh to Romulus and Remus Amulius ordered his servans to hll the new-bom nvins. Remus a the carnes wildhead of Camers. shewasthrown into the Ttber. Insread. waslovedbyMars. wrrnRnre SIrwe sayedand mamed her (t'lens BYFMNcEsco DEL CossA FREsco.although the ability of the brothers to lead others.they went off and founded a ciry of their own . Romulus bearsaloft theheod oJ their treachrous uncle. the love goddess APHRODITT brought the statue to life and made it love him Some vaditions tell how the couple had a daughter named Paphos.who gave her name to the town AND SCC MON5TER5 PYTHON BEASTS FABULOUS were REMUS nNn ROMULUS (obove) setadift on the Tiber by Amulius. took rhe foundlings home So they were raised as shepherds. piest thehingto drwn the wins who counselled (li-rusrnerrorus FROM [AYs oF ANCIENT ROME. RHEA SILYIA (below). but they were not content to live quietly in Alba Longa. and to fight. the wolf Later Romulus and Remus were discoveredin the wolf s lair by who a shepherd named Faustulus.1476) 78 .

and was secredyraised. However. MINOS. in the far wesr was the daughter of Ouranos and cen.was celebratedin Rome over sevendays and was held at the end of December Tnf S. the goddess of vegetation DEMETER. Rhea substiuted rhe babyZeus with a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes.1553-55) c. where she may have been drowned eruued and Romulus hlled Remus. bore six children. which Romulus overcame by arranging for the caprure of Sabinewomen at anearby fesdval. an ally of the Trqans. sower". Rnnn Rouurus see REMU5 SnnPfOONwas sonof. (Seealso FoUNDERS) RPtnaI. and played a crucial role in his festivals. the she-wolf became the symbol of Roman nationhood. the new king forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin.qs 79 . fu the wife of CRONOS. around 507 gc. and the brother of tvrlos and seRpEDoN. seagod rosaDoN and rhe zEus. waslater confusedwithZats' son of the samename lu:usrtAnoN FRoM sroRrEs FRoM HoMER. Her twin sons were rhen cast into the swollen Tiber. Sarpedon quanelled with ond of his brothers. When he was deposed by his younger brother AMIJLIUS. swallowed all of them. hisdaughter with Juno. having leamed chat one of his children would depose him. Cronos. Though he showed remorse at rhe funeral. . rhe she heanh goddessHesria. bur suffered from a shortage of women. king of Crete. the skygod.lANTHyS was rhe son of ruRopa and zEUs. Amulius could not guaranteeRhea Silvra'sprotection from the attentions of the gods and she was raped in by MARS his sacred grove.qruv. the Satumalia. They were mainly associated wirh DIoNYsus. some of his subjecs believed. Roman that who belieJ hewas Joreigner a jed to Latium to escape Zeus guNo nlro Serunn ByPAoLoyERoNEsE.qfUnN was an ancient Italian com god. the war god Quirinus. the king of Alba Longa. earth the goddessHEM. heisweaingexotic relectingthe robes. He was rhen mken to the island of Crete.(Seealso MONSTERS ANDFABULOUS BEASTS) "the SATURN. zrus the and ruRoPA.wine and ecstasy.ClessrcAL MyrHoLoGY SARPEDON is lifted by Thamtos (Death) andllypnos (Slap) from thebattlfield of Troy This Lyatn rulq. It was a haven for runaway slavesand other fugitives. as they were bom. Others say rhat he was one of the rhreeJudges of the Dead and lived in the paradise of Elpium. the underworld god FtADEs. According ro one radition he marriedarcuENE after the dearh of her husband Amphitryon. possiblywith a blow from a spade. The Romulus and Remus mFh was as popular as rhar of erruras. except for Zeus. Romulus ruled Rome wirh a srong hand and rhe ciry flourished.1885) Rnnn SLVIA*as rhemotherof ROMULUS REMUSAND She was the only child of Numitor.over the throne of Crete and fled to Asia Minor. He was adopred by Asterius. . rhe Greek god of vegerarion. where he founded the Greek ciry of Miletus It is said that Zeus allowed him to live to a great age S. also was regarded asanearly oJIntiumdunnga lost hing Age Golden Here. where the worship of Rhea was norable. After a reign of forty years he disappearedto become. though he had more in cornmon with the goddessDEMETER was believed He ro have ruled the eanh during a losr Golden Age.qfYnS were the wild spirirs of Greek and Roman woodlands Their bestial nature was shown in their horse-like or goatlike appearance. the Roman equivalent of the Greekgod cnoruos. His fesrival. From the beginning of republican times.

' StnYl.I. rn southem italy' ()t-r. rn Roman myrhology.S O r n . prophecl-. u hrch \\'hcn the offer rv:is refused. br-tt rhe offer was strll refr-rsed.\h rt nrarhlt' hlor h np tt hrll oniy to .1l / l')')i rhc prophcrcss nho Cumac.rt. explarns hou.^ .-.l bun-rcd three books and offered rhe other srx at the samc pnce. 'r nt \tr A Ill.L^-. s r r r .s SIBl'I- tht' gftttl. 1r r h r S .Ar My I H or-oc.S i h . r t u l s ( ) r 1 1 o / r e l i g r o u s e Sruelg s e e L c ) \ ' r r R .he Romans closed Pr rLL rl l Ila)Lt L were offered fbr saic ro Rome durrng the rule of thr Erruscan krngs the deal before all the rrreplaceable oracles were totalll' destroved 80 . S h t ' . ' . \| L r n t . r ' \ i r r \ r ' ' r .s of .\' S scnu see \.SI .S r l i r r h r \ 1 r / n t / t r a f u r ts t r r / r i t ( ' n t r ( i . s 1 ) l lfili( ) n t t n r i g r r r i L r t t . Srby.S f S l ? H { I .10\-\ Ar\r) rER. . shc became rmmortal b r . so rhree more \\'ere burnt and thcn she famous were a collection of oracles thar detailed Rome's destiny These offered the last three at rhe ongrnal ^. was d r .qpttl i rt. .st'o /orctold rhr (ie. r r r R LL r .C lessr (.r ts t i l l s r e w o l d c) She refused tfrc rhe gocl ol favour.stur\ FAI]t/l ()Lr5BEA-S-5 l r r f R r r r i r t t t sp r e d r r t t ' r 1 n t h t .(rrrir nttfr/ frrrn'r'r tir f ri. 'le n c a r t ... 7 E L ' . so he condemned her rcr an endless old agc -Shevu'asalready ancient when AENFASconsulted her about hrs visit to the underworld Another story concems rhe Srbyllinc Books.l l r n eB o o h s i r y h r rh h t t u m e a t . S b t ' r r r { l h /r .set it rrri/ down agtnn /l I i \ lli \ ll.

real traitors were always thrown from the Tarpeian Rock wss TARPEIA. whateverher motive was.wine and ecstasy. the legend. Zeus therefore sent Thanatos. he was made king of Thebes and mamed 8l . he angered zEUs by revealing that the god had abducred the daughter of a river god. For the rest of etemiry he three in the evening.perched a on rochat a passto the cil oJThebes and challenged travellerswith a nddle. The Grear Sphinx at Grza was the protector of the pyramids and scourge of the sun god Ra TAnPgfn was a Roman heroine. the Sphinx hurled herself over a cliff and died As a reward for destroying rhe monster. according ro Greek mythologlr. wermcotoun.ouing all whoJailedthe test In Moreau's chtllingscene. 1888 ) was much glven to SILENUS ajwial satyr. the body OEDIPUS gave the correct answer.CInSSICAL MyTHOLOGY THE SPHINX. the daughter of Spurius Tarpeius. A monsterwrth the face and breasts of a woman. either by rrrHoru or by Onhus. fulfilled his tragic desriny because the queen was his mother The Greek Sphinx should not be confused with the Egyptian Sphinx. all da. When the gods again claimed him. Romanherorne. had been abduction provoked by ROMULUS' of Sabinewomen to provrde wives for Rome's men One radirion says thar Tarpeialet the Sabinesinto her father's fortress afrer making them promise to give her what they wore on rheir lefr arms.god of death. was the daughter of Echidna. and is weakhad to roll a block of stone to the est when ir walks on four?" The top of a hill only to seeit roll back correct answer was Man.crushed o oJ as todeath theshields theSabines by the oJ through gates the thrystormed to According one Capitohne Jortress to insrde.ln appearanceSilenus was a fat. Zeus lost give the correct answerwere eaten patience and condemned Sisyphus The riddle was: "What rhingwalks to Tanarus ro pay for his lifelong on four legs in the morning. the commander of the Capiroline fortress at Rome She may have played a role in savrngthe city A war berween Romans and Sabines. and suffered for his rickery by endless labour in Tarurus. to take Sisyphus to the underworld Somehow the ingenious hng temporarily made Thanaros his own prisoner. became inspired much he an and (Iuusrnenoru sought-aJter prophet rnov DrlnoNnnv oF ANleurrEs.the queenly. as and Jat and andround hiswine-bag.r' t FRoM STORTF-s nov Ltr r J885 ] of a lion and the wings of a bird. the Greek god of vegetation. bald man with the tail and earsof a horse Because the of hndness shown to Silenus by King MIDAS Phrygia. Sisyphussaid that his bodywas unburied and the customary offerings to the dead had not been made He must THE SPHINX. a people of central ltaly. a place of punishment beneath the underworld. or throttler. sleep dnnh Baldbuthairy. Sisyphus is credited wirh the foundation of Corinth. or the goatJike god of the pastures He was usually portrayed as the elderly companion of oiolysus. on impiety.Dionysusgranted of the king his famous and shorrsighted wish for a golden touch STNENS SCC MONSTER5 AND FABULOUS BM5T5 STSYPHUS was rhe son of King Aelus of Thessalyand Enarete He was known to the Greeks as the craftiest of men. Having told his wife to do and so the widowed queenJocasta. Sisyphus tricked HADES into letting him retum to earth. Jeline Sphinxpaws her victims (TurTnruurpHRur Spnrrux nv GustrvE M1RFAU. glvingher for Rome (l[rrsrnarro. because again as it reached the crest he walks on four as a baby and Ieans on a stick in old age When nothing if he died. she was sent as a curse on the ciry of Thebes by the goddess HERA The Sphinx guarded a pass ro rhe therefore see to the arrangemenrc city and asked all who wished to himself before he could be said to passa riddle Those who failed to be truly dead Finally. of PAN.butwhen or asleep. hadlured Sabines she l{e so trapthem. According ro one tradition. ) i89i CrAssrcAL SU-ENUS was variously described as the son either of the Greek messenger god HERMES. was he more as than often drunh drunh sober. their shields Another mentions only rheir braceierc ln the first version the Sabinesrealued thar they had been tricked and threw their shields at her and killed her The Romans could not agreehow Tarpeiadied but.

ClessrcAL MvrHoLocY TAnqurNtus Supennus was rhe sevenrhand last Etruscan king of Rome. Aegeustook the pregnantAethra to a great boulder undemeath which he placed his sword and sandals He told her that. No one had ever managed to find their way through this maze. ashe the JIed battleJieldLahe Regrllus. he deahwith Pallas' sons. which caused BRUrus to lead a rebellion Tarquinius was defeated and the Roman republic was established TARQUINIUS SE)ffUS. which he later added to the Athenian kingdom On his amval in Athens. so when Theseus volunteered to confront . outrageprw ohed was an uprisingand Tarquinius oF rL By werthrown (TnrRape LucRErA PALI the king recognizedhis sword as the hero carved the meat. Medea knew who he was and persuaded Aegeus to let her poison the mighty stranger at a banquet Theseuswas savedwhen TARQUINfUS SUPERBUS. Tarquinius Sextus. struch was oJ death was from behindHisingloious recounted Macaulay's "Andin the rn lcys: bach Sextus theRoman / And steel Jalse felt wng. Tarquinius Sextus.but.then a kingdom separatefrom Arhens. He also overcame the MINOTAUR. Theseuswas forced to acceprthe challenge of a wrestling match with its king. and so Theseuswas conceived Beflorehe left for home.r. and Aegeus named Theseusashis successor The next cycle of Theseus' explois was designed to securethe saferyof Athens First. so Theseusbecameking of Eleusis. a f. An annual ribute of youngAthenians was fed to the Minotaur.earsome son of HEPHAtsros.a crueland crueland ryrannicalhing sireda no less ignoble son.who raped the Roman matron. [o the north-east of the city. Cercyon The aggressive ruler died as a result of rhe conresr.g Pittheus of Troezen Realizingthat Aegeuswas going to beget a powerful son immediately after the celebration feast for his saferetum to Athens.asoN and a powerful witch She hoped that her own son Medus would succeedAegeus Although Theseus hid his rrue identity. Pittheusmade his guestdrunk and put him to bed with his daughter Aethra.rysor.hilled herselJ. Lucretia She. the daughter of the monster ITPHONAt Eleusis. the wife of Kirg MINos of Crete. which lived in the Labyrinth rhat had been designed by oAEDALUS. l88i ) THESEUS was the son either of POSEIDON AEGEIIS or the king of Athens His mother was Aethra The childlessAegeusconsulted the Delphic Oracle and was told not to untie his wine skin undl he retumed home He did not understand what the oraclemeant and so visited his friend Ki.qstpHnE.lihe worm in he a beneath the wheel " (lur'. Aegeushad fallenunder the spell of unDEA. Medea fled from Athens with her son.the srrange offspring of p. Theseus leamed that his father Aegeuswas hardly able to hold on to the throne Not only was the apparently heirless hng challenged by the fifry sons of his half-brother Pallas.u L.the former wife of. should she have a son. Then he killed a wild bull that was ravagingMarathon.ling thedust died. she must wait until he was strong enough to raise the boulder before she senr him ro his farher's court After Aegeus'departurethe wily Pitrheus said his daughrer's lover was really Poseidon When Theseus came of age.NTR()Mr:. Aethra explained that he was heir to the Arhenian rhrone and he retrieved the sword and sandals On his joumey to Athens he slew several desperatebandits. who reigned in the sixrh century ec His youngestson. The plot was revealed. and a dreadful sow. worse sdll. ANL[.in The shame." rno.causedthe end of rhe monarchy by raping the Roman matron LUCRETIA.srncl.

g.Theseus Aiadne at sets the ashore. bore him a son. pineof the was who bender. came to desireher stepson Hippolytus. Theseus and thar Anadne pledge lweat thealtar. near Athens But discord enrered his own house when his second wife PFiAEDM. Anadne gave him a ball of rhread and a sword The hero entered the Labynnrh. where they were kept in a shrine THESEUS SINIScircle other aruo each in a battle witsandwills Sinis. threw himself off the Athenian acropolis The suicide meanr thar Theseus was now king of Athens. suwive. a daughter of the Cretan king who fell in love wrth the hero Princess Ariadne knew that the Labynnrh was so complex that the only way out was to follow back a rhread fastened to the entrance After Theseus had promised to marry her. ( 490 RED-Frcr. Theseus forgot to changethe sail ro indicate to his farher that he was alive Aegeussaw a black sail and. Hippolytus was hlled by a sea monster rhar was raised by Theseus'anger.ClessrcAL MyrHoLoGy THESEUS' uploitsareillustrated an on inticateRoman mosaic thecentre At of thelabynnthTheseus withthe battles MinotaurOntheleJt. the queen of TheAMAZONS. who Hippolytus. possibly becauseof her divine father But she had powerful hnsmen. by some miracle.Phaedra was so humiliated by his rejection that she hanged herself and left Theseus a letrer in which she accusedHippolytus of artempted rape He was exiled and died in a chanot accident before his father discovered the truth In another version. bur she died shorriy afrerwards Theseus gave rhe accursed oEDtPUs his daughrer and ANTIGONE sancruaryat Coionus. while thetop. BC ) 83 . defeatedthe Athenians and drove Theseusabroad He died on the island of Scpos. to lhe young man's horror Ahhough he promised ro keep her passiona secre[. thereby (TurseusANr)SrNrs./RE. thinking his son dead. but whatever the reasonhe was soon repaid for his heardessness the fu ship approachedAthens. rhe Athenian admiral Cimon wenr ro Scy'ros and brought the hero's bones back to Athens. desming unfortunate matden on Dia. and he joined all the communidesof Attica into one scate Apart from enlargrng Athens' territory.filled with remorse. when its ki. pushed him over a cliff as he admired the view k was believed that in the fifrh cenrury BC.on thenght trHrE)clorrs THEsEUs. oF MosArc 200 c AD ) the Minotaur his farher despaired It was agreed that if Theseus should. fearingthe presenceof such a man. another daughter of Minos. Theseus also undertook a number of heroic exploits On one expedirion he captured Hippolyta. as a future wrfe He ciaimed that only she was worthy enough to be his wrfe. and her rwo brorhers. he was to change the sail of the tribute ship from black to white on the homeward voyage At Minos' palacein Knossosthe goddessAPHRODITE Theseus gave an invaluable ally in ARIADNE. a robber hilledby tyirg hts victim between two bent pine trees and then letting them sping teaing the man apart upnght. slew rhe Minotaur and rhen set sail for Athens with Ariadne and the rest of the Athenian parry He rhen lefr the princess on the nearby island of Dia h is thought rhat he was in love with another woman.and Phaedra.the DIOSCURI. daughterof zELls.killed herself Theseuslater seizedthe twelveyear-oldHELEN.

Athena. such as llium. while Cadmus of Thebes introduced an alphabet of L6 Phoenician letters. ind.FOIJNDERS HEANCIENTs BELIEVED that many of their fabulous cities were founded by the pioneering heroes and heroines of legend. and Rome after Romulus. Mycenae. on steeproch. and the lowerwalledtown. In Classical mythology. and buildirg a strong citadel.the arttstic centreoJ the ancientworld.and the first hing of Attica. c 1890 ) Cncnops (above). stronghold Athenl whichwas alsonamed Cecropia aftu him An innovator. / a The Greek polis was an autonomous.whosehelmetand spearwere seen from the sea Athens. is depicted with d serpent'stail. A city or ribe sometimes honoured irc founder hero by sharing his name. ceNves.and to Theseus who united Attica's twelve statesinto one. Each ciry honoured its own hero who was also often its legend ary founder. to cre ate a varLety of dynamic founders who built such celebrated cities as Athens. the splendid capital oJ Attica. reached greatest its splendourin the time oJPmcles(160-429 sc) (THE AcRopol. encourabolished agedtheworshipof Zzus and laws Athenaand introducedbasic of property. encouraged religious worship. named after llus. or Acropohs. founders often developed helpful new ways and customs: Cecrops of Athens. and made Athenstheir capital The ci1 divided rnto the upper town. the heroic ethic \ combined with the Greek ideal of polis. owed its oiglnboth to Cecrops. . recallinghis oigln as an aboiglne of Attica He dividedthe nativesinto twelve and communities Joundedthe the oJ Acropolis. Sparta and Thebes.such as Cadmus of Thebesand Dido of I Carth age. such as Perseusof Mycenae and Lacedaemon of Sparta. vibrant culture.built oJPentelicmarble in pure Doic style and adomedwithinandwithout with gllded and painted sculpture North oJ the Parthenonrosea great statuteoJthe ciry's goddess. the Ttojans after Tios. godlike heroes. slaves and foreigners who gathered within and around a fortified ciry. Mythic founders were innovative. for instance. as well as threeharbour rises a towns TheAcropolis. its summit oncecrownedwith sparhlingtemples Mostfamous oJ all was the Parthenon. guided by destiny and deiry to createa fresh. ArHErus (ngh). Apart from leading a ribe to a bright new land. Jounded who the ancientAcropolis. politicsond mariage (l[usrnenoru FROM DrcfloNARY i89l ) oF CrASslcAL ANTrqunrs. or city-state.seenhere. Cecrops bloodsocifce.rs sv ClnL HaeG.one oJthe mythicJoundersoJ Athens.penden[ community of citizens.

thebnghtnrwcity ( l ) r n o B r r r r D r N c ( . Ilus. the local king.chacus nsc.000 Vespastan inaugtratedby his son. on . to celebrate whorarsed themas lus own Once shepherd Faustulus gowt1. The tvvrns beencastinto the RiverTrberIry therrg'eathad the uncle Amuhuswho coveted throneof Alba Longa. the Greehs dreamt up the Trolan Horse..qn Theggantrc amphttheatre desrgned accommodate and a nse around crrculartrers overloohing centralarena In Jront of the amphttheatre s the tnumphalArch of Titus.v lih.l l5 ) v a . Menelaus At a cntical stage rn the ten-year siege. suchled atbtrth by a she-wolfwtth his twtn brother.rn B0 .Tttus. wtfe of the Greeh chteJtatn. a massNe wooden modelhrdingwrthtn tts hollow crlm tomb of $. ruled danng the had fled to Afnca from coveted the throne oJ Tyre On the coast of North AJntu.r Lrpr KERIFL. .wasfoundedtn c AD 753 W the mythrchero.but theird:ine Jather. who walls oJ Troy were butlt'by the gods. Pnam. srnlrror P4{ f{{)()r)norrr. Drdo managed to se(ure enough land to hurld a cttadel. son ol Tros. TEMPERA. B } / w f i . the lubuktus ctry oJ Carthuge flouished from 853 nc On the nght bank. The glrls und boys playrng on the traglc Trolan War.ewtse. 8 . sl. here. provohedby Pans' abduction of Helen.thewolf Mars. \gmalion. Poserdon and Apollo. the sttll. ) c 1920 toneof thefuture ctty (lLLr D) l Tnov (above) or llium arose on the grassy plain oJ Troas lry the Joot of Mount Ida Founded lry the mythrc hero. to savehis sons lLtter thetwinswere rescued the good Lry Roiur (above)theworld-ruItng caprtalof Italy situatetl the RiverTrber.srdca ncw .wusoneol the{eatest monuments theancrent was to 87.r:i Honsr B) Nrr r r ri t r nri l belly an army oJ Greelzs (THr. future clqy. the anctent ctty was named lltum and Trola after both Jather and son The famous Dtoo (above).SSICAL MyTH OLOGY the was Rovurus (above). hrs animul. sold Dtdo as much land as she might contain rn a bull's htde By artt'ully cutting the hrde into nen'ow stnps. rymbolizes the nsrng power oJ Tnol.sapling. r . Sychaeus. sent sacred . hud been murdered by her brother.s be. Iegendary founder of Curthage . s r . rn the rergn of IIus' son.supervr.s ) Tttus' vtctonous av rr tn campatgn Judaea (\lru or rHr. c . theyleftAlba LongatoJound Rorne. A|3BArr. R N I : R l. while the nstngsun. ci\. tn C()Lossr. mythic Jounderof Ron1e. 1846 erected eo 81. but the belhgerent over brothers btckered the stteand nune ol the settrngthewarlike and Romulussbw Remus.ses a tedm of architects and masons on the leJt banh of the bay Dido Tyre in Phoeniciu wherc her husband. named Byrsa. tmtiated theEmperor by seen ol RomulusTheColosseum. . rM cANvA.i560) . or "hrde" Around thts fort. Inomedon The nextktng.{ R r H ' \ ( .Rernus . spectators .mboh2rn g the growth oJ Carthage banh represent the future power und gentrattons of Cunhage. Iarbus.

CINSSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

THnffS was a seanymph and the daughter of Nereus and Doris She was the mother of ecutt-t-rS, the great Greek hero Becauseit was known that she was fated to bear a son mightier than his father, both zEtJSand PoselDoN gave up all who thoughts of possessingThetis, was much admired on Mount Olympus, the home of the gods lnstead, Zeus ensured that she became the wife of a mortal king, Peleusof Phthia Thetis bore him sevensons,but she was dissatisfied with the mortaliry of her children She tested them wrth fire and boiling water, but none could withsmnd such treatment, not even the youngest boy Achilles until Thetis dipped him in the Sryx, the nver of the dead Even then, she forgot to wet the heel she held him by, with the result that he was not totaily immortal About this time Thetis left Peleusand retumed to the sea, although she continued to assist Achilles as far as she could during his evendul life TtnnSfRS, in Greek mythology, was the son of a nymph, Chanclo, and Everes,descendantof one of CADMUi'own men The blind seer of Thebes, he was so wise that even his ghost had kept its wits, and not been overcome by forgetfulness Iike the other inhabitants of the underworld At the edge of the

blind seer, TIRESIAS, thelegendary advisedmany heroesSomelistenedto him, such to but others, thar cost,ignoredhim, Creon,or short-sighted as hard-headed Pentheus His goldat stofJwas a gJt Jrom to Athenaand enabledhim fndhis way FRoM man (ILLUsrMroN lihe a sighted
DrcfloNARy oF CtAsslc,{L ANTIQUITIES, .1891 )

the seerwitnessedthe same sight and became a man again His unique experienceled to Tiresias the and HERa, being askedby LEUS chief Greek deities, to settle a dispure berween rhem as to which sex got most pleasureout of love When he said that it was the female,Herablinded him, but Zrus awarded him a long life and the power of prophecy THf and Titanesses, TtfeNS according to Greek mythology, were the children of Ouranos, the sky, and GAIA, the earth These grgantic beings were the older gods who ruled before the Olympian gods, who were the brothers, sisrersand children of zEUs The Titans included cRoNoS, RHn.e, Coeus, Metis, Mnemoslme and Hyperion They came to power after Cronos emasculated his father Ouranos with a sickle provided by Gaia, his long-suffering mother The eventual battle between the older generarionof gods, the Titans led by Cronos, and the younger generation, the Olympians led by his son Zeus,lasted ten years and shook the universe like no other conflict. Afterwards Zeus threw those deities who had opposed him down to Tartarus, which was a land beneath the underworld. The battle against the Titans should not be confused with the Olympian gods' Iater struggle with In the GIANTS. order to win this terrible confrontadon, Zeus knew that he would require the help of a mighry, mortal champion, and the so he fathered by 'LLCMEwE greatest of the Greek heroes HEMCLES.

came in disguise to Thebes As a result of Pentheus'refusalto listen to the seer, he gravely offended Dionysus and was tom to pieces bY worshippers, the the god's frerLaed maenads Tiresiasalso confirmed rhe pronouncement of the Delphic Oracle that it was indeed King

world Tiresias advised oDYSSEUs OEDIPIJS who was personally rhat he would never retum home responsible for the plague which ro lthaca if he harmed the catde of roubled the Thebans HELIos,rhe sun god During his lifetime Tiresias played a pan in severalmyths For rnstance,he wamed King Pentheus in vain about the identity of when that powerful god DIOI{YSUS, seo an THEIIS, although immortal with mortal Achilles, nymph,lovedher son, ofahuman care all the andtendemess and sorrows, rushed motherShe sharedhis o/his to hisaid,wer conscious moftllity aftnour splendid some Hereshebingshim
as he mourns Patroclus' death rnov Sronrrsrnou Hovrn, i885 ) (Ittusru.qnou

The blindness of Tiresias was explained by two tales One account states that the affliction was a punishment for seeing the goddess ATHENA bathing The other story is a somewhat lesstraditional explanarion Tiresiasone day saw snakesmating and struck them with a staff, whereupon he turned into a woman. After living as a woman for a period of time,

86

CInSSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

THE TITANS wereglganticbangswho the ruled the earthbeJore Olympian gods Thq overthro,rtheir tyrannicalJather, Ouranus,and put Cronosinhis place Cronos, inhis turn, swallowedallhis children, exceptZeus,who was raisedin presentsCronoswith a secreE Here, Rhea stonewrapped in swaddling clothesinstead hiddenaway of thebaby Zeuswhois saJely
(RHrrc nr.ro Cnouos, RELTEF, c 400 BC )

supreme deity, but the recently victorious ZEUS destroyed him with a mighty thunderbolt The volcanic activity of Mounr Aetna in Sicily was believed to be caused imprisonment Typhon's by beneath the crater. The struggle berween Typhon and Zeus was an evenly balanced fight, however At one point 7:uswas left helpless in a cave,weaponlessand without his sinews Fortunately rhe messengergod HrnvEs came to his aid on this occasion Before his final defeat,Typhon sired the Chimaera, the huge seamonster killed by the hero PERSEUS VENUS was rhe Roman equivalent of apHRopirE, the Greek love goddess Venus was onginally a goddess connected with agriculture. but when she was identified wrth Aphrodite she took on a more active and differenr role in mythology One of her most crucial acdonswls to retumAENMS'spear after it had stuck in a tree stump during his fight with the Iralian champion Tumus Indeed, in some versionsAeneasis her son

TyPHON (left), a fire-breathing serpent, was impisonedbeneaththe crqterwhen the volcanoat Mount Aetna mtpted Symbolinng the darhJorcesoJearth, he as sired monsters hideousas himself:the flaming Chimaeraand snarlingCerberus (GnrcxVxr.. 600 ) c BC

TYPHON

was a terrible, serpenr-

Iike monster whose eyes shot out flames. He was conceived by GAIA, mother ished earth, when she was banto Tartarus along with the

orher defeated TITANS According endeavoured as the ruler to the Greeks, Typhon to establish himself of the world, the

oJlwe, is VENUS, the Romangoddess rarely portrayed withouther capnciousand chmtbic son,Cupid This gracefulportrait oJher by the French artist Boucher, Jull oJ much to Venusof light and charm, owes FRoM or Arles QrtusrnerroN Dtcttoxeny CL,tsstcel 189] Arurreurrrs, )

CInSSICAL

MyTHOLOGY

VnSfn was the Roman equivalenr of the Greek goddessHestia,who was the goddess of the hearth Vesta, however, was worshipped both as the guardian of the domestic heanh and also as the personification of the ceremonial flame. Ceremonies in her honour were conducted by the Vestal Virgins, who were young girls from noble families who took vows of chastity for the thirty years during which they served her Vesra's chief festival, the Vestalia, was held on TJune VtnCtNLA was the daughrer of a WRGINIA (abwe) dies in the arms oJher Roman centurion named Virginius father who hilledher to releaseher from she and, as with LUCRETIA, was a bondageto the comtpt Appius Clnudius Roman connected with a major He then cursedthe Claudionline, who were constitutional change Whereas overthrown by the outragedRomans FRoM rnov ) Lucretia's rape and suicide led to (Ir-r-usrnerroru SroRrFs Ltw, 1885
WTCAN (below), Roman god oJfve,

the dethronement and exile of the Eruscan monarchy, the death of Virginia was a major factor in the ending of an aristocratic tyranny in 449 sc. The lust of a comrpt official, Appius Claudius, for Virginia lcnew no bounds. He even dared to claim that the girl was his slave and used the law to have her handed over to him. At the last moment her father subbedVirginia through the heart, declaring that her death was less painful to suffer than her dishonour. The Roman arrny rose to support him, along with the poorer citizens not then bearing arrns, and checks were placed thereafter on magistrates' powers. was the Roman smith VUICAN god and the equivalent of the Greek HEPtiAIsros. He was widely associatedwith Maia and YEsrA, who were both goddessesof the hearth. His smithywas believed to be situated undemeath Mount Aetna in Sicily. At the Vulcanalia festival, which was held on 23 August, fish and small animals were thrown into a fire. XnNTHUS was said to be the offPodarge and spring of the HARPY the ZEPHYRIIS, west wind. He was one of wo immonal hones belonging to the great Greek champion and had the power of ACHILLES human speech. Achilles inherited the horses from his father, King Peleusof Phthia, who had received them as a present from the gods on his wedding to the sea nymph Achilles tookXanthus and THETIS. Balius, the other wonderful steed, to Troy with him They performed extremely well on the battlefield, although theyseemed unnerved by the slaughter. When Achilles quesdoned them, Xanthus wamed the champion that his own death was near, at which point the horse was struck dumb by the FURIES ZTPHYNUS NATURE SCC FORCE5OF

Venus with gloious armsforher presents son,Aeneas The goldar swordwas descibed in the Aeneid as loaded wtth
doom FMNcors NENus tN rHE FoRGE oF vuLCAN cenve,s, 1757 ) BY

BoucHER,

88

CIASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

ZEUS, all-powufuIfathu oJ the gods, enthronedon Olympus,isbegedby Thetis she tugshis beard to help her son, Achilles; way, and claspshis hneein her affectionate as descnbedin thelliad, and thegreat god nNo nodshis assent (Zrus TnrnsrvJr,rlA]GUSTE lNGREs, c,qruvas, 18.11)

After the overthrow of Cronos, Zeus divided up the world between himself and his two brothers, and PoselDoN Zeus chose HADES to rule the sky, Hades the underworld, and Poseidon the sea: the earth and Mount OlYmPus,which was the home of the gods, were regarded as common territory A rare visitor to either of them was Hades, who preferred to be among the dead Trus'influence, however, was felt e,rery*h.re, although he had no control over destiny itself Rather he was the god who saw that fate took is proper course The many lovers taken byZeus, both mortal and immortal, form the very stuff of mytholory It is hghly likely that they describe the coming together of severalreligious incorporated the radinons , as7-eus attributes of rival deities and gained credit for all important even6 The continual antagonism between who was Zeus and his wife HERA, definitely an ancient, pre-Greek mother-goddess in origin, often broke out into major conflict. So jealous was Hera that she sPenr most of her dme persecuting ktJs' lovers and their children Once Zeus became so angry about Hera's his cruelty to the hero HEMCLES, greatest son by a mortal woman, that he suspended the goddess from a pinnacle by her wrists and hung weights on her ankles (See OFNATURE) also FORCES XANTHUSeNn BALIUS immortal , wind, of and horses children thewest "torewiththespeed wtnd" Thq were oJ duing theTrojan Achtlles' battlesteeds on War,andwept fallenheroes the Jor them Zzusleads asa glt oJ feld Here, on to thegods Peleus hisweddingday
(IrruSrnenOruBy GLENN Srrtvnw, 1995)

ZBUS was the supreme deity in Greek mythology and the son of the Titans cRoNos and nHr,q The Romans identified Zeus wrth their an J7PITER, all-powerful slcy god The ryrannical Cronos insisted on swallowin g alI Trus' older bro thers and sisters as soon as they were bom, but Zeus escapedthis fate when his mother Rhea offered Cronos a stone wrapped up in swaddling clothes to swallow instead.In secrecy,kuswas raised on the island of Crete. He grew ro manhood determined to topple his father. The wise Metis, an earlylove and daughter of ocEANos, gave Zeus the idea of a potion that would make his fathervomit up all the children he had swallowed.

.

Ig20 ) c of paganism It seems that poets wenr on reciting the sagaslong after St Parrick converted the Irish and cleared the country of snakes. cANVAs. where rhey gave rheir name ro Galatia. the goddess of slaughter. is very much the ideal. Then their rehgion and mytholory waned in importance. lrish folklore insisrs. withered old man Only St Patrick is said to have bothered to listen to his fantasdc story as it was being written down. though the combat is undenaken more often by heroes than by gods. was to until Jorced sufierunjustly. Rome itself had been sacked by rhem in 385 BC. rhe lone defender of Ulster during the invasion of forces raised by Queen Medb of Connacht. however. Rather ir was a paradise in which souls rested prior ro rheir rebinh in the world. the Cels condnued to worship their own gods and goddesses right up ro the dme of the official adopdon by rhe Romans of the Christian faith. Possibly because there was a clear distinction there berween druid and poet in preChristian times. The newly-founded monasteries could therefore undertake the work of recording rhe ancient rexts without any fear Bnarvrvrx a classic was Celticheroinewho remained calm anddigniJied underpressure Jakely A slandered she wtfe. The warrior-poer Oisin. the Cels were spread over a large parr of the Continenr. unlike the Greek or Roman underworld. Wales. Yet Cuchalainn. rhar they kept something of their magic. sealed his fate. "the Hound of Culann". Oisin was warned that he would never be able to go back to the underworld if he dismounted from amagScsreed. Their otherworld. grey-haired. Oisin was immediately changed from a handsome yourh into a blind. his refusal to rerum the affecrions of Monigan. For excepr in Wales. was not a dismal abode of the dead. presenrday France Although largely incorporated into the Roman Empire. Yet saints in lreland could curse as well as anyone else when the occasion demanded For instance. nothing else was ever commirred to writing. son of the Fenian leader Finn MacCool. Until the rise of Roman power. Even in distant lreland. for monks rook great care from the fifth cenrury onwards to write down the ancienr sagas To this remarkable effort of preservarion we owe almost our enrire knowledge of Celtic mythology. the Celts were a force to be reckoned with. The fearless warrior Cuchulainn. but it does indicate a degree of tolerance not readily found elsewhere in Christian Europe. He was chosen as the Irish champion afrer a beheading conresr with the watergiant Uath No other man had courage enough to receive rhe giant's retum blow. The Cels always distrusted script and preferred to rely on speech and properly trained memories. Bur here conversion did nor mean rhe wholesale desrrucdon of rhe Celtic heitage. and 92 . enjoyed but a brief life. In lreland the poet was held in particular esteem. spent three hundred years there before reuming to Ireland. where a small group of stories was recorded. rescued hn brother. indeed in the explois of many other heroes of old. however. an island thar was never under Roman control. could save him The apparently endless conflicr appears less tenible when it is recalled how the Cels believed in reincamation. When rhe saddle slipped and he fell to rhe ground. b Bran the Blessed (BnaNweNryG SarRrurucneM. Scotland. because these tales were seen as entertainment. the troublesome King Suibhne Geilt was cursed by St Ronan for his violence towards the fairh.INTRODUCTION INTRoDL]CTIoN ODAYPEOPLE CELNC DESCENT OF IN Europe are concentrated on its wesrem shores They live chiefly in Brittany. the influence of Christianiry was soon felt. a historical fact not forgotten by the legronaries who gave Julius Caesar vrcrory berween 59 and 49 sc over the Celdc tribes living in Gaul. since rhe Devil could never enter a house where rhe exploits of the heroes were being sung. The interest of St Parrick in the advenrures of Oisin and. Nor even the intewention of his father Lugh. the sun god. the Isle of Man and lreland At one dme. is obviously a later embellishmenr. and in 278 BC one roving band even penetrated as far east as Asia Minor. Irish myths nearly always include fighring. Comwall. except where people remembered tales about the Celtic gods and heroes of the past.

t L . t r c ( c l t r t r p \ I h r r l .ri r 1 .. \ 1 1 1 .r ' 1 l hr l l \ n n r r i t l t c a l t L t ru : t .lL ( )ttt 9l .: *j Ilfnrltf \ . i l l r r h e ' \ r t h L r r l i .l(ir))(l\ )t i r / .i a c\l. l lIlr \ t h > ( h t t . i i l l . i r l l iI ATLANTIC OCERN :pt'rlt thc rc-:t trl hL.'/ltr ( i t . r r l 1 . fr . r : . . i l l t l l l \ ( l L l ( ' \ t Srn o Rour THRAcq ' a SperN .rrll. .(l . ) l i i \ i r i . t r l . l t l t : t h c l n l ( r : l . . -4" :f-'rDEr-pur . l . t l t h r ' ( f L l rl t l \ l ( ) l l t l l t ' r r l l t t l l . r l . lLtc ri rlh tht' t Il. l . 1. i t r i i .1 1 1r1 { t r l t t c e t ( ) I I C Ci t l l ( i a t r t l n g i r t l l l g h t . r l . l l l .J *fu. i ' ( L . l i l t ' t t ' i \ t . \\ht'tltct trt Il()[ \rtlltll \\.trr]1i. { )c : 1 . ' 'I'Ef B LAC K r i i r r t h f l . ( ) l l l ( ' 1 1 t c l r t r l t l ( ' l c n l ( ' l l t I h t ' i l r L t ' .t r+Ih. r . l b r r c l l t ' l l 1 . l l l l t \ h l t .ttttl. t t t ' t o : t . ' . l \ 1 r . . 1 r i i ( l l i r ] r . l t l t t ' t l . t > t \ t l [ ) ] l t ' t . L . l . i t . 1 i 1 . t l t ' l . t t t l l r ' i .ilti)r ' l ( . i r i l i t 1 . .P r ' . i ) .t l t : t: i : t t l c l t r i l t s I t t ' . 1 5I ) L t r ( f I l r r t l { h I t r f r t ' r l l . l t r L cr\ l r ) t P l t ' \ltir. i . t : I rrtrl i trt'tir ttcts t't'tl llt> h. fi 1 1 1 1 1 .' ffi td . r i t ' i l1 t r ' .t flt. i t g h t l r r I ] t l t i l l l l i ) \ J t r . r f L r l l \ ' \ r > r r ) nr r t t h t ' ( i r l r r l u i t t t i l h e r r r r r k. l l i r ..tt-:t.* . . i I i r :i .. t i { i t l i . . i t r t l ' t ) r i \\ t ( . .t\tR()l)t(ll()\ I .llI() il ( L'lrttntitqtt t. f r i / t r ..tl1it:. . i l t l l r t t : l t l l ( i . / i t . . . l l l .t:.r il l . i t . ' r b . b e .tl t r t t h t ' ( i r .tLtltlttrtltht> ilt'l\ rc''t'l rill: t h r ' t L t l tL t . .r cir. 1 ' r r r r ' i 1 1 l i r .'trgh sllllll. t l l t l l l t r t r c l i R Dn. . l O t r ' n s t l r s ( ) t . .t)tlLr \tr [ ) r r ' ( ) r r L t l ) t cK r n g \ t t i r r r r cl ( . l .i ir. t lI ll l t ' . .c \ : I p l . qq- ' I<trt{ht. . . : I l t r t h r r l t l l L r t \ \ . ' r l . t i i f l . c t l. . ' .

It is quire likely rhat he may have been a successful warlord in the confused and violent period following the withdrawal of the Roman legions from Britain around 4I0 eo That his myth blames the ultimate vicrory won by rhe Anglo-Saxon invaders on civil strife perhaps reflects a kemel of truth.INTRODUCTION Mrnuru . the amiddivine for light and splendour. cAwAs. c 1470 ) 9+ . Knights theRoundTable the of erpenence Grailvision thefirsttime. guided his hing Arthur. ARrnunandhisChristian Fellowshipl{nights of probabty deived Welsh warlord Arthur. Thus British chivalry came ro an end with Kirg Arthur's disastrous bartle againsr his nephew Modred near Salisbury. so deep-rooted were their own birrer quarrels. In an otherworld. who fromtheearlier journqed the to othenvorldwthhiswarband in searcha oJ wondrous cauldron Here. The Celtic peoples were norGrious for only rarely combining against an extemal.his enchantress. with wrsdomand while Nimue. (MeruuscrurrmusrurroN. Hardly a knighr survived and the Kirg himselfwas badlywounded His depar- ture to Avalon. threateningpwm oJthe othenvorld.(THr BrcuruNc on MERLTN By E BURNEJoNES. symbolked the Jorestght. awaiting reincamadon as a national saviour. accompanied by three mysterious ladies. c i8l0-14 ) figure is still uncerrain. in the tradition of Celtic druids. common foe. Kirg Arthur lingered.tNo Nnrun representopposite polesoJthe CelticothemvorW Malin. ir was believed. gave rise ro rhe idea of his undeath.

INTRODUCTION B .

notalwayshelpful was ItwasAmaethon robbed that Arawn. Fuamnach When High Kirg Eochaidh was looking for a bride himself. or mortals rhan gods. bridle on the animal.rhe Fenians agreed ro a gesture of goodwill. for that was rhe was one of the TUATTIADEDANANN. which were only immediarely inro a gallop.Ailill never came because he fell into an enchantedsleep Atut-t. in Irish horse's tail Abarta took them to mythology. gradually succumbed to a terrible wasring diseasebecauseof his unrequited passion for rhe new queen Etain was steadfast in her love for Eochaidh. 1995) fell in love wirh his brother's wife. rhe capital There Eochaidh and Etain enjoyed a happy married life Ailill. a High Kirg of lreland. acquired a magic ship to tale of his trick on the Fenian war. although in the Fenians.The riors there remains a srong trace of best tracker among rhem was Finn his original dMniry MacCool'sassismntFoltor He sucAbana offered himself as a ser.and the place ground. it broke tobealive wrthfaines. of the otherworld for the rescue expedione foremosr Irish heroes. oJ and when mounted It was not until was worshippedMidsummer on Eveby the fourteen warriors had climbed local people lit up herhiII withtorches who on its powerful back rhat it would When some stayedlate night. Abana and his kin appear where souls briefly resred before in the Irish sagasmore like heroic rebirth The rest of the Fianna. even visible throughher magc"ing pulling along a fifteenrh warrior (lLrusrnerroruByNtcK Brew. he heard reporrs that described Etain as rhe fairest maiden in Ireland So he broughr the beautiful former goddessback to his palace atTara. the of ond. grey horse Only afrer great effort AILILL. rricky Abarta peacewirh Abarta presented the Fianna wirh a wrld.tion There Abana was compelled tary leader of the FmNNA Abarn to releasethe prisoners aswell as to tried ro serveFinn MacCool short.run back to Ireland himself holding ly after the hero had succeededhis on to the horse'stail Honour being father as leader of rhe band. thereby prwohing Battle Trees.This wonderful land was rhoughr overcome by the Milesians. one of the TUATHADE DANANN Etain had been the second wife of the proud and handsome god MIDIR.give chase to Abarra's sreed. although one mortal Iover of hers. which probably means who was unable ro ler go of rhe "doer of deeds". but she also AI\4AETHON.who lived under a mound in the middle of Ireland She had been rebom as a human as punishment for her great jealousy of Midir's first wife.MnC MAIA. is He genera\ ponrayed as a ratherweak characterwho was entirely under the influence of Medb It was due ro her taundng that he agreedro go to war with Ulster over the Brown Bull of Cuailgne.o sow tashinhis quest win Olwat to (lr-r-usrRqnoru NrcK Buu. who killed him in revenge for the death of rrRcus MACRITH AINE was rhe Irish goddess of love and ferdlity She was the daughter of Eogabail.ealed and thehill mounted behind rhem. who was actually a goddess. By 1995) felt sorry/ for ailing Ailill and eventuallypromised ro sadsfyhis desire as the only means of saving his life It was arranged thar rhey should meet secretly in a house outside Tara However. E7AIN. rvho was the brother of did the warriors manage to ger a Eochaidh.who was the foster son of the Manx sea god MANANNAN MAC LIR HeT main responsibilty was to encourage human love. though Jruitful the rustic godoJ agnculture. Kirg Arllil OIom of Munster. according to some versions of the myth.and heredi. and rhen it refused to move even one hoof AINE. andreapahill in a dq .gods and goddesses. reason for his appearanceon earth who ruled lreland undl rhey were. however. paid for his passionate audacity with his life When he . was. was the hng of Connacht and husband of the warrior-queen MEDB.Ailill finally met his death at the hands of coNALt. whorefused help to hard-pressed Culhwch toplough. glrls one Aine stir at all Once Abana had appeared amongthem ra. a mischievous god He the otherworld. Irish goddess love Jertility.warlike by the Celts to be the home of the invaders from Spain Driyen under.Celrrc MyrHoLocy Annnfn.ceededin navrgadnga course to the vanr ro FINNMACCOOL. As a sarisfied..

trqADE DANANN. ARTHUR warriors in a disastrous attempt to seize this magic cauldron. Irish druids. in Spain. AueerHoN the Milesians could not agreeon means "labourer" or "ploughman") was the god of agnculture and the which of their leaders should be hng Two sons of Mil. was the basis of the medieval Grail myth ln one Welsh lost most of his tradition. or Mil. were believed to be the ancestorsof the present-dayIrish County Ketry Having defeated the divine rulers of (whose name lreland. 1995 ) 97 . sometimes known Aine's worship was alwaysasso. and as a result the north. celebrationswere still held of ulrrsluS. the lord of the the sake of peace the island was orherworld euruwru. a divided into rwo kingdoms. which were believed to fly at night in pursuit of human souls (See AISOCELTICOTHERWORLDS.as a goddessof fertility. The lord of Annwn was the grey-cladAMwN. aWelsh ANNWN (below). or "Aine's hill". one in deer and a bird. magic recurrent in Celtic motif oJ in cauldrons Jeature thetales Branand Dagda (IllusrnlloN By NIcK BxLE. a Annwn's maglcal wtththe songoJbirds healed maidens. causedthe Cad Goddeu or Battle However.AUAInCEN. Eremon and son of the Welsh goddess ool contested the throne and for Amaethon was said to have EBER. Even as late as the last with the Milesians Thesechildren century. the ancient priests in she had command over crops and Celtic lands He came to Ireland animals. An inspiredshamanand seer. who was a in her honour on Midsummer Eve leader of the Celts who lived in at l(nockainy. she slew him warriors to fight in the battle with her magic.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY brothers plunged the country once again into dreadful srife The fighting came to an end only with the death of Eber. which. and filled was landoJJruitfulness rest. it would seem.heis credited with a mysticalpoem in the Book of crtox Invasions (ILLusrn A^roN' ) otherworld. the other in the south. a hound. ciated in lreland with agriculture. the Celtic "hounds of hell". AUNONTNS PELLES SCC was a Welsh otherANNWN world that was an idyllic land of peace and plenty. Amairgen then installed Eremon as High King of Ireland atTara Even then conflicts still occurred becauseof the ceaseIessrivalnes between lesserrulers. WONDROUS CAULDRONS) attempted to force himself upon magically transformed rrees inro Aine and rape her. as Amergin. GWYDION. ln Annwn there was a fountain of sweet wine and a cauldron of rebirth. and pronouncedthe first judgement in the wouldbe the land. to the thesich restored dead lfe A and myth. between the followers of the two (above)was one oJthe Jirst AJVTAIRGEN druidsin lreland He possessedboth spiitual and political authoity. and renewed fighting Amaethon's brother.decidingwho firsthing. the ru. was one of the first because. peacewas not to surive of Trees It was in this battle rhat for long. wirh whom the Dyfed chieftain PWYLLagreed to exchange shapes and responsibilities for ayear Arawn had a pack of hounds. guarded nine by cauldron. stolen fromAMWN.

a great earth goddess mother and oJ what Aoifa loved best and Scathach Ethal. somerimes known as Aoife. sometrmescalled Danu or became Cuchulainn's lover and On the feastof Samhain. tohen the a oJ othenvorld (luusrnenor. the princess who had been promised by the High King of lreland to his Fenian commander FINNMACCOOL Aonghus savedthe Iovers from the great warrior's wrath. women bore arrns late AD700. a place where warriors seem most at home The cult of Anu was especiallyassociated with Munster. Birds also feature in his courtship of CAER. as as andwhere the gods women oJten fiercest were (Itrusraanov ByJAMEI ALExANorn. an otherworld kingdom Her sisrer SCATHACH instrucred rhe Ulster hero CIJCHUIAINNin the arts of war But when the sisterswent ro war Scathach was frightened ro take the hero with her into battle in case Aoifa killed him Undeterred by Aoifa's repurarion as a fighter. and his mother was the DUIBHNE. From rhen on. but Cuchuiainn distracted Ethal his prisoner lt was finally as of (tuusrRarroru her attention at a critical moment agreed that Aonghus could marryt thq rymbolized breasts her ny Grrruli SrEwanD.Aonghus Dana. washnown the"lasting as told him that above ali else she DANANN He seems to have been one" also Dana.where he breathed a new soul into it so that he could talk to his foster-son was rhe ruler of the AnAWN Welsh otherworld aNruwru. which was a paradiseof peaceand plenty The Dyfed chiefrain PuvLLbecame friends with Arawn and was allowed to claim in his title some authority over the otherworld The two rulers met by chance While out hunting. however.a wanior-pnncess theInnd Jrom young oJShadows. Pwyll encounrereda strange pack of hounds chasinga stag. Dagda. and as mother the oJ treasured her chanot At first the reluctant about the marriageuntil Tuatha Danann Munster are De In there combat went as expectedin Aoifa's Aonghus' father. Cuchulainn askedScarhach AMWN. Dugdr deceivedBoann's hus.) ByJAMEs 1995 night dunng a hunt. Beforethe fighr rook place. stidesthrough hisenchanted accompaniedby his Jorest "hounds the oJhell". appear withredears. the boy's fate to be wich a hundred and fifty other DANANN("the people of the god. the srories they recorded show us a man's world. but it is obvrous that Aonghus wzls a divine love-child Aonghus was handsome and fourbirds alwap hovered abovehis head which were said ro represenr kisses.r Alrx. made twohillshnown thePaps Anubecause favour. Conlai. Aonghus brought Diarmuid's body back to his own palace at New Grange. This included GMINNE.received a magic love spot on his original role o[ goddessesin rheir band and lay with her The monks forehead from a mysterious grrl one compilations Certainly. was one of the TUATHADE all theheroes.the attached imelf to Aonghus conamval of the Milesians h is quite father of the gods and the protector cerns his foster-son DIARMIIID LtA possibie that the monks who wrote of druids. Celtic was oneof whose duties to escort on souk tharjoumey the to othaworldLihe some other thq white fairy creatures. Cuchulainn challenged her ro single combat. withher spars son. "Diarmuid of the Love or down the lnsh sagasfrom the fifth water goddess BOANN Rarherlike Spot" This attractiveyoung man century onwards underplayed the 7-eus. but he could not protect Diarmuid from the fate given to him at birth by the gods. that he should be killed by a magic boar Nevertheless. instructinghim themartial in arts The tradition wamor-womenwds of strongin where Celtic sociery. so he drove them off and ser AOIFA.Crr-Trc MyrHoLocy who wrote down the trish sagas tried to legidmize rhe binh by making Boann the wife of Dagda. ANU. was the daughter of ArdGreimne and an lrish warriorprincess in the Land of Shadows.cNorn. Jlyinghounds. 1995 ) by calling out that her chanot horse Caer provrded he could identi$r her was in trouble Afterwards. hingof Annwn. girl of divine a descentwho came from Connacht and lived as a swan Her father. Aoifa and she was willing to be his bride ANU. on the bank of the RiverBoyne. 1995 ) 98 . was the mother goddess of bore him a son named cotvl. and two hrils in County Kerry are still known as Da Chich Anann ("The Papsof Anu") AOIFA.ql It found Caer swimming on a lake Irish myrhology The TUATHA DE was. no woman could everseeDiarmuid without loving him.killed by his own father swans He instantly recognizedher dess Dana") were her divine chiland she agreed to marry him dren and the gods and goddesses AONCHUS was the Insh love An interesting tale rhat has who ruled Ireland prior to the god His father was DAGDA.

brother.CEI-TIC MYTHOLOGY AONGHUS AeJ).IMER THE SEA ByJoHN DUNCAN. oFLovE CAIU COURTESY. king of Gwynedd. andwhen Goewin. immediately took charge of Lleu and brought him up.who calms thefoamy seawith his AND coD Jairy maglc (Aor. the virgin who usually acted this part for him was raped by his nephew Gilvaethwy. To test her purity fuianrhod had to step over Math's wand No sooner had she done so 99 . in Irish mythology. orrntl. in of the laid A of search Delbchaun taboo on the Becuma. ON 1908 ) an conJronts armyoJsavage ART(above) glant on andvenomous toads hispeilous journq through Land Wonder. iJ somewhatwhimsical character. PUTTING A SPELL OF SUN. the Welsh chieftain dealt him a fatal blow and ignored Havgan'splea to finish him offwith another strike. was the daughter ArueNnnOD of the Welsh goddess DoN and niece of MArH. for if struck a second time he instantly revived. including the stricture that he was to have no wrfe in the human race ART.In one myth. goddess younghero thejealous by to forcedhim find andwinthelovely parents by glrlimpnsoned herwiched (luusrnerroru Bv ARTHUR c 1900 R 4cKHAM. it was suggestedthat Ananrhod should mke her place. Conn's jealous mistress. Celtic equivalatt oJ Eros. As a result of this service.rcnus. but without making love to her Arawn wamed Pwyll that he must hll Havgan by a single blow. an engagtnggodoJ a Iwe and courtesy. was the son of Conn of the Hundred Battles.contrived to send Art off on a perilous journey through the Land of Wonder in search of Delbchaem ("Fair Shape") After facing untold dangers. but this did not prevent Arianrhod placing a seriesof raboos upon him. cANVAs.ltwas also agreed that hryll would share the bed of Arawn's queen for the same period of time. Arawn and Pwyll became closeallies and Dyfed prospered. a grey-clad figure appeared and rebuked h^ryll for rhis discourtesy in the field. Pwyll accepted a proposal that he should exchange forms with him for ayear and then tlayArao*'s enemy. Havgan. It was Arawn. Marh could sleep only if his feet wereheld in avirgin's lap. When Pwyll and Havgan fought. ) than she gave birth to DYI4N Arianrhod's and rtrtL GwYDION.oppearsin thisJoncijul portrayal as a charming. In order to placate Arawn and to gain his friendship. the goddess Becuma Cneisgel.he managed to find and rescue Delbchaem Art's son by another woman was ART C)PJ\LACMAC Arr was hlled by the rebel Lugaide Mac Con in the battle of Moy Muchruinne his own hounds on to the prey Just as the stag was about to fall.

rest anenchantedforest.when the exploirs of his followers. a child oJdestiny. but finding he was wirhour a sword. Thus was the heir of Uther Pendragonrevealed Even rhen. one of which describes how he stole the hounds of rhe Fenian leader FINNMACCOOL on one of his daring raids Indeed. at in gazes wonder theamazng in at Questing Beast thewell lt was ferlieor at a bewitching otheruv wonder. and as leader of a band of heroeswhose adventuresled them into untold mysteriesand marvels. as a warrior.thusprovinghisbirthnght (urnur. CANVA5.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY Irish sagas.) c that Arthur and his swom enemy M?DREDboth fell in 537 ar rhe bartle o[Camluan Anhur was the son of rhe Brirish king UTHER PENDMGON and Igraine.was guarded and guided by spintual forcesfrom birth Smugg.he wasfosteredin safety and secrery. rhere can be little doubr that the warlike hngbelongs to rhe heroic traditions of borh lreland and Wales He appearsin several ARTHUR. the ltuighrs of the Round Table were at a loss ro know who should be the nexr hng They decidedrhar Merlin should guide them The wlzard told them that rhey would know who Uther's successor was when he drew a magrc sword from a srone.This unusual piece of furniture may AnfnUR is undoubredly the best I<nownof rhe Celdc heroes He was mosr popular during rhe Middle Ages. 1870. orldly which deJied captureSirPellinore later and SirPalomides years futilepursuit spent in of thetantalizng chimaera (lrrusrnarrou ByAUBREy BEARDSLEy. out the mage. which JOSEPH OF ARIMATHMwas believed ro have brought to Britain. not leastbecauseit had a special place resewed for rhe Graii WhileJoseph of Anmarhea was imprisoned in Paiesdne. which had mysreriously appearedin London Many knighs tried ro pull the sword from the stone.ented bss of blood in banle (tuusnenoru in a history of Wales.the Grail is said ro have kept him alive Later he broughr it ro Brirain. hunter of magic boars. killer of giants.r AND ARTHUR By W HATHERELL. the Ifuights of the Round Table. a vesselof plenry aswell as of rebinh The strength of popular feeling for the Arthurian myth can be appreciated by a riot thar occurred in l l l 3 a r th e ro wn o f B o d m in in Comwall becausethe French servants of visiring nobiliry denied Arthur's undeath Although some of the earliest storiesconcemingfuthur are found in Welsh poems of the sevenrh century. c 1870 ) . where it disappeared due ro people's sinfulness Thus the recovery of the Grail became the grearquesr of Arthur's knights When Urher fendragon died. at which one hundred and fifty knights could be seated.l I . Arthur had much in common with Finn MacCool But according to the ninth-century monk Nennius.Arthur pulled it out and gave it ro the amazedknight. he sent Arthur to get one Wi thou t r ealizrngrhe signific ance of the sword in rhe stone. but none could move it After a number of yearsArrhur joumeyed ro London to watch his first toumament A knight who had been appointed by Merlin ro act as the boy's guardianwas tahng part. wrtches and monsters.impressedthe gearer part of westem Europe It was wirh some misgivrngs thar the Church permitted a Chrisriamzed version of theseCeltic myrhs ro occupy such an importanr placein rhe medieval imagination It was never quire at easewith the story of rhe Grail. there were knights who would nor accept Arthur as ARTHUR. aslu the Anglo-Saxon invaders after the Lady oJ the LaheJor thesword. or 5AN6REAI. Arthur was a historical leader who rallied the people of Bntain against ARTHU& promptedby Merlin.Ied oJTintagelCastlebyMerlin. C 1910 ) have a connectionwith Josephof Anmathea. which srares BYAUBREY BERosuv. wife of rhe Cornish duke Gorlois He was conceived out of wedlock and brought up away from his parens by rhe wizard MERLIN The resourceful Merlin had already designed for Uther Pendragona wonderful stronghold and placed in ir the famous Round Table.unawareof his destiny untilhis nghtfuI time to draw the swordfrom the stone. since its miraculous propenies were clearly derived from the Celtic cauldron. Fxcalibur Roman legions had gone Nennius Theyoung hing mawelledat theshining credir Anhur with rwelvevicrories. sword but Merlin insistedthat the scabbard but does not mention the account wasworth ten of the swordsbecause it of his death recorded slighdy later pra.

he had Excalibur rhrown into a lake.the queen and Lancelot were soon Iovers. a terrible battie was fought. This was the famous Excalibur. king that shall be " Such an Juturepromise Arthur's undeath was not enough to save D'ARTHUR BYJAME5 ARCHER.quvas. the most handsome of the lfuights of the Round Table But he later blessed the married couple and. in so that he might retum one day to ARTHUR le queens Morgan guardedby t'airy lead his people once more four oJ her in consults booh Fay. heal wounds the tomb at Glastonbury picks up this "undead" Thewinged appantion htng Celtic idea of reincamation It and thehope Grail reads: "Here lies Arrhur.gaveAnhur the Round Table as a wedding grft Nevenheless. c. because news reached the king that his nephew Sir Modred had seized Camelot and even forced Guinevere to consent to marriage. for futhur was otherwise unalrned. where a hand swiftly seized destroyedby the implacablehatred it Then Anhur boarded a magic berweenArthur and Modred (See boat and disappeared. since he knew of Guinevere'slove for Sir IANCELOT. The inscription on Arthur's of to the maglc craJts.CEr-TIC MvrHoLoGY ARTHUR S RoundTablesewedmany purposes: pruented quarels aver it pr eceden . according to one version of the myth.after spreadingstories of the king's death on campaign Returning ro Brimin. tn despair the king wandered along the shore of a lake when. aided King Leodegraunceof Scotland in his wars against the Irish and even campaigned as far away from his kingdom asRome. he saw a hand and arm rise out of the water. however. each ordered his forces to attack if they saw anyone draw a sword When a knight unsheathed his weapon to kill a snake. according to the l-:ldy of the Lake. rApEsrRy. cowled blach. and when futhur found out about his wife's unfaithfulness Lancelot fled to Brittany Anhur pursued Sir l^ancelotand besiegedhim in his Breton stronghold The siege had to be lifted. rND THE l(t. Anglo-Saxons. holding another magrcsword.tonr reign (t-e oJ was. He defeated the Anglo-Saxons. first Merlin objected ro the match. his sure support. rymbolQe wh olan s. Arthur was dismayed to see the blade sharter. tci his amazement. Becauseneither one trusted the other. 1860) . but which was finally near. Arthur was betrothed to his daughter At GUINEVERT.Arthur went on to be a great king. king Only with Merlin's aid was the young ruler able to defeat his opponents and bring peace to Britain How much he depended on magic became obvrous to Arthur early in his reign Having drawn his own sword wrthout cause against one of his knights. such was the severiryof his disintegation of the chivalnc uniry wound Knowing his own end was that was establishedby the Round Table. king that carryingthe rymbolizes t'. Arthur summoned his knights to do battle with the rebels Prior to the conflict. and es ce d commemorated TableoJthe l-ast the Suppo.Merlin savedhim by putting the knight to sleep. ln rerum for the aid given to Lrodegraunce. it was agreedthat the hng and his nephew would meet between the rwo armies to discuss the possibility of peace. King Arthur had to be carried away by these of the Anhunan myth tums on rhe I<rr€hs.however The whole Although he had won. in which the flower of British chivalry fell Only two of Arthur's knights were left alive on a batdefield that his weakened kingdom from the was coveredby the dead and dyttg. HEROTC words were that he was going to QUEsrs) to AVALON be cured of his wounds in rests peoce Avalon. who handed it to him Rearmedand reassured. His last also MAGICAND ENCHANTMENT. with the Grail at the centre (Knc Tesre Anrnur.ttcHTs oF THE RouND To rHE QuEsr By A SrnnNcr 1898-99 ) SuUMoNED DAMSEL By E BURNE-JoNEs.

but on rhe way ro the whirlpool one of the boys fell out unnoticed Either rhe druid rhen handed the fortunate baby to the smith god cotnHNIU.Ethlinn's son and the chamdeath. Arthur's last restingplace. (llr-L.Cnlrrc MyrHoLoGy AVnI-ON was another name for the Welsh otherworld.qNDA Gnev. or women the oJ the eyelid opened again. Balor was killed in barrle with a sling-shot by the sun god BALOR. castsaJatal stoneinto member of the Tuatha De Danann Balor's deadlyq. as well as the nine mythical maidensguarding Annwn's maglccauldron (Kruc AnrHun rN AvALoN By E BURNE-JoNIs. BRIOR was rhe Irish Cyclops (Seealso CELTIC OTHERWORLDS) This one-eyedgod of death was rhe most formidable of the FoMoRII. The fateful meeting between Lugh and Balor occurred at the second battle of Magh Tuireadh. or alternatively MANANNAN MACUn. histoncalordu oJnine nuns who lived olJthe coastoJRomanBittany. a fiercecontest berween the Fomorii and the Tuatha De Danann Nobody could stand Balor's lethal gaze. . 1995 ) When Balor leamed that his daughter had given binh to three sons. Lugh was saved and set on the road to his desriny as rhe slayerof Balor. the traditional fairy of the Irish countryside After the arrival of the Milesians from what is now Spain (the ancestorsof the presenrday Irish) the gods and goddesses known as rhe TUATHADE DANANN disappeared underground and dwelt in mounds.rByH I FIRD. who were driven from Ireland for ever. beansidhe.led the misshapenFomoni against pion of the Tuatha De Danann theyoungerTuatha De Danann Herehis Lugh's father was Cian. Even so.rhe owner of a sword which previously none could escape The battle was just tuming into a Tuatha De Danann rout. (Seealso CELTIC OTHERWORLDS) BRNSHEE is the modern name for the beansidhe ("woman of the fairies"). off Badb was said ro have appeared the north-west coasr of Ireland over rhe warriors' heads. Iater. It was believed thar the wailing of a banshee foretold the approach of a human death. ln either event. BAOB (meaning "crow") was an the violent and monstrous seagods Irish goddess of battle She was one who ruled Ireland before the arrival of a group of war deitieswho could of the TIJATHADE DANANN So influence rhe outcome of conflict dreadful was his one eye thar he by inspiring the combarants wirh destroyedwhoever he looked upon fear or courage The others were and his eyelid had to be levered up Known as MORRIGAN.e. Avalon has been idendfied with Glastonbury. and its name suggess that itwas an island of apples The mortally woundedARTHURwas ferried there by three mysterious women in a black boat. the supposedsite of Arthur's tomb. he ordered that rhey be drowned in a whirlpool nearTory Island Balor's servants duly rolled them up in a sheet. Cian had enrered the crystal warriors marching behind him tower and slepr wirh Ethlinn.forcing it bach through With the assistance of a female his head where its lethal gazedestroyshis druid. ANNwN. when Lugh noriced that the AVALON.Joiryheavens hidden beneath gassy eyeball backward through Balor's mounds Inshhilkides on kgendhas it head. Excalibur was forged there Tradidonally. ctuves. NEMAINand by four servans It was prophesied MACHA. with the result that it was rhe thatabanshee attaches toaJamily itself Fomoni who now sufferedfrom the andwams impendingdeathwith of an destrucdve effect of its paralysing eeie wail (tu-usrnerror.srn cloN By MTn. To avoid rhis fate he 1014. 1894 ) 102 . decided to foster him. aJormidable one-qed god of LIIGH. and over the centuries they were slowly transformed in the popularimagination into fairies. i902 ) stare The Tuatha De Danann were able to defeat the Fomorii. mystery and peace lts nine guardian queensrecall an actual. a lesser grandson.he hurled lived undergroundsparlzling in sidhe the stone so hard rhat ir forced the faines.Myth connec$ Badb with that he would be slain by his own the historical bartle of Clonrarf in grandson. was an otherworldlyretreat of wonder. Lugh. following the terrible batrle againsrSir MODRED's army The undead king was expected to retum from Avalon and lead the oppressed Celtic population of Britain to victory over rheirAngloSaxon and. single eyelid of Balor was slowly closing through weariness Lugh crept near to him with a magic sling-shot in hand The momenr BANSHEE. Norman conquerors According to one version of the myth. not even the Tuatha De Danann leaderNUADA. when the High Kirg Brian locked his only daughter ETHLINN defeated the Viking invaders and in a crystal tower on Tory Island. the god of the sea.

at Arthur theendoJhis guarded BEDWYR the alaheJor ship hJe. In later of King ARTHUR's Anhurian romance Bedwyr became Sir Bedivere. as Beli to the Welsh.was honoured on the eveof Beltaine when Celts litbonfires. once ide outJrom their hollow hills Celtic gods. l9ll ) the wife of King BUqfHNATwas CU RoI of Munster She fell in love place names such as Billingsgate. symbolizng the raysoJthe sunand the promiseof summer fruitfulness Here. however. BEUNUS. oF srDHE to celebrateBeltaine (THrRrorps rHE BYJOHN DUNCAN. In the fiercebattle that followed Cu Roi was killed and Cuchulainn was able to ride off with Blathnar He also took with him Cu Roi's bard. the god of prophecy He appears in various forms across the Celtic world. and betrayed her husband's people by in London) Although his worship was clearly widespread. according to welsh mythology. Cuchuiainn was able to follow its course. with cucHut AINN. thq waitedby as thatwould ferrythehingtoAvalonThis realism photographic blends evocativscene e 4n to witha ghostly bachdrop create oJ representation and elfective convincing an otheweorldly realm (Monr D'AnrHun nv JoHw Genntcx.ctNvts. was a one-handed warrior who. was a Celtic sun god known to the Romans Julius Caesarcompared Belenus to Apollo. of one of the important fesdvals the Celdc calendar. the "firesof Bel". Fer Cherdne took the opportunity to avengehis former master's death by grabbing hold of Blathnat and jumping over the edge with her in his arrns. Fer Cherdne When the party halted on a cliff top.little elseis showing the hero how he could known about him enter her husband's apparentlY impregnable fortress A stream BRAN flowed through rhe fort and when BTN DTCTTPFRAN SCE Blathnat poured milk into the THEBLESSED water. 1862) r03 . together with his played friend and companion I<AI.the geat Ulster "Bile's gate" (formerly a fish market hero and enemy of Cu Roi. and his name survives in a number of BELENU5 BTLE SCC BELENUS. They were both members court.CnITIC MVTHOLOGY BEDW}R BTOTVERE SCC BEOWYR. the faithful knight who remained with King Arthur after he was mortally wounded. an important pail in helping to CULHWCH procure the prizes he required to win the hand of otwEN. thefaines. cANVAs. threw the sword Excalibur into the lake on the king's insrucdons and bore his body to the boat which camed him to AVALON BEL seeBELENUS also known as Bel.was celebratedon the first of May in his honour. a Celtic sungod. Bile to the lrish and Belenusto the Gauls Beltaine.

CEr-Trc MyrHoLoGy .

was healing Lancelot ferned contained sptntualsustenance to Carboneh a ghostly on shtpwtthout captatnor crewand chahce because oJ permitteda dtstantvisionof the sacred his courogeous sprnt Hts loveof Guinevere forbade a ALAN 1984 vision (lui'sruroN Bv Lrr. and was an otherworldly heaven guardedbyangels wondrousspintswhose unearthlysongwasbeautful the bqond imagnrng Thecastlehoused Gratl. the of symboltze darht'orces the otherworld Beforetheir at deJeat thehandsof the TuathaDe Danann. the Fomoii roamedbeneath rn seas bleahpurgatones Balor'ss.he Arawn. paralysedhrs gaze enemtes (lr-r-usrnaloru BYALAN Let. because Joughtan annual he a he battlewith Havgan("SummerSong") On oneoccasion.aholy vessel. whtch sard to be the Cup oJthe Inst Supper. thegrry-cladlordof Annwn Lthethe encountered Greehgod oJthe underworldHades.Arawn may possibly symbolize Lord oJWinter. idingthrough alush. Grail CastleoJArthunan legend. 1984 ) :IO5 . at the end oJwhich Pwyll duel Joughtand won theseasonal (lrrusrRerroN sy Ar.they the oppressed Insh with crushingtnbutesand cruelry Pwytt. Fomont. 1984 ) While the Tuatha De Danann livedunderground rn lahes and glittenngsidhe. suddenly Jound realm of Annwn AJterdnving himselfin the othemvorldly off someshtningwhitehounds Jrom a t'allen stag. ashedPwyll to swapplaceswrth him Jor a year.4N LEE.the Can-soxnx (above). poisonedtn rye with rtsdeadly youth. complete ) the Beron (above) andhis mtsshapen people. wooded idyll.ngle .

as well as the place where souls briefly rested before rebirth Bran's greatjourn ey began BLODEUEDD (above). was conjuredout oJ blossoms Gwydionand Math. he did not die buc flew into the air in the shape of an eagle Math and Gwydion set out ro avenge LIeu When they found Blodeuedd.who sea god MANANNAN was dnving his chariot across the waves Once again the lrish heroes were informed by the seagod of the marvels that awaited them Even then the seaappearedto be a plain of flowers. but one day Lleu went to visit Math and while he was awayBlodeuedd hndly offered hospitaliry to a passinghuntsman. Arriving off the lrish coas[. a sacredwell oJ inspiration In outragethe wqters bubbledand swelled. c 1910 ) when he found a silver branch that was covered with white flowers. including those of orherworlds. taking the magic bough with her Bran had been unable to hold on to it. the lord of Penllyn Blodeuedd and Goronwy fell in love and began to plot the murder of LIeu This was no easy task.the chief god of rhe TUeTHADEDANANN. magical woman Shewas conjured by MATH andGwyoioN from the blossoms of oak. the otherworld islands. Gathering his kinsmen together. even though the pair finally succeededin meeting all the conditions and attackedhrm. Gwydion turned her into an owl. but in fact many yearshad passed When one of the crew grew homesick and persuaded Bran that it was time rhat they sailed home. he was wamed by the chief woman not [o set foot on soil again. son of Febal.Gwydion's nephew. and by magic drew the boat from the waves. awater goddess the violated the sanctil oJ mother of Aonghus. and inhabited by beautiful women who had no knowledge of sorrow. ARIANRHOP. (Iuusrnenoru ByARTHUR RActclrru. Bran displayed the magic bough.with blossoming shrubs and an orchard of fruitful trees That day Bran's boat came to the Isle of Merriment. was her lover and the father of Aonghus He was able ro seduce Boann by sending her husband on a nine-month joumey that seemedbut one day BRAN. because Lleu's mother. the which is namedafterher In its current seenhere swam the Salmonof Knowledge. sicknessor death Happiness. and only by u spear which it had taken a full year to make However. the bird of the night BOANN was a warer goddessand the mother of AONGHUs. formin g a torrent which became River Boyne. Bran discovered that nobody recognizedhim. only to be surprised by the sudden appearanceof a woman dressed in veryunusual cloth She sang to the assembledcompany of the great wonders to be found in the lands beyond the sea. for Lleu could be kilied only while standing wrth one foot on a goat's back and rhe other on the edge of a bath tub.here husbandJor . The beautiful women's leader called to Bran to step ashore. declared that he had should marry/ no mortal woman For a time rhe young couple livec.When they came ashore the Irish heroes found soft beds and delicious food ready for them The delightful stay seemed to them to last for only ayear. and then in the evening they reached the Isle of Women. she was mamed eirher ro NECHTAN ro or Elcmar DAGDA. she sang to them. together happily. but he was afraid to land. each larger than lreland. and he was known only as a legendary r06 . watches his beautiful creation comesto as By LEE. ) life (tttustwrroN ALAN 1984 and BOANN below). even with both his hands The next day Bran sailed westwards with t'wenty-seven kinsmen Their first encounter was with the MACLIR. so by the maglcians couldbe thewtfe of Gwydion's that she Lleu But shebetrayedher nephew. is the hero of the most famous of the Insh voyage myths Seavoyages fascinated the Irish storytellers. such as the home of gods and goddesses. broom and meadowsweet to be the wife of LLEIJ.thefairest woman in the world.CeITIC MyTHoLoGY (whose name BlooruEDD means "bom of flowers" or "flower face") was a beautiful. where his crew could hardlystand up for laughing. the Insh god of love According to the different versions of her myth. Goronwy. so she threw a ball of rhread that stuck to Bran's hand.who would tell of strange adventures on remote islands. was the lot of all Iiving in these wonderful lands Then the strangewoman stopped singing and vanished. anotherman Gwydion.

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MYTHoLoGY

figure who had long ago embarked on a great voyage to the otherworlds, so he set sail again; but not before one desp erate hero forgot the waming and jumPed ashore, and immediately tumed into a Pile of ash, as though he had been dead for centuries The voyage of Bran is certainlY an ancient myth, although it was not written down until the eighth century by monks Even though the monla added cenain Christian elements such as references to JesusChrist and Adam's sin, theY did not obscure the tale's original magical atmosphere. (See also FABULOUSVOYAGES) visited voyage, on BRANbelow), hisepic woman the where chieJ oJ theIsIe Women, maglc ship broughthis to shorewith a sheholdscupofplenty, Here, thread of idyllicdelights theisland symbolizngthe thq thought stayed voyagers for what The thq, Jor was yearbefore leJt home a
(Irrusrnnnot'r BvDervur,qMr"tR, 1993)

BnnN THE BLESSED, rhe son of the seagod Llp, played a different role to BMN, son of Febal ln Welsh mythology, he was called Bendigeidfran and seems to have been an otherworld god, although he was also active as a British king in mortal affairs He allowed his sister BMNWENto marry the Irish wrthout the king tvtATHOLwCH, consentof her hallbrother EFNISIEN. of Because this slight, Efnisien cut off the lips, ears and tails of Matholwch's horses during the wedding feast in Wales. Not unnaturally, hosdlities almost broke out between the Irish and the Britons as a result, but Bran (ngh),themighry BRANTHEBLESSTo to to rulu oJBitain, sailed lreland rescue In Branwen the sister, hisbeauttful Bran mortallY ensuingbattle, was cut wounded, hishead, fromhisbody, but is of cauldron rebirth lived Hismaglcal on along here, seen restored, withhishead
(luusrnerrorv BY AL4NLer, 1984 )

managed to avoid a war bY Presendng Matholwch with a magic cauldron This otherworld vessel could bring men back to life, but without restoring their speech Back in Ireland, Matholwch was unable ro convince his warriors that Bran's gift was adequatecomPensadon for the damage done to the horses So Branwen ceased to be the Irish queen and was made to work in the palacekitchens, even though she had alreadY given Matholwch a son and heir, GwERN When Bran leamed of how she was being treated, he raised a great army and sailed to lreland In the ensuing battle the Britons slew every Irish man there was, but onlY

seven of their own alrny survived Even Bran was killed, bY a wound caused by a poisoned arrow On his deathbed he told his followers to cut off his head, which aqqarently was still able to eat and talk during the voyage home A later addidon to the myth saYsthat the head was brought to London and buried facing EuroPe, to ward off foreign invaders KingAnhur is said to have used the head for its Power The Celts believed that heads were the seat of the soul, which may partly explain their pracdce of head-hunting Even more curious, was the medieval Chnstian claim that Bran was the first British man (SeeaISO CAULDRONS) WONDROUS

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BMNGAINE

(above)and lseult peer

euizzcally at the shyyoungstrangerin the palace garden, pur4ling w r his idntity But as soonas the dogleapt fondly onto his lap, thq recognized the strangeras Tnstan, who had been wsumed dead Thq wue confusedatfrstbecausehe was much changed afterhiswandeings in the wildwood (luusrncrton EvELw pAUr- 1g2O By c )

BnnNCnINE was rhe maid of ISEULT, princess of lreland and lover of rRtsraN. tseuk had been promised in maniage ro King MARK of Comwall. Trismn, his nephew, came to lreland to escort her across the sea. Before rhe ship sailed, Iseult's mother gave Brangaine a love potion for Iseult and Mark on their wedding night, as ir caused those who drank ir to love only each other for the rest of their lives However, during rhe voyage,Trisran became thirsty and unwittingly drank the potion, and then offered some to Iseult. Through all rhe ensuing difficulties Brangaine was always loyal, sharing their secrets,such as when Trismn was brought ro Mark's castle mistaken for a wild man. even tahng Iseuh's place in Mark's bed on rhe wedding nighr. BRANWEN(righ? releases starling a bearing plea help,across sea a the to for her giant brother,Bran When reads he of her plght in lreland, sets he sail immediately a Welsh with Jleet
(Ir-rrrsrnenoruByAI.AN LEE,Iggq )

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MYTHOLOGY

was the daughter of BnnUWnN Llyr, the Welsh equivalent of the Irish seagod tm, and sister to BRAN ANd UEruAWYDAN THE BLESSED, of When High Kitg MATHOLWCH Ireland came to Bran's court at Harlech itwas ageed rhat Branwen should be given to him in marriage was But her half-brother EFNISIEN not consulted and, feeling insulted, he cut off the lips, earsand tails of Matholwch's horses To restore peace Bran offered the lrish king replacement horses and a magic cauldron Matholwch retumed to Ireland with Branwen, who was at first receivedwith geat rqoicing for she was generouswith gifts, and before long she gavebirth to a son, GWERN But after a few Years Matholwch's fnends and family began to complain that the compensation he had received from Bran was not enough To satisfY Ihem, Matholwch insisted that Branwen relinquish her Position as queen and become a cook for the court. During the next three Years,as Branwen worked in the Palace htchens, she reared a starling and taught it to recognizeher brorher Bran Then she sent it acrossthe sea with a letter tied to its leg, telling of her reatment. When Bran and the Britons leamed of her fate they brought an army to lreland.

BRES, in Irish mythology, was DE briefly the leader of the TUATHA the DANANN, implacable enemies of the F)MORII, the sea gods who ruled treland long before rhem Breswas an unusual leader of the Tuatha De Danann because his father was EIATHA, who was a Fomoni king of a land that IaY under the sea. Elatha had met a Tuatha De Danann goddessnamed En on the sea-shoreand made love to her on the sand Bres was bom as a result, although En was careful to say nothing to her husband and the BRENDAN, lish saint navigator, voyage afterhtswondrous retums lrelnnd to His in search theLandoJPromise tour of includdaland rslnnds mysteious oJtwelve the was of birdlilu spiits, which possibly about the boy's real father When Bres grew up, he fought againstthe existing inhabitans of Ireland, the ntRnoLG,at the first battle of Magh Tuireadh In this engagementNUADA,the leader of

leadership, the De Danann were under the command of Bres But Breshad no gift for leadershiPand becamesomethingof a tyrant On the restoradon of Nuada, Bres and his mother En fled to Elatha in order ro seek Fomoni assistance This caused the second battle of Magh Tuireadh, in which Nuada was killed Through the bravery of the sun god tucu, however, the Fomoni were routed and Breswas taken prisoner One version of the myth explains how, in return for his life, Bres promised to instruct the Tuarha De Danann in the arts of planting and sowing croPs It is possiblethat Bres,like his wife, the was a deiry fertiliry goddessBRIGID, connected with agriculture BrunN was one of the three sons of tutREaNN, whose family were engagedin a feud with the family of Cian, father of the god LUGH When Lugh sent Cian to summon the warriors of rhe TUATHADE DANANNto battle, Bnan and his brothers, Iuchar and lucharba, killed him during his journey To atone for this act of murder theY were given by Lugh eight tasks to perform. Among the objecm theY had to retrieve were three aPPles from the Gardens of the Sun, a healing pigskin from the king of a Gr.eece, poisoned spear from the king of Persia, a cooking-sPit belonging to the nymphs of an underseakingdom and the seven pigs of Kitg Asal of the Golden Pillars.which could be cooked and eaten one day and found alive the next Finally, they were to shout rhreetimes on the Hill of Mochaen Having successfullybrought back to Lugh all the magical objects he required, they then set out to perform their last dutY However, they were mortally wounded bY Mochaen and his sons. Tuireann therefore asked Lugh if he might borrow the magical pigskin and so heal his sons, but the god refused and Dnan and his brothers died. (SeC S FABULOUVOYAGES) AISO

seems His LandoJhomise amazngtnle (Iuusrnenoru invading Tuatha De Danann, the tobeablafi oJ earliervoyages Iost a hand and in consequencehe c: 1920 BY Srrpsrrus, ) IAMES retired for a time Nuada tried to second in a boat made of wood. use a silver replacement without Miraculous events took place due success,until Miach, son of the to the saint's faith. One Easter a healinggod oreru;ECHT,made him whale appearedso that St Brendan ^ hand of flesh and blood and his followers could hold a ser- However, until Nuada was fully vice on its broad back After the ser- recoveredand able to resume his

vice, the whale plunged under the set waves and swam away.This great BRIANandhisbrothers outona to the across world Jufil animal was made docile by St pmbusvoyage the sethy sungodLughWith aghttasls, Brendan, as were numerous whirlandfound resource sought thq daringand pools. Even the Devilwas unable to such treasures, asan inincible disurb the saint's serenirywhenhe wondrous which helped pigshin, and showed him the pain of Hell St sword healing the in theDeDanann tharbattlewtth Brendan also restored to life one of Rno, the Navigatorwas rhe the monks who were his compan- Fomoni (Iu-usrnqnorvBvSTEPHEN 1912) BnfUOnN ions after he had insisted on seeing dtle given to a sixth-century lrish sainr. Indeed, the account of the this forbidden sight for himself On the voyageshe also encounrwo voyages undenaken bY St Brendan was just as PoPular in rhe tered a heathen giant, whom he Middle Ages as the stories told bapdzed, terrifying mice and an about the l(nights of the Round enorrnous sea cat. Finally, they Table. This wonder tale is in the reached the island in St Brendan's {N, sameradition as that of BR son vision. Inhabited by a hermit of Febal, although its direct insPi- clothed in feathers,it was probably ration was the voyageof the Aran the Land of Promise, a place of Having nken holY Chrisdan resunection similar to the hero MAELDUN. orders, Brendan prayed to go on a Celtic otherworlds On his return to Ireland, St Brendan refused to pilgrimage into unknown lands. An angel then showed him an island in smy in his old monastery but moved instead to a retreat near a vision. ln search of this beautiful land, St Brendan set sail twice, first Limerick, where he died. (Seealso in a craft made from shns, and FABULOUSVOYAGES)

r09

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MyrHoLocy

BruCtU was one of the troublemakers of Irish myrh An Ulsrer lord, he arranged a great feast to which he invired all rhe Ulsrer heroes,and ordered thar the hero's portion be given to rhe grearesr among them. Ar which point rhe three great warriors, CUCHUIIINN, CONALL and Laoghaire, sprang up at once and began'fighting each other for the honour In order to settle the argument ir was agreed that a monster should be summoned ro tesr the courage of the three heroes. Briciu did this by challengrng each one ro cut off rhe demon's head, on the understanding that the following day rhar man should then lay his own head on the block. Cuchulainn stepped up

first and beheaded rhe monsrer, whereupon the creaturerose, took up its head and departed.The next day Cuchulainn offered his own head and the monsrer pronounced him the bravestman in lreland. Bntpg seeBRTGTD

BruceNrm ("Highone" or
"Queen") was the chief goddessof the Brigantes,rhe dominant rribe in the north of England before rhe invasiron of the Romans. She was associated with water, war and healing, and also with prosperiry. A widely revered goddess, she was worshipped throughour rhe Celdc world. In Ireland she was known as BRIGID and in France as Brigindo.

BruCtn, somerimes known as Brigit, was a goddessof healing and fertiliry who was believed to assist women in labour. She seems ro have been widely worshipped in Ireland and Britain, where she was mosr likely known as BRIGANTIA. In Irish mythology, she was the wife of BREs, the half-roMout god who briefly led the TUATHADE DANANN after the first batde of Magh Tuireadh against the FIRBOLG. Bres was handsome but also oppressive, like all Fomorii, so his reign was short. Brigid, however, bore him three sons. She often appearsirsan alternative for her mother ANU, which suggesrc rhat rhey were probably different aspects of the same mother goddess.

ST BRIDEisJemedhy angek lonato Jrom Bethlehem theweof Chnst'sbirth on to and fostertheinfantChnstCeltic Christian motifs merge thisscene, in while theangek'soanng bq ondthe Jlight Jrame enhances pwafully spintual the efect (Sr Bnroe ByJoHN crNVAs, ) Dur.rct'r, c 1913 St Brigit, or Sr Bride, one of Ireland's patron sainm, may have been a priestess of the goddess Brigid prior to her conversion ro Chrisdaniry. It was said thar she was able to feed animals without reducing the available food for the people, and this also linla herwith Brigid, who was celebraredat rhe Celtic fesdval of Imbolc on the first of February, at the same dme as the ewes came into milk.

rr0

Crlrrc

MvrHoLoGY

son of Row,+w,was a C-runf, Fenian warrior and poet, and a pan oJher hfe. What the sryans gathud cousin of nruruMACC))L, Ieader of on the Lalu oJ the Dragon's Mouth, the FIANNA, wariorbodyguard the Aonghuswmt toJind Caer and win her of the High King of lreland. Cailte, Iwe. ,4s he reachedout to hqhe was also though exceptionally thin, was a tuned into a s'tttan, and thq flan away formidable fighter and is credited togethq. (luusrnenor rvGrrur Srrw,cRD, I995) with killing LIR, the sea god who was rhe father of ueN,qruNAN MAC Bructr seeBRTGTD uR. But it was as a poet that he was most admired, and his most C-AER*as afairymaiden lovedby famous audience was St Patrick. AONGHUS, Irish love god. Her Possibly after retuming from an the father Ethal was one of the TTJATIIA otherworld, Cailte was said to have DE DANANN. Aonghus became uavelled through Ireland recountaware of Caer in a dream and so ing to the saint the legends of the atracted was he to her beaury that hills, woods and lakes that they he fell into a deep sickness.When encountered, and also the great the identity of Caerwas discovered, exploits and batdes of the Fianna. Aonghus immediately asked her father for her hand, but Ethal said itwas not in his power to granr rhis becausehis daughter had taken the form of a swan. It was agreed,however, that Aonghus could ask Caer to mary him but only if he was able to recognize her from among the large flock of swans with whom she lived. When the swans arrived at the Lake of the Dragon's Mouth, Aonghus went to the shore and, recognizing Caer, called out her name. Afterwards Aonghus and Caerwere married.
CAER wu afairy maiilatwho walwd by Aonghus Shechose nlweas a ntanfor

in Irish mytholory, CelqnN, was a misshapen druid of novoRtt origin who was said to have studied sorcery for seventeen years. Queen MEDB of Connachr dispatched Calatin along with his numerous sons to fight the Ulster hero CUCHUIATNN'. of them had their All Ieft hands and right feer missing, but they never missed with their poisoned spears, and Cuchulainn only succeeded in beadng rhem with the assistanceof a Connacht warriorwho disapproved of such a one-sidedcontest. The destruction of the male Caladns did not spell the end of Cuchulainn's troubles, however, for not long afterwards Calatin's wife gave birth to three daughters, who were blinded in one eye, like the Germanic god Odin, so as to leam the magic ars. Soon the three Calatin sisters becamepowerful wirches, and rhey deceived Cuchulainn wrth their spells, and so assisted Queen Medb's invasion of Ulster. When Cuchulainn rode out in his chariot against the invaders, he came acrossthese hideous women cooking a dog next to the road Either

was warnor bard, a and CAILTE, Fanian Bards renowned hissongs andlegends Jor played central in Celtic role a or tyic poets praising perpetuating mysteies, the society, theirleaders satinzngthar enemies and in nghtup Bardic schools flouished lreland av R to thesnenteanth century(Aeu,crr^rr H,+veu1890) c becausethe dog was his namesake, or becauseit would have been discourteous to refuse a piece of the cooked meat, Cuchulainn stopped and took hold of the dog's shoulder fu a result, his own hand and shoulder withered. Gravely weakened, he sdll advanced with his faithful charioteerIAEG C,tueloT seeHEROTC QUEST5

was rhe god of the C-nUUIOS Remi, a Celtic ribe living in what is now Belgium, although there is evidence that he was also worshipped as a divinity of war in nonhem Brimin and at the town of Camulodunum ("The Fort of Camulos"), modem Colchester,in Essex. The name of the town formed the basis for the mythical city of Camelot. The Romans associated Camulos with their god Mars. He was said to wield an invincible sword. in welsh myrhC-nnnnewC, (son of ology, was the son of BR.aN the sea god, Llp). When Bran sailed with his army to Ireland to avengethe ill-ueatment of his sister BMNWEN by the High Kirg he MATHOLWCH, left Caradawc as chief steward. When news of Bran's death arrived, Caradawcwas overthrown by Caswallon, son of the death god Beli. see cELrrc CennoNEK OTHERWORLDS

castle-city CA IELOT,a mythical named l4,as aftr Camulos, theheart Arthur's oJ hingdom, seat hispou,er, the of symbol of hisgolden andhismost age belnedhome Itsshining towers hnightsJrom drevr all wer theworfl Partof themystique of yet is whichhas Camelot its elusivelocation
to be found (tlrusrncflor'r BvATAN LEE,lg}q)

tll

Yet neither Cesairnorhq fatho surnvedthe Floodwhenit ngu@ the land.predicted Dardre's traglc destiny ather birth Druids. (Iuusrntnol ByJAMEs ALDc{NDEI. at Camlan. CfnlnWEN was a welsh goddess of fertility and the mother of Afagddu. set sail withhcrJathq. After a serar-yearvoyage. At firsr none of Sir MoDRED's men would fighr Morfan because they thought he was ugly enough to be a devil. the second son. who was also a fearsome warrior. Morfan. In her myrh. Findchaem. escapedbychan$nginto a vrlmon. He is usually depicted sitting cross-leggedand wearing a sleeveless unic and bead necklace. he was fortunate to be advisedby a god to build his own boat. rhe morher of NAOISE. CEnNUNNOS was a Celdc god worshipped in both France and Britain. granddaughta oJNoah. tecichm and ambassadors Evena htgh hing could not speahat an assanblybeJorehis druid (luusrnenoru NtcK By BE{LE. Ceridwen chased and are Gwion Bach. DECHTIRE. who was the greatest of all rhe Welsh bards.agical hoprng brart to endow ill. in Irish mythology. Bith. her son At the oJ and ayear.judges. to watch over the por. which suggests that he was a god of wild animals and the foresr.and she set Gwion Bach. He has an impressive pair of antlers. mother of and CONALL Ceamach.bothmaleandfemale. MAC the hng of Ulsrer Cathbad prophesied that though ortnoRE would have great beauty she would bring destruction ro Ulsrer He also foretold that the hero CUCHULqINN would have a glorious bur shorr life When King Conchobhar Mac Nessa became cruel rowards rhe end of his reign. ) 1995 ARTHUR in his lasr barrle. CfSrun was the daughter of Bith. Carhbad had three children. Although Bith was denied a place in rhe fuk.ahhough he has also been seenas a god of plenry The Romansidenrified him wirh their god Mercury.andadvisor to CONCHOBHAR NESSA. Celtic and Hebrew radidons were brough t somewhar u ncomfo rtably together by the monks who wrore down the sagas and who suggested that the first setrlers had reached lreland before the Flood. son of Noah and one of the earliest arrivals in lreland. drops but these splashed to thelundoJGvrwn on (tuusrnrnoN Bach. thebrothwouWfuA justthree precious oJinspiration. Ceridwen had another equally ugly son. Fintan. BY Attxfivpen. To compensarefor his Iooks Ceridwen boiled a cauldron of knowledge for ayear and a day so thatAfagddu could become wise and respected. wasa seer anddruid. reputedly the ugliest man in the world. ) 1995 J^MES CATHBAD (abwe). heldhigh ranh in Celtic societyThq were counwllors. and the name Cemunnos means "the Homed One". Bur Afagddu was denied the prophedc gift when a drop fell on Gwion Bach's finger and he unthinkingly sucked it ln fury. to escarythe Flood. Cathbad cursed the king and his srronghold at Emain Macha. Cesair appears to have guided him to rhis decision as well. rhe messenger god and the guide of the dead to the underworld. They sailed for sevenyearsand eventually reached CESAIR. only later to reincarnate him as TALIESIN. In medieval Ireland the anders of Cemunnos were transferred ro the Devil. mother of the Cuchulainn. the inspireddruid and seer. ) IggS CnfHnnD. Elbha. although her husband.favoured withwidom.thq reached the shoresof lreland.Crlrrc MyrHoLocy CERIDWEN boika n. He fought with King 112 . became who all-hnwing.

successionwas raised in Tara. which said that an obscurewoman a in theother strpent. he came punish severely those who rook to a roadsidehostel where he was greetedby three strangehorsemen.eNNAN MACLIR. CONrunf MOn was a High King of Ireland He was the son of a cowherd's foster-daughter named Mess Buachallaand the bird god NEMGIANHis motherwas acrually At this time Conaire Mor was some distance from Tara As he headed back ro rhe palace in his chariot. next High King In rhe succession CltOnHNA. who camefrom Spainand have a spell of truth sung over him brought human rule to the island as he slept The man rhe courtier dreamed abour would then be the in Irish mythology. Conaire Mor would be made High Itng part in the growing disorder. the High Kirg Peaceand prosperity ar first marked had to forgo the ways of peaceand his reign. who could not bring themselvesto carry out the king's order lnstead they gave Mess CERI\TUNNOS. (Gurvorsnup ccuLDRoN. warfare Evenually. GTLDED on the night before the wedding. The birds shed their fearhersand artacked rhe charioteer as warriors But one of the birdlike fighters. the So it was that Conaire Mor was country soon slid back into clan received atTaraas the High Kirg. who then sent a wave to pull her back ro rhe [^andof Promise. While on campaign. a Celtichunter oJ god Buachallato a cowherd. who had magnificenr Ireland. srLVE& c 1008C) Mess Buachallaslept with the god Nemglan.one of the court would MIIESIUS.CeITIc MyrHoLoGY the daughter of Etain Oig and CORMAC king of Ulsrer. Buachallapassedoff as the son of Fintan saved himself by changing Eterscel The one instrucrion rhat into a salmon. the god. was an otherworld goddess of dream a naked man was revealed. beauty. weapons. Mor was luredby enemies his into.the High King of sunoundedw animak andishere wild Ireland. a flock of birds descended upon him Theyhad such wonderful plumage rhat Conaire Mor forgot the raboo about hlling birds and got out his sling. herbeautywas so remarkposition "horned was The one" alordof able that Eterscel. CLIODHNA to Glandore livewith to whose clothes. the who were all more or less super. but all the water had now been used When a druid accompanying the rebels laid a spell of thirst on the High King. although the lure of plunbreak his promise to his farher. Etersceldied and the right of FoMoNr and ruente DE DANANN. He inrroduced himself as his father Nemglan and CONAIRE MORwas burdenedby more (taboos) anyother reminded the young man rhar he geis than l'ishwarlord must never cast stones ar birds for Violation geisled misJortunedeath oJ to or they were his own kin As a andmarhed traglc turning-point the a in penance. during his stay in the hostel "neither skin nor flesh of you wrll lulled to sleepbyJairy music. never to hll a bird. but the rest of Bith's Nemglan told Mess Buachalla to famrly drowned This myth is lqrown give to their child was rhar he was as the first invasion of lreland. where Cesairwas married plumage.Nemglan told his son to hero's Despite wisdom. hfe his Conaire walk naked along the road to Tara. From this union was When the rising warers bom Conaire Mor. and horseswere all red A hideous Ciabhan. decided to manryher He creatures a thestagboar such andlion was also persuadedby a prophecy In onehandhe closps awarior'storc. whom Mess ro FINTAN. the warrior saw that the fight was over and Conaire Mor's severedhead lay on the floor So he poured the warer into the king's head. and promised ro rule lreland (luusrnrnoru ny SrrpHrru 1910 Rao.demonstrating would bear him a famousson. Cormac wztsso disappointed not to have a son that he ordered Mess Buachallato be thrown into a pit.Irish capital It was agreedto follow natural in nature The final invasion the ancient custom of the dream of lreland was by the sons of After a feast. sent a great wave to old woman told Conaire Mor rhar scoopher up and bnngher home Here. at which Conaire Mor's decapitated head praised him for his senseof dury rl3 . bodies fled hermortallwer. who was more handsome than the rest. would bring about his own downSince ConaireMorwas reluctant to fall.but sea Manannan Mac Lir. the man.a yourh with wonderful curling lock One day on the shore near Cork.+ru. Cliodhna was put into a magic sleep by the sea god ivt. savewhat rhe birds will (Irrusrnenor ByJAMES rvorn. Cliodhna was passionatelyin love with a mortal named Ciabhan. But hispwr. typically is depicted alotus in grew up. ) Ar-H( 1995 take in rheir claws " The same night a rebel force surrounded the hostel and attacked Three dmes the building caught fire and three times the flames were brought under control. can)nng only his sling If he did his breahing geis byone one this.When she beasts. the baby girl was savedby rwo hnd-hearted servants. of the Flood engulfed the land. However. According to the myth. he sent one of his companionsto fetch some water On retuming. shednfts bach toJairyland The Wave oJCliodhna is escapefrom the place to which you still one oJ the threegreat waves lreland oJ have come. protected Conaire Mor. while Ciabhan went hundng inland. [t was said that her rhree walhng along the road to Tara with magical birds could sing the sick ro a sling in his hand sleepand cure them. Subsequentinvasionswere by the When Conaire Morwas a young PARTHOLONand Nemed. ) in peace. der gradually drew the trish back to Conaire Mor soon realizedrhar this their old habit of cartle-raiding.

berween rhe visible world of men and the invisible otherworld.bears an apple bough. but other inspired druids Amairgen. crediteduth the design the of Round Table.the otherworldlyIsleof Apples.CTITIC MYTHoLoGY SAGES AND SEERS HE SPIRITUAL EERS nd shamans of S a Celtic myth were endowed wirh extraordinary gifts of proph ecy. as reportedby Merlin (MeruuscRrpr rllusrunoN.1994 ) Mrnrtru (ngh) is best rememberedas the fatherly and spiitual guardian of Arthur A wise seer. wisdom and healing.Merltn counselledthe younghing sometimes sternlyand sometimes gently. Some lived as hermits in the wilderness.opposingArthur. such as Morgan. the plan for Camelot and the stone'ing at Stonehenge leamt his craft He from a master. but always with wisdom Merlin was alsoa peerless sage.portrayedhere as anhistonan recordingthedeedsoJ Arthur's ragn.They enjoyed a profound rapport with narural and supernatural forces. and acted as intermediaries between the realms of the living and the dead. Merlin. she is a winter goddess darhness of and death. is oJten she portrayed as a darh soul. Nimue or the Calatihs. used their supernatural gifts ro bewitch and rnanipulate mortals for their own ends. MoRcaru Ln Fev (abovenght). Bleise. theLord of summer Sherorcals the redeemingaspectof her characterin her role as sovereign healeroJ Avalon and guardian of Arthur's body in death (IuusrnarrorusrueRr rv Lrntqoun. a realm of wondrous spints. while remaining powerful in Cekic society. c i300 ) . some dark sorceresses. QueenoJ Avalon. Taliesin and Cathbad feature in Celtic myths as prophetic bards and counsellors [o clan chiefs and kings. the celtic symboloJpeaceand plenty A glfted sorceress. Although on the whole helpful to rnortals. thwartingArthur and manipulatingheroes At a deeperlevel. Most famous of all was Arrhur's wise counsellor.

qNv. 1991) lI5 .learningthe mystmesand lnws by heart Hqe. heJoretold the comingoJthe Saxons and the oppression the oJ Cy^ry as well as his own death He appearshereas an eagle.theJair Guinnere and he had come .CTITIC MyTHoLoGY Hrrr. to thechapel with but one missron mtnd. Arthur'squeen.ter lwe her and she dtedoJabrohenheart (lr-r-usrnarroruBREY BY Au BFARDSLEY. c. druids on a snowyhill celebrate the wintu sokticeby gathmngabough oJ mistletoe.whtchwas tn to collectheahngtalismans Str Jor thewoundedlzntght Meliot When l-ancelot left wrththetahsmans.c 1870) Dnurps (abwe) heldbothpoliticaland sptntual power in Celtrc society and wereglfted not only as shamans and seers alsoas legaland moral but advisors Druids underwenta long apprenticeshtp oJat leasttwaty years. whom shehad loved Jor from aJar some years Eventually.cwEs helow) was a sorceress theArthunan in mythswho had sether heart on the noblehnight Sv I-ancelot. 1890 ) Tnueslru QeJt).was$Jtedwrth all-seeingwisdom aftu consuming "geal" oJ inspiration a from Ceidwen's cauAron Wales'sgreatestbard. cutwtth the sacred goWatsichlebornebythe DRUTDS BRTNGTNG MrsrLEroE lNrHE By Joranost druid Ctae C HENRY AND E A HoRNED.he was completely untouched lry Hellawes'loveand evenher magcal craJt Thesorceress that he Jinallyreahzed would ne. propheticpoet and shamanistic a seer. seven she managed lurehtm tnto to her Chapel Penlous and there shetned all the methods hnewto inspire she hts love her But tt was Jor to no avatlbecause the steadJa t and loyal hnight s loved onewomanonly.rs.thebird oJtenchosenbyshamans their on spirirJlighu or trance )ournqs to the othenrorld The goW nimbus symbolkes eagJe's Taliesin'sradiant btOttt (tuusrntnoN SruARr By Lrnt4onN.

1995) ALH< By IAMES aveteran CONALLoJtheVictones. Cuchulainn had been killed.I. But she would onlY agree to become his wife on the condidon that he would first let her son Conchobhar rule as king of Ulster for a year. gave up his passion. she would be the cause of death and destruction throughout the land. In doing so he eamed his title. When he left. the warriors of Ulster were stined by Conall to wreak bloody revenge. which the hero just managed to win by the use of cunning. appalled by Conchobhar's behaviour. avSrrpnrru l9l0) Conchobhar step down. Conchobhar was himself hlled by a magrcslingshot. ahigh hingof lreland. According to one Irish tradition. wrth . Some yearslater Conchobhar Mac Nessagot into arageand the "brain ball" causedhis death. Conlai was quick to anger and soon overCuchulainn's fostercame CONALL. oneby Fromthe slayinghishillm Mac victims. a his is weapon Conallherewelcomedby dun in at lJlsterman aJeast MacDa Tho's (lrrusrn BY 1910 Pen. Conall went on to ravage the whole of Ireland as he punished Queen Medb's allies one by one. When her husband died shonly after the wedding.whO WAS SOMCTiMES called Derdriu ("of the Sorrows"). refused his advances and eloped with a handsome young warrior But the hng never named NAolSE. though Deirdre would be the most beautiful woman in lreland and would marry a king. Although he was maried. somerimesknown as CONU. where he challenged the local heroes to combat. on the eve conceived Conchobhar CONCHOBHAR 1\4ACNESSA. and she in disgust t16 . and so evenually he had Naoise hlled and was married to Deirdre. in Irish mythology. king. avenged Cuchulainn's by one. Cuchulainn faced her army single-handed. they swore that if either was hlled first the other would avengehim. They caught up with Queen Medb's army and Conall slew those who had killed his foster-brother. was an Ulster He was the son of Fachtna Fathach and rurssa. the people of Ulster simply refused to let N'Inc CoNcnoBHAR Nnssn. of When Queen MEDB Connacht invaded Ulster. It was the famous "brain ball" made by Conall out of the brains of a slain Leinster king. but when the boy grasped his a thq splinteredin his hand. he lost his temper the moment Conlai cut off one of his locks of hair. his chanotshatteredbeneath stcmp No weaponswithstoodthehero's mighty grasp untilhewas glventhehing's own arrns (Iu-usrnrnoru fulo. Kitg Conchobhar fell deeply in love with DEIRDRE.FERGUS MAC R?TH. After the fight. and his head and sword-hand cut offby the enemy. Cuchulainn gave Aoifa a gold ring. they became lovers and Conlai was conceived. Da Tho. stranger to Whenhewent Ukterto hisJather he the challarye localheroes.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY in Irish mythology.but he was doomed becausehe had offended After the war goddess MoRRIGAN. Conlai accepted the possibility of death and drew his sword. spears. Although Cuchulainn was impressed by sword-play that matched his own. She found her situation so intolerable that she committed suicide by throwing herself from a speeding chariot. nrarct. brother Despite the misgivings of Cuchulainn could his wife EMER. Yearslater Conlai wore this ring on a visit to Ulster.grantedaffns to theyoung Cuchulainn. Nessa was courted by his half-brother and successor. offered his servicesto Ulster's enemiesand a long war ensued. death warlord. She was the daughter of an Ulster chieftain. theill-starcdson Aorfa to a grm Cuchulainn. and his doctors advised him to avoid any strenous exerciseand excitement. determined instructed her son how to be a great ruler so that when the dme arrived for Fergus Mac Roth to retum to the throne. Just like his father. Caemach ("of the Victories"). met combat andwa in Cuchulainn single son hilled Recogntanghis toolate. a local beaury who. Too proud to announce his own identity when challenged by Cuchulainn. brainof oneoJhis alethal hemade maglcbrainball. The ball lodged in the hng's skull.{INNAs children. By the time Deirdre grew up. tnor STEPHEN ) of her royal marriage through a secret aflairwith a druid. was the doomed son of the great Ulster hero CUCHUL{INN. An ambitious and Nessa woman. Cuchulainn hadvisited the l-and of Shadows in order to challenge the warrior woman AOIFAto single combat. not resist fighting the young stranger himself. wu Cuchulainn wemvhelmed gnef (luusrnerolr rvorn. The terrible combat only of and CONI-AI. Connla. according to one tradition. was the foster-brother of the Ulster hero CUCHUI-. Later. Fergus Mac Roth. up in Slye. CONnlL. Conchobharwas an old man. and at herbinh the druid had CATHBAD wamed that.

e and good man. overwhelmed with remorse and grief. raped the niece of Aonghus of the Tenible Spear In the ensuing fight. he wa Jnoured by the Tuatha De Danann who inited him to tharhiddnworld. Cormac Mac Art was the Irish Solomon. and Creidhne crafted rivets that flew into place and bonded at once. and Luchtar.iprn ) nv 1995 tl7 . Cellach was slain and Cormac lost an eye.he wu slain by assdssins. when the dF tg hng had nominated Cormac as his successor. The repumtion of the High King remained so strong that Iater the Insh Chnstians also adopted him. until he receivedan invitation from his father Conchobhar. One of these was a silver branch that bore golden apples. On his own death Cormat Mac An had to hand back this incredible talisman One of Cormac's sons. canied the dyrng Conlai to his house and afterwards buried his forgotten son. a wise and powerful king.did he consider retuming home. Irish myth tells of his distasteat his father's treacheryin hlling NAOISE. the carpenter. His wisdom seems DE to have impressed the TUATFIA DANANN. Cellach. However. Luchtar carved a handle in a flash.the husband of DEIRDM. when the De Danann finally defeated the FOMORII. CORMAC @elow). with the result that he ordered that he should not be buried at the royal cemetery by the River Boyne becauseof its pagan associadons. These gods and goddesses invited Cormac Mac Art to their home in the othenvorld. whose wife had fallen in love with Cormac. in rnenge for Cormac's afiair wtthhts Ufe (IrusrnenorayNrcx Baqr-e. his reign being tentadvely dated from 227 to 266. who was well served by the brave exploits of Finn MacCool. and gavehima anrative applebranch In tunewtth Chnsttan hindness. but he set out anyway and on the joumey he fell into a deep magrc sleep and was slain by a group of warriors. Only then did Cuchulainn notice on his young opponent's finger the gold ring he had given to Aoifa. the three brothers could be seen on the battlefield making and repairing spears with magical speed As Goibhniu fashioned a blade with three blows of his hammer. During the second battle of Magh Tuireadh. and of his going into volunmry exile with the deposed MAC Not Ulster ruIer FERGUS ROTH.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY endedwhen Cuchulainn drove his spear through Conlai's stomach. the smith god. sentby theharpkt. was the goldsmirh of CnnnnNE the TUATI]ADE DANANTV and the brorher of cotgHNIU. It was claimed that Cormac Mac Art leamed of the Christian faith before it was actually preached in Ireland by St Patrick.stoppedhya roaikrde hostelwhqe he wa lulled n sleep by the soft notesof aharp DeJarceless in hrs enchantedsleep. ) I995 CORMAC IVf{CARTS (abwe) ragn was dtstingushedbypeaceandplmty A wr. The atmckwas said to have been arranged by a jealous husband. He was the most famous of the earlyrulers of Ireland. Cuchulainn.al. was the son of rhe COnUeC MAC Ulster hrg CONCHOBHAR An NESSA. a druidess had wamed Cormac that if he went back to Ulster he would be killed. Conuec Mec Anrwas rhe High King of Ireland during the period that FINNMACCOOL the led Fenian warrior band. and when shaken produced music that could cure the sickandwounded. Cratfttne. returninghome afta hulongvoluntary acile.he warmly welcomedSt Patnch at hts court (Iuusrmnoru leurs Ar-rx. As a High King could have no imperfection Cormac had to step down and his son Cairbe took his place. where they gave him wonderful presens.

theInshAchilles. who told her ro make this joumey. in the form of brightly coloured birds. care and though llastbuta dayiJmyname " are myJame a pwer Jorater (CucHuretrll ByJoHN DuNcAN. although he was usually called the Hound of Ulster Cuchulainn was the lnsh Achilles. His body trembled violently. Lugh kept Dechtire there for his own pleasure for three years When Dechtire and her women retumed to Emain Macha. was the champion warrior o[ Ulster His name means "the Hound of Culann". Fannell and Tuachell. Cuchulainn could nor wait to dealwith Ulster's enemiesand he soon tookup aITIls against three semi-divine wariors named Foill. the stronghold of the Ulster kings. daughter of Fogall. l9l3) CUCHUIAINN as a youngsterlivedat the court of the High King wherehe whom trained with other sonsoJchieJtains. In this combat Cuchulainn displayed for the first dme the dreadful shape of his battle-frenzy. who was againstthe match.he glowedwith an inner divinelight and warmth.so a tragic fight ensued A gold . aswell as their numerous followers. Cuchulainn was only stopped from circling the defencesand screamingfor a fight through a ploy of the Ulster queen Mughain She led out of Emain Macha some hundred and fifty naked women carrying three vats of cold water An embarrassed or amazed Cuchulainn was swiftly womanhandled into the vats The first one burst is sides The second boiled furiously. young hero was the attackedby the ferociousguard dog and only savedhimself by dashing out its brains on one of the gate's pillars. with a drop of blood at the end of each single hair. c. a larger-than-life fighter whose bouts of [emper often causedgrief to himself and others Anger certainly made him slay his son CoNtAI. so Setantaoffered to take the hound's place while a replacement was found When Culann thanked the young warrior but declined his offer. ) in trish myrhCUcHUIAINN. a wrly the chieftain whose castlewas close to Dublin Cuchulainn asked for Emer's hand but Fogall. pointed out that Cuchulainn had yet to esrablishhis reputation as a warrior and suggestedthat he should go and leam CUCHUIAINN. when the young man ravelled from the [^and of Shadows to visit Ulster The fifteen-year-old warrior was Cuchulainn's son by the wamor-princess AOIFANeither father nor son would identifi themselves. Cathbad reassured his son-in-law by sapng that Dechtire had merely gone to visit her otherworld relations. but just it was not obvrous to everyone how strong and brave he was until he hlled an enorrnoushound with his bare hands One day. Thus was the young hero tamed after his first tasteof blood. arriving late at the gate of a house where King Cochobhar Mac Nessa was being entertained by the Ulster smith CULANN. it was decided that henceforth Setantawould be known as Cuchulainn ("the Hound of Culann") Even though Cathbad wamed that anyone going to battle for the first time on a cermin day was destined for a short life. In his calm.Dechtire along with fifty of her kinswomen flew to the otherworld in the form of a flock of birds During the wedding feastshe had swallowed a fly and dreamed as a result of the sun god LIJGH. and from the top of his head arosea thick coiumn of dark blood Iike the mast of a ship. he soonoutstipped in arms and might Ahhoughsmall. one eye receded into his head. everyday state of mind Cuchulainn was a favourite of womenfolk But he fell in love wrth EMER. Setanta Sualtam Mac Roth was so pleased to have his wife home again that when the boy was bom he accepredhim as his own child As a youth. "I not this insciption beneath portrait.an advisor to the NE55A It Kirg CONCHOBHARMAC was Cathbad who foretold that Cuchulainn would become agreat warrior but die young Shortly after her marriage to SUALTAMMAC ROTH. a man's head could fit into his jaw.tnves. which he inheited JromhisJatherthe sungod Lugh (LLusmencr| nvSrrpurru 1912 Rno. Their host had now lost a faithful guardian.and with the battlefrenry still upon him.CrlTrc MvrHoLocY RoTH. all of whom he hlled. Dechdrewas expectingLugh's son. "gaced with the bleeding headsof his enemies". for her mother was a daughter of rhe god eorucHUS In fact. the daughter of the druid )ATHBAD. Retuming to Emain Macha in his chariot. ology. his hair bristled like hawthom.irg on Conlai's finger revealed too late that he was Cuchulainn's own offpsring Cuchulainn's mother was DECHTIRE. his heels and calves appearedin front. the other stood out huge and red on his cheek. who was the brother of the MAC deposed Ulster ruler FERGUS 1r8 . Setanta quickly leamed the wavs of the warrior. inhisbneJ mighty deeds many performd qes yearsThehero's dreamy reflect in the which expressed is hrsidealism. but the last vat became only very hot.

Cuchulainn was soon unbeatable in combat. King Conchobhar Mac Nessa. brother.but she was derermined to invade and she also had three advantages Firsr. leavinghis bodY for the carrion birds Conall. Cuchulainn had lost the oJ to CUCHUIAINNjourneyedtheIsle martial Onthe arts to Sltye trainin the aflaming met Islehe amanwhogavehim the him to wheel guide through deadly the was Jather. 1916 ) from the Scottish champion Domhall.the Ulster chamPion was overcometn spire of aid from his divine father. and she wamed him without success not to challenge her sister Aoifa But Cuchulainn beat Aoifa by cunning.Crlrtc MYrHoLocY For a year and a day Cuchuiainn was taught by Scathach.lashedhimselfto a pillar and died onhisfeet At theend a crw settledonhis shouher. ROMANCE) CELTIC I19 . his foster- CUCHUIAINN. support of the goddessMORRIGAN. and afterwards she became his mistress." god. Medb attacked when Ulster's heroes were laid low by MACHA's curse. mortally woundedin hsJinal combatbut determinedto ftght to the end. (Tnr Dr.. a skill he was to need dearly in his last campaign. laid low with a spear.they cast a spell on Cuchulainn which withered a shoulder and a hand Second. signtfyingdeath This memonal rymbolkes all thosewho Jought lish Jor oF indqendarce. L-aeg. sRoNzt. ) av Srrpnrru 1912 Lugh(Iuusrnqrt. the greathero had made bitter enemies of rhe CATATIN family.rrn cucHUtArNN BY O SHEPP RD.then Cuchulainn himself suffereda temble stomach wound that even Lugh could not heal Finally. Domhall told Cuchulainn rhat his best trainer in arms would awanior-pnncess in be SCATIIACH. sun guide his qngnire The Rno. which was a single-handed defence of Ulster against the invading army ol Queen MEDB of Connacht The main reason fo'r this large-scale cattle raid was a famous brown bull which was kept in Cuailgne But the tyrannical ruler of Ulsrer. and were unable to fight for five days and nights Finally. One prophecy told the queen that there would be "crimson and red" upon her forces becauseof Cuchulainn's prowess. but only after a heated battle wrth Fogall and his warriors. also played a part in gathering rebei'lious Ulstermen and others from many parts of Ireland to Queen Medb's side. so widespreadwas Cuchulainn's because he had rejected her fame that his exploits inlluenced passionare advances Yet he still the developmenr of the Arthunan managed to conduct a successful myths in Britain and France (See single-handed defence and was able to slow the advanceof Queen also MAGICAND ENCHANTMENT. and the dazed warriors were able ro respond to SualtamMac Roth's call to arms But their help came too iate for on Cuchulainn Pressed all sidesbY his enemies. conceiving the unfortunate Conlai Cuchulainn finally retumed to Fogall's stronghold and claimed Emer. during which Fogall leapt to his death escapingthe hero Acclaimed as the champion of Ireland in a beheading contest.until the effects of Macha's curse had almost worn off. Cuchulainn ded himself ro an upright stone in order to light dll his last breath As soon as he died Morrigan. and became the lover of her daughter Scathachseemsto have UATHACH fearedfor the saferyof Cuchulainn. rhe sun god Lugh was His only companion. Medb's forcesby the use of clever racticsand lighrning attacks.r. in the form of a crow. settled on his shoulder and his enemies cut off his head and right hand. the Land of Shadows So he travelled to this mysterious land and served Scathach She taught the young hero his famousbattle leap. whose daughterswere wrtches Just pnor to his last stand along with his faithful charioreerIAEG. managed to recover the missing parts. but Ulster wePt for the lossof their champion Indeed.

Yspaddaden agreed to the marriage on condition that Culhwch perform a whole seriesof difficult tasks.tohes medievalmood. c Grsxrl. the Welsh glant did not favour the idea of his daughter marrying a man.. who was born after his father's death. Culann was angry about this so Setantaoffered to become his hound until a new one was trained.He was killed by Jadhg.w<no. Hound of Culann". in order to choose the champion of lreland. CU ROt andhis raided TerFalga. then killed Yspaddaden and married Olwen. The three CULIIWCH (nght). CUHNN below).With the assistance of KingArthur's men and a couple of divine allies.Cuchulainn (tllusrncfloN sv SrEprer.the daughter of the giant Yspaddaden.Celrrc MvrHoLocY in lrish myrhology. was the son of Cildydd.1912) on comrade. 1940 rHEKfNG's ayAnrnrrn ) SoN I20 . but they managed on each occasion to catch it and throw it back. (Seealso HERoIcQUESTS) (whose name means Cuuel "sky") was the father of the Fenian hero Finn Mac Cumal. ology. arives at Afthur's court. Inis onewiWescapade. the dreadful giant. Cumal was also a renowned Ieader of the FIANNAand chief of the CIan Bascna.portrayingthe hero as a courtlyhunterJrom the Ageof Chivalry The surlystovard couldbe I(qt (xrr-nwvcn. CUufNN. Like the lrish eyeCyclops BALoR. Culhwch's nexl problem was how to persuade her giant father to agree ro the match. ) Culhwch AIso like Balor. one k"ryhtt. seemed less dreadful once Culhwch found Olwen. Cu Rot (whose name means "hound of Roi") was a Munster hng.Cuchulninn. gaze theHighKingConchobhar in who Cuchulainn amazement theyoung at when hound outnght slanCulann'Jierce s the thegeat guard doghad attached hero at the gateTo compansate hillinghis Jor offoedto talu itsplace hound. Thereafterthe young man "the was known as CIJCHUL{INN. and s carrying thehing' booty beautiful off daughter. BlnthnatWen theheroes fell qt Cuchulcinnwasone outwq thegtrrl. This fate. was an Ulster smith who was thought to be a reincamation of the MAc tlR It was sea god MANANNAN his enormous guardian dog that young Semnta hlled with his bare hands. Arthur's brusque seneschal. When Culhwch finally put out one of the giant's eyeswith a retum throw. a druid. in welsh mythCUtnwCn. who had been enraged when Cumal eloped with his daughter. up pointbeatat andbuned to hisarms Blathnat offwrth while Roi Cu galloped (luusrnnnoru At-Ex I 995 By IAMES rvpen. more commonly known as FINNMACCOOL.r Pe'r:. It was King Cu Roi who transformed himself into IJATH.Yspaddaden's lids needed to be levered up with supports in order for him to see and theLllster smith. At intewiews held on successivedays Yspaddaden threw a poisoned spear at Culhwch and his companions. for they fell deeply in love. onhis questJor Olwen. seehing help and counsel ThisVictoian painting a e. His stepof KingARTHUR's mother hated Culhwch so much that she placed a curse on him that he could marry only OLWEN. a task which took over a year. Culhwch successfully completed these trials. however.

so the vanquished De Danann disappearedunderground. was the goddess atter whom the TUATHA DANANN DE were named "the people of the goddessDana". When Cuchulainn laid siege to the stronghold. a holy marriage between a chieftain and a maiden at the beginning of each year: similar to DANA. I-ater.loRRlcnN. He was in fact rhe grear god of Irish mythology.the bean sidhe or BANSHEES lrish folklore. Cu Roi and Cuchulainn carried off ntlruNer.thegreat mothr goddess. Blathnat betrayed Cu Roi by showing how the place could be entered. and bearing a Iargewooden club. On pain of dearh Dagda was ordered by the Fomorii ro consume this massive meal. This union was meant to ensure prosperity.wth awheel. DnCOn means "the good god". Yet he was also associatedwith abundance. and thusinspired to out Owain set on quat. Cuchulainn's fosterbrother coNALL. a beautiful woman. bur ir did not prevent him from making love to a Fomorii girl. Like an all-powerful chiefrain. With one end of this weapon he could slay his enemies and with the other he could resrore the dead rc life. when just before rhe second batde of Magh Tuireadh he visited rhe camp of the F2MORII.Just as rhe Fomorii had retrearedbenearh the waves. ordered Cynon to go ro a founuin and fill with water a silver bowl that he would find there . Sir with CLNON. is regardedby someto be Dagda.Crlrrc MYrHoLocy contenders for the championship Laoghaire. lntr htsmemorable Years Cynon retracdhissteps search awain of in (luusnsnoN nv H Tnrluan 1920) Qynon then foughr his mysterious opponent but was defeared.the war goddess. even after the Tuatha De Danann were in their tum overthrown by the sons of MILESIUS.was a knight who encountered a black man with one foot and one eye. being able to sadsff the hunger of everybody by means of an inexhaustible cauldron. ctLDED stLvER.There they made for him a ponidge of milk. CYNON.The bones of his enemies were described as "hailstones under horses' hooves" when he wielded his mighty club. 121 . Dugduwasbelieved to be wise. The story may recall. pigs and goats. in a distorted form. and was usually depicted as a man in rustic clorhes dragging an enorrnous club on wheels. Although the evenrualdefeat of the Fomorii at the second battle of Magh Tuireadh was really due ro the sun god rucH. doubtless a cousin of the violent and misshapen Irish sea gods. owneda wondrouscauldron of plenty and a double-edged maglc club. Dagda led the Tuatha De Danann on the battlefield.anArthurunhero. father of the gods. according ro a late Anhurian myth. (Seealso of WONDROUS CAULDRONS) DANA. Over the centuries these powerful deities were gradually transformed into fairies . strength and peace. ) 1912 DAGDA. flour. Sir Cynon did as he was instructed and a Black l(night appearedto the sound of thunder and the singing of magic birds. anorher name for ANU. during a truce at the time of the NewYear festival. who promised to use her magic on behalf of the Tuarha De Danann. That Dagda took great pleasure in eating was apparent. which only Cuchulainn had enough courage to go through with.a raceof wonderJul. fat. This Fomoriilike fighter. Cu Roi took her to his casrle in Munster. slaying all rhosewho dared to confront him. appeared rragc Although b returndhome to Cynon onfoot tellthe tnb. battles warnorwho theBlnch Knight. enough for fifry men. the ancesrors of rhe present-dayIrish To Dagda fell the imporunr msk of setding the defeatedTuarha De Danann underground. wtth the wheel rymbohzng his treasures (culoesrnup CAULDRoN. and then to throw the water against a marble slab.his bitter enemies. ir was Dagda who was held in the grearesr respect. mysteious a deJeated. Although she expressedher love for Cuchulainn. ill-staned godswho were tumed into swans (llrusrnerroruSrrpHrl ay Rrlo. her gave nameto the TuathaDe Danann. beautiful but often vulnerable godswho lived in the sparhlingotherworld Here. c lN BC ) the sacredrite that was performed by a Sumerianruler and a priesress in Mesopotamia. full of knowledge and well versed in rhe magic arts He was a chief of rhe TUATHADE DANANN Dagda was a grear fighter and the lover of tr.were invited by Cu Roi to a beheading contesr. which he readily did with a huge wooden ladle "so big that a man and a woman could have slept together in it" This test tumed Dagda remporarilyinto a grossold man. caried on wheels Thisbronzerelief of aweful Celticdaty. and cucuulAlNN himself . thqr gather to hear thepoignant song oJ Lir's children.

that was retumed when Diarmuid receivedthe famous love spot as a young Fenian warrior One night. a peacewas grudgrngly made. Iost his hand fighdng the FIRBoLG at the first battle of Magh Tuireadh. Fenian commander.CTITIC MyTHOLOGY in Irish mythology. Cuchulainn brought none of this. 1912 c BYJoHN ) rnr Sonnows half novoRII. to surpnse. however.according to lrish mythology The drui d cetuneo foretold this before she was bom. DE Ieadcr Of thc TI]ATIL4 DANANN. she NE55Awished to marry her. c 1900) DEIRDRE gievesfor thedeath of hn ed belav Ncoiseand his brothers. It was decided. he had charge of a spring whose waters restored the the dy. Dian Cecht gave him a silver hand. So it was rhat rhe warriors came upon Dechtire. She fell into a deep sleep and dreamed that the sun god LUGHinsisted that she and fifty of her kinswomen follow him to the otherworld as a flock of birds. but she told her captors that she was too ill to be able to travel for another day. After NUADA.cucuul. But Conchobhar arranged to have Naoise killed and then forced Deirdre to agree to marry him. Cecht's son Miach had made him a new hand of flesh and blood. It seemed that Diarmuid and Grainne would settle down to a contented famrly life and they had several children. Deirdre remained sad and kept her disunce flrom the ki. which eventually interrwined and grew as a single tree was the lrish god CnCnf DnN of healing Itwas said thatwith his daughter Airmid. DTNNUUID UA DUIBHNE. on mysteriouslyhq wedding returned sun years wrththeshining god. a grft was the DTNBNORGAILLE daughter of a ruler of Lochlann. But and became very Bres was a tpant unpopular. Three years later a flock of brightly coloured birds reappeared at Emain Macha. unaware of the bird's though he was already advanced in years. or Diarmuid "of the Love Spot". DnCnnRE. was the foster-sonof the lrish love god eorucHUS. the but she wanted Diarmuid and forced him to elope with her. Apparently the god of healing grew jealous of his son's medical skills and so killed him. but Deirdre would have true identiry. was the mother of. and that the love spot she put on his forehead would make him inesistible to women. yearsin their voluntary exile. when out hunting. There a beautiful young woman received them but chose to sleep only with Diarmuid She told him that she was Youth. She was a daughter of Maga. But Diarmuid's own desdnywas about to catch uP with him. When she Ulster on the understanding that they would come ro no harm. she threw herself from his speeding chariot and smashed her brains out on a rock From each of the graves of Naoise and Deirdre grew a pine. the capital of Ulster. When her father left her on the shore as a tribute for the FOMORII. therefore.{INN. the child of the love godAoNGHUsand of the druid . thus earning him the title Nuada "of the Silver Hand" ImPressed though the Tuatha De Danann were by Dian Cecht's handiwork. The Ulstermen went after them with slings. they bur now theywere linked byblood were tricked into retuming to and so he could not marry her. a fly flew into her cup during the wedding feasr and she swallowed it.slain by the jealous KingConchobhar Over the brothers'grave. Shepersuaded NAolsE her down with a sling-shot She retumed to human form and he and his brothers to run away with her to Alba After living for many sucked the stone out of the wound. Nuadawas felt to be no longerfit to who was be a war leader and BRES. a gift to Ulster.the birds at night as they rested. shesanghu pitiable Iament. later three wrthhera $ft from brought Lugh Dechtire -her child.g. who DECHTIRE. herwomen and Lugh sleepingin a hut on a site renowned for its magical propenies.with the result that he handed her over to the killer of Naoise Rather than sleep with this man."May myheartnotbreah today for oJ the sea-tides our ewryday softclwsare or strong but I am soffM itself. to the so Nuada was restored once Dian leadership. In order to follow him. When Conchobhar was told of of this he sent for Dechtire at once. Diarmuid and three companions took shelterin a small hut in a wood. fu a consequence. even rumed herself into a swan However. Df tROne was the cause of Ulster's sorrows. haddisappeared day. Once married. as well as telling of how beautiful she would become. took his place.ATHBAD. who Setanta. she was rescued by the Ulster hero and fell in love with CIICHULAINN grew up. Cuchulainn l)kter'sgreatest became (llrusrn crtoN av G DrNn cu. When Dechtire married iUALTAMMAC RorH.advisor to NESSA of King CONCHOBHARMAC Ulster. His mortal father had hlled his brother at binh because L22 .His mortal father gavehim to the god as a child. The next moming she showed them her new-bom son. but were unable to hit any of rhem. For sixteen years the Fenians Pursued them until.. the otherworld hqo. Grainne was betrothed to FINN LIACCOOL. " (Detnom Durvcrtl. the worst being GMINNE.g gods to life. at the request of the hng and the love god.Diarmuid's life was almost continuously troubled bY desperatewomen.the passionatedaughter of High King C)NMACMAC ARr. King CONCHOBHARMAC him.

Finn MacCool refusedro fetch rhe dying Diarmuid a drink of warer. alrhough she was moved by rhe way rhar Aonghus took care of Diarmuid's corpse He took the body to his own palace by rhe River Boyne. including AMAETHON. the god of death. was lured undergroundby the De Danann who often recruitedchampionsto ftght in their othewvorldlybattles To test hts sletll. was responsible for rhe pregnancy. and rhe wife of Beli. guards the sacredspnngof healthwtthhis daughter. However. is widely assumed be to a Celtic mother goddessSheis one of sqeral Celtic daties embossed the on gildedpanels the Gundestrup of Cauldron (Graep srLv'ER. where he breatheda new soul inro Diarmuid so that they could converse each day This was how the young man came to live with rhe TIIATHA DANANN. and.i995 ay ) DIARMUID (below).to hJe Knwn as theJathu of medicine. wo. She had many children. GWYDION. surroundedby birds and children. c lOO BC ) he believed that Aonghus' sreward. Roc revived the infant as a magic boar and told ir ro bring Diarmuid ro his dearh When hundng one daywirh Cormac Mac Art and Finn MacCool. sister of MATH. ) / sy i9l2 DON below).Dian Cechtis creditedwth a remarlable sathcenturyBrehonLaw tract on thepractice of medicine (luusrnenoru NrcxBute. so rhe inesisrible Diarmuid was left bleeding ro death on the ground. ARIANRHOD.thE senta mysterious warior to challenge ashe dranhfrom theirforest him well luusrnenoN Srrpar Rno.lihe Adonis. theWelsh mother goddess.\ HI F)RD. Diarmuid came face to facewich this creature His hounds fled in reror. but enjoyed someJorm oJ immoftality (llrusrncno. Roc.s popular as her lnsh countapart. ) B\ lgl2 DON was the Welsh equivalenr of rhe Irish mother goddess DANA and was the daughter of Mathonwy. ds Dana ThisfemaleJigure.was hilledby aboar. and by the time the other hunters amved on the scene. god of healing.thehero waslwedby women oftenagainst his will.Crlrrc MyrHoLoGY DIAN CECHT (abwe).Airmid lts miraclewaterscured the sichand restored thedead. he was too near to death to be saved Grainne was devastatedby the loss. Gilvaerhwy and ruupp I23 .who had by DE this time left the upper world and lived beneath the soil of Ireland DIAKMUID. his slingshot had no impacr on rhe charging boar's head and his sword broke in two. goredby a wild boar.a gJtedFanian warior. Govannon. was deniedhealingwater by Finn. still smarting over Diarmuid's lwe alfair with Grainne A Celtic Adonis.

while druids bewitched the host with magical illusions. w h i l e F e r g u sM a c L e d a ' s w a t e r .MNCIC AND EXCHANTMENT Celtic myth. Off the battlefield. penetrating the forests and lakes.he dreamsof the pab ::r#:'KX:L:i-DamehotdsinthrarrII'TSTLLEDAMESANS . dreamlike qualiry. Bardscould weaken the enemy possessed with satire or enchantedsleep. shrouding PERMEATES NCHANTMENT the tales in a haunting. rY and snene 0uusrpcnoN STEPHEN 1912) face atlost restored THn EruCnersrro Fonrsr QeJt)of Arthuianlegend.insptnng them wtth a hopelss infaruatnn leavingthembereftof wtll or Wrpose until thq uthqed on thelolu. nourished or countlessheroeswere reborn from magicalcauldrons. Frncus Mlrc l-r:oe.tr tired oJacplonng the shoes and nvcn of lrelondunttlhe encounteredaferce rwar-hotse dqtl$ of thelvaihrs permanently in Loch Rury The inadatt so tmiJied Fergs thathis face became dktoned wrthfear. Fe. returned n the loch to slay the monstu before goingilwn himself but wth a Rrto.Ia Mqa. many heroesenjoyed the gifts of the otherworld. as in the romances Sadb. magicalpowers. and crafting charmed rings and weapons. "abne and palely toitrnng" k thelnnguishinghmghthue sleqs. Excalibur. who oftm taunted effanthnighs One such.s u c h a s F i n n M a c C o o l . ww alivewithbeguiling BelleDame Sans Jairy maidats. brighter side.s h o e s and affordedunderwateradventures. On the Rhiannon and Iseult. (abwe). was a funshee who lttracted monnl Wers and then for hr wn amusemant. love and romancewere also subject to spells.or Fergus M a c R ot h ' s s i d h e s w o r d . The allpervasive otherworld lies behind much of the mystery and magic.love philtres or magical of rickery. such as Arthur's sword.Yet spells and magic also arosein the visibleworld where bards. wned a pair of waterwith whkh he enjoyd underwatcr travel He ne.druids a n d s o m e p r i v i l e g e d h e r o e s .'4s onlyan unbbmkhed hing couWrule lrelnnd. a high hing of Uktu. desatbd by thepoet Keats. gus .

creattng mvrstble her towu oJ atr rn whtchhe was trappedJorou It rs can sttllbe heardtn theplatntwe satdthat htsvorce Bv I rustltngoJleaves (luustnrrtr.vAi. t t tt t r r l rt l i t / t t h r .. .the spellbli{ttedhs Jamily. ( l ( r l\1 \ l h h c u c / / r r t t t r t l f / t t s j I r s s i r f h l r r p rri r rh . t l .untrl Rhrannon'sner\/ husband. ullowed a and boundthereIry to be lureddeepbeneath stone htsown maglc spellsIn anotherlegend. strucha dealwtth the who atlast restoredDyt'edto rtsJormer enchanter..i t c t : l t i tl t .) (.rA:AN 1984) thoughht' u.had been away tn a pealoJthunder Thebaffling sptnted placed wqs enchqntment port oJa hngenngcurse Gwawl. r : t l / t h t t f i t t . i l i s t t t . a nval surtor the on hvyll to avenge t'or hond oJRhronnon Eten aJterhrryll's death.r. t l t r .t tt . l r t / t l . Manawydan. i t s l t \ t r r t ( r { r l 1 t I ' c t r f r . Ue..t .AJed. . r i r .and desprte forestght.4NFF lg84) 125 . t l1 t l r t . r .Nrmueput a Merlin tntoa trancebeneoth thorn treeand then an trarled vetlaroundhtm.CelrIC MvrHoLocY E x c . { r r / r r l i i t t l r .e was enchanted thercvtshtng Lry hmself he hts Nirnue. By benu\ (lLursrnrnor. /s t r . Lnly ol th. . tt/ l l h i r t t t r r t i h e t i t t t / t i t l i : l t cl 1i s . q r t s t * 1 . t 'l l r r l t r s l t r t l / . l r l t . . and thoughtJtl MrRrnv (ngh). l t r 1 . wtse hht. l r l \ t t l r l t l \ r } l t l t l tr l Pwrrr's fubove) Jamt[ywanderm un enchunted wtlderness aJtu thetr country.as. r / . t t l l t t / / t t 1 t 1 . 1 l r 1 r r t{' r f h u r \ r i r ( l r r l r t r .

'N("Son of the Wave") was a Welsh sea god whose parenrs were ARIANRHOD her brorher and GWYDION. all the waves of Britain and Ireland lamented his death. and some dme afrer her arival in Ireland Branwen was demoted from being queen to just a lowly cook in rhe palacehrchens. However. or Eber "the intothesea and swarrt wellasanyfsh.gathers souls DNUTOS SCC 5AGE5 ANDSEERS DUBH was a druidess. They mother's atbirthandplunged arms straight were Eber Donn. EnnrcmN.sc I900 ) was said. Efnisien accompanied the army thatwas sent againstMatholwch to avenge this insuk.rhe advice of Amairgen was ignored by Eber Finn. god of the dead. who insulted ERIU. was thought to be an assemblypoint on rhe joumey to the otherworld. Efnisien Iaid hold of the sack and felt about till his fingers closed on the head of the warrior within it. earsand tails of Matholwch's horsesduring the wedding feast. On being told it was com. who refused to acknowledge the right of his older brother Eremon to be king of the whole island. the House of Donn. Bur Eber Finn invaded Eremon's terrirory and Iaid waste to his lands until he fell in battle.tN. and at a signal they were to fall upon the Britons during what was supposed to be a feast of welcome. as he immediarely well as a fish. smirh god Govannon. bur wich one small imperfecrion . It was fortunare for Bran that his half-brother did come. it Grrlncr Sxennt. ) J995 he headed where straighr druid AMAIRGENhad only jusr succeededin casting a spell over the turbulent waves. DONN. when Eber Donn was seizedby a battle-trenny and the charm was broken by his wild cries. crruvn. He had placedbehind each of Bran's strongest warriors a sack hung from the wall containing an armed lrishman. When his uncle. because Efnisien foiled a cunning trap that had been laid for the Britons by Matholwch in his hall.vcn. he became associated popularJolhlorewith in shipwreclsand seastorms. Eremon rhen became rhe first High King of all Ireland.rhey came back to life withour rhe power of speech. Dn q. Donn's home. thewaves the all weptwhen "the Fair". the killed him. After rhe defear of the TUATHADE DANANN. andhis death-groan still can Eremon. with Eremon ruling the north and Eber Finn the south.qrr. or Eber Belwedby sea. one of the leaders o[ rhe sons of MILESIUS. He is somedmes confused with ErEn Donn. Jromhis a sea leapt in their conquest of lreland. then he squeezed and cracked his skull. Engn was rhe name of rwo of che three leaderswho led the Milesians DYI-AN. who died at sea (IrrusrnrnolByJAMEI ALDa. So it was that lreland was partitioned inro two kingdoms.andwas oJten confusedwithEber Donn. in welsh mythology. he proceeded to cut off the lips. soon as he was bom fu aroundhim as thq assanbleonhis stormy islandbejore settingout on theirjournq to the othewvorld Inaitably. one of rhe TT]ATIIADEDANANN. and Eber Finn.rprrsrv Dvt. her angerat her husband Enna's passion for another woman uhimately led to the name of Dublin. According to one Irish tradition. was the rroublesome half-brocher of nR+NTHEBLEsSED who caused the rift berween Bran and King MATHOLWCH. The third was named hewashilled. was and drowned off the south-west coast of lreland.To compensare for this act. Bl foundered in a storm caused by. he askedwhacwas in one of rhe bags. The feast took place therefore not as Marholwch had planned. the Irish did not consider this gift a suflicient redressfor Efnisien's acr of mudlation. Bran gaveMatholwch a ma$c cauldron that was capableof restoring dead warriors to life. Branwen would have leapt after her ro the swam sea. but her husband in turn drowned her in whac became known as Dubhlinn ("Dubh's pool"). as Brown". The L26 . Welsh deity. his bloody war cry. Eber Donn failed ro reach beheard theroarof theincoming in tide the lrish coast because his ship (Tnr B. Soruor rHE WAVE ot. One by one Efnisien asked about the contens of the sacksand each time repeatedhis squeezing. BecauseEfnisien had not been consulted by Bran over the marriage of his half-sisrer BMNwEN ro rhe Irish hng.An even more unexpected rurn of events occurred when Efnisien rhrew Matholwch's three-year-old son by Branwen on to the fire. Dubh used magic to drown her rival.vprn.CeITIC MyTHoLoGY DONN ("rhe Dark One") was rhe Irish god of the dead. When Efnisien inspected the hall beforehand.

in Irish mythology.shesmiledathis youth. DE UnIiKe the place. who first saw her when he was at the courr of rhe High Kirg of Ireland at Tara.and saidthathehad "deeds do" to (Iu-usrnqnox SrEpHEN 1912 By REID. who were described enraptured by her handsome husas being hideous and deformed.he met the lwely goddess. in remorse. where he strerched and burst its sides. was the daughter of Fogall and the wife of. a F omoii hing lived beneath the waveswith his wolat and misshapen people Unlihe the other Fomoii. he got on his and dnven from lreland. and her eyeswide and proud and brilliant like the eyes of Fedelma. ) I995 EBER DONN (abwe) and the Milesian chiefsdnft in thefairy sea mists of the lrish cowt OnboardEbcr's ship.ffHA. Cuchulainn Shewasblessedwiththe sA gJB oJ womanhood:beaul. destroyedthe magic cauldron. band. withhim.CeITIc MyrHoLoGY EIATII"A (abwe).Bies (tr-LusrnrroN By Nrcx BTALE.ar rhe cost of his li[e. their marriagewas not withElathawas fair and had golden hair. Cuchulainn survived EL. he thought request.However. atuck the reluctant Fogall's fortress who was briefly the leader of the before the wedding could mke TUATHA DANANIV. himself. when he fought rhe removed from the leadership of rhe army of Queen MEDB alone.sacnfced himself to sav his e comrades (tuununov aySrrparru l9i0) Rno. and her skin whire as mare's milk. EMER. bur the fortress of Emain Macha. because at night it restored to life the trish warriors who had been slain during rhe day The Britons were in a desperare predicament and so Eftrisien. ) 0rrusrnerroru 1995 EFNISIEN belw) inspectssaclu in Matholwch'shall. w6 and retumed to claim his bride. out its troubles.butEberlet outhis greatwar cry whichbrolu the druid's spelland stired up a stoftn inwhichhewas drwned BvJAMES ALEX{Noen.the druid Amairgencharmedthe seawth magtcof hts wwr. sweetspeech. Emer De Danann. who Jellimmediatelyin lwe En. the son of Delbaeth. songand needlecraJt When thehero courtedher. but his enemies the witches of celqrlN casr a spell to harden his resolve to fighr single-handed. SoonaJtu. In the fight that took place afterwards the Britons were almost defeatedby the magrc cauldron that Bran had given Matholwch. of Emer's Even then. Emer's father was a chieftain from Meath and was against the match. He told Cuchulainn to travel to improve his fighting shlls and only then would he consider him as a son-in-law.wisdom. not least because He met the goddessEri on rhe sea many other women also found the shore and there they conceived Ulscerhero attrac[ive. Although Emer was totally other Fomorii. inspired the lwe ol Ulster'sgreathero. chasilry. the leader of Indeed. In each sachhefelt a warior's head. He hid among the Irish dead and was thrown into rhe boiling cauldron. She appeared "dark-haired almosr as around to the front of his house.cucuul{INN. When Bres was his final batde. he and his morher tried to persuadehim to remain in went to Elathato ask for help. ENTO SCCCELTIC ROIVIANCE EME& a peerless Insh maiden. but Bran held her back. bur rhe grear effort involved hlled him. in Irish myrhologr. Cuchulainn was forced to the FOMORII and father of BRES.but than. ) t27 .Just before their child Bres. which he cnshed between his fngm The moody ticlster went on to prwohe a deadly contest. Elatha was a godlihebang with Iong golden hair EmuglngJrom the sea one day in his silvsr ship. rhe the Fomorii were defeated at the seat of King CONCHOBHAR MAC second battle of Magh Tuireadh NE55A. his favourite falcon". thqhad ahandsome but troublesome son. chanot when it was broughr son.

Etain. theJairyqueen Thejuelled atp of plenty recalk Etain's HnuN. son of. appears withher peers in power andbeauty:fromleJt to ight.cR(E. and Embohzdhm by thewheat birik 128 . PwYtt there is a connection between Epona and his who is made to wife RHIANNON. in southem England The fact that she is often depicted riding a horse with a foal suggesrc that she was also a goddess of fertility. linlu wtth the otherworld (ErnrH. c I9@) EPONA. which srde-sadille. carry visitors into her husband's palace. one of the High Queens Ireland. Epona was almost certainly seen by the Celts as a mare. Banba and goddess. MEDB AND Fexn sv HAnnv Ct. ERIU. was rhe wife of Ma Greine. Hn spreadlwcultacross portrayedhtnding placed stables. Shewas even given her own festival in Rome on December 18.fiy. . her cloak billowing with air behind her. ct css.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY E?{IN of QighD. Onginally. role rejectedher asafmtlity goddess.won the favour of the Roman army and was depicted in monuments set up at its cavalrybarracl<s as a woman riding a fast steed. or Erinn. she and her two sisters. EPONA(belw).)GMA.us theRoman cavalry adoptedhy Europe.MedbandFand. theCeltichorse who v. possibly like the great white horse cawed in the chalk downs near Wantage. Greeh Helen. in often wtth sometimes afoal. and herself one of the TUATHADEDANANN When the Milesians invaded. rhe celtic horse goddess. In the Welsh myth of.

which them in revolt Conchobhar's love Iefthimsore ayear Having gained for ortRPREwas rhe cause of his Jor that hisattention. but not at the hands of Fergus They had been friends before the war and had swom not to fight each other During the final battle.AlNN As young men. he led to with in a vision. ciesof hu Jairy the folh. to Foiry She rescued was thekalm oJ by to and. 1912) was ous existence. srewardof the iove god AONGHUS. fell When Emr'swife accidenrallyswal.Crlrrc MvrHoLocY De ETHNE. by the High King Eochaidh. off the north-western coast of lreland.+ruaNNAN MAC LIR After a chieftain of the TUATLLADE DANANN rried to rape her. according to one myth fell in love with his predecessor's widow. army and rally the Ulstermen after MIDIR His first wife was jealous of ETHNNR SCC when CONCHOBHAR MAC NE55A rhe death of Cuchulainn ETHLINN Etain and by a druid's speil Etain and some fellow Ulstermen were was rebom as a morul. found out about this secret men of Ulster Ferdia did his best her memories High King Eochaidh meedng and took fifry of her maid. However. and acted as maid to the daughter of u. in lrish myrhology.vev E We[coustNs.One day she quarrelled with her lamenting. so fulfilled his desriny and by hlling Balorat the secondbattle of Magh Tuireadh EfHNn was rhe daughter of Roc.. monls was a by becamenun. she refusedto eat or drink Aonghus and Manannan searchedfor a remedy and found rwo magic cows whose milk never ran dry and she lived on their milk Fnncus Mec RorH. help had her lover NAoiSE hlled in order Fomoii AfterdeJmting attachers. promised rhat Ireland would be named after Eriu EfnltNN.Etain was loved both SCNI CUCHUIAINN."Why I nse should again now " lowed the fly she becamepregnant husband and he left her When she FgnOfR has son of Daman rhe hethatlieshere Jallen -y hand? W wirh Etain Unaware of her previ. according to another version of the myrh..EXCRT-TBUR SCC MAGIC AND drinking at his house. her to marry her Fergus wirh rhree island a hundred Ulster warriors joined Cuchulainn stayed Fand's on Jor month (Iuusrnarroru By SrEpHEN 1912 REID. was ableto defeatMedb's was the second wife of the god rhe father of orlnoRr One day.to avoid coming up against his lost Etain to the god at a game of ens armed with sharp knives to kill friend. when Conchobhar losr the support of EAND'smaidens appeared Cuchulainn severalleading Ulstermen.But Cuchulainn's wife. druid and advrsorto the sons of MILESius.Fand FIRBOLG.seehing Rr.in Ireland. explained the thq unpopularity. by the sea god MANANNAN MACLIR. becauseof a prophecy that said he would be hlled by his own grandson. but eventually Medb tauntchess. ) nvSrrpHrru 1910 herin vain (luusrnarroru Foda. was same Ir was due to Fergus'retreat one of IheTUATIIADEDANANN and rhat CoNAu. ) Queen MEDBin her invasion of decided to stay with her husband and forget Cuchulainn Manannan Mac Lir then shook his magrccloak between Fand and Cuchulainn so they would never see each other again.cuctlui. and so the sun godrual was conceived. for who CameTo of. Cuchulainn's fosterwas reincamated severaitimes She FgoltvtlD rhe story-reller was brother. gentle a Tuatha Danann whut was maiden. managed to reach Ethlinn. with heip from his mother. Emer.and druids gaveCuchulainn and Emer drinks of forgetfulness (Seealso CELTIC ROMANCE) lost Ulsrer The great CUCHUIAINN his life in this war. was foretold thar the child would cause andfought gnmly thedeath to At water.but she disturbed "voices". who had also learned of the Frncus Mnc Leoa see life as Eochaidh'squeen arrangement But in the end.qtruneo then were Medb was turned first into a pool of FAND. later. whom her island and defeared her en.and remainedfor one month During the war of the SCATHACH AILILL This potendally difficult as her lover Before he returned brown bull of Cuailgne.they were both taught ro fighr by she married. who had awakened EMER. Fand MAGIC AND ENCFIANTMENT a _ .r:. somerimes Erhnea. beatinghim rods.according a latu legend. a friend and comrade (llrusrnarro. AMAIRGEN. hinder Midir's searchfor her. especially after he goddess. NESSA She would only marry him if her son. then a wolrn and finally a fly rhe wife of uaNaruNANMAC LIR nothing but doom and desrrucdon Ferdia's death. Despite Balor's attemprc to have the baby killed. was the only daughter of BALOR. in singlecombat and he was killed time. - . the one-eyedgiant of Irish myth Balor imprisoned Ethlinn in a crysal tower on Tory Island. lostto theothewvorld Veil hq she mislaidher oJlnvisibility. the unbom FERDIA borne thebattleJteld ts by from ter of rhe Ulster warrior Etar To ENCFIANTMENT The Cuchulainn two Deirdre cried out from her mother's hisliJelong Jnend. Ferdia situation wassolved by her sudden home. Ferguspretended to rereat and rhe next time rhey met Cuchulainn would do the ETAIN. and by his brother emies. CONCHOBHAR was MACNESSA. they arranged to meet again fought on the side of Queen MEDB discoverythat she was alreadymar. he survived to be brought up either by Goibhniu or. in Irish myrhology. and against Cuchulainn and the ned to Midir. allowed to rule for ayear Conchobhar. a cerrain Cian.went to greet them All three asked that the newcomers would name the island after her. Cuchulainn exhausted. but although she lived once Fand A confused argument then ed him into fighting the great hero again with Midir for a period of took place between Fand. the daugh. brother of the smith god GomHrulu. a king of Ulster.was attackedby the nOvORI/. Erain goaded single into combatby womb The druid c. neededhis tofght the Fand. Etain decided in the end to Cuchulainn and Manannan Mac retum to Taraand finish her morral Lir. proved to be a popular king and the people refused to let him stand down At first Fergus accepted this but.

1910 BvARTHUR ) THg FrnNNn was rhe famous band ofwardors responsible for the safety of the High Kitg of Ireland Popularly called the Fenians. he was not receivedinto the band " FINECRS. was killed by Goll.occasionalivalry brohe out and the therewas oddbrawl. Trapped. assailhim and let fly at him lf he sustained injury. as Finn became wiseas he was strong with called Finn Mac Cumaill or Fionn instant insight into the past andfuture (lrusraerrorv H R MrtLAn. "no man was taken till in the ground a hole had been made. Goll eventually manied one of Finn MacCool's daughters. causingbubblesoJ inspiration with Celtic The wellts decoratedhere heads. as his father had done.as shownhere (lu-usrnerrp RAcKHAM. Goll chose to suwe to death rather than surrender. 1994 av ) r30 ." Under Finn MacCool's leadership. the Salmonof Knouiledge.thq were gftedinboth arms andthe arts Although close-hnit. the River Boyne and caught the Salmon of lGrowledge. Finn MacCool used to quote a saying of Goll: "A man lives after his life but nor after his dishonour.orityof their members came from one of two clans. Finegasgenerouslylet the propheqthata Knowledge. Goll slew Cumal. His father . fish sometimes FINN MacCooL.To join. such as would reach the waist. Hoping to become supremely wise. Some sagas to quell tell how he fell attempdng an uprising among the Fenians FINTAN. was the one destined to gain the oJ Finn theSalmon humbly olfers wisdom. alone took sixteen the years. but later Cumal's son Finn was bom and brought up secretly.eorucHus. which he had received when hunting. she was betrothed to but Finn MacCool at the dme. He gave rhe fish to his pupil to cook. ) c 1910 ByARTHUR FINN MACCOOL bela^D' a Praocious and gfted child. but Finn bumt his thumb on the flesh and in sucking it obtained wisdom. fulfillingthe "Fionn" the boy eat the whole fish wouldbeneftfrom mannamed the miraculous On eating salmon. afierceband of free wariors. Then must nine warriors. a gesture that may explain why Finn MacCool did not challenge Goll over his father's death. Realizingthat his pupil Finn the seer FINEGAS. This last act of violence was too much and the Fenians pursued him. the Fenians reached the high point o[ their fame as a warrior band The pursuit of oreRvulDUA DIUBHNE. was a druid. foster-son of the love the god.rymbok oJspintualpwer. aged andpoet. rhough he also slew his son. Goll accepted this decision with good grace. enjoyeda specnl ffinity of wtth the crentures the wods He was raisedon the sbpa of Bloom Sliew by two warior women. a Fenian warrior. the Bascnaand the Moma. Cumal had eloped with a girl named Huma and her father urged Goll to avengethis dishonour. Indeed. ) MacCumal. the selecrband or of warriors which guarded the High King of lreland. their greatestleader was FINNMACCOOL and the ma. guardedthe High King oJIreland on and rovedup and down the countryside vaious ventures Hand-piched. but a peace of sorts was begrudgingly agreed However. The account of Finn MacCool's own death is unclear.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY THE FIANNA (ngh). a previous leader of the Fenians. daughter of High Kitg C)RMAC MACART. having nine spears. Finn never forgave Diarmuid for the elopement.. and he put into it with his shield and a forearm's length of ahazel stick. he caught the Salmon of lfuowledge. Many of the adventures of the lfuights of the Round Table recall the exploits of the Fenians. (IuusrnertoruSrunRr Lrrrepnu. So great was Finn MacCool's prowess as a warrior that he was soon appointed over the head of Goll to lead the Fenians. Fenians. but unfortunately for his own ambitions he gaveit to the young FINNMACCOOL to cook Finn bumt his thumb on the flesh of the fish and sucked the bum. One of his tutors was the who lived beside druid FINEGAS. werhung wtth theNuts of Knowldge Fintnn gained hs wisdom from eating the nuts whichfell into the well. The Fenians were relentless in the chase. CIJMAL. who helpedhim darcbp the hqoicirtues oJwtdom and strenglh (luusrnanor. in lrish mythology. He had taken GRAINwE. his rival's morul and he exulted over wound.with a ten furrows'width berween them and him.bashs in Nechtan's weIIoJ inspiration. was the leader of the 1912 sv FIANNA.r c RAclctAM.

because of the deluge rhat only Fintan managed to survive by becoming a salmon. who was the daughrer of Queen MEDB of Connacht The tenible srruggle with the monsrer left Fraoch very badly wounded and he recovered fully only afrer a timely visit to rhe otherworld His morher Be Find (who was a goddess and sisrer of the river goddess BOANN) nursed him back to health so rhar he could claim the hand of Findbhair The account of Fraoch and the water monster some legend is thought on to have had the Danish influence of Beowulf's batrle wirh to Grendel.Celrrc MyrHoLocy THE FOMORII. thq tumedtharbagsintoboats sailed and to Irelnnd (Iuusrnenoru ByNlcK Brer-r. In Galway. 1912) rNt ByJoHN themselves. in Irish mythology.NUADA. foot or eye FOnnru was rhe son of the Ulster king CONCHOBHAR MAC NESSA According to one myth. the Fomorii emergedfrom rhe waves to challengerwo rulers of Ireland: the FiRBOLGand rhe TUATHA DANANN The Tuatha DE De Danann were younger gods. Queen MEDBof Connachr fell back before rhe fury of the Ulster warriors afrer her invasion of the kingdom.. where hadbeenforced thq to cultivate thelandby heavinghewy oJ bags Jmile earthuproctyhilLsln ronlt. or "bag men". is It likely that the monk who first recorded the Irish sagas ahered the original myrh in order ro link it with Noah's descendants.while others refer ro an ARTHUR-likeundeath in a cave There he was supposed to remain in a deep sleep unril such dme as Ireland needed his aid FtNfnN was the husband of Noah's granddaughterCESAIR. was a warriorwho defeateda fearsomewarer monster in order to manry Findbhair. the seagods whom rhe Tuatha De Danann eventually overcame At the first barrle of Magh Tuireadh the Tuatha De Danann defeared the Firbolg. l9i0 ) 131 .aful scene portrays the Fomoii as repellentand alien creatures. In the second bamleof Magh Tuireadh rhe Fomorii were thoroughly beaten. only to have to defeatthe Fomoiri at asecondbartle there in order to secure rheir conquest Often the Fomorii were described as having only a single hand. which was so called becauseit had earenrhe nuts of a hazel ree thar grew over the warers of ruecareN's well. though the De Danann Ieader. who are divatby a sichand menacingJrnry (THE FoMoRs THE \Voru. THEFIRBOLG. a misshapen raceof sea gods. however. FneOCH ("wrath" or "fury"). orbag-mot arivedin lrelnnd afterescaping ofslnvery ahJe in Thrace.j995 ) THg Ftnnolc. The monk wanted ro tidy up the lrish myth of Fintan's mysrerious transformation The same name was also glven to the Salmon of I(rowledge. Forbai caught up with her as she was bathing in a lake A shot from his sling fatally struck the old warrior-queen in the cen[e of her forehead. lost a hand. and were driven from Ireland for ever THg FOUOruI were seagods in Irish mythology Violent and misshapen. a monster invulnerable weapons who lived in an under- water cavem FINN MACCOOL stands guard on the ramports oJTara awaiting aJiery goblin whosemaglc music usually disarmshisJoes Armedwith aJairy spear. due mainly to rhe bravery of the sun god LIIGH. in Irish mythology were said to have acquired their name from a time when they were enslaved in Thrace and made ro carry bags of earth They lived in Ireland just before the arrivalof the TUATHADE DANANN But rhey were already being hard pressedby theFOMONt. oppressed lrelandwith cruelty and crushingtibutes This imaginative and pou.D oR THE PowERs or EvrL Asnoeo Dunctr't. and they seizedcontrol of Ireland from the Firbolgs at rhe first barde of Magh Tuireadh.Finnbreahsthe spell and slnys unsuspectingdemon the For his valourhe wasmadecaptainof the Fianna (lllusrnarrorv BySTEpHEN REID.

100 BC ) BMN'5 (aba.il'i'. silveror gold.here. thewarlihe for glantsproduceda grou. Jlnnhedbyarmed wariors on ather side. whose magi cal broth endowed Taliesin with all-knowrng insight. though cowardsneverhad their fill. while still others contain a specialbrew of wisdom. no hero left his bowl Cauldronof Rebirth hungry. CeurpRorvs on Prnvrv Qeft)glttteredin bronze. Dagda'sgiganticCauldron of Plenty overflowedwith abundant. such as Dagda's. which overflows with spiritual sustenance and leads the hero from death to immoruliry. the great and gloomy glanx brood ovn thar bubblingcauldron. combined the magical properties of both plenty and rebirth. Cauldrons of Inspiration provided "greals" or brews of wisdom. another Cauldron of Rebirth in Annwn was guarded by nine maidens.tuLDRoNs featureas a recurrenrmotif in Celtic myrh. Gundestrup Jound in a bog in Denmarh.t'il *'iri' + WoNDRous C. Similar mystery bowls or cups fea[ure in Greek and easlern myths as holy vesselsof spintual insight.copper. the early Celtic cauldrons find expression in the Arthurian Grail.in gratitude JorhtshindnessHere. delicious meats. suchas hunting or Jighting (Gl'xrorsrnup Cerii-onol. Some cauldrons. others restore the dead to life.nwarior wery sa weelc (tuusrunoNByALAN 1984) LEE. but without the powerof speechBran rece:edhis wondrouscauWron Jrom two martial glonts. . GTLDED srLvER. From Bran'smassive waffiors emerged alive but dumb. is a magnifcent suwiving in exampleof a Celtic cauldron Embossed in silverg1lt. Some IMCULouscAULDRoNS overflow with plenty. embossed with exquisite craJtsmanship The gllded Cauldron. The most famous belonged to the goddess Ceridwen.it is beautiJullydecorated the Ia.e) Cauldron of kbirth restoredwariors to l{e. Tene stylewith Celtic daties and itual activities. Ultim ateIy.

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Galahad to take a bleeding spear to requesr ro be fulfilled. The worthy young Sir Galahad was rhe son of Sir LANCEtot.ghs of the Round Table One of efforts of King Arthur to dissuade the seas was alwaln left vacant as it them from undenahng what might was the place reserved for the prove to be their final quest knight who would find the Grail Although they set off in different Unril Sir Galahad sat there. it is made clear that he is without blemish.marhedwtth the blood of Joseph Anmathea. wo's oJ designed in Saras Jor Galahadalone (GilAaeo svw HATHERELL. Anhur's wife. Twelve nuns. for there is no man alive more desewing of the order of knighthood" As soon as Sir Galahad had taken his rightful place at the Round Table. he alone announced how the sacredvessel for saw the entire Grail. although sacredvessel. c 19IO ) was unique at the Camelot A mystenous lady then Gnf-tfmD court of King ARTHUR. standsresplendent ablnze oJ in holylight. c 1910 ) GAIAIIAD (nght). a voice told him how his for his deliverance. From the beginning of Galahad'smanhood. BoRsAND srR SrnPrncrvnrwenr Feo wtrH THE By SANC GRAEL DANIE Rossrrn .enRo ARTHUR's By H A T H E R E L L . however. then. the secret lover of Queen GUINEVERE. and the strange king world Joseph first allowed the restored to health.as one version of the none at the wonderful meal saw or Arthurian myth states that Sir touched the Grail When Sir Galahad took "Our Lord's body Gawain vowed to find its home in berween his hands" and then died order to see the Grail for himself.. Galahad was at last body and limbs Once this taskwas granted his wish to leave the camed out. entered Arthur'scourt escortedby ahermit. cANvAs. cuss.armedas a Chistian Crusader His snow-whiteshield.his arnval sparhedoff the Grail Eurrps CouRr w Quest (G. his soul was soulwould live in the next life with suddenly releasedfrom his body Christ the moment his request and "a great multitude of angels bore it up to heaven". Sir Galahadwas in the knight had earned the right to company of Sir PERCIVAL Sir and occupy the place wrthout being instantly swallowed by the earth.c A N y A S . and toohhisplaceat the RoundTable. prayed that "he might leave the as Sir Galahad knelt down to pray world". followedby BorsTheideaof an all-sustainingand all-inspiing"greal" brauis rooted or in Celtic myth (How SrnGnLeneo. When the castle of the "Maimed Kirg" Joseph of Arimathea eventually and rub it on this crippled ruler's retumed.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY GAIAHAD AeJ). or SANGREAL would come and feed all the He may even have handled the knights This happened. no directions. When he the Grail for a few moments. who had raised Galahad. various miracles took Bors when he encountered the Grail. Together they had received place and Sir Galahad was even the sacrament from the long-dead obltged to become a hng for a dme who told Sir while he waited patiently for his OF JOSEPH ANMATHEA.rL. told his father thar he should "make him a lceight. could be granted.filling the SiegePeilous Completingthecircleof hnights. robed in red. Sir Gaiahadsaw pure and humble knight to hold the Grail in a vision. the pure andpeerless hnight. The quest for the Grail was an most of the t(nights of the Round important preoccupation of the Table followed suit. the presenceof the Grail was felt in GAIAHAD recav spiitual nouishment es Percival and from theGrail. 134 . despite the K. 1864) After this.

urir. nyW r 1895-96 GnwRrr. It did not cut off his head because Sir Gawain had only acceptedthe green sash out of good manners Yet Sir Gawain realized that courtesy was no equal to moral purity. On the journey to this dangerous appointment Sir Gawain stayed with Sir Bercilak de Hautdesert who had a beautiful wrfe He was sorely tempted by Sir Bercilak's wife but managed to resist her advances for rwo days. pE. when a water giant came to test the courage of Irish warriors. even during Queen MEDB's invasion of Ulster. GTNATNT SCC CELTICROMANCE. present. ) Unlike Sir Gawain. the giant behaved as if was the most courteous knight at ARTHUR's court. he picked up his head and mounted his green charger. SINGLE COMBAT r35 . King Anhur's half-sister. in welsh Gwalchmai. inspinngthe restoJthe Knights. the royal courr relaxed and thought the challenge over.CII-TIC MyTHOLoGY GnwruN. on the third daySir Gawain accepted from her a green sash. Calmly stooping.srn patience and humility (Tnr.r Mrxnrs. lost interestin theGrail Questquite early on Ahhoughone oJthe first to setJorth. Then. at which Sir Gawain flinched. At the meeting berween Sir Gawain and his fearful opponent.helost heart. the Green lGright tumed out to be none other than Sir Bercilak himself. Twice it was deflected because he had not abused his host's hospitality by making love to his wife. Fnrr or. the Green Ktrght pointed his severedhead in Sir Gawain's direcdon and told him to be at a lonely chapel ayear from that day in order to take a tum ar receiving a blow from an axe. which was the usual token worn by " knight to show his love for a lady. He was a strict upholder of chivalry and the enemy of Sir LtNCELor. Sir Gawain accepted and cut off the stranger's head in a single blow. the gigantic Green Kttrght strode into King Arthur's hall at Camelot one New Year's Eve and challenged the ltuighrs of rhe Round Table to a beheading contest. Sir Gawain's mosr exrraordinaryadventure concemed the Green lGright. laching the necessary discipline. The magical transformation of Sir Bercilak de Hautdesert the Green lftright was explained into as the work of the wirch MoRGAN LE FAY. fu the severed head rolled around the hall. from the saddle. an activeand restlesshnight. But to the amazement of all nothing had happened.srRy. and thereafterhe alwap wore the green sashas a reminder of his lapse This late Bridsh version of the Celtic beheadingcontest was quite clearly influenced by Christianity GAWAIN. Cuchulainn had no hesitarion in slippingaway from the battlefield in order to keep a secret meedng with a lover. Three times the axe was swung at Sir Gawain's neck. However. Rather like the hazard faced by the Ulsrer hero CUCHUIAINN. The third time it made a slighr cut.

with a rather relucmnt Diarmuid Gradually. Grainne managed to escape from Tara. was the wife of eRrnuR and the secret lover of In Sir LANCELOT.WhO WAS UA the foster-son of the love god AONGHUS.and Luchtar. however. JelIJor the iwesistible Diarmuid . Diarmuid politely refused advances But shepersisted untilhe agreed to elope. rrpaired the Tuatha De Danann armour see also WONDROUS with miraanlots spd on thebattlefeW HEROTCQUESTS. probably name. a passionate and wilJulmaiden.]IBHNE. for both these women brought disaster to those who loved them. the Insh smith god. GnntNNE. the carpater. sixteen moving years they to keep in order to avoid capture r36 . was the daughter of coRiuecMAc ART.ancelot weakened the uniry of the RoundTable.o ) came to love Grainne. the wily Finn wooed her until she agreedto manryhim. he THT GNruI CAULDRONS.o-. Finn MacCool was quire old and Grainne preferred DIARMT]ID DI.for which he brewed the aIe His Welsh counterpart was named Govannon by rhe Fenians But Diarmuid was killed by a magic boar in a hunting accidentafter Cormac Mac Art and Finn MacCool had finally accepted his marriage to Grainne Although Grainne blamed Finn MacCool for Diarmuid's death and swore to obtain vengeancethrough her four sons.who seizedCamelot GOIBHNIU. By using magic.inher onglnal SCC SANGREAL. is crmnedMay Quear in abower of peals On May Morning Arthur and his hntghs celebrated wtth sports and contestsLancebt.rnceror GUINEVERE. means "white spirit".the bodyguard of the High King Although still powerful. the Irish capital. alwaysoccelled. whose welsh GUtunvERE.\s shewasbetrothedto Finn her MacCool. wasan outstanding craftsmanand armourer Along wtth his glJtedbrothm. ANoN) 0lrusrmnoN in lrish mythology. the famous beauty of Greek mytholory Such a comparison is not unjustified. the stories about the ltuights of the Round Table.BY HERBERT DMPE& UNVES. Cradhne the GMINNE (abwe).the High Kirg of lreland She was promised to FINNMACC))L. ln Guinevere'scasethe love affairwith Sir l.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY was the Irish smith GOIBHNIU god and one o[ the ruerHA DE DANANN He could make a perfect sword or spearwith three blows of his magic hammer Just before the second battle of Magh Tuireadh.her exo champion. the guilg pairhide in a maglc tree ANON) otrusr&qnoN (below). a FOMORIIspy came to see how Goibhniu made such impressive weapons. goldsmith. ltwas herbeaury that also atuacted Arthur's nephew Sir uoDRED.with the Fianna in hot pursuit Here. and even wounded the god Goibhniu was said to preside over an otherworld feast called Fled Goibnenn. 19c. Guinevereis alwap comparedwith Helen of Troy. although had he for GUINEVEM role as Flovtu Bide. Gwenhwfar. leader of the FIANNA.

into a boar and a sow for the next. ingeniousplan to help Gilvaethwy wtn his loyal follower Gwythyr. was a witch who once spun a magic web to catch some members of the FIANNA. lrnan instantly changed intn a monstrr and Goll hilled hq. ([-nncrLo. In the bbody contestthot ensuel.one late myth.stepped forward but wzrspersuadedthat itwould notbe heroic enough for a warrior of his stature to fight thag. Gwyn aMucrcd Griddylad. According to to avenge the insult. as hardly a knight wuls left alive. son and forced Guinevere to consent to marry him during the hng's absenceabroad. even if she was in the form of a monster.or Fenians.) quarrel. THEBLESSED. King GWYDION (abwe) and Gilvaethv. It is believed by some that herbody was buried at Glastonbury.Shespuna magpcwebto snare the Fenian waritors The wariors were time.l. Lludd Llaw Ereint gested a compromise to setde the was the son of the death god Beli IRl. He proposed that Gwem. so wineJor someilhsory honcs a strange compromise was agreed 0rrusrnrnourv fin Isz 1981 ) by both sides Gwyn ap Nudd and Gr"nhyr agreed to meet in combat IRNAN (bela4/) was one oJthree sister each May Day until the end of witches. So another Fenian. he rumed his nephews into a stag and a hind for one year.ly Jlee with his precious futhur set out after Griddylad and from Prydm's castle *vine The danngtheJt was part oJan demanded that Gwyn ap Nudd retum her to her rightful husband.r IVldrrHrnrtt. whoever was the winner on rescuedbyGoLwho slav two of thesistm. mortally wounded. FINNMACCOOL. Hmtato. was rescuedby him.Crlrrc MvrHoLocY GUINEVERE (abwe). which caused her brother. Matholwch sug. Goll. Gwydion stirred up a quarrel beween Math and pnyprRr. sail to lreland to on herwedding day. leader of the Fenians.lAI. ART}IL/R. according ro Welsh GwtoN GWfnN. conilemnedto deathJorhu afair with lancelot.lord of the Welsh hngdom of Gwynedd.Gwydion siege of the otherworld king's casde had tnclud hyde" into anhangpnghis proved to be long and difficult. should be placed on the lrish throne. not far from Arthur's tomb. the young woman who was Math's footholder. The Gwan A resourcefulmaglcian. but spared lrnan when shebegged for HTIITWNS SEERS SCC SAGE5AND merE. w6 the son of the Irish king MATHOLWCH and the Welsh AP NUDD. while Guinevere became a nun at Amesbury. which meanr that the kingwent awaytowar. and into a pair of wolves for the third. ws an otherworld hng between the two royal families led who crossed swords with King to Branwen becoming a cook.c 1910.crNv s. Rtto. slew Iman and as a reward Finn allowed him to marry his daughter. Irnan changed herself into a monster and challenged any one of the Fenians to single the combat. in welsh GwyN princess BRANWEN.I-ancebt slrw many h"rghs. When Math rerumed and discovered the decep tion. Arthur. where she later died. the bodyguard of the High King of lreland When this plan failed. was rhe nephew of GWYDION MATH. in lrish mythology. t37 . sleep with Gowein. BRltN the daughter of Lludd Llaw Ereint. By 0rrusrprnorv SIEpHEN 1910 ) BacH seeTAUESTN. (See also CELNCROMANCE) and the builder of London. Later. Gwydion took charge of his sister ARIANRHOD's LLEU. Arthur 'thefairatJellovship of wept at theloss of REscuEs Gunrvmr rv noblc tmights". though only three. But Branwen's half-brother EFNISIEN would not agree and threw the child on to a fire. mytholory. was mken to AVALoN. In order to help his brother. A dispute mytholory. The confronadon between Arthur and Modred at the battle of Camlan brought to a bloody end the golden age of Brirish chivahy. doomsday could have Griddylad. Gilvaethwy.

Realizing that the best way to advanceKing Mark's suit would be to slay this monster. When her own father readily agreed to the marriage as a means of restoring good relarions between lreland and Comwall. 1912 ) that King Mark found them asleep with Sir Tristan's sword between them. uNvtts. they were eventually discovered. recognizing the hair as belonging to Iseult. In Brittany Sir Trisun married but without happiness. But her mother gave Iseult's maid BMNGAINEa love potion which. so the king said that he would mary/ only the girl to whom belonged the golden hair a swallow had just dropped Sir Tristan. For a time the lovers managed to meet in secret.CEI-TIC MyTHOLOGY ISeUf. The Celtic myth of Tristan and Iseult originated in Britmny and was retold in almost every European country. Sir Tristan arrived in lreland to find the country tefiorr:ed by a dragon. Instead he exchanged Sir Trismn's sword for his own and left them sleeping. but he decided not to slay them there and then. a beautiful woman with wonderful golden hair. Overcome by the mercy shown by his uncle. cured Comish While oJ hnight Tnstan alingmngwound to thq nursinghim health. like the love of culrur'rcnE and IANCEL?T. under the cover of darkness. Although he just managed to overcome the dragon. also an ISEULTOelow). forglng an unbrealubb and Jinally traglc bond Duncan's strongly Celticportrayal capturesthe intanseand eNo undyngnature of thar love CtrusrrH lsoLDE ByJoHN DuNclN. On Tristan's arrival in Cornwall. lt happened one day ISEULT and Tnstan unwtttingly dranh a love philtre which haghtened their already a. Iseult nodced that his sword had a piece missing exactly like the fragment of metal found in the head of MoRHoLT. and the story of was her love for TRISTAN extremely popular in medieval times. Disguised as a Comish trader. It came as a shock then. would make the couple love each other forever. Trisun persuaded Iseult to retum to her husband and he left forvoluntary exile in Brituny. but was was as theirbliss shortlived Tnstan the Jor forcedto leave lrish court political reasons (ltLusrnertoru By EvELYlv Pettt. Iseult wanted to hll Sir Tristan in revenge. c I9A0 ) an enorrnous "crested serpent". All would have been well had not Tristan accidentally drunk the potion and gtven some to Iseult on the joumey to King Mark's court.the Irish champion. but war took up most of his energies. was an Irish princess. bur. if drunk on their wedding night. suspected trickery and discovered the injured young knight While they were nursing Sir Trismn back to health. its poisonous breath weakened him temporarily and an imposter claimed to have won the contest. cured the orphan Tristan of a wound in the side. It was r38 .but she found that her heart would not let her wield the sword against him. lishbeaury. somerimes Isolde. lseult was deeply upset.was the and a glJtedhealer.talzenedpassion. It becameattached ro the Arthurian stories by the later addition ofeRrnuR to the myth. Sir Tristan sought out its lair and fought it. lseult and her mother. lseult. On several occasions he rerumed to Comwall in disguise and secretly met lseult again. his uncle King MARKwanted to name the young man his successor. Brangaine took her Place in the royal bed so that he would suspect nothing.g" in the story of the Grail. that Sir Tristan asked for Iseult on behalf of King Mark. Jellin lne.T. suggested to his uncle that he should go on his behalf to ask for her hand. on his recovery. Although Iseult did marry the Cornish hng. however. Sir Tristan had monallywounded him on the last occasion the Irish tried to collect ribute from Comwall.but the nobles objected to this anangement. on the wedding night.A serious wound forced Sir Trisan to send for Iseult. a lingering ailment similar to the one afflicting the "Maimed Ki.

Fergus Mac Leda.Fergus kda (luusrnenoru BY REID. Stories of elopements. Unfortunately. 9t 0 ) I STEPHEN I(AI (abne). Iubdan fell into the porridge and. When his body was retumed to Spain. After a year and a day of this harassmentFergus Mac Leda eventually agreedto releaselubdan and Bebo. His own long life was said to have been due to the Grail. and offered it to Sir Galahad. courtships and ill-fated lovers were always popular with the Celts. for whom this late story of frustrated passion held great appeal. Tristan lost the will to live and threw himself on his sword before Iseult could land and reach his bedside. to to incitinghisbard cathimdown size to greater in menlived by inststingthatJar To averitable of glants prwe race Ulster. the iast to be recorded in Irish mytholory.was a hnight of legendarymight and prowess Endowedwithunusualshills. Gulliver's Travek. or his brother-in-law Bron with his son Alan.SirTristan's Breton wife said a ship with a black sail had been sighted. He landed with ninery followers just after the TIJATIaDE DANANw had defeated the FOMORII the second battle of at Magh Tuireadh. EitherJoseph. pair of magic shoes. He was said to have magical powers: he could go nine days and nine nights without sleep and breathe for nine days and nine nighs under water I(AI KNY SCC invasion of lreland. AJter a Grailto Glastonbury building fubry itwhueGlnstonbury churchJor of he a nowstands. Queen Bebo.one theWee of wasinclined bragoJhtsgreatness. it disappeared and i$ recovery was the geatest quest for the lGrights of the Round Table. IUBDANbelow). was Ith's uncle Mil. brought the Grail to Glastonbtry.(Seealso CELilC ROMANCE) IfH was said to have dwelt in a great towerin Spain. a Whoever wore these shoes was able to travel across the surface of water as if walking on dry land. r39 . he is a Comishman and Arthur's foster-brother. this "good man took Our Lord's body berween his hands. In one tradition. Joseph allowed Christ's body to be placed in his own tomb. Jounded Jamily Grail (MANUscRrpr c 1450 ILLUsTMnoN ) Guardians men and women was entirely cut off. but only on the condition thar in return he was given the hng's most valuable and treasured possession. or MILESIUS IUgnnN was a ruler of tiny people According to lrish mythology. Jealous of the reunion of the lovers. was mken prisoner by Fergus No ransom offer proved acceptableto the king of Ulster. The leader of this FoIh. Arthur's steward. ventured to thedun htsvalour. The Tuatha De Danann suspectedIth of harbouring invasion plans and so hlled him. a "bishop already dead for more than three hundred years". Only GAIAHAD was granted a complete vision of the Grail It was handed to him by Joseph of Arimathea. was one of the senior warriors of ARTHUR's coun ln medieval romance. So theywent on to the offensive: milk became scarce. the or JOSEPH ARIMATHEA inhis Chist'sbody manwho interred tohavebrought the isbeliorcd wwttomb. and when Fergus Mac Leda put them on they grew to fit his feet exactly Echoes of the dny people in this lrish myth can be found in Jonathan Swift's novel.rivers and wells were made foul and polluted. he became the steward Sir lGy. Iseult followed him into death shonly afterwards.CEI-TIC MYTHOLOGY agreedthat lseult should indicate her imminent arrival with a white sail. to put a stop to this annoying habit his court poet told him that Ulsrcrwas a land of gians. along with his wife. in welsh myrhology. thwartingboth Peredurand Culhwch IlLUsrMloN 1450 c at thegate (Meruuscnrpr ) JosreH oF ARrMArHEAwas a biblical figure who was included in Arthunan mythology becauseof the Grail story. He even made Kirg Iubdan and his wife. who received it with humble joy" I(AI. couldgo he for nine daysunderwaterand could grow as tall as a forest tree at will He was very gruf. mills burned and during the nights the hair of (above). from which he was able to see lreland and so decided to go there. King Iubdan liked to boast a lot. his sons swore to conquer the island. travel there in secret and try the porridge of the king of Ulster. although the tiny people offered him an abundant crop of com. Iubdan of Mac ofthe"glant". Later.

while the other is an oppressive guardian. talesinvolve a love trianglewith two men contestingone desirable one woman.The attractiveyoung of heroes.CELTIC ROMANCE HE LIVELyAND coMpELLINGcharacter of Celtic romance stems from the heated rivalries and passionsof the lovers. ByA cnrvns. the couplehissat thar first meeting contnvedbyGalleotin an embroidered medionl setting Althoughtheir lwe grew out oJ the courtly tradition.and he was n6)er lessened thar love Here.it wentJar bqond what the courtlycode would have allow (MaNuscnrpr ed ILLUSTMTToN ) c I 400 in Tnrsr. expressing warmth and wisdom.q.u(above)ond Iseult snatcha tensemoment together their romanceThq had gown obsessively attachedto one clandestine another after acctdentally dnnhing a lovephtltre intended Iseultand for her betrothed. Celtic love trianglescreate tension. drama and colourful characters timelessappeal.the two suitors are simply rival admirers. KingMarh of Cornwall Thedoomedlwers embarhed an a desperate and traglc romance. AND . elsewhere. [-ANcEtor (above) and Guinevere's abidinglove t'or eachother woundedArthur. if not all.Most. the heroinesemergeas sffong and independent women. Jraught with guilt and unrequited 1904) longrngs(Tmsren isoLDE wTuRNBArr.such as raven-hairedNaoise. Sometimes of the rivals is young and handsome.While all the characters are portrayedwith touching flaws. as in the tale of Naoise and Conchobhar.Deirdreand Fand. This recurrent rivalry probably q'mbolizesa seasonal battle betweena Lord of Summer and a Lord of Winter for the Spring Maiden.are quite as irresistibleas the ravishingCeltic beauties. shoohhiscourt and split the Fellowship Knights Yet both loversare of good but traglc portrayed by Mallory as essentially characters EvenArthur realizedthat Guinwere had beentrue to him inher way as a generous and by fatthful consort. or Diarmuid of the Love-Spot.as in the caseof Pwyll and Gwawl. one loved and the other despised.

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cANv r42 . 1870 ) not allow Sir Lancelot to come to Honour seemedsausfiedand the her. near Salisbury. including Morgan LeFay. Queen Guinevere retneatedfrom the world and became a nun at Amesbury. Anhur conducted an unsuccessfulsiegeof Sir l-ancelot's castle in Brittany. was charioteer to coNALL Caemach mistress. (Seealso CELilCROMANCE) IAEG. A Table who could not accept this half-sister and enemy MORGAN FAYcast a spell over the sleeping tournament was held to discover judgement byarms. his nephew.dy of the [-ake had plunged him into a magic pool when he was a child Sir Lancelot. of Arthur's hnights.c 1900) SurnNcBvWFCALDERoN. LE Arthur and Queen Guinevere. was very magic boat to AYALON.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY charioI-q. So SirAgravain led kotght and shut him in a dungeon. He was also a grearfriend and companion When FANDinvited Cuchulainn to the Land of Promise. or carved the head into two parts. Then a second and more deadlychallenge to the hng's authoriry came from Sir Modred. mosthanikome and gJted IiNCELOT. He was known as Lancelot of the Lake because the I-:. Ki.g ARTHUR's Lancelot in the presence of King were other ltrights of the Round IJADUIBHNE. acted as scout and comrade andfinalty casthimselfin front of a sryar meantJorhismaster. Laeg's brother. "With such great force and Sir M?DRED rwelve knighs There she demanded that he must Sir Lancelot smote Sir Meliagaunt to Guinevere's chamber and choose among four enchanresses on the helmet that the stroke surprised the lovers. Although Sir l^ancelotmanaged to make a fightwho would be his "paramour". he sent Laeg before him to suwey the place During Cuchulainn's final and monal combat.nc was GuCHUIAINN'S [eer. the truth. cetlts. wtth diwer andwcrnor acting cs a single t9I6) By unit 04usrnrnoN J LEvENDEctcR. Sir Lancelot and Guinevere met only once more before the knight renounced the ways of war to lead the life of a hermit. In the subsequent batde at Camlan. attractd both monal anil immortal queens FourJairy queefls hae hdnap the sbeping hnight and hold himin thar castb. chaioteq oJ Cuchulainn.demandingthathe one choose of than tobe hs mistress (HowFounFArny FouttoLct{crlor QUEENS s. but there Once Ki.the the knight admitted his love for Grail Castle Bang tainted with sin. Sir Meliagaunt. praying came dtlast to Carboneh. The Celts were renowned in the ancient world for their skill in handling charios on the battlefield. not unlike the lovers. after muchJasting and down. When he tumed them all Ir{NCELOT.War chaios pbyed altq rob in Celticbattle. drave the hero on allhis adventures. described as "the flower of knights".he All GUINEYERE of Sir Lancelot's could not enterbutwas granted avision too great adventures and exploits were Whenhestepped closehewasstruchby indeed informed by ths secretlove fire andleJt dazedfor 24 days (r-cNcn-or For a dme Queen Guineverewould REFUsED THE GneIL Bv E BuRNE-JoNrs.g Arthur was mortally wounded and taken by a I-qNCELOT was one of the geatest and noblest knights in the Arthunan tales. most of the Ituights of the Round Table were slain." ing exit and severaldays later saved Queen Guineverefrom being bumt to death. where she died. his acdons effectivelysplit the Round Table and weakened the sffength of King Arthur's realm First. however. I-aegthrew himself in front of a spear aimed at his master Id. but they eventually became atracdve to women. and l-aeg'sshllwas crucial to many of Cuchulainn's victories. reputation of Arthur's queen also handsome lrish warrior DIAKMIIID was suspicious and confronted Sir appeared unblemished.

I 912 ) the Fomorii in general and oneeyed Balor in particular. Blodarcdd. because over time "Little stooping Lugh'. motherlaid a series of curses upon him. magician and god of healing. theywere sometimes described as having only a single hand. Quite possibly this great victory represented the rise of youngergods amongst the Tuatha De Danann themselves. the battlefrenzy gnpped Lugh in such away that one eye disappeared into his head while the other expanded into a hideous. the only daughrcr of Balor. like the Ulster hero cUcHULAtNNand the berserkers of Germanic mythology. otusrnefloN 44y I r. After a long search. sun LllGH. undoing.lwirwntedtlu inwhkhhe game popularboard of fdchell. ITUO SCC NUDD god GOTBHNIU. Althouglr Lirwas also a sea god he is hardly mendoned in mytholory. including kicester in England. in Welsh mytholorywas the His son ofARIAwRHoD. a magic circuit that copied the single-leggednessof ucelled. BLODEIIEDD. andbony. When the guilry lovers smrck him. and Lugh sent his shot smashing into the eye the moment itwas opened.tg th" promise that he was to have no name unless she gave him one. Lugh's proweas tls a warrior had been recognized.IANANNAN Manx seagod. With the help of his uncle GWYDION. theraplndent Celtic god. for the youthful Lugh felled Balor with a more modem weapon than DAGDA's ancient club. succeededin reaching Ethlinn and she bore Lugh as a result. and at the second battle of Magh Tuireadh Lugh fulfilled the prophecy of Balor's death when he killed him LUCH was the Irish name for the Celtic sun god. or Llyr in Welsh. restored him to human form and healed his wounds.t. with the result that its tenible gaze fell upon the Fomorii ranks behind. saved Lugh from Balor's wrath and raised him to manhood.The sun god was believed to have fought alongside his hard-pressed son during Queen MEDBof Connacht's invasion of Ulster.q1984) LlR. the ledtheTwthaDeDatunnagainst Mbr. Lugh's mother was ETHUNN.Cian's brother. Well before the final battle between the Tuatha De Danann and the Fomorii. waebent (l-rn's Carlpnnt ByJorDrDuNcAN. though the wife conjured by Gurydion and was nearly his the magician lv0{TFI For this woman. since his grandfather was the lrish one-eyed god neroR.r ByE wu:-:cousrrvs. Lugh became known as r43 . Indeed. with one eye closed. As sling-shot whomhe with hismagtrc sW another man and plotted Lleu's death. The Fomorii were sea gods who challenged the TUATFIA DEDANANNfor control of lreland. LLEU. an altemative name for Lugh was Samildanach ("the many-shlled"). I9I2) Lamfhada ("of the Long Arm"). off the nonhwestem cozlstof Ireland. paralprng stare. ilNvtrs. includi.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY r t Flll Qigh}hail n fitrn intoan uflc wlfe to a. son of the Tuatha De Danann healrng god DIANIECHT. foot or eye. Balor's eYe was forced back through his head. Gwydion found him. named Lleu of the Skilful Hand. the tiny guardian of hidden treasure and the expert cobbler. thq humanfomt. no weapons unless she provided them and no wife of the human race. The De Danann leader NUADAstepped down in his favour. who was known as Lleu in Wales and as Lugos in France. dmn starnnguntil Gwydionlurdhim Blodadd andratord himn healtlu By wasturnd intnan anl. After Cuchulainn's death his foster-brother coNALL claimed to have received help from Lugh when he chased Cuchulainn's killers. For andhunga 9A0yun tlvy adureilcoW wik tluir in W waters. vwndcil and Hc hidin tlrcfczla. 0uusrn rnor. was the lr{c uR. despite Sving his name to nuilny places. Lleu rose into the airin the shape of an eagle. clnrminglXtenm ranrd a Whatat Last poignant song.. Lugh's final claim to fame is that his name became part of the term used to describe the fairy in lrish folklore.apehismurilnous . he locked Ethlinn in a cryatal tov/er on Tory Island. Either the seagod I&{NANNANlvt{C LIR or the smith with a sling-shot. Thus Balor died and the Fomorii scattered. Because a prophecy had said that Balor would be hlled by his own grandson. Lugh was himself pan FOMORII. Lleu overcame all these taboos. the Fomorii champion. fell in love with inn IJR'Sfour lnely chrWrnwqe turned by swans kariulous stqmothq. the father of T. Before delivering this decisive blow Lugh had circled and the enemy host on one foot and gd oJarts oafts. On one occasion the sun god appearedin a magic mist. Shakespeareprobably had the Welsh LIyr in mind when he wrote his tragedy Kngl-ear. Fotnuiibn W hisgranilfathu. tumed into the leprechaun.who raised him. It would seem that. But Cian. Balor's own single eyelid had to be raised by four servants. or Luchorpain. He was alwala described as a young and handsome wanior. This ingenuiry may account for Lugh's introduction as the father of Cuchulainn in the more historical sagas.

. Suspecting from his responsethat he had designson conquenng the island himself. Maeldun was soon retreated When the hound. . ) his foster-mothertook him to see his true mother and his parentage Ulster. asa Maponos ruler's wife. the month in which the feasrof rhe Celtic sun god Lugus occurred. in contrast ro the fundamenully pre-Christian mphical voyage of the earlier BRaN. A isle of enorrnous an$. MeflPUN. to which he his father. goddesses.The late saga that describes his voyage is a mixture of Christian and preChristian ideas.MORRIGAN ruTUNIN ShC voyage of revenge ANd first mamed Nemed. Mac Da Tho promised both these rulers that they could have was revealed.ocue wasJorced race to to onJoot prweabet After NUADA had been hlled at the ry SmpHrruPe:. and slaughtered the three of his foster-brothersto find boar to provide a feast. a Celtic god of youth. son of the Welsh dMne mother Modron. he duly helped to capture rhe wild boar rwRCH TRwYTH with the aid of the hound and to take from between the boar's ears the razor Ulster threatened to execute her husband if she did not race. only to leam that he had invited them Fighting broke out been murdered Determined to avenge his between the Ulster king and the men of Connacht.in all likelihood Vihngs. but the latter father's death.oe 1994 that he was not reallywell bom that Gnev. Welsh god A SrJtdmt$iirrrn. a Scythian The first island Maeldun came ru1er who defeated the FOMORII.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY LUCUS was the name used in Britain and France for a god very similar to rhe Irish rucn and the Welsh lmu His importance can be judged from the old name for Lyon.king of that Olwen's father had demanded.r. they killed him. suggesdngthat he may have been a former god. possibly even London: the Roman Londinium may havederived from Lugdunum IMenON. sdll accompanied by his foster-brothers and MnCHe was one of the Irish war also a crew of seventeenwarriors. or Mael Duin.He then set out with the hound. Lugdunum ("the fortressof Lug") The Roman emperor Augusrus made it the capital of the provinces of Gaul. advisedbya druid as to which were over which rhey had been quar. and many of his neighbours coveted these animals.1910) 0[usrpcflol second battle of Magh Tuireadh. theyouthful was overseas. Mac Cecht and his brothers could not decide whether to divide Ireland berween them and so they consulted a stranger named ItH. Macha cursed all Ulstermen to suffer the pain of childbinh for five days and five nights whenever the kingdom was in danger. ran after the king's chariot build. He was killed shortly afterwards by raiders from I|{ABON. Machawon the race and gave birth to twins. including Medb and CONCHOBHARMAC NE55A. was said to have been abducted when only three nights old and imprisoned in Gloucester However. which is said to be the reasonfor calling the fortress of the Ulster hngs Emain Macha ("Macha's Twins"). thetime at for oJlJkter's greatest Thebitter need curse stemmed hq ill-treatment the If4eC CnCnf was the trish god by Jrom Uktermenwhen. was love he The nun gavebinh to Maeldun and also the god equated. she living on another island were found could outrun all the king's horses to pose no threat.wrth classical Apollo the child was fostered by the local AlthoughJorgottan god. often identified with he sailed on his long and strange BADB. possibly Maponos. l-argebirds that. who was the sister of survwed inWekhmyth Mabon.or Maponos. however They and chariots When the king of even provided the voyagers with MACHAcursed theUktermen suft'er to the painof childbirth five days. though nearhqterm. an expedition was mounted to release Mabon Once free.since only he was able to control the hound which cuLHwcH needed to win the hand of orwEnr. the ants almost devoured after her boastful husband said the crew and the boat. was one of the geat lrish voyagers. but the sea gods who slew her second apparently not the killers of his husband NUADA and herselfat the father. thus provoking the invasion of the sons of MILESIUS Dn THO was king of MAC Leinster at the time that MEDB was queen of Connacht. who was incorporated in Welsh mythology as a warrior once his worship was all but forgotten The Romansknew of Maponos. though heavy with child. He owned a fine hound and a huge boar. Next they landed upon an second battle of Magh Tuireadh. the actions of Mabon are uncertain. to was inhabited by murderers. Apart from adventureslike this. Maeldun's fatherwas a chieftain of the Aran lslands who attacked the Irish mainland. The god's name was used for many other place names. whom they equated with Apollo. It was only shilbd huntqamong Anhur's champions when children taunted Maeldun (Iuusrnenox syMl&qr. looted a church and raped a nun. and ordered the inhabitants to celebratethis choice each August.she of eloquenceand the son of.the favourable days for him to relling. as a the unfortunate nun. as large as later Macha laid a curse on Ulster horses. the god of prophecy. launch and sail a threehis charioteer cut off its head skinned coracle Then.

a solitary pilgrim on a tiny island that was enlarged every year by divine providence. (See also FABULOUS VOYAGES) MAEVE see MEDB.crylng birds. a casde with a glass bridge where there lived a beautiful girl who rejecred Maeldun's advances. silver. a mpterious car and fierysvine. an inaccessible island L15 . Similar lunrry was encountered on the next isle.Thus ended thevoyage that was said to contain "the sum of the wisdom of lreland".Crlrrc MyrHoLocY on top of a pedestal. an island divided inro four hngdoms by fences made of gold. a out As wiled flungJar tosea. ted house with food and drink.fiutsntnoN SYALAN198{ lrq ) meat.wa ilrapeilwrth silvqnet. contagious laughter. Danger w. IdAEI^DUNOeloul) andhrs sailon silvr column rising foundawondrous straightfrom sea. on islands that werc populated by rwohing beasrs. The ground on one of them was hot like a volcano. from which the voyagerscut offa small piece as a souvenir. which was covered with orchards of delicious apples. animals and a fearsome monster suddenly appeared. brass and crysral. Aurnan hached a of piece proofoJke tale. *ild 6tttty.lost the lts in tlres}1.tpur. bur they pleaded for mercy and a peace was agreed. however. gigantic honsesproved to be even more dangerous.. Maeldun caught up with his farher's killers. an underwaterisland of prophecy. the offer of etemal youth on one island which was inhabited by a queen and her daughters. voyagm. A regular supply of fresh salmon was provided by a device that periodically threw fish into rhe house from the sea. an amazing water-arch. they thrugh themah. rwolving fire. as well as comfonable beds. There theydiscovered an uninhabi. glant smiths. a sombre miller who ground everything that was begrudged in the world.fores6. fighting horses.r ME{ER" 1991) IA{EIDUN. so it was with some relief thar Maeldun and his companions landed on the Island of the House of rhe Salmon.ts soon encountered again. and a hermit who lived on salmon that was given by * otter and half a loaf provided each day by angels. a sea of clouds in which casdes. awairing them. a wonderful founrain that gushed milk. summit. Two subsequent islands of monsrous. obwvcdilouriytlut of He tlv am synrblizd atlttwt nnbegrydgd each othcr. The aghast. Among other strange creanrres and encounters on the voyage were gigantic swine and calves so huge that they could not be cooked whole. a gigandc silver column and net. stoppcn by tlrcblah slandof tlv mill (abarc) tylwe lived glaot"y a milla grtmly gnnding mounds cant. a population of moumers.(tuusrntnoN u By D. sheep rhat changed the colour of their wool apparenrly ar will. intoxicating fruits. a sea of glass. onhs qk voyagt. Evenrually. beer and wine.

along with Rhiannon's son PRlDrru and his wife Cigfa. so they travelled to England. took his name from the lsie of Man. ro. Isath.and he went on to become a greatking and mighry warrior god. '4s Sweeper" a sea called the stir couW up or soothe sea.@elou. he was not endrely unsympathetic. and the ruler of the Land of Promise. He had both divrne and mortal children. and even when he came upon the lovers sleeping together with Trisun's sword between them he did not kill them. sonof Llyr. however. He then ried to support them by growing a crop of wheat. their palace was deserted and the land around it desolate. Ieaving Cigfa and Manawydan alone. including the abiliry to shapechange. He o<changed the sword for his own and left without waking them. asBran. BY ) ouusrnnnoN RussELr c 1900 wheat aJtu a my stanousblight had devastatedhtsland Onefield was npe for hawestwhanwernight itwu stipped to the stalluby mice In dupair. Manannan appeared He ships often orhinder andhelp at such tovoyagers.t MANANNAN of the lrish sea god ttR. he married on RHIANNON the death of her husband PvwLL. Although jealous of Tristan and lseult.who fell in love with but the Ulster hero CUCHULAINN finally chose to stay with her sea god husband. until drssuadedbya Lez. So successfulwere theY that the local craftsmen forced them to leave.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY Mec LlR. . Tristan solemnly retumed lseult to his uncle and went into exile in BritunY. somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean His wife was the renowned beaury FAND.). Shamed by this act o[ mercy. who drove a chariot as easily over the waves as over a plain and was said to have a ship that sailed itself. Fum. was the guardian of his orphaned nephew Tristan and the husband of Iseult. Mongan did. Manannan therefore shook a magic cloak benveen Fand and Cuchulainn in order to make sure they would never meet again Manannan Mac Lir was a noble and handsome warrior. theoutvt oJ thar tnp 0uustn rtotr BYMIMNDA Gru''t. the lovers knew that they must part. were enveloped in a magical mist When it cleared. whowa oJten up gatheredher andborehr off to a touter where shewasrestoredtohealth.0[usrnenoru MenI( was the king of Comwall in rhe Breton myth of mtstaN and He ISEULT.he planned to hangone of the mice. but his fields were stripped by mice He caught one of the mice and would have hanged it.was of rheWelshequivalent the Irish though his sea god MANANNAN. was conceived by way of a decePtion similar to the ruse used for conception Manannan ARTHUR's slept with an Ulster queen when disguisedas her husband. magician and healer. l'ish sea boat in rode waves a self-propelled the "Wave god. the suitorwhom Rhiannon had refused in order to marry Pwyll (Seealso MAGICANDENCFIANTMENT) IvIePoNoS seeMABoN MANAWYDAN (abwe) tiedto grwv IUARK belw) watchessadly ashrswtJe. The stranger agreed and revealedhimself to be Llwyd. both Pryderi and Rhiannon disappearedby magrc. inherit supematural gifs. ) BYAIAN 1984 strangcr. On their return to Wales. hneek beforea drawn sttord. herselJwrth ponrayd a a muctfulman. which is situated in the Insh Sea about halfway berween Ireland and Bntain Manannan was a seagod. but a passing stranger offered him whatever he wanted in return for the mouse's life. the MANANNAN. beside gneJ atTnstan's death Marh. and one of his mortal sons. MONGAN. Iinla with the seawere far lesswell rin defined The brother of nReru and BLES5ED nnaxwnN. where he lived in Emhain ("of the Apple Trees") His home was imagrned to be sited off the western coast of Ireland. One day he and Rhiannon. a magician and friend of Gwawl. 1991) MmtnWYOeN. where Manawydan and Pryderi made a lMng as leatherworkers. an Irish princess. Manawydan asked for the retum of Rhiannon and Pryderi.

the furious Math turned his nephews into animals IM. becausehe claimed that he had not been consulted over Branwen's wedding. "cut off the lips of Matholwch's horsesat their tecth. and Efnisien. thebeautifuI dJ A wiWandwiful woman.CIITIC MyTHoLoGY MEDB (abwe). ft stronghold of Emain Macha and was also said that she "never was practised with a sling-shot until he wrthout one man in the shadow of was able to knock an apple from another". ByJ . precipitated sistr she BrantheBlessed shipshad The arignsof andpapetuated thebloody withUkter war silh brocaded andanuptilted. Except during war. nearly all the Brirons were hlled and all of the Irish except for five pregnant women. a was of prelude a doomedmarnagebetwean warnor Jought fiucelyasMorigan to who as himself andBranwen. fell in love with the young woman who held Math's feet in her lap. the sister of nRaru tle BLESSED half-sisterof rnvlsrEN. when Bran took his army to Ireland to avenge the insult of Branwen being made a cook. was Ulster revenged. Math was the lord of Gwynedd in the north.qrHoLwCH. IMruCN t+7 . where she bathed and the shore.and their tails ro their bodies" Later. one of his nephews. Medb's most famous the top of a pole over the same action was the invasion of Ulster. in welsh myrhology. distance Satisfied ar last rhat his when her forcescaptured rhe geat aim was perfect. When Gilvaethwy. GWYDION. rhe son forehead using his sling-shot Thus of King CONCHOBHARMAC NESSA.was Medb was in the habit of regularly the wamor-queen of Connacht taking her bath in a Galway pool According to lrish mythology. SCC FABULOI) VOYAGES while she was bathing in a pool S Forbai had discovered that Queen MEDB. however. who was believed to hold the hngthen he returned to the Ulster dom's sovereignryin her person. shieW a as in whichCuchulainn othq hqoes and lost sign peace of ByAr 1984) thar lwa 0uusrnenoruLEyENDEctcR 0uusrnenor. tncked Math into going to war wrth Pryderi so that the girl might be left behind On discovering that he had been deceived. his brother. was the lrish kingmarried to BMNWEN. 1916 ) MATHOLWCH'SAqDconvoy ships uJ glides to theraggedWelsh in the up shore MAIH was rhe brother of rhe Welsh mother goddessDoN and a great magician At the time that PRYDERI ruled over Dyfed in the southem part of Wales. their earsto their heads.themagnifcantbut malanlent queen Connarht. Efnisien tossed Matholwch's three-year-old son GwERNinto a fire In the battle that followed. no He very carefully measured the king could reign in Connachr exact distance between the spot unless he was married to Medb. he stealthily made brown bull of Cuailgne and killed his way back to the pool and hir the Ulster hero CUCHULAINN She Queen Medb in the centre of her was herselfslain by Forbai. also known as Maeve. Math could only live if his feet were held in the lap of a virgin.r Nt-ze.

the hero of legend had recourse to magical skills and a range of enchanted weaponS. Arthur's mounted knights encased themselvesin glittering iron. In addition to the basic weapons of spear. sling and shield.Instead. armedwith to spears and crestedhelmets Thar comrades Joot wear breeches on and caps.Shortage manpowerforbademultiple pitched battles.SINGLE COMBAT N wAR. chosenchampions the restlesshqo harassed the army with his rnoNBy YvoNNGr:flenr.THEANCIENT CElrs relied on heroic single combat. Cucnu-uttN Aeft). rarher than all-out gf warfare. While the Celtic heroes wore scant arrnour. the Insh champion.as a meansof settling disputes. Even in a large-scaleepic war. GTLDED c 100 ) srLVER. he confronted oneby one Betweenduels. hisfather Lugh. ) r 1991 sling {trrusrn Crrrrc Clernv (ngh) ide their battlehorses war. like the campaign of Cuailgne. such as Arthur's Excalibur or Fergus Mac Roth's Caladcholg. The Celtswereheavilyreliant on thar long shields. he suf ued from chroniclach of sleep.andbear spears and.which were usually made oJwood and sometimes cwered with decorativebronze worh Other sharp-rimmed shields could ako be used as missile (Gulotsrnup weApOnS C.dunngwhichhehealedallhs days wounds When Cuchulainn deJaded Wtr abne against theforces of Medb. njoys a short rupite betweenbattles fuhausted by continual combat.while trumpetersbnngup the rear. castthe hero into a magpcal sleep three Jor and nights. long bossed shields. duelled to the death.single combat continued in the form of Ltghtly jousts.such as Cuchulainn or Morholt. BC . the originalExcalibur.culDnot'r. chosenchampions. sword. In the Arthurian legends. snatchingcat-naps beween dueb Once. the Ulster champion fought in single combat every day with a different warrior. pitying him.

u r n ' sh o n l c a p t t . . ) t ' + .. r r c ( i I r { r ( ' . tht ( ) w .'. /t1l. c l l.qrtrntconrp/rrrn.1 thc { c i l r t t r r t l C c l t h l . ' n t . u . . .:trrlt'J .u.i r i \ . t h c r r s e . \ \ l r ./rror/ G o a c l e t lr r n h . macle h thc irnrght -s. lldnl ilLisll'ilrntng untrl ()rrlrn s cir'ft'rrr \\'hcn rhc c . Ltrr'urn prr-shcdhrs pct hrri la l n t i r t l ' r (f ( r r 1 r a \ sh r r t r h c r n t ' p r r s s r h l .ttrl Gtutnt'-s rLlgc gcrvc hrrn t h e d g e u n c l h e ( ) r c r ( ( i m e.slr.lrl hrnr cornrcdc-rn urlrs In thts unequal rnatth. s h o t h i h u m f r t r r r s fought trrcles. l ..urnt'r't'rc's hanclmattlen.ln rnsull trr (.irrho prorcr-l to bt u rtrftt.'1 thc forlress rrttlls anc/ rrt.Eng.:/ t h a t h c r o u l d i r t t n d l t ' ( h r r r r r r r . g hi / r r rr'crr' n()r ftrr hrs lton. r i \ r k 1 i i .. o n d .CTITIC MyTHoLoGY lntrnI dn drdn. b u t s p a r c L l t h t hntght ilri 'rRliii)\3)4i 1\ Iri 1984 O w ' : r t l ' S ( h c l o u ' ) l t i t r J n c s s[ t r i ] i l r r n t r l l t r i tt lathlul /rrcnr.'1 .

the daughter of Beothach She becamefurious with jealousywhen Midir mamed a secondwife. was father of rhe proud son of DAGDA. he had to accept in the end that she was the High King's consort and leaveher alone Midir also had some difficulty in acceptinghis father's successorsas leadersof the TUATIIADE DANANN The conflict that he started seems to have had a dangerouslyweakening effect on this generationof godsjust before the invasion of the Milesians. MILE5IU5 MTT. from Ulster With a druid's aid. sage Jrom anotlier world. ETAIN. passedby: "l am also the greatest fool I love another more than I love myself. still possessed the bewitchedby hdy oJthel-a. and reborn as the wife of the High King of lreland Although Midir recoveredEtain. one oJthe Tuatha De at Danann. the gods Unlike his father.who then went on to defeatthe gods. would never be safe until the ground rhere had been soaked by the blood of a child who had no MERLIN QeJ).ke toher ends sapped powers inherited from his demon She turnedhislove own hts power plunderedhis ofsecret father Somehow the boy did not and store need to be sacnficedfor the sakeof hnowledge. was the famous wizardof Arthunan mythology So powerful was his magic that one medieval tradition credits him with the magical conthe outstruction of Stonehenge. imprisoned him in an enchanted wood after Merlin had explained all about the secrets of his own magic As who once Merlin told Sir GAWAIN. By otherworld (Ir-rusrnarroNSrEpHEN 1910 ) mortal father Such a half-human sacrifice seemed impossible to achieve. was an inspiredseerand mysticmage. and I taught my beloved how to bind me to herself. for fabulous who Christian. cANVAs. by disguising him as her husband Due to this deception Arthur was conceived Once he ascendedthe throne.a and wise counsellor JaithJulfnend to three portrayal captures ablehings This powerJul the mysticaland visionarynature of Celtic bards.OR MILE SCC t50 .until it was leamed that a beautiful girl was with child by a demon The child tumed out to be was Merlin. Rrir. coarse figure.rootedin a deepffinity with nature (Mgnrru BY Ar. lost long since to him by enchantmentThe pair dnfted upwardsand disappeared andJlewto an througha palacewindow. who is usua\ ponrayed asa rough. responsible for the problem This mixture of pre-Chnstian and Christian ideas sits strangely with Merlin's later assistanceto Ki. being the only knight wonhy enough to see the GRAIL Merlin sat down and was at once swallowed up by the earth. Fuamnach tumed Emin first into a pool. somerimesMyrddin. alate copy of which can still be seenat Winchester today Merlin's birth was the subject of a strange story Apparently. an Ulster warrior. the Bntons were toid that a great fortressthey had built on Salisbury plain. appeared the palaceoJTara to carry off Etain. and now no one can set me free. CANvAs. and when done." (See AND MAGIC AND also SAGES 5EER5: ENCHANTMENT) MIDIR.CTITIC MyTHOLOGY MfnltN. as wrth many of the Celtic gods and godhe desses. could assumeany shape he pleased There are various accounts of Meriin's death One tells how the wtzard forgot about the seat at the Round Table thar only GAIAHAD could use.aN LEE. whose father UTHER was said to have sucPENDMGON cessfullyinvaded Bntain about this time Merlin sided with Uther and employed his powers to enablehim to sleep with lgraine. possibly near Stonehenge. King Arthur had Merlin as his trusted advisor and often used the wizard as a messengerbecause. in Insh mythology. in fact. like other sinful men who had tried it before him Another story blames the wrzard's death on his passion for women. the Ulsterwoman he loved. though baptized as a MERLINbelow). then into a worrn and finally into a fly in order to keep her away from Midir fu a fly Etain was swallowed by the wife of Etar. Midir alwaysappeared as a splendidly dressed young man Midir's first wife was Fuamnach. 1984 ) MIDIR (nght). allhiswisdom. 1870 c ) problem by means of magic Two dragonswere. the wife of a Cornish nobleman. the daughter of a Sicilian siren. who. or Nimue.g Arthur. standing British monument rhat has survived from ancient times Another of his worl<swas supposed to be KingARTHUR's famous Round Table. Either Viviane. she bound him the fortressbecauseit is likely that in stone by his own spells {trlrmrN ANDNIMUE Merlin was able to deal with the BYE BURNE-/ONE5. possibly the Lady of the l-ake.

CANVA5. his conception had been made possible by the use of a deception akin to the one used by MERLIN that so UTHER could sleepwith Igaine and so conceive ARTHURManannan Mac Lir had assumedthe shape of an Ulster king in order to sleep with his beautiful queen. also his guardian in death at Althougheducated a conyent. t'orcing the rebel Jorces Bothpmshed in theJrnal battle that endedthe war and so cameto an AND end theArthuian golden4gc (ARTHUR MODRED gy W Hetutmtl.10 describe how he used his shapeRrro. the [-and of Promise. who then nephew of King ARTHUR While he challengedArthur to single comwas away waging war in Brirtany. It is MILESIUSsails lreland avenge to the claimed by some traditions that Jor death oJhis nephew. the exisdngrulers. Throughout all goddessDana". where the boy remained until he had grown to manhood. his deJeating the other accountshe retainedhis own DeDanann retreated an invisible identity The storiesabout Mongan who into (luusrnenoru otherworld sy SEpHriv 19. was the name given to a recovery of his wife Dubh Lacha Spanish soldier whose sons were He had inherited the divine abiliry said to have organized the final of metamorphosisfrom his father invasion of Ireland The murder there of their kinsman ITH caused MOnCnN LE FnY was King the Milesians to take revenge by ARTHUR's haif-sisterand in some conquering the island This rhey versionsof the story she is said to achieved by defeating the TLTATHA have been the mistress of Sir DE DANANN. When Accolon dropped the Arthur had appointed Modred his sword Arthur recognzed it and the regent.which the Le Fay is always depicted as the Milesians won. wooo.she managedto emerge a glftedmagcian as (MoncnN LE FAy ByA SANDys. Arthur to quash usurpedthe throne. the Tuatha De king's implacable enemy. was then mken ro AVALoNin a black boat by three mysterious women Queen of Northgales and the Queen of Wastelands" (Seealso 5EER5."the people of the Accolon of Gaul. including Modred. MODRED (abov Arthur' s treacherous abusedhisroleof regentand nephew. slainby Mongan then retumed to lreland theTuathaDe Danann. When Mongan was three days old. SINGLE SAGESAND COMBAT) MORGAN LE FAYS (below)paradoncal nature is relectedin her dual roleas both healerand dorh maglcian. somerimes Mil or and mention in particular the Mile. but his schemingnephew other lcright admitted his guilt and tried instead to uke the rhrone and surrendered However. wounded king in a black boar to Arthur. whowas Ith. in but himself. According to Irish mythology.asArthur's yet thom in liJe.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY MONCnN was the son of rhe Manx seagod MANANNAN MACLIR. who had been mortally AyALONThe other two were "the wounded during the battle. ) changing abiliry to get his own way. was fought nearSalisburyandmosr Morgan le Faywas one of the three of the Iftrighs of the Round Table women who took the grievously were killed. familysucceeded. his father took him to one of his otherworld realms. MtlfStUS. after the force GUINEVERE marry him. bat. oJ the Although Milesius notreach did shore famousleaderof the FIANNA. a terrible battle rebellious nephew Sir MoDRED.1864) e). c 1910 ) r5r . the British myths that tell of Following the final decisivebattle Arthur's incredible reign Morgan bet'ween the two forces. On to bloody battle against Arthur's the king's return. often Danann retired to an otherworld plotting his downfall According to beneath the soil of Ireland one story she is supposed to have stolen the magic sword Excalibur MOOnfD was the treacherous and sent it to Accolon. rulers Ireland reincamatedas FINMACCOOL.

the to MORRIGAN. the waters rose from the ground and chased afrer her. smrednethead(Ea raven trap to winSs to of Conchobhar's great enemy.) the TUATHADE DANANNat both of war deities who sometimes appeared as beautiful young women and sometimes as crows. Unknown to and as such she settled in triumph on the shoulder of the Ulster hero so that she could avoid maniage to Conaire. however.theterible goddesswar. there was a prophecy to the Ulster hng COwCHOBHARMACthe effect that Eterscel'ssuccessor CUCHUIAINNwhen he was finally killed in the war against Queen NEssA. MORRIGAN MACIuA. ovq InshtaxesDespite pmlerand shill. However. was a goddess of war. Usna and his wife Elbha. Conchobhar. It happened one day sent FERGUS onlyrefused Monigan's love. of. theCornish sistEr ISEULT greater Morholt's his poisoned wound. Inshchampion. at which point the birds immediately tumed into armed warriors. werping saw combat. hll a bird. according to some versions. somedmesknown lodgng piece a as Monigu. Cuchulainn a washer aheap bbody of she andwailingw nnsed hero to raiment fulongng thegreat Bv Rno. He therefore sailed to Ireland and succeeded in hlling Morholt. and Along with nenp. When Boann found herway to the well.appeared BeJore presaglngdoom hrsLrst theford. NfnACUtN. 0uusrnrfloNANoN) was the gigandc MOnHOm brother of the king of lreland. siding blss lrrng in pastoral oftenshe or Mac Roth that he joined the forces deqanil salmon. formed one of a goup she r52 . was an trish warer NeCHfeN god and. she would agee to the match only on the condidon that her son should be allowed to rule Ulster for one year. but Mess Buachalla was careful to wam the boy that he must never. to whom King Mark and Cornwall were expected to pay an annual tribute. to which only Nechtan and his three cup-bearers had access. suaded him to run away with her the lrish capital. to signtfiimminant the or as hqe (lLnrsrulrn ay Srrprer Ren. in Irish mythology. of to them. the berothed of Eterscel. daughter Etersceldied and the question of per. Nemglan came to her in a bird shn and seduced her. cetuneP. one thedrmdfulgoddesses sometimes asawashrat war. whatever the circumsmncesmrght be. them all home. the leader of the DE TUATHA DANANN. associated with the other war NnOmn deities MACHA. Forgemng his mother's instnrcdon never to harm any bird.but at the end of the year the people of Ulster refused to let Conchobhar step down from the throne. untilthq wqe lurd bach a deadly crw. succeeded to the throne and proposed marriage to Nessa. was the mother of CONCHOBHARMAC NEssA. he loaded his sling.the Ulster ruler during the Iifetime of the hero CUCHUL{INN. in nmcomer. of oJ NElt{IN. When batdes of Magh Tuireadh. but trusting Fergus' with promise that no harm would come NAOISEelopes thegreatIrch beauty. Conaire was told to undress and retum home to Tara on foot. Queen MEDB Connacht.Cuchulainn had not fled with her to Alba. When DEIRDRE Her favourite form was the crow. and this was how she conceived corualRnMoR The child was passed off as High King Eterscel'sson. Nemain was said to have been the wife of NUADA. and so enraged was Fergus Loch futtb. Conchobhar along the road to Tara with a sling MAC ROTHto bring in his hand. carrying only his sling. Nessa'shusband was King Fachma of Ulster and when the king died his half-brother. avErnrw death on the batdefield who helped oJword inhisbrain 0uusrncnoN Ptw c 1%)0. Naoise agreed. (whose name means NguetN "dreadful" or "venomous"). The leader of these incredible warriors. in lrish mythology. She was was rhe eldest son of Conaire Mor was a young man. so excellent was his rule. Fergus Mac Roth was so in love with her that he readily agreed. Mark's nephew TRISTAN was determined to put an end to this practice. a duel would be able to cure Tistan. Before he died. the husband of BoANN On Nechtan's hill there was a holywell that was the source of all knowledge. but not before he had been wounded by the giant's great poisoned sword. To make up for his misconduct towards the birds. Conchobhar had Naoise Scotlnnd. In the Dardre fhry fled across sea pursuedby Fqgus MacRothBy appeared sometimesawarnorin a as event. NESSA. shnehing Jlappingher and Mac an in lrelandby unsuspectingFrgus death. becoming the River Boyne. the conJronts Morholt told Tristan that only his MORHOLT. but in anger he had even wounded her. On the eve of the wedding.High Kingof lreland. w6 an Irish goddess of a mortnlblowto htshelm.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY an Irish bird god. Suspicious of that Conaire was driving his charFor such a deed his fate was sealed.Naoise and his two brothers would be a naked man walking MEDB's forces. FERGU NIAC S ROTH. of scare host. thq andhunted Ness.theyoungTistan fought the lion lilu amighty anddealt olderhmght MOnTGAN. screeching over the batdefield.BADB and rurunlru. 1910 STEPHEN ) 0rrusrprnoru iot down this very road when a flock of birds with beautiful plumage descended upon him. He thus became the next High King of Ireland. 1910) Roth.the successionwas raised in Tara. introduced himself to Conaire as his real father Nemglan. fell in love with Mess Buachalla. foundrefuge with herJavourites Most killed.

to Dian Cechr's son Miach. weddingto HighKing. whose magrc hounds were also believed to be able to cure the worshipped dursick. and round his head a wheel of light pulsed and beat with changing colours".CTITIC MYTHOLOGY NUnnn. also known as Llud to the Britons. made by DIANCECHT. was an important Irish god and DANANN Ieader of the TI]ATHADE The De He was mamed to NEMAIN. Niamh nursed him and Fomorii Bres complained to his hnsmen about his treatment.Whrle CUCHTIIAINN recoveringfrom wounds sustained Ieadercausedthe second battle of during the war against the men of Magh Tuireadh. Nnu oF Tnr GolnnN Hetn was a daughter of the sea She fell in god uerueNNANMACLIR. who BvNrcK 1995) Mor. is the Welsh equivalent of He NUADA. because of a temporury replacementfor a hand he lost at the lirst battle of Magh Tuireadh. also had a silver hand. Iove wrth the poet oISlNand they Iived happily together in the L-and of Promise. He is described as sitting on his throne "with a white light about him as it had been a fleeceof silver. made him a new hand of flesh and was rhe wife of coNALL blood Dian Cecht slew Miach out NHUH was of jealousy. For a while berween the an abirdgodJrom otherNEMGITIN. and in one tale was lanown as Llud Llawereint (" silver-handed") Bitain at a time NUDD. because the halfConnacht. cast a spell and Nemain before the sun god destroyeditwith a sling-shot on Niamh so that she wandered LIJGH away into the counrryside Badb Their victory saved the Tuatha De Danann.. ln lreland. wqesoothedby oJ meadinba pitdugthrou$tthecantre the earth 0uusrnrnor ByAuN l. becamehis mistress She then ried At the second battle the lethal to prevent him retuming to battle But the witch BADB. Niam bore the poet a daughter. known as Llud to the Bridsh.which was one of the otherworld realms.one of the eye of BALoRkilled both Nuada daughters of. Danann leader. the nrins of a great temple have been found on the banks of the River Sevem. also known as Nuada Airgedamh ("Nuada of the Silver Hand"). sea gods who were soon to challenge them at the second batde of Magh Tuireadh.his as leaderbecauseof the loss of his . The silver replacementwas to abeauttful plumage moulted reveal But Nuada she youthLilu kla andDanaebeforeher. Nodens wurs ing the Roman occupation. but later they in tum were then assumed the form of Niamh and told Cuchulainn that he must defearedby the sons of MILESIUS That Nuada was the great De retum to the war and fight.or IJud. Plur nam Ban ("Flower of Woman") NOPENS was a British god of healing. he became NUADAof the Silver Hand and in Wales NUDD of the Silver Hand.Nuada appointed nnrs world.z. a Conaire was dissatisfiedwith it and umed god lwedthe andborehim son. 1981) r53 . Nuada is cognate with rhe Welsh NUDD NUDD.ruled a May whatitwasplnguedbystrange Eve that scrarmIt transpired twosubtenanean duingan scream dragow causelthe sinhing Thq annunlbattb. Buachallabeiorehu nvo battles. there is no doubt. Nuada's restoration as Caemach. Danann were a younger generation the of gods than the FOMORII. sheJlav the hand. to came Mess in.ceumtN.(IuusrntnoN BEil-E.

She their home a tall. or FIANNA. consisting oJ vertical lines crossing a lateral baseline gham O messages carved stone were on and inscibed barhs wands hazel and or on oJ aspen Ovr 400ancient messages have By NrcK 1995 suw|ed(Irrusrnerroru BMLE. keeping the the base of the Fenians. but instead of atuchng their quarry the regardedthe boywith cunosiry. and forestin the country. dark stranger came every now and again to see his mother.the younger DE generation of gods of which Ogma was one. Ogma claimed as his pnze a magic Fomorii sword that was capable of recounting all the deeds it had performed invented the OGMA. but that his limbs So Finn MacCool ordered mother was a gentle hind. and the Fenians were called to arrns For only one week Finn MacCool was absentdealing OtStN. most likely a Viking raid. Ogham is made up of a series of vertical or sloping lines inscribed on a base line The sagastell of vast libraries of Ogham writing. which followed them on the safely shut in by steep cliffs. the Irish capital and hounds were. son of the FOMORII goddessDomnu Indech was one of the leaders of the Fomorii. a beautiful quarry and Finn MacCool came deer started up on their path and upon them surrounding a naked the ensuing chase took them boy with long hair. but that she had leamed that if Finn MacCool came to love her.CTITIC MyrHoLoGY OGMA *as the Irish god of eloquence and the inventor of Ogham. who was a god described as rhe "Lord of I(nowledge" Besideshaving a truly remarkable skill as a poet. god Ogham scipt. valley none other than the goddessSADB. butwiththe granddaughter of oecoe. Ogma's task the idea of the transmigration of was a happier one since rhe Celtic souls from their Celdc neighbours otherworld was a delightful and In the sixth century sc the famous peacefulresdng-placefor the soul and unusual Greek philosopher prior to irs next rebirth in rhe $nhagoras left the Aegean island of world It is thought rhar Greek Samosand went to live in the city colonists in the westem end of the of Croton in southem Italy He becameexremely interestedin the OISINandthefairy maiden. Niamh. with that no harm should be done to the whom he lived in a quier valley deer. that his his companions and dogs was dogs tracked down avery strange returning homewards. and and as a result proposed the kinfilled withbirdsong scented Jlowers. To way home until sunset. god of eloquence. His two best towards Tara. Finn exhausted animal stopped and MacCool and the other hunsmen croucheddown on the gound. the earliestsystem of wriring used in lreland. That same nighr Finn MacCool awoke to find the most beaudful woman he had ever seen smnding next to his bed It was Sadb. perhaps trick among shape-changers Irish in not a surprising achievement con. ) explained how a spell had been placedupon her. who were rhe older sea gods who had challenged the TUATHA DANANN. withoverflowing andwondrous mead ship of all living things creatures (lLLLrsrR. When the stranger finally t54 . he discovered that Sadb IeaderFINNMACCIIL According had been lured awayby someone to lrish mytholory. nor least becausethe hngdom of Hades was Mediterranean first encountered not an invidng place. he was responsiblefor conveying souls to the otherworld Whereas for the Greek and Roman messengergods this was a sad dury. After the temble batde was over and the De Danann were victorious.Jlew theory of reincamadon.Finn MacCool organized Ifuowledge. Oisin was rhe disguised as himself (a common greatestpoet in Ireland. however. told them that he did not know the and even to lick her head and identity of his father. all hope of finding his mistressand the Oisin's uncle rerumed to his pleasureof hunting One day. somerimesOssian. Ogma was a fighter like other Irish gods and also. though only inscriptions in stone carvings have suryived. who was the daughter of the god of healing DIAN CECHT rhe second At and final battle of Magh Tuireadh Ogma slew Indech. the son of rhe Fenian. which a was immortal. in fact. through animals and plans as well. 0 ) I9i In some lrish myths Ogma is said to have married EtAtN. He hounds began to play roufld her. Oisin's mother was a searchof everyremote hill.At last the pack from seizing the child Having driven offthe dogs. This out success Eventuallyhe gaveup made OGMA. but she alwaysshrank away in fear and the man left in anger. as Finn MacCool with It happened.who believed that the soul was mistto theInnd of Promise.mythology) Realizingthat it must sidering how as a young man his be the enchanter whom Sadb had father had eaten the Salmon of rejected. was with the Vikings On his rerum. oJeloquence. and the sagasthemselves were later recorded by monks using the Roman alphaber Ogma was a son of DAGDA. like the the Greek god Hermes or the Roman Mercury. acceptedtransmigration ghtful therw bq ondalldream deli o orld s.4rroru BySTEPHEN REID. by chance. then all the enchantmen$ would ceaseto have power and she could resumeher normal shape So it came to passthat Sadb iived with Finn MacCool as his misress. His followaway a snow-white through on steed golden ers. and for months neither of them stirred from their dwelling Then news amved of invaders in ships off Dublin.

then I would say that he is a sffong man " So he was taken to the saint. the l-and of Promise. suwivor oJa the aloneand bereJt. 1910 ) appearedto Oisin almosr a strange land. the and Irelandbleah cold.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY aJter OISIN returned from the othewvorld an his timeandJoundhimselJ old man. he legends. and his songs and poetry were admired throughout lreland the OISIN. quietly maglc as hisend strange hisbegnning as (lrrusrRarto| nvSTrpHrvRuo.he readily mounted the magic steed and was never seenbY his father again ln the orherworld kingdom he foughr against a giant in an underseacomFOMORII bat worthy of his father But aftera number of other exploits Oisin began to miss his own land of Ireland Niamh gavehim her magc horse so that he could visit his home. conjunngup the age phantomsoJ that bygone maglcal (Osstlx at Fnllcots Grtino. and becamea shlled fighter like his father. sole age Withhislyre he sangofthe maglcal of heroes and gods hrsera.lu rs.on hisretum Jrom otherworld.but he also inhented the gentler abiliry of eloquencefrom his mother. but told him not to dismount otherwise he would never be allowed to return lreland struck her with a rnagic hazel wand. his saddle slipped and he fell to the ground In an instant the magic horse vanished and the valiant youngwarrior was tumed into a blind and frail old man A Christian addition to the end of this myth includes St Patrick everyone rook Oisin to be Because mad he cried out: "lf your god has slain Finn MacCool. people Jound aweary and andhimselJ and sad small. which he easily lifted for them while still seatedon his mount However. although she tned to comfort her son as she left As soon as the boy finished this accounl. on passing the old withered manAfter away slipped . 1800 ) His famous adventure concems NIAMH.the daughter of the seagod hCT MAC A. who recorded his strange tale and explained the changes to Ireland since the amval of Christianity 155 . the hind was forced to follow him.4ANANNAN LTR OiSiN rnCT while on a hunt by the shoresof a lake Shesuddenly appearedriding a horse with silver hooves and a golden mane When Niamh toid Oisin how she had travelleda great distance to invite him to her father'sotherworld realm. c. for everyone he knew had died long before The peoPle seemedfar sadder and more carewom than the heroes he had grown up with By chance he came uPon a raggedgoup of men attempting to move a boulder. and immediately named him Oisin ("Little Fawn") He was trained as a Fenian warrior. Finn MacCool embraced him as his own son by Sadb. which involved one of the most difficuh coursesof raining imaginable.

u 1984 Ceueto'r QefD. inspired by the nle of Cynon. drew hnights of from far and wide to join the Fellowship the RoundTable. learns much-needed Iessons and carches sight of even more tantahzrng quests ahead./. ) sy A.bur serve as shining symbols of aspiration. The impetus is sometlmes romantic. vision From Camelot. seem barely attainable. setofr in searchof the Castleof the Fountain.ertnur' s shining city-castle. Owain and rhe Grail l(nighrc were inspired by o rherworldly visions and ideals. and guardedher realm until hisyenfor adventurelured him olf again QLLU|TRAn1N Lee.The goal is not alwaysthe most tantalizing part of the venture and might seem like a redious or even trivial rask. Other goals.ercameher resentment. seehhonour. to to wrongsand to winladtes and renown The dvenge a of JigureoJthe questinghnightbecame symbol aspiration (luusrnerror ByAr-AN 1984 LEE. the quesr usually rakes on a magic of its own. or retributory. Wharever the goal. the questinghnight setJorthon joumrys of adventure and discovery.honour and.such as the Grail.inspiredby ideak oJcourage. Ownrru (abne).he a. as when Geraint went forth ro avenge a wrong. as when Culhwch set our ro find fa:r Olwen. leading the hero d o w n u n e x p e cr e d b y p a t h s o f adventure and discovery. but servesto spur the travelleron his way.HERoIC QTJESTS puRSUrr a real or visionary goal forms the plot of many HE THRILLING of compelling tales of advenrure. while Peredur. and went on to woo his widow AJtera rather dfficult beglnning. En route he meets new friends and travelling companions. ) . whichwasguarded by the Blach Knight He passedthrough thefairest vale untilhe sawo shiningcastleon thehill After enteing its otherworldlydomain CulhwchdeJeated Blach the Knight.

forJnt oJhis companywuefittedJor andmarry the quest aNo Anvtnc pmshed (Tne DEPARTURE OF THE KNIGHTS BY E BURNE-JONE5 AND W MoRRls. Arthur wept. 1984 ) PERED uR's (above) quest adventure led him through Jor througha many wondrouslands At onepoint he passed lwely iver vallq. lamenting that the fairest fellowshipoJnoble hnightswould nuer meet again around thetable at Camelot Hewas nght. he ruIed with herJor Jourteen yearsbeJorecontrnvinghis Lrr-. ) Bisearch new adventures(lnt'.Tnn Gner Qursr (righ) prwed to be the and hardest.highest greatestoJ all quests Many hnightssetJorth butJav returned \Vhen Arthur's wariors resolved undefiahethe to Grail Quest. razor and sctssorsJrom boar.the longestseiesof tashsrn Celttc mytholog En route thehero enlistedthehelp oJ Arthur's Culhwchin oneof hishardesttashs.enchanted TwWth (/LLLrsrMloN BYAL4N Lrc. wariors with suchshilland mrght that deJeatingcountless the he impressed localempress Aft'r Jightingherbattles. i irri . TAPESTRY. war-bandwho asststed which was the retnonl oJa comb..sraartorALAN 1984 for ffi iiti 'ff '.1895-96) CutuwcH's QeJt)quest theJair Olwen involvedthnryJor nine impossibletashs..filled with colourfulpavilionsand a wondrous multitude oJ windmills and water-mills He lodgedwith thehead miller andjoustedtn the tournament.Twrch the between earsoJ theternble.

depictedhere a as vibrant.in flaming red. scissors and a razor from berween the ears of a fierce boar. in welsh mythology. ro nourish its crops. JIedintothe wiWaness andlived awildman. whose song could wake rhe dead and lull the living to sleep. Arthur's hnightsbattle with Owain's ravens.Iihe of a shy. possibly for swereignty (Itrusrnqrroru ByArr{N lggl ) Lee.. force AMAETHON. was the daughter of the gianr Yspaddaden and her suitor was CULHWCH. bring four srrong oxen ro help. Yspaddaden was so upser by the obvious affecrion berween Olwen and Culhwch that he set his daughter's lover a seriesof tasksin order to prevent the marriage Among other things. hire as a huntsman Modron. get a magic cup and a hamper of delicious mear. burn the wood for fertilizer and plough rhe cleared land in one day. Culhwch had to uproot a forest. creature Overcome shame with after wronginghk he wtfe. playing grvy ddbtvyll Duing the game.g Arthur will provide horses and men to help him win Olwen" He also informed the gianr thar he would retum to slay him.awarior of King Arthur's court. Culhwch succeeded and married Olwen "and she was his only wife as long as he lived" The giant was killed by one of Culhwch's fellow knighs. until Arthur smashesthe pieces The game symbolizes abattle. obtain magic seed. who MABON. broodingwoodedidyll Olwenwas lovedbyCulhwch. the god of agricukure. find a wonsreal derful sceed and swift hounds. Culhwch said that "Ki.wasting as away untilrescuedby a nobluoman (IrrusrnenoN sv Au|v Lrc. and persuade a number gues6 to come of unlikely to Yspaddaden's by the stronghold. wanders through the otherworld. caprure the birds of RHmNruoru. provide a magic cauldron.but the players simply play on.borrow the drinking-hom of the underwater king Gwyddbwyll and rhe magc harp belonglng to Teirru (an instrument rhar played irself). provide honey nine times sweeter than thar of a virgin swarrn. make the smith god Govannon forge rools for the work. one of King ARTHUR's warriors Culhwch's stepmother hated him so much rhar she cursed him to mary only Olwen.CeITIC MyTHoLoGY OfWfN. a girl whom rhe warrior came to love dearly. 1984 ) OLWEN QeJ). son of first ro be had released from pnson. a comb. Undaunred sheer size and cornplexity of rhe challenges. steal a maglc dog. leash and collar. a boar's tusk for the giant to shave with and shaving cream made from a witch's blood: OWAIN and Arthur (below) appearin a warrior' s dream.wtld. OWAIN below)peers through tangled the branchesthewtldwood. who had to go to great lengths to securehts bnde (lrrusrnenow ByATAN 1981 LEE. ) .

widow consented to marry him. AISO CELTIC court. knighs granted a vision knight and the lion had numerous ARTHUR's adventures. ) ByARTHUR 0rrusrnnnoN w6 OSCAR. PgllnS treachery and unfaithfulness. and when the lcright galloped off to a nearby casde. as the Black west after the waters of the Flood I(night's stronghold was called. PAnTHOLON. who was said to be "a yellow-haired maiden from a warrn country".v Lea 1984) of rururuueccooL. Oscar's mother was Eibhir. Owain retumed to the Castle of the Fountain. the son of olstN and the grandson a bloody struggle ensued. where he was reconciled with his wife. which Finn MacCool brieflY lifted. His name means "deer lover" and recalls his grandwhom mother. andbeaunful creatures Parihobn cbared the land for cultivation and inhis time threenavlnlus appeared. and r59 . Oscar hlled Cairbe in single combat but was himself mortally wounded. Soon the lord of the Luned from death by buming and slayrnga giant. Not deterred by her grief. died of the PRNSTTru. Owain was saved by a lady named Luned.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY PERCIVAL castle. GrailKingguarded Grail Maimedby the in Corboneh. rhe long absenceof Owain wonied Kingfuthur a great deal. Sadb had been changed into a hind by ^ spell. the goddess SADB. There he would have died known asAmfortas Pelleswas said but for a well-bom lady who used a to have been the father of Elaine. According to one version of the myth.He severelywounded the Black t(night but did not unseat him.one of the best of all the FIANNA. redeeming the comingoJ hnight (lrLusrnAnoNavAu. PARTHOTON (abwe) Jound a lush. after living in Ireland for some five thousand out a party ef knights to find him Owain retumed with them to King years.the Black l(night. who gave him a ring of invisibiliry.which included saving of the Grail and allowed to hold it. When a King ARTHUR's fellow warrior named cYNoN was defeated by ^ mysterious Black l(tught. forgot about his wife.or Fenians. the Galahad. in Irish mphology. and pursued the solitary life of a In other versions of the tale he is hermit.SCC wound Owain had inflicted on him. in welsh myrhology. maglc potion to restore his health. who fell in love with Sir L4NCELOT Sir Owain took up his arms.livedin a wilight awaiting wasted. (SCC HEROIC COMBAT. But had receded and cleared the island of trees ready for cultivation. But he lived during a dme when the ruler. Oscarwas a mighty fi. Finn MacCool first encountered while he was hunting. Thus he became master of the he is said to have come out of the Castleof the Founmin. High King Cairbe refused to pay the Fenians for their sewices and raised another band of fighters to rePlace them. In a battle fought at Gabhra. one of whtchwasnamedafterhts son c 1910 RACIGIAM. the race of Partholon were Arthur's court. whilehis country state. pnmal countrywhatheJirstlnnded in Irelsnd The foress and ploins wcre alive shy with strange.ghter. When avery anry lady arrived was one of the names at court to accuseOwain of deceit. SINGLE QUESTS) the the PELLES.Owain set out to find this stranger. GrailCastle some w symbolizng an incurableound. The GAIAHAD. and he gradually sricken by disease and theY all diedwithin thespaceof aweek. They seem to have spent the rest o[ their lives together in Kingfuthur's ROMANCE. son of Sera. so he sent According to the myth. felt that the Fenians had too much power. near present-day Dublin. was the son of URIENand one of warriors. he glven to the "Maimed King" of the GMIL story in whose castle of was overcome with shame A remorseful Owain fled to the forest Carbonek the holyvesselwas kePt. Cailbe. he spiitualimperJection. Finn MacCool returned briefly from the otherworld to moum Oscar'sdeath. the waniors who acted as a bodyguard to the High King of Ireland. he gavechase only ro find himself almost a prisoner once he entered its walls. slew a and bore him the pure knight Sir who was the onlY one of dragon and befriended a lion.was Owain persuaded Luned to plead believed to have led one of the early his causewith such successthat his invasions of Ireland Together with twenty-four men and their wives. OwntN.

sometimes hnownas ParstJal. This did not prevent Peredur from becoming warriors and his one of ARTHUR's many advenrures formed the basis for the laterstories abour pERcIVAt.g Anhur roAyALoNafter he had been wounded in rhe battle againsr MODRED. was in larer Arthurian mythology somerhing of an ousider He was brought up in a forest far from the courr of Camelot and was completely ignorant of courdy manners However. sometimes as Templeisen. CtNveS. was Sir Percival's aunt On his personalquesr for the Grail. and on its pommel was a red cross.he becameGrail King. 1934 ) PfnCryRL. One day on his joumey he encountered a wondrous and mysterious ship and at once fell in entering her bed when. Sir Percivalunfortunately fell somewhat short of the high standard of conduct required for recovering the Grail." So annoyed and filled with remorse was Percivalby rhis moral lapse that he felt obhged to inflict a punishment on the weaknessof his own flesh by wounding himself in the thigh. the holyvessel that was used ar rhe Last Supper and which received the blood that flowed from the spear thrust in Christ's side at rhe rime of the Crucifixion The Grail had been brought ro Bntain by IOSE4H OF ARIMATHEA. he travelledto KingARTHUR's court and was duly made a knighr. The mysrerious Queen o[ the Wastelands. was the seventh son of Errawgand the only surviving male. the enchantress who had artempred to waylay him and diven him from his quest "set off with the wind roaring and PnngOUR in welsh mphology. rhe Grail was later lost and irc recovery became the great quest for rhe IGrightsof the Round Table The puriry of Sir Percival may have meanr rhat he was permirted a brief glimpse of rhe Grail. However.tRZivnt Bl MARilN WtX.headingtheOrder oJGrail Knights. Meanwhile. "by chance and grace.attained a glimpseof the Grail throughhis innocence Retuming Jrom Sarras. one of rhe three ladies who rook rhe dpng Ki. which reminded him of his knighrly dury ro behave as a good man. the PerJect Fool. "Our Lord's body between his hands".eNo. . rhe sign of rhe Crucifixion. Sir IANCELOT's son Only Galahadwas allowed to touch the Grail. Sir Percival saw his unsheathed sword lyrrg on rhe ground. So he made the sign of the crosson his forehead.at which smoke. bur he was denied the complete vision and heavenlyreleasethat was eventually granred ro Sir GAMHAD. aJterthe Knights Templar (P. His father and brothers were hlled before his own coming of age. rich man who had the allowed Christ's body to be placed in his tomb.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY PERCIVAL. who was also sometimes called Percevalor Parsifalin differenr traditions. and then to die in rhe company of angels. and then ser off in quesr of the Grail.

but the matchwas unequalas Gvuydion bewitchedPryden with maglcal illusions (lrrusrnqrto. fish and garne. spladid as a peacoch.and Peredurdrew his sword and smote the witch on the cresrof her helmet so rhat the helmet and all the arrnour were split into two And she raiseda shout.he was finally retumed home. his wife During their temporary disappearCigfa. "Care". who in Wales took to the field like knighs attired in full arrnour Indeed. present-day But the skill of England Manawydan and Pryderi as craftsmen made them many enemies and they retumed to Wales ln a becauseduring the child's absence ruined castle.1984 number. grav PEREDU& upstrongand butdanidoJcourtly aglle Whenhe three manners saw shining Daising a hnights. although in Pryden's a spell laid on rhe household by an myth Manawydan appears as a enemy of Pwyll. proud one ides out to joust with Peredur (lrlusrnqloru BYAIAN Lrr. Gwydion The the resourceJul dispute was to be decidedby singlecombat. "For the third time the hag slew a man of futhur's before Peredur'seyes. and said it was Peredurwho was destined to slay all the witches of Caer Loyw " (Seealso HEROIC QUESTS) PnYOfnI.marchedinto Gwyneddto awnge the theJtoJhis swineby maglctan. although tumed out to be the wife of Llwyd. but when. PEMDUR arousedthe rageof the Pnde of the Cleaing whenhe suppedwith his his wife The arrogant hnight assumed wrfe's guilt and punishedheruntil Peredur JinaIIy challengedand werthrov him the Here.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY raised rustic in secreqt. notable a chieftain of Dyfed in south Wales. Pryderi's father morml warrior rather than a god At Manawydan discoveredthe trurh as their wedding banquet therewas a he was about to hang a mouse for peal of thunder and a misr fell "No eating their corn The creature one could seethe other. was the son of PWYLL. they finally decided to travel acrossthe border to Lloegp. them on her back into his hall When Pwyll died. was he entranced of a saddle twigs. aftersevenyears. in welsh mythologr. Peredurwas particularly adept at defeadngwitches. Pryderi suc. and of RHmruNoru Pryderi was snatched from his cot bv one of years eking out an existence on wild honey. chieftain who discovered the infant in his stable The chieftain's wife named the child Gwri. the land helping to devour the crops were was desolate People.Rhiannon and Pryderi disappeared ceeded him as lord of Dyfed and in another mist It later emerged rhat all the gave his mother in marriage to MANAW)'DAN. Manawydan and Rhiannon ance. the old enemy of Rryll Other mice the great hall was filled wrth light " When the mist cleared. of the Welsh sea strange events had been causedby son god Llyr. 1984) PRYDERI. Pryderi came across her life had been very careworn a golden bowl fastened by four She had been falsely accused of chains on a marble slab Pryden hlling her son and was made to do went to pick it up. Pryderi and his mother had were the only peopie left After two been forced to work as donkeys Rhiannon's rejected suitors and a brought up by TEIRNON. Rhiannon renamed him Pryderi. armedwith and sharpened heset stahe. animals and his wamors ransformed by magic crops were gone Pryderi.^l nvAu^t 1984 Lre. his myth as it is told in rhe Mabinogon ends with a terrible duel between him and a leading witch. but his hands penance by sitting at the gare of stuck to the bowl and he found hvyll's fortress and telling srangers that he couid not move or let it go He was also struck dumb When of her crime. ) 16r . lord of DyJed. then offering to cary his mother tried to save him. fonhJorArthur's BvAr.AN ) court (IuusnarroN Lrr. and orderedthe rest of the witches to flee. or "Golden Hair".

1984) P\AryLL was achieftain of Dyfed whose authoriry even reachedinto ANNwN. Rhiannon is a singular figure in Welsh mythology. was the daughterof Hereydd. For years no child was bom and.Gwawl agredtobave thetwoin peace.dsguised abeggar. Pwyll imposed a humiliating penance upon her. year. and As patiartas she fuaunJul. after the birth of a son. RIIIANNON @lovt). MAGIC padence that still seems remarkAND ENCHANTMENT) able.andclad. the maids told hvyll how she had devoured the babyin the night. however. whom she called ("Care").asf'r. to a ival suitor thehand Rhiannon oJ Jor Once wapwered. tell her ale rc every sranger who came and offer to canry them on her back to the great hall. She bore her suffering and injustice with a also CELIIC OTHERWORLDS. the Welsh otherworld. whom she named pRronru. They laid bones next to their sleeping mistress and smearedher face and hands with blood. Rhiannon henself had her own magical aspect. hisbittq anrse but blighted mari4gevnthstrange thar mtsfoftunes B]. he boasted the title Pen Annwn ("Lord of Beyond"). since a second one immediately PWYI (abne). who could be slain only by a srngleblow. had been restored and grown up. Everydayshe had to sit by his gate. During the period of exchange it was understood that Pwyll would not make love to Arawn's wife. which meanr "Care".Pwyll treated Rhiannon at last. Not until the eventual retum of her son. both before and after Pwyll's death. for the singing of her birds was said to be able to wake the dead and send the living to sleep. was Rhiannon PRYDERI excused from her penance (See . even though he would shareherbed Pwyll. AII of ridinga WrV steel. she was unjustly accused of eating the baby. Rhiannon suffered years of barrennessand. Pwyll accepted the charge and promised to make amends.AIAN 1984) o[usrncnoN l^ee. in welsh myrhology. One day hvyll was hunringin the forest when he saw an unusual pack of hounds running down a stag. and to slay Havgan. chieftan of Dyfed.lies as in waitwrth 100horsanan tnchGwaul. These hounds were snow-white in colour and had red ears Pwyll drove them off and was serting his own pack on the cornered stag when a grey-clad horseman rode up and accusedhim of discourtesy for chasingaway his hounds. was Pkiannon as a result his enraged father had endured. the spell condnued to dog Rhiannon. retumed home He then wooed and won RHIANNON his for wife. At one stage she and Pryderi were changed into donkep. the ruler of Annwn fuawn told hvyll that he was being hanied by ^ rival named Havgan. Indeed.was aision inwhite gold. Even after the boy. for her rejection of Gwawl.CTITIC MyrHoLoGY Because of this curse. But her real nature was in all likelihood originally connected RHIANNON. having successfullyhlled Havgan and fulfilled hls promise to Arawn. at which the stranger revealed himself to be AMwN. lat withoutcomplaint her Iaid a spell on Pwyll's household 0uusrRrnop nY NaN ItE. and PwYLL.t seen W and the long-suffering wife of hvyll. whom she had been promised. brnadd a in Rhiannon's noubles stemmed from silh Thetwoseemdmade each othr. When Rhiannon awoke in amaaement. becausewhen the babywas stolen her maids were so afraid of Rvyll that they blamed Rhiannon. although a rival suitor never forgave him and laid a curse upon his household. the man ro buta anse clorfirltheirWeandmaninge. angeredat her barrenness.

Ruadan se2ed one of these leamed the truth. Oisin grew uP to become one of the most famous of all trish poets RHIANNON'S singing birds were heralfu Tharbeautifuland of theothem. meaning "Little Fawn".was.but the only uace he found of herwas a naked boywho had been raised in the wild. he unfortunately forgot about his underwater lovers. &rcxnnu. compelledby a SADB. ) c 1910 avAnrnuR ouusrnnnoru SADB. Rhiannon was riding "a big fine pale whire horse. herweeping was said to have been the first keening in Ireland. hrg of Leinsrer.the king's second wife Eochaid loved Ronan's son more than her husband. the bodyguard of the High King. Eochaid ended weapons and thrust it into the god. According to lrish mythology. however. Eochaid toid her husband that the young man had attempted to rape her.CrlrIC MvrHoLoGY with horses When Fwyll first set eyes on her. her own Iife with poison. nuansand singlng as rcNens. but Goibhniu merely pulled it out again and drove it into Ruadan.ge doom. bavitchingfuafi for nine blissfd nighs beforehe grav ratless again 1995 BY BE4r4 ) orrusrMnoN NrcK 163 . such pre. the lrish equivalent of the great Greekhero Theseus. Sadb came to Finn as a woman and for a dme they lived happily together Then. and for nine wonderful nights Ruadh slept with all of them. half-noMoRll ruler field to bewail herson. DANANN. Although Ruadh promised faithfully to retum at the end of his voyage. gril. RUnOnN. when Finn was away from home. pursued him.IUSTMIoN ANoN ) qed a RU ADH. was a voyager whose RUenH ship became becalmed off the nonh coast of lreland. It is tempdng to link her wirh the horse goddessEPoNA. When the stepson showed his honor of her passion. covered with a garment of shining gold brocaded silk". from whose forehead a the shehadlblud tuJt deuhairwhere of "Little Fawn" fis boy. (II. She first appeared to the hero while he was out hunting. on which li'uednine buunful women who slrpt on nine bronze beils Thar qa slwne with rainbow ltght. The hero recognized him as his own son by Sadb. in the tangled relations of his second marriage.gyving tn hs name. was the son of the goddess BRIGID monally wounding him. the At of the TUATHADE second batde of Magh Tuireadh Ruadan was sent to spy on'the Tuatha De Danann smith god Ronan ordered his son's execution who was busily making G2IBHNIU and died of remorse when he later spears. gentle much oJhrhfea a anail drud tolive a Finn shebore MacCool deq. in their fury. tfury lwely son. the popugreat Ieader of the FIANNA. hcking the severedhead of his son before them like a football. While some. RONAN. On the island there lived nine beautiful women. When the goddess Bri$d came to the battlethe and of BREs.one of the few Celtic gods or goddesses to be worshipped by the Romans. wa goddess. dtscw secret rslandbeneaththe wana. Hwaner. Also. and they. he chanced upon a magical underwater island. but although a goddess herself. That night. Celtk an andmyth are alwe with btrds of everyhind. was the misrress of rlruru MACC))L. when he swam away to find help for his dyrng crew. in lrish mythology. the wizard returned and turned Sadb into a deer again Finn searched the whole of lreland for his lost mistress. The women then informed him that together they would bear him a son. Rhiannon's stolen son was found in a stable and her punishment for Iosing him was ro act as a beast of burden to visitorswho came to herhusband's palace. larly known as the Fenians. Just like Theseus'secondwife Phaedra. so he called him olsltrl. Sadb had been placed under a powerful spell by a wrzardand was compelled to take the form of a deer.torW archantingsongwassardtofu able to walu thedudandnlullthelMnginto a deepsbep. in Irish mythology. birdshenlwtth their maglcal song. an intrqid vqtagil.

of MAELDL/NAeJt) sg1sail to avengehis father's murder and. passed through a fabulous archipelngo ln one strihing eprsode. tluy reachcdhqwondrous kb of blosnmingtrea. a soponfc sound sent them to sbep until thq awohe to the welcoming voiceof the castle's enchantress When Maeldun tned to woo her. and the scilon found themwlves BMN's (abwe) voyage wa sparhedof by a blossoming and scentedsilvu fairy bough. and the epic tnps of both Bran and Brendan were sparkedoff by otherworldly visions.) T ^^\rr a ^ T- r- HEEptcvoyAGES Celtic myth are fabuloustours of the otherworld.The yen ro travelitself was often of inspired by tales of the otherworld.left besde him as he slqt l-ater a beauttful worwn chd. shevngalny about her lnely home acrossthe sen whbh inspiredBran andhslansmn to *t sail Far out to ea.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY EaT\TTT^^T-r rAI' U LTJ U \ ) V LJ YAtrl. bronze door. Maeldun. some of timeless delights and some of deadly perils. Like time travellers.rur. and a yeamirg for the changirg seasons his homeland.Cehic voyagersexperienced time walp. clnngpngsr<olrnlns oJ thar homeland ouusrnrnor rr D. just one of 50 in timclas joy ail plnty Bran's oart oavdthe sruch delightfnhearcns vfwe rulclived Yet an tN wn. either retuming home long alter their time or a condemned to wander on a iourney without end. Like another intrepid voyager. the whob cnstle dissolved. en route.ellen bacluards .usually of through an archipelago wonder isles.r . Another featureof the restless Celtic voyager was his eventual disenchantment with otherworldly delights.u.a telling signoJ Whn thq struchthe the othemvorld. in othaworlilly robes cameto rerlaim theboufit.he reachedan rslnnd surmountedby a fortress with a brazen door and a glnssdrawbndge which thrut the trm. they sailedacrossthe oceans. exploring a myriad of dreamlikeisles.

$' .

OF Brought to Bntain by IOSEPH ARIMATHEA. After holding the Grail in his own hands. c 1890 ) this Christian myth. ct'qss. best fighting men But only Sir Galahad successfully completed the quest and died contented. the chivalrous Sir GAWAIN immediatelyvowed to seek out its home in order to see the Grail for himself Many of the Kttightt of the Round Table made similar vows. holyvessel of Arrhurian mythology during the Middle Ages. much to the distress of Ki.aJter inspiingthe great questin Bitain. in Pucival and Bors. a powerlul charge of Celtic magic in .g who feared the Ioss of his ARTHUR. "the firsr Chrisdan bishop" There remains. It was said to be the cup that Christ drank out of at the Last Supper It was also believed ro have received the blood which flowed from the spear thrust in Christ's side at the Crucifixion. "who had trembled when his mortal flesh beheld spiritual things" lt is even stated that Sir Galahad was a descendant of the same Joseph. It was. the Grail was always associatedwith the early Christian settlement at Glastonbury Another miraculous object connected with the Grail was a bleeding lance or spear.andwas celebrated a Euchaistic Mass bejoreoscendingto heaven Couurnv (How rHe GMIL ABlDlrH tN A FAR BY WTLLIAM MORRIS.1874) BY rur S. the mere presenceof rhe holy vessel was enough to act as a challenge to most knights to pursue a path of goodness. it allowed Sir Galahad to live on in a Chrisdan otherworld This obvious debt to Celtic mythology meant that the Church never fully embraced the Grail as a Christian symbol The gre^t populariry of Grail stories forced a degreeof toleration. wasbornebach to Galnhad. was the SnNCnenL. Cuchulainn was able to defeat Aoifa by trickery and made her his next mistress sinfulnessof the times lndeed. thirty barbs opened to tear the the stomach apart \JATHACH. once inside the body of one of Cuchulainn's enemies. Sir used its magic power to GAIAHAD cure a mysterious ruler.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY or Grail. and that it was only in Iaterversionsthat Galahad took his place as the only knight worthy of such a vision The Grail was lost. at the end of the quest. nothing lessthan a Celtic cauldron of plenry When. the Grail became "Our Lord's body". the young knight's soul was releasedfrom his body and "a great multirude of angels bore it up to heaven" That the Grail was the representation of the body and blood of Christ there can be no doubt.ruc GRA|L DANTE SANGREAL AeJt). recalling spiq "greal" oJ Celtic myth oF Gm DAMSEL RossErrl.rhe rich man who buried Christ. the vesselfilled Kingfuthur's hall with the most tasty smells. or by his brother-inlaw Bron and his son Alan. in fact. daughter of Scathach. for Joseph of Arimathea administered it as part of the sacrament to Sir Galahad. certves. Although it made a single wound on entry. that Sir PERCIVAL was originally the knight who saw the Grail. When "the Holy Grail covered with a white cloth" appeared ar Camelot.On its unseen arrival at Camelot.however. nevertheless. One myth recounts that her most famous pupil was the Ulster hero CUCHUIAINNShe taught him his famous battle leap and gave him the spearnamed Gae-Bolg("Bellyspear").g". HEROTC QUESTS) ScrqrHecH (whosename means "shadowy") was a warrior-princess in the Land of Shadowsand tutor in the martial arts. but clencs were always aware of its links with pre-Christian rites (See also WONDROUS CAULDRONS. rather that it was hidden somewhere in the country becauseof the was SANGRML Oelow) guardedby Here. and was unhaPPy that he wanted to fight her sister A)IFA In the event. so that the I(nighs of the Round Table ate and drank as never before. the womerr. rhe "Maimed Ki. who lay between life and death in his castle It seems. GrailMaidens angelic bears thedweoJheaven a goldcenser from "a as which arose savour iJall thespicebf the ther'e" world been had the . Sanasby the three goodhnights. was Cuchulainn's mistress during his year of training. the draught that Sir Galahadtook from it atJoseph of Anmathea's request ensured his spiritual suwival Like a Celtic cauldron of rebirth. but it was thought not to have left Britain.

managed to become friends with ATTAINMENT BYWILIJAM MORRIS. warrior.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY SANGREAL (abwe) wasattainedby three verydtlferenthnightsGalahad. thE were weahenedby Macha's curse The cies oJthe severedhead atlostbrohe the spelland rousedthe men Rep. hard-pressedlovers becameits guardian {tae simplest. DECHTTRT swallowed a fly and fallen into a deep sleep ln this state she went to the othervrzorldwith Lugh and there conceivedCuchulainn While Cuchulainn was single-handedlY defending Ulster againstthe invading forces of Queen MEDB of Connacht. who had settled in attempted to eat some of the maglc Egypt. i'.the the the FIANNA.]CHULIAIN SNTENTN SCC the night of her wedding to had Sualtam Mac Roth.the mostworldly. he accepted cucuuL+INN as his owrr son. from and DieRMUIDuA DUTBHNE returnedto tell the tale: Percival. arcn aJter them rn liJe hs death Hehad exhorted as without success. Searbhanand Diarmuid Egyptian pharaoh A wrse teacher came to blows when Grainne named Niul. although the hero's real father was the sun god LLIGH On SEARBHAN Q{t). AN UISTCITNAN. became her husband and bemes that grew on the tree.J Duibhne and in Grainne sheltered its branches. lrish mythology.but Grainne dwelopeda cravingJor the tree's maglcbemes This so anragedthe glant and the thatheand DiarmuidJought mighty Searbhonwos slain with his own club luusrntnoNANoN) SUALTANI MAC ROTH'S (ight) head rallied the Uktermen to battle. guardeda magrcree. Goidel.the purest. she was the daughter of an However. which no one dared approach However. Suaham Mac Roth attempted to gather the men of Ulsterwho had been weakenedbY did curse So desPerateiY MACHA's he tum his horse that Suaitam cut off his own head with the sharP edge of his shield. beheldits contents. one of the was a FOMORII ancient sea gods This one-eyed. was the brorher of FERGUSMAC ROTH. who gave his name to the Gaels In another tradition. Fomoii g1ant. which made it difficult for According to one version of the FINN MACCIIL to find them myth. one-arrnedand one-leggedfighter the Fomorii wamor was slain CI. the surly one-qed guardeda magic tree. IAPE5TRY. during the sixteen-yearflight of GRelrurun Bors. squattingat itsfoot all day The eloping a lwers. But the severed head continued rhe call to arms long enough to rouse the warriors Sunrrnu Mec RotH. she was the wife of and was killed fighting MILESIUS DANANN TheTUATMDE in Irish mythology.1910 nv ) to fight (luusrpqrorr Stepnrx r67 .C 1870) Searbhanand he allowed them to SCOfnwas said to be the earliest shelter in the branchesof the magtc known ancestor of the Scots tree. Diarmuid I. and they had a child. SennnHnN.

and his soul ascended to heaven". Eorann.he of alreadry surpassed allofArthur'sbards spiitrnlinsight in Heisportraydhue avisionary as spiit whowas one ot wth theforces nature of (IuusrncnoN Lrn:. wzls ro peld three drops of knowledge. In one version of his story he was the servant of rhe witch CERIDUIEN and was named Gwion Bach. but as he grew. TnnNON was lord of Gwenr Is Coed and fosrer-farherof pRrornr. wirhout his permission. from the Adriatic coast ro the nonhem regions of Britain. Monumens to Taranis have been found all over the Celdc world. Becauseshe was the foster-mother of the sun god LIIGH." he said. St Ronan thanked heaven for this and cursed Suibhne. Although his wife. TnUfnffS. The furious Ceridwen employed all her magic powers to pursue the boy. Ceridwen prepared a magic brew thar. Teirnon and his wife took the child in and raised him as one of their own. Nexr day an orter rerumed rhe psalter unharmed.Crlrrc MyrHoLoGy SutnnNe GEILT. nor unlike the Olympic Games. afrer a year of boiling. sezed the saint's psalter and threw it in a nearby lake. was one of rhe Celdc gods mentioned by the Roman historian Lucan and is often equared with the god Mans. The word "taran" is srill used in modem Welsh and Breton to mean thunder. I am new. also called Tounds. here represents the electnclight of a thunderbolt. another Firbolg hng. wctsa Celtic IA&{NIS. he prayed that the hngwould not retum to persecure Chrisdans. Ir was originally the occasion of a nadonal sponing compedtion. which rook place on the first day of Augusr. His name means "a people" or "a ribe" and so it may well be that rhe manllinscripdons to him are acrually dedicated to local deities of a region rarher than to a single pan-Celdc figure. So Suibhne was once again on the brink of madness as headlessbodies and severed heads hanied him.Jonx. "rhemad one". which is sometimesusedas a symbolof the sun in Celtic art. some of the hot liquid fell on hrs finger and he sucked it ro relieve the pain (much like FINN MACCOOL when he was cooking the Salmon of l(nowledge). rhe present and the fuure. Teimon owned a beaudful mare. When Sr Ronan heard abour this recovery. Ronan was founding a church on his land. a three-pronged spear. sly godwhom theRomansequatedwith their supreme deil Jupiter. a fish and a bird before being eaten by the wirch in the form of a grain of whear. During the chase he transformed himself inro a hare. after "died a Christian TALIESINwas prophetic whowas a bard gtfted all-hnou. He hacked off the hand bur heard a crying coming from ouside and found a threeday-old baby boy lying on his doorstep. 1994 ) THI. I have been alive. "the thunderer". a msk which killed her. He rhen laid hands on St Ronan. TAUESIN ("Shining Brow") was a Welsh wizard and bard and according to Welsh mythology he was the firsr person ro acquire rhe shll of prophecy. "l have been dead. and everyyear on the eve of the first of May the animal gave birth to a foal. "I am old. was wtth which by rymbolized his shiningbrw At the youngage thirteen. (llr-trsrnAfl(r^l By MTR. " (See also SAGESANDSEERS) . when a messenger arrived to summon him to an ally's aid on the batdefield. Agiant clawed hand came through the stable window and took the new-bom foal. the wheel. he declared that the festival of Lughnasadh be held in her honour.ingvision. which mysteriously disappeared One year Teimon decided to keep watch ro see what would happen. later Gwion Bach was thrown inro the sea and was caughr in a fish-trap and renamed Taliesin because of his radiant forehead. Taranis is usually depicrcd wirh his symbol. ried to restrain him. One day King Suibhne was outraged to learn that.{NDA Gptt'. Another priest took pity on che tormenced man and wrote which down Suibhne his sad tale. leaping from rees for seven yeam before his reason rerumed. who assumed the characteristics of a bird. symbolized by the trident.TU was rhe daughrer of a ruler of the FIRBOLG and wife of Eochaidh Mac Erc. She was said ro have cleared the forest of Bregso rhar it became a plain. the hng rushed ro the new foundadon. Whoever swallowed these precious drops would know all the secrersof the pasr. ) rvSrurrnr l99l (whose name means ThnnNtS "Thunderer") was one of the few Celtic gods with whom the Romans idendfied and he was often equated with Jupiter. The wheel. As Gwion Bach was tending rhe fire beneath the cauldron. the resemblance to pwyLL became increasingly marked until they knew that he was the missing son of Rvyll and RHmNNoN. in lare Irish mythologrwas a hng cursed by St Ronan.

. the Irish queen. 1984 ByAL{N ) ro Comwall. the which served only to quash theirscruples Victonan The design captures extreme the nature oJ courtly lwe luusrntloN peut.heJounda splendid castleall alight and alive with song Sadly. at each gaze other rapture in In one legend. boy whomhe raised and who turnedout to be the lost son of Rhiannonand \mll. watchingthe birth of a JoaI. qvasthairy arm thrust was shoched see to throughthestable window After hachingat thearm withhis sword. c . 1900 ByEvELTN ) quest. Ireland and Bnttany A love porion prepared by Iseult's mother.900 ) 169 . separation and their dearhs The Iovers' end was particularly touch- ing Having agreed ro pan.however. bur of a broken hearr (See also CELTIC ROMANCE: SINGLE COMBAT) THoues THE RHyueR see CELTIC OTHERWORLDS TRISTAN humbly sought Grail. where King Mark wait- ed to marry her The ensuing taie relates the sad course of rheir love.Crlrrc MyrHoLocy TEIRNON. who had once before cured him of a serious wound she sailed ro Bntnny cure So with a magic It had been agreed rhar the hoisr a ship carr.TeirnonJound a beautifulbaby in thestable.nng lseult would white sail to indicare rhat she was aboard However. was one of the of great lovers of medieval myrhology His name is said to have been glven ro him after his morher's death in childbirth Of Breton origin. uo had the in Jallen love before sipping potion. the srory of Tristan and tsrulT was popular in Cornwall. t'or only thepurestcouldattain the Grail (lLLLtstRqrtnru nv EvrLvrv PAUL. but later was gravely wounded and sent for help from Iseult.enchantedby lwepotion. Tristan wen[ ro Brittany. he wasstruchbachby aburningbeamof light. arcn the though he doubtedhis chqnces because oJ his illlcrt love Iseult At one stagein his Jor TruSfnN. was the cause of their grear love Tristan and Iseuh drank ir accidentallywhen Tnsan was escorring her TRISTAN Iseult and a Aef). ruIersoJ the realm (lr-r-usrnqrror Lrr. an incorrect report of a black sail caused Tristan to lose rhe will to live and he died of his wound When Iseult was rold of her lover's death she too quickIy died. rhe nephewof King MARK Comwall.

which screamed aloud when the rightful king of Ireland placed his foot upon it. ar the second battle of Magh Tuireadh largely because of their superior magic They were said to have learned magic. a pair of scissorsand a razor. and the cauldron belonging to father of the gods. ByAr-AN 1984 within (lnusrnqrroru ) TwncH TnwYrH. which was a weapon that could only inflict faml blows. as the slayerof BALOR. was a king who was tumed into a gigantic boar for his sins. Falias. bnngrngback to lreland such magicalobjects as a healing pigshn belongingto a hng of Greeceand a cooking spit from an undersea hngdom When fulfilling their final labour they were badly wounded and Tuireann begged Lugh for the pigskin to cure his sons. a subterhadhis own sparhling ranedncourt whichglittered with wonders Lrc. the spearor sling-shotof the sun god LUGH. the bringer of vrcroryover the Fomorii. celebrated on the last du1 of October to mark rhe new year.an went to live ancient raceoJ lnsh gods. The boar was an important animal to the Celts and appears in many myths. shilfully . as well as in statues and carvings. 170 . Between his ears he kePt a comb. which DAGDA. Gorias.the Tuatha De Danann took up residence underground as the faines On the ancient Celtic feast of Samhain.eoch sidhe. The retrieval of these objects was one of the hardest of the tasks that the giant Yspaddaden set CUHWCHwho wanted to marry his daughter oLwEN. 1984 ) TUATIIA DE DANANN (above). the De Danann were believed to allow mortals to enter their realm was the Irish father TUtnnnNN of three sons who killed Cian. ancestorsof the present-day lrish The Tuatha De Danann overcamethe FOMORII.ne snatches treasure Jrombetween the bOAT. but the god refusedand they died TWRCH TRWYTH helow)wos aboar een benv his that guardedthreetreasures ears which Culhwchsought to retnue Arthur'swar-bandhuntedthe boar.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY TuerHe Dr DnNANN were "rhe people of the goddessDana" in Irish mythologr They were the lasr generation of gods to rule Ireland before the invasion of the the sons of MILESIUS. underground aJtertheir defeatbythe Milesians Beneathgasry mounds. Lugh demanded that the sons of Tuireann should perform a seriesof near impossible tasls. vrolentand monstrous seagods. the magic sword of NUADA.S CATS (ILLUSTMTION BY AIAN Lrc. Finias and Murias From these ciries the Tuatha De Danann brought to Ireland four talismans:the Stone of Fal. was who. Apart from having their exPloits recordedby the monks who wrote down the lrish sagas. was an inexhaustible pot that was capableof sadsfyingevery appetite It is clear that the gods known in lreland as the Tuatha De Danann were common to all Celtic peoples Their namescan be found inWelsh myths and in inscriPtions on the continent of EuroPe ln lreland they were not entirely lost with the advent of ChristianitY. crafts and knowledgein four mawellous cities of the nor[h. therenownedhunter.and hereMabon. in welsh mythology. father of the son god LUGH To atone for this crime. It rePresented both war and feasdng. their great war-leader.

tied to build a grand castle. Gorlois. a precocious seer. ) 1995 YORflGERN. Unen is said to havefought a successfulcampaign againstthem andbesieged them on the island of Lindisfame UrHrn PnNonRcoN (whose name means "dragon head") was ARTHUR's father According to lateBritish mytholory. who had been Cuchulainn's tutor in the martial ars When Uathach sewed eachother and sitwithout quarrelling Turning to Merlin.1984 ) 17l . but as increasing numbers of Saxons came inro Britain he fled to Wales Here he tried to build a stronghold. he called out to the harp to free itself. laoghaire and cox.was consultedand revealed that two dragonsbattledbeneath site the wery night. the Munster kirg. UAITHNE was the god Dagda's inspired harpist Hehad. affth-century ruIer of Bntain. of Dagda's harpist hit upon the incredibleidea of having a round table at which 150 hnightscould see URIEN.r. father of owarru. according and. was the magic harp of the TUATFIA DE DANANN god DAGDA. but it kept collapsing When was consulted he said that MERLIN a red dragon (the Saxons)battled with a white dragon (the Britons) beneath the fort and that the red dragon would evenruallywrn. threeequallygfted sons who playedsuchsad musicthat on one occasiontwelvemen died weepingfrom sorrow The Celtic bardsaccompanied their music wlth lyncs which perpetuated the legends down the generations (Ir-r-usrpcrroN ) ANoN UefH ("Horror") was the name of the water giant who challenged the three lrish heroesCUCHUIAINN. enemies the of the De Danann When Dagda discoveredwhere it was. but the walls hept crumbling The boy Merlin. the daughter of the female warrior SCATTIACH. he forgot his own srength and accidently broke her finger while taking a dish from her hand Her scream brought her pre- vious lover to Uathach's immediate aid.r nvAuw Lr.CTITIC MyTHOLOGY UAITUNE.It was stolen by the FOMORII. The harp responded by killing nine Fomorii and then singing Dagda's praises Uaithne was also the name UTHER PEMRAG ON. and was proclaimed by the giant as the Irish champion After the himannouncement uath revealed self to be CURoI.qLLrc abeheading contest Each was invited to and chop off the giant's mke an a:<e head. while Arthur was taken by Merlin was a British ruler VORilCERN who hiredJutish mercenaries. he ashedhim to design a table "round in theliheness theworld" of (lrlusrMnoN ANON ) the hero food. in Irish mythology. U. but Cuchulainn easily slew him in rhe fight that followed and afterwards Uathach transferred her affecrion to the vicror UATH submitted three Iishheroes to a beheadingcontest testthnr courage to and Jind the champion of Ireland The rules allowedahero to behead glantbut only the iJhe could return theJavouf on the next day Only Cuchulainnhadthe courage to behead glantand placehisheadon the the bloch (tnvsrneroN ByJAMEs Alrxrrvorn.including rhe work of raurslru When the Angles invaded.qTHACH was one of rhe lovers of the great Ulster hero and champion CUCHUI-AINN. ruled Rheghedin north-west Bntain His courageand skill as a walrior were celebratedin many songs. provided that he would then lay his own head on the block for the giant to decapitate Only Cuchulainn rose to the challenge. Duke of Comwall. destroyingthe castlewalls (Irrusrnqtror. to lrish mythology. Arthur'sJathu. and the result of their union was Arthur The wrzard vrnriru helped in this deceprion and later Uther kilied Gorlois and married lgraine. Uther was able to sleep with lgraine because he was disguised as her husband.

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Mjollnir. lcelanders. and the lirtle we know about their worship is usually as a consequence of its Christian terminarion [n Russia the conversion of Vladimir in 989 to rhe Orthodox faith involved rhe ransacking of pagan remples at Kiev. Without such passing resrimony our scant knowledge would be almost nonexistent Even so. Most Slavic gods are nor much more than names. god atleft. Lithuanlans and Letts.t2rH cENruRy) isolation from such Slavonic influences did not bode well for Balkan mythology As rhe mphs were never wntten down.Serbs. Their beliefs remained similar ro those held by the tribespeople of Siberia unril quite recent times For rhe purpose of rhis book these traditions have been grouped rogerher under the generic [errn. Although a nadve hammer-god undoubtedly existed before the Vihngs arrived in the 860s. peoples of River Dnieper was a by-product of Viking exploration. and any of their exracdon. He was of Swedish descent and the "Rus" state he ruled on the 174 . English. the influence of Christianiry and lslamic rule replaced the native story-telling Of Baltic myrhologlr next to nothing now exists.INTRODUCTION INTRoDT]CTIoN HE MYTHOLOGY NORTHERN OF AND eastem Europe is essentiaily that of two main groups. In the Balkans the Slavs not only encountered Onhodox Chrisdaniry.bears theweaponshiswarcraft. Norwegians. Frqrbears earof at an corn to represent hts Jmtlity (Taprsrny. It is a fact thar the overwhelming bulk of mythologl surviving from nonhem and easrem Europe is Scandinavian and lcelandic in origin. Further north there are conrriburions from the Finns and the Lapps of Sweden and Norway The northemmost people of all. It is rherefore likely that the Slavic thunder god Perunu had already absorbed much of Thor's mythologr. while rhe Slavs are made up of Russians. the Samoyeds of Russia. Norse. such as the inhabitanrc of rhe Baltic shore: the Prussians. chroniclers of rhis event noted the srange worship accorded to the rhunder god Perunu or Veles. there are difficulties wirh Vladimir's own pagan beliefs prior to his conversion to Christianity. axeandspearThestylized of an tree depicted beside rymb him olizesgdrasil. Fortunately. Danes. although some idea can be formed of the pantheon The brutal truth is that European mythology has escaped the Baltic fate only where by historical accident it was written down In the case of Celtic Germanic and of Slavic descent Today the former group includes Germans. Slovacs and Poles.the WorV Y TreeAt centre thethundu Thor. Croa6. Dutch. are actually the scattered remnants of rhe Uralians. the imponance of northem wariors in Novgorod and Kiev made it inevitable that the Russian god would be identified wrth his Germanic counterpan The strength of the Vihng presence can be judged from the Arab raveller Ibn-Fadlan's accounr of the ship cremadon of a "Rus" Ieader on the Volga river in922. an ancient group once spread right across the tundra of Europe and Asia. theleadingwarior oJtheVihings. but were later for a time under Islamic rule also This long Ootw. the Lapps of Finland and their cousins. is wieldinghis god fiery thunderbolt. the god of flocks. Other peoples have also contributed to the mythological tradition of the region. Bulgarians. Rumanians. while nght. Swedes.

trading voyages or piracy. flung the old king down and slew him with his sword as he fell. planned his thatReg1n. no fort. were desperately needed for the final battle on the Vigrid Plain.tnvtruc. crvrunY. The lrish lamented the Viking onslaught most. He was recalling the sagas of the Viking era. after the Germanic peoples overran the western provinces of the Roman empire. This chief of the Germanic gods exened a special fascination as "father of the slain" He shared those who fell on the battlefield with Freyla. providing detailed explanations of the old myths." noted the Annals oJ IJlster. dragon. Norwegians and Swedes. although on occasion they built up armies or large fleets of warships. tutor (Wooo 12ru c.and enabled them to travel far and wide. Whether Harald Wartooth accepted this as an adequate answer is uncertain. Iike the forces that attacked France in 842 or invaded England in 866 Their magnificent ships and expert seamanship gave them mastery of rivers and seas. but it was sunk beneath waves of northmen and pirates. no casde. and then break up again. Thor and Freyr Still untouched by Christianity. Odin himselfwas desdned to be killed by the wolf Fenrir.the Danes.The classical heritage of Greece and Rome was presewed like that of the Cels in monastic libraries. the Einheqar. oJ ternble theheart the Slcuno roasts the was which splashedwith dragon's his sucla thumb the gained Sigurd blood.TNTRODUCTION mythologywe are fortunate in the care taken by Christian monks in lreland to record the ancient sagas. "so that no harbour. the way he gave luck in battle and then suddenly withdrew it again. the monstrous offspring of the fire god Loki and the frost giantess Angrboda. the shield-bidng fighters who rushed unheeding and naked into the fray.) the war god said "the grey wolf watches the halls of the gods". the doom of the gods. approximately 750-1050. These dead warriors. no beach. the restless and adventurous Northmen . 175 .put to sea in search of plunder and land. It is hardly surpnsrng that aggressiveVihng warriors loved hearing about the exploits of one-eyed Odin. They mlght sewe under a famous leader for a while. He also inspired the frightful berserkers. Gathering to Valhalla the heroic warriors slain in battle was the only policy Odin felt he could sensibly follow under the constant threat of Ragnarok. when a vigorous tradition formed around the heroic deeds of Odin. might be found. since Odin. the goddess of fertiliry. and FaJnir. When the Danish king Harald Warcooth complained about Odin's fickleness. who was acting as his charioteer. otherworldly bloodOn tastingthe and to birdsong learnt power undmtand from thebirds treachery the sleepingby fire. only joining together in temporary alliances for military expeditions. At the tum of the thineenth century Snorri Sturluson wrote a handbook for poets on the world of the Germanic gods. "The sea spewed forth floods of foreigners over lreland. no stronghold. And much of Germanic mythology would have been lost in its tum without the efforts of the Icelandic scholar and statesman Snorri Sturluson. where nearly all would fall in an encounter between the gods and the frost giants. Viking warriors were largely organized in small bands or ships' crews." In 836 the Vikings had decided to set up a permanent raiding base on the site of present-day Dublin.

wastobegln a the wth mischiwous playJul and pranluter. gatheredtofight at Ragnaroh. who had fled southem Norway to avoid the Odinlike acdvities of leaders like Erik Bloodaxe. or local tyrans on farmers. fiery ticluter god. hebecame darh but so ondttistedthathis malice threatened stabtlity the the oJ world precipitated and Ragnaroh Here. c 1900 ) L76 . Ever handy was his rhunderhammer Mjollnir. be they encroachmenrc by frost gians on gods. Loxt below).many-spiredHaIl of the Slain. helow). must have seemed like a description of contemporary times to rhe footloose Vikings. rnov 1760) The "axe-age. fertiliry and resurrection. troublesome the godtdunts Rhine the Maidens. Thousands of them revealed their allegiance in the choice of family name: Thorsten or Thorolf were most common. or even overzealous Christian missionaries on pagan temples.INTRODUCTION Vttnqu-e. was destinedto werwhelm the world at Rngnaroh (Irrusrnerrorl Tnr pRosEEDDA. Thor is represented in the sagas as an honest and straightforward person.thepreordaineddoom of the gods On the right.housed Odin's phantomarmy oJheroicwarnors. the splendid. which was the age that would lead up ro the carasrrophe of Ragnarok. It was hardly suqprising then that Thor became a greatergod than Odin ar rhe close of the Viking era. He was very popular with lcelandic colonisrs. either as farmens or traders.sword-age". Jormungand. Thor was indeed a reassuring supematural presence in both divine and human crises. Although "allergic" ro frosr giants. a magic instrumenr wirh powers of destruction. Odin's son. But for rhose who settled down as colonisrs. an alternadve god ro worship was Thor. jusr a cenury or so before Scandinavia was converted to Christianiry. the massiye World Serpenr. aregnevingtheloss who oJ thar Rhinegold (ItusrnerroN BYARTHUR R4cKfiM.

TLAND sioRKNEY lslaNDs Novconoo LrNosrenxr ELA NoRTH ORK SER K F'r il"?.-\ f" / ( .INTRODUCTION ARCTIC OCEAN NORWEGIAN SEN FARoE ISLANDS 00' I ATLANTIc OcEarrl SHETLAND ISLANDS not' V FIT. Srernru D BA LT IC sEn RuSSIA o Docnuu rF 'b4\ I I(rvl ) T "j"ilt \{./' / f j': I i i f\r \"r' c: B LACK SEN D .

Jono. was a dwarf who was family of the gods. the god of war T1?.Aruorn. Thor was displeased with were pleased to come to terms In the arrangemenr and so devised order to cement the peace. fertiliry goddess and rhe twin sister of Freyr. FRIGG. the Ar.was a Germanic sea god. a humiliared Aegir had to accepr the cauldron and supply ASGARD. Thor of important Vanir wenr ro ASGARD. in Germanic myrh.who werehnownas the billow maidens The hissing. Odin's wife. ended in a peace thar left the Aesir the gods promised that he could dominant Both branches had in marry Thor's daughter THRUD.Rnn.seething Nordtc seawascalled"Aeglr'sBrauing Kettle" (lrrusrnnrroru JAMES By ALEx. SIF. VILI and VE. were one branch of rhe myrhology. the fertiliry until sunise when firstraypetnfied the god nnnrR. one of the gods exchangedwith the Vanir. who resolvedquanels Thrud. which weapons Alvis had forgedfor them. rhe destrucrion of ships and rheir crews To ensure a calm voyage.NonsE MyrHoLoGY AEGIR. and wpaR. all turned stone to in the vigiian r HEIMDALL. home of rhe the gods. the brothers of Odin. or Eagor. although no details of his descent survive Aegir was sometimes depicted as a very old man with whire hair and claw-like fingers Whenever he rose from his underwater hall. and the forces led by Loh AlnrntCH seeANDyART AnGIR'ssister-w{e.a dwarf famedforhiswisdom. while a number When Alvis came ro ASGARD. THOR. the god of eloquence.a son of H.lihe dwarfs. which sheusedto snatch unsuspecting satlors from the dechs oJ shipsand dragthan down to theseabed Sheentertainedthem in her coral cayes. whose dury daylight (Iuusrnenoru BvJAMEs ALFxANorn. which were lit by gleaminggold and where meadjowed asJreelyas inValhalla (llli/srunoN By PErER HURD 1882 ) THf AESIR. and However. the husband of MN and father of nine daughters. ftrsthehadtoprove his but that in a splendid hall supporred by great wisdom made forhissmall up stature pillars of red gold and coveredwirh Thor quizzedhim prolonged test and the a roof inlaid with silver. once a leading Vanir. in Germanic ology.was Jamous t'or her drowningnet.) 1995 handles reached his ankles Hymir tned to stop Thor leaving with rhe cauldron.cm (above). prisoners would usually be sacrificed to Aegir before a Viking raiding parry set sail for home One myth tells how the proud sea god was ourwirted by THOR Aegir had been ordered by Thor ro brew some ale for the gods. who was the keeper of the apples of youth Almost all the Aesir were to be hlled at Ragnarok(the doom of the gods).whose mighty magic hammer was the only weapon the frost giants feared. Thor acquired a vast cauldron from the frost gianr HYMIR k was so big that when he hoisted ir onto his shoulders. among the Vanir. with ale It was at a subsequentfeastfor the gods held by Aegir rhar r-oxr showed how evii he had become when he insuhed rhe assembled company and stabbedAegir's servant Fimafeng The goddesses the Aesirwere of FREYJA. with his hom.residedin a glisteningunderwaterpalace from where he directedthe swirlingwaves throughhis nine daughters.i995 ) it would be to summon everylirirg creature to MGNAROK. the other branch outwrtted by ODIN'sson IHOR.god of fire and ally of the frost giants. when a terrible battle was destined to nke place berween the forces led by Odin. Arws. fact grown weary of fighting. rhe waves He seems to have belonged ro an older generation of the gods rhan either the erSlR or the VANIR.the were the VANIR.rhe jusrice hoped marry to Thor's glant daughter.a tempestuous and powerfuIgod of the sea. rhe trickster LOKI. questioned him all night long the Aesir's home becausesunlight rumed dwarfs to The Aesir. he broke the surfaqeof the sea for a single pulpose. the seagod w.rmir.ALUS ("All Wise"). the unwitting killer of Balder. under the leadership stone of opll.several a test of knowledge to srop rhe of the leading Aesir wenr ro live dwarf from marrlnng his daughter. another of Odin's sons. included his sons BALDER ("the bleeding god") and BRAGI. one time th€re possessorof a magic hammer of At was a war between the younger inesistible force In pq/ment for rhe Aesir and the older Vanir. Alvis who. but he pretended thar he had no cauldron large enough for rhe task In fact he disliked being told what to do But undaunred. the wife of Thor. but the god's hammer saw off Hymir and his gigandc friends As a result. god ronsETI. a son of Odin who was desdned ro avenge his father's death at Ragnarok r78 . blind HoDR. the day of doom. and IDUN.

thq were not immortal Odin. the offering the was none other than his own son OTTER. he. oDIN and noNlR came acrossa farm and offered to share the otter's meat with the household in retum for a night's lodgings. dripping tunnels to an underground lake. But in his anger the dwarf laid a terrible curse on the ring which would causethe doom ofwhoeverwore ir. To the horror of HREIDI4AR. or Alberich. eventually. Carrying the dead otter. whilebelow.however. who then ran away with the cursed treasure was later PerThe hero SIGURD suaded by his foster-father Regrnto pursue Fafnir. Thus it was that Andvari's curse continued to cling to the stolen gold and brought about the death of all it those who attempted to Possess (Seealso RINGS OFPowER) 179 . Hreidmar was soon after killed by his son Fafnir. This fish.led thehuoic Aesir Tnr. Andvan dancedwith rageand cursedthe ing At top. farmer. Loh descended through amaze of. CANVAS. Loh killed a sleeping otter with a stone. FAFNIR and Rrcnv. c 1890 ) ANDVARI'sbbove) treasuretrrve was stolenby the godsOdin and Lohi in order to pay a ransom When thq toohhis goldmahingnng too. who had bY this time become a dragon The hero duly searched for the creature and eventually found it in its lair and slew it. Finstof all. Having borrowed the drowning-net of Ran. sem herein hornedhelmet. thoughdivine.Nonrnru Goos DESCENDING By w CoLLlNGwooD. inside and out. the three Norns examine the darh thread of destiny. bound them hand and foot. he told Hreidmar of Andvari's curse and in this way passedit on to the farmer lndeed. wife of the seagod eEGtR. when Sigurd reahzed that for the sake of the reasure Regrn intended to kill him in tum.Nonsr MvrHoLoGY Tnr ArstR AeJ) werewamor-gods worshippedbyheroesandhings Very lihe and diedwith thq loved. Hreidmarchanted aspell toweaken his guests and then his two suwivingsons. So. was a craftsman dwarf who lost his hoard of treasure to the fire god LoKt. Andvari sunendered all his immense hoard of gold. as he was known in later German legend. it was capable of being stretched to a great size and so no ordinary amount of gold could be acceptedin compensation. while Odin and Honir (in some versions just Honir) remained at the farm as hosuges.Hel awaits a nan inmate AXOVnru. Becausethe flayed skin was endowed with magic powers. On an expedition to Midgard (the land of men). he made sure that he slew his foster-father first. Hreidmar settled on a death-price: enough gold to cover Otter's skin. humanfeelingsfor. tumed out to be more than it firsr seemed For it was in fact the dwarf Andvari. Loh was allowed by Hreidmar to seek this great treasure. where he caught a large pike.t'ought Norsemen. behindthe Vanir uins. who was the nchest of those who dwelt underground Only because of Loki's terrible threats. like the otter before. When Loki retumed to the farm with the gold and Odin and Honir were released. including his magic gold-making ring. However. and these were also kept as security against Loki's return. Odin protested their innocence and pointed out that they would not have come straight to the farm had they known the otterwas the farmer's son. The fire god was not permitted to wear his sky-shoes.

serthe pentJOR. Odin knew rhat the wolf Fenrir would break free at MGNAROK. ODIN first banished Hel ro rhe "world beneath the worlds" and there he put her in charge of ail the inglorious dead.anda glontserpent. was a frosr giantess. Hrimthurs. day of doom. when the NoIWS. who were giant.*ot Qeft) walkwrebuiltbya gpant stonemason. fugard's mlghry built by giants is a widespread walls were built by a stonemason. as his price for the eighteen-monrh rask Ar LOKI's suggestion. ODIN set the seemingly impossible Iimit of six months for the constnrction of fugard's walls As a concession the stonemasonwas allowed to use his horse. The other branch. one-eyedbeings. were believed to have been construcredby rhe Cyclopes.When the gods heard about this brood. Odin was Iesscertain what to do wirh Fenrir. wo[. The idea of ciry walls that were lived in Vanaheim. bound and gaggedher. to the hoping avord to payment neafi He on thwartdbylohi's finished timebutwas fichery (Itusrnenol ByH HENDRICH. was the divine stronghold of Indeed.NoRSE MyTHoLoGY ArucnrooeQet't) mothered a dreadful brood monstersa rottingg1rl.to help him in the work.NfUNGAND. A group of gods broke into Angrboda's hall ar night. in Germanic mythbetween the gods and the giants ology.three days before the time was up So Loh transformed himself inro a mare and beguiled the stonemason's sullion.xeuorn. ar MGNAROXthese rwo who were the younger enemies were destined to meet in a the AESIR. he his hammer It is ironic that the had no choice but ro garher to his defences of Asgard should have side the greatestchampions been built by the labour of a frost giant. or Angerboda (" Distress-bringer"). rhey agreed thar such creaturesmusr be deah with quickly. gods. She was rhe misrress of LOKI and the mother of three monstrous offspring: rhe wolf FENRIR.N Arc. a daughter and named HEL.where the huge snake smashed through the ice and sank down into the depths. SvadilJari gods The gave himonly sixmonths complete worh. plus example. There is also a srory of a dispute over Payment for the snengthening of Troy's walls by the gods rrpollo and Poseidon and King l-aomedon. To the horror of the gods he had finished all the walls.A. Odinflings serpent the the into iq deep. and sronger branch of the family of batde of mutual destrucdon. He rhen hurled Jormungand inro rhe ocean. wuebanished the by Jormungandwho gods Here. given rhe bitter enmity ASCenO. the goddessesof destiny. and rook her and Loh's children ro ASGARD. for of the ferdlirygoddessFRE[. like his sister Hel "surrounded by corpses and swirling death-mist" in the netherworld A tenth-century Danish complainr about Odin's withdrawal of luck from brave wariors is answered in terrns of Angrboda's brood Odin is supposed to havesaid that "the r80 . who named the hand TinTns in southem Greece. Although Angrboda's children were thus contained. thus prevendngthe compledon of thejob The stonemason then revealed himself as a frost grey wolf watches the halls of rhe giant and tHoR broke his skull with gods" With this threat in mind. which is not dissimilar to the above story conceming fugard's walls (Seealso MGNAROK) Asc. byhis aided wondrous horse. while Angrboda guards wolfhu child (tr. the magic Svadilfari. except a gateway. the vANIR. However. wamed that rhe wolf would bring abour Odin's dearh action was finally raken to bind Fenrir securely with a magic chain and keep him in captiviry. a oJ Hel.) By 1995 IAMEI the sun and the moon. lg90) c ANCRBODA. myth in Europe The walls of Hrimthurs. so ar first he decided that rhe gods should keep an eyeon him at fugard. sayage Fenir. in Germanic mythology. the and destroy him The sea serpenr Jormungand also awaited the final conflict.:usrrurrc:.

then a head. AsGAw.Nonsr MvrHoLocY was rhe primeval AUOHUMIA cow in Germanic mythology. This creature was the first animal to ("the emerge from GINNUNGAGAP yawning emptiness") at the start of creation From Audhumla's teats "flowed four rivers of milk". fu she licked. therewere countlessshining glittuinghalk Jor each of the gods lsgard was linlud to Midgard pathwayJor the gods. except for BERGELMIR his wife and who managed to escape Bnnn YAGA. Audhumla liclu Bunfree of the ice (Aupnuuuay NAAEILGAARD. fu the giant fell the blood from his wounds flooded the land and drowned all his frost children. nourishment enough for YMIR. Their sonswere the first gods. emergedJrom pimal ice at the dawn the of time. below). shimmeredon a plane aboveMdgard Within. while Ymir suchbshcr milh. by an ethereal a wondrousrainbw bndgecalled BiJrost (Ir-r-usrnerror Lrc. (abwe) the magnificent stronghold oJthe Aesirgods. it was believed that she flew in an iron ketde.who married Bestla. as Wrtwoman. rhe daughter of a frost giant. According to some versions of her myth. the implacable enemiesof the gods. and stood inside a fence made of human bones When she wished to travel. and nouished thefirstfrost g1ant. BURI. The cow herself seemsto have suwived on the goodness that she obtained from an icy salt lick.WLI and tt. Bu'i Here. c 1790) BeneYece bottom ight) was a Slavonic witch of monstraus sze who prqed on travellers. From Ymir's children descended the frost gians. first some hair appeared.In time Buri had a son named BoR. She Iived in a strangehouse which had legs like a chicken's at each comer. ODIN. the ongnalcw.1900 sy ) r8t . Ymir. Shesuwived by liching icefrom which she freed the Jirst man. part-tree Here.the first frost giant and the first live thing of all. donuring thar fleshwith a mouth that stretchedJrom earth toheII. She wasseen ahunchedhag bearded.perchedon a rolling log shepropelk herself fow ord with a pole ttuusrufloN I Bruilu.1984 ByALAN ) Auotruute. These three battled against rhe frost gians and finally slew Ymir.her mouth is said to stretch from earth to the gates of hell. somerime s Jezr Baba. and finally the whole body of a man. cANVAs. is the hideous man-eating lemale demon of Slavonic rradidon.

inevitably.who immediately fell down dead At Frigg's entrearyHERMOD.bejore sinhing darhness into (Fuurner oF A VIKNG By F DrcKsEE.glc death and impisoftment in Hel This romantic portrayal captures the sacred... Balder was tormented by nightmares. his own brother. was the god ofjustice As a young man. Loh leamed that she had received a promise of harmlessnessfrom all things except the misdetoe. the bodies of Balder and Nanna. Odin retumed to fugard and swearan oath that ir would do her found that his wife Frigg had a son no harm To Odin's relief this plan to save Balder The goddess plan seemed to work When rhe gods decided to test Balder'snew invulnerabiliry by throwing srones and spearsat him wrth great force. who had died of gnef. wirh a travelled through the nine worids branch Although depressedby thrs and got each and every thing ro news. alwingand gentlesoul. FORSETI. ln conversation with the goddess. rherefore.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY BeI-nEn.er he went but. home of the the gods. 1893 ) 182 .evohed enry of the the '' . was rhe son of oDIN and FRIGG and rhe "bleeding god" of Germanic mythology His wrfe was Nanna and their son.Chnst-lihe goodness the god of (BALDER BY B FOGELBERG. 1840 ) ed that he was about to die A sense of foreboding. Balder'sbrother. which was a plant too small and too feeble to bother about Armed with this information. the god of fire He was so annoyed by Balder'sescapefrom danger that he transformedhimseif into an old woman and vrsited Fngg's hall.' Betoen. emblemssleep ship the of His was set aflame pushed tosea and out where it shone bightly. he remained unharmed All in fugard were delighted except LOKI. Loki went off to cur some mistletoe In his normal shape the fire god rerumed to the assemblyof the gods and found everyonethrowing things at Balder.uenalf. Loki gave him the branch of mistletoe and directed his throw. ceNvrc.W- bitter godlnhi. settled over ASGARD. with the result that the branch passed right through Balder. Pretending to help Hodr enjoy the sport.. He used the eight-legged Sleipnir for the joumey While Hermod was away. except blind Hodr. So Odin rode his eighrleggedsreedsLEIrNIR the land of to the dead and by means of magic Ieamed from a seeressthere that Balderwas to be killed by the blind god ruoon. somerimes Baldr or Baldur. were placed on a pyre in a longship which was allowed to drift buming out to sea. who plottedhis tra.. was sent to HELin order to oflfera ransom for Balder. all of which indicat"i'. as the divine inhabitants tned to understand rhe meaning of Balder'sdreams Theywere deepiy puzzled because the genrle god least deservedto suffer such torments. BALDER's was ona pyre his body laid in longship hewas cwered and then in treasure decorated flowers wtth and and thoms.spread light and goodwillwhera.

But neither the king nor the warrior reckoned on Grendel's mother. Beowulf retumed home to southem Sweden.arcn hisoldage. "Let Hel hold what she has. whom some interpret as theJutes. Delighted by this feat of courage and strength.after MGNAROK. Although inrmlnerable to weapons. it was at the cost of his own life.e. Mortallywounded. or Sir Gawain's with the Green lfuight. This is quite unlike the great Ulster hero and champion Cuchulainn's beheadingcontestwith Uath. the doom of the gods. for in these traditions their monstrous opponents were able to restorethemselvesto life after they had been decapimted tachled in Beowutr. the Germanic stories tell of heroes who face actual monsters BEowuLF." So upset were the gods at this refusal to mourn that it took some time for them to realue that Thokk was none other than Loh in disguise Nevertheless. Grendel.ulJ the creature's arm nght out of its sochet (lLr-usrtucfloN Lrr.For the Germanic peoplesbelieved that the retum of the wounded. but BewulJ Jought :v'i. Hel said Balder could leave only on condition that "everything in the nine worlds. Beowulf followed her into a lake and dived down to her cavemlike lair A desperatestruggle then took place and Beowulf lost his rather than magical opponents. craJtedby armour. dead and alive. since his kingdom had been rid of a menace. the water monster fled to its home. deep in a nearby lake. norhis t'abled crushing the withstand dragon's could in wounded the was teethBeowulJ mortally the seeing but combat. Grendel was seized by Beowulf and held in a powerful grip. Balder remained with Hel Balder's good looks and early death recall the myths of the Egyptian Osiris and the Sumerian Tammuz. a green land risen from the sea. Like the undead Celtic KingAnhur. Jire' his Yet breathingdragonsneither might Wayland.Grndel.th and toohherW surpise battled calmly (luusrnrnoru JAMES I 995 BY Ar. saying. gazesup at the gory trophy hanging Jrom the splendidvault oJDenmarh's VictoryHall Theglanthairyhand to belonged thefearsomeseamonster. King Hrothgar loaded Beowulf with gifts. who was the dying-and-rising god the ancient Greeks adopted from the Phoenicians. 1995) Beowun wrestleswith a monstrous merwomanin the crystal cavernof her undemvatqden GrievingJor the death oJ the her son. aswell as that of Adonis. and bled to death.where his father ruled Towards the end of his popular reign a dragon attacked his land Going out wrth rwelve followers to slay the fiery beast. His story is set in Denmark. In contrast to the Celtic myths that describecombat with watergiants. an even more dreadful creature She returned to the attack and ate another sleeping warrior In Pursuit. until Beou. memvoman Jrenry.. old frost giantess.refused. When he asked for his release.1981 By ALAN ) break away by losing an arrn. One night a dreadful crearure known as GMNDEL came to the hall of King Hrothgar and ate one of the wanions sleeping there.OUNSCC BALDER BEOWULF was rhe Germanic hero who slew wo water monsters. ) r83 . Beowulf soon found himseif almost on his own. who had continually terroized tore and dwoured the Danes. He was said to be the nephew of the king o[ Geats.&c^rprn. wept for were sent out him" Messengers and soon even the stones were an weeping But THOKK. (See also RAGNAROK) Bru-oR seeBALDER Bru. Balderwas expected [o retum and rule over a world cleansedby catastrophe. for all his companions but one ran awayin terror Although he managed to hll the dragon. Having once again saved King Hrothgar's kingdom from danger. he was fortunare to find another magic weapon in the water and he used this to finish off Grendel's mother.seenhere with raiseddnnhing horn.Nonse MvrHoLocY In the netherworld the brave Hermod found his brother Balder seatedin a high position. hedidnotdiebefore released hispeople treasure dragon's Jor (lrlusrncrtoN BYJAMES Auxaruorn. from which it could only trusry sword Like Anhur.lt would seemthat some of the initial appeal of Christianiry in northem Europe was connected with the triumphant retum of the risen Christ on Judgement Day. dying Balderwould occur in a new world. slainby BeowulJ.

who was never at a loss forwords. when there was no earth. in Germanic myrholory. ice. was the flaming three-srrand rainbow bridge berween ASGARD and Midgard (heaven and earrh respectively) [t was said ro have been built by the gods our of red fire. also had a son who imparred his wisdom ro his nephew Odin. and was guardedby rhe watchman god HEIMDALLEvery day rhe gods rode acrossthe bndge ro hold meerings at the rr"ellof uRp Btlt tNC. blue and green Over the ethereal arch. all the frost giants drowned in rhe grant'sblood exceprBergelmirand his wife By using a hollowed rree trunk as a boat. fire and the gaping pir of GINNUNGAGAP Bor's father-in-law. was the son of Thrudgelmir and the grandson of YMIR When ODIN. even though Billing approved of Brncrrutn below) andhis wife werethe the god's suir On rhe conrary. and was the Germanic god of poerry and eloquence He was married to IDUN. she gave way hollowed-out trunh to the edgeof the tree to his advances and she bore a son. world wherethq founded the realm oJ vALr. BnnCl was rhe son of oDrN and Gunnlod. sky or sea. Jrom the shining citadel of Asgard to theearthly realm of Midgard Composed fre. rhe goddess who kept the maglc apples of yourh When LOra retumed ro ASGARD. was rhe farher o[ ntruo According to some traditions. afrer being instrumental in causing BALDER's death. who killed Hopn with his Jotunheimand bred a noy rlce oJ glants bow and arrow (lr-r-usrnerroru Breu. would who avenge Balder's death (Ilrusrnerroru BULE. VaIi. a female giant. Bor lived in rhe time before the world had been made. in Germanic mythology. rhey escaped to continue the race of gianrc. 1995 By NlcK ) BIFRosr (above)wqs a glganticrainbow causew reaching ay. who neverlost their harred for rhe gods Ar RacruaRox rhe frost gianrs and the dead of HEr were desrined ro settle the final account for Ymir's dismemberrnent BIEnOST. dwarf Odinin disguise. he was king of the Rurhenians.husband of the granr Bestlaand father of ODIN. Rind She destined bear was to Odina son. greenwater and blue air. the giant Bolthur. Bragi.Nonsr MyrHoLocy BenCflMIR. the is who was intent wooing hing's on the daughter. VILI and vE hlled Ymir and rhrew his body into rhe middle of GTNNUNGA GAp. ) By NtcK 1995 BOn was rhe son of BURI. according ro Germanic mythology.VILI and \rE An ancient god. thegodsmovedto andfro (lLLtrsrnarroru ar AL4N Lee. 1984 ) BtruNc (above) in wonder the gazes at glittmng tinhets by Jashioned thedwarf goldsmith Rosterus Unhnown King to BiIIing. told him rhat he was . water and air.only mist. of tt shimmered with rainbow-coloured light in huesoJred. however. or Russians So strong-willed was Rrnd rhar ODINcould norwoo her. she onlyfrost glantsto escape drowningin treatedrhe chief of rhe Germanic the torrent of Ymir's blood thatflowedfrom gods wirh undisguisedconrempr his morTalwounds Thryjournqed in a Eventually.

were the mysterious owners of a golden necklace. primeval cow One day Buri's hair appearedwhere she licked. What seems more likely is that the sexualprice Frefa paid for it represents the other side of love. first by marrying Gudrun and rhen by helping Gunner win Brynhild On discoveringSigurd's betrayal. that the fertility craved To ODIN's goddess FREYA disgust she slepr on four successive nights with the dwarfs Alfrigg. c 1900) THr BruStNcS. where hero remainuntila peerless freed wouW she the her OnlySigurdbraved scorchingJire. bearded man carrying a harp. unawareof its curse. not Ieast because the identity of the Brisings is unknown It has been suggestedthat necklaceswere the specialadomment of mother goddesses. but then killed herself in despair (Seealso THEVALKfRIES. ByPETER 18f. they fell in love. when she desired something badly enough The Brisingamen came to be identified so closely with Frepa that when wished to disguisehimself as THOR the goddess to rerieve his hammer she lent it to him to from THRYM.2) hem. his entire body He had a son.CASURES TALISMANS) r85 . Dvalin. When she retumed to Odin accusedher of deASGARD. basing her diviniry by payrngsuch a price As a penance he made her stir up war in Midgard. one BRvNHILD. On his travelshe was bewitched by Grimhild into berapng Brynhild. so enhancedher beauty that shewore it continually.e)wasbornin a glitteing stalactite cave. make his costume convincing (See AND also TR. was rhe ancestor of the gods He was released from the ice by the AUDHUMIA. night c 1890 ByJ and day 0uusrnrnoru PENRosE. since in Germanic courts poets were venerated second only to kings. ) WhO AVALI<YRIE BNYNHILD WAS defied oDIN and so was banished to earth and imprisoned within a braved ring of fire When SIGURD the fire and broke her charmed sleep. and. and when oaths were swom they were solemnized by speakingover a vesselcalled the Cup of Bragi BRTSTNCNMEN POWER RINGS OF SCC THT BruSNTNGS BNUNHILD BRisINGs SCC SCC BRYNHILD on Loki was to make him Bnecl (aba.and their sons were ODIN. the worid of men Freyja and Odin shared those slain on the battlefield No agreementexistsabout the meaning of this strangemyth. BoR. also known as the Brisdings. in Germanic mythology. on the secondday. Berling and Grer in order to acquire it. who married a frost giantess. wherehts mother. Andvannaut. his head was free of ice. company Loki called at their feast Bragi "the whereupon Bragi threat- ened to twist off Loh's head as the only sure method Iies Although the gathering.called the Brisingamen. oJtheleading wrth by waspunished Odin meddling Jor The hiswill inwarfare godputhutosleep her andimpisoned in a nngoffre. bragger".ar (luusrpcnoN Tnr BTsruGAMEN below) wa.VILIand \rE VallEies. He gaveher his nng. sleep wahing from hr enchanted ho (llrusrncno^i BYARTHUR RAcKtl M.san craftedby dwarJs so uquisite nechlace fnely that it shonelllu liquid jome The goddess Frqja. LOYERS) TRAGIC BURI. not even Odin's great disapproval. until seduced by Odin The dwarfsgavethet'air child a magicalharp and sethim aJloaton one of thar fne-craJted vessek Jrom whichhe sang hrspoignantSongoJLifewhichroseto the HyRD. namely. blind passion and lust Nothing could stop her. besideherselfwith longng treaure An pad dmrly Jor possessingthe it emblemoJthe stars. words of stopping his tned to calm Odin the effect of Bragi's even more threatening He finallY prophesied the destruction of the gods and then fled from fugard Possibly Bragi was a lare addition to the Germanic pantheon It is not unlikely that Bragi was added through the dMne elevation of a poet.Nonse MvrHoLoGY unwelcome Enraged. Gunnlod. Bragi was portrayed as an old. guarded the Mead oJPoetry. on the third. Brynhild planned his death.but this hardly does more than explain Freyja'sattraction to this particular one.

with is electric skies.in one myth.while light elvesinspired the forestsand lakes. Svalin. storrn and fire giants. much lihe theJrost glants. icy wastes of and seethingsprings. wasfashionedby the gods from a bright sparh ofJire Its glou.dark dwarfs unearthed glittering gems and metals. theJrost at glants sent freezngblasts to nip the budsoJsping.ingorb wasplacedin a chaiot. the go& placed a shieH. the landvaettir easlly took fright.Day. (sw Drsc. drawnby two white stee&and drivnhy the sun-maid. fields and rivers wi rh whirling spirits of nature. Shining Mane. shyrng away from Viking dragon ships.lanches and brows Jrom their iqt shoulders (RcrNoere ar NrcHr at H SoHrnrnc. cANVAi. the ice masses the North werec of constantthreat to the Norsemen. who imbued the land and guarded or its welfare. litup the earth and slq with the radiance of his shininghair. the gods gne a g1ant. In the undergound cavems. or shooh ava. GTLDED c 10008C) BRoNzE.l NATTJRE SPIRITS HE DRAMATTc LANDSCApE scandinavia. Helpful and timid.was easilypeopled with nature spirits. a clwnot andhones n drwe round the eanh once e''tay 24 hours.In Slavonicmyrh.menactng and numbing. . personi$dngthe mysteriousand menacingforcesof nature.whoseundytng enmity wouldoyerwhelm the gods Ragnaroh In the intenm. such spirits roamed the mountains and snow slopes as fearsomefrost. c 1890 ) Tnr Sunv(above). land spirits. Sol Feaing tlnt the sun's heat mifitt be harmful. Day's horse. a host of vital forces filled the world and imbued the forests. or CooW. Tne Fnosr Grnrurs (below)personified iq the teftors oJthe Nordic landscapeMighry. inJront of the golden car In anothq myth. other less dramaticbut no lessimportant Yet spirits were the invisible landvaettir. So great were the telrors of crushing ice and searingfire rhat the giants loomed large in the Norse myths as evil and ominous forces.

Rocx eNo Srom.tvrHoLOGY the nar 0eft).Eant.Nonse N. she her husband. which explains u someJ a ntostrc r o ch. )\ tsiqi-'1\i I F i 9s4 ) S-'r L :1.s an(l oLtt(ro?s uere created fu gants treatltng too hear.tly at the dawn oJ time Best sutted to mrst and fog the mountaln gants. Ymtr too ugly to be sten. the rhe crossing to theirlos. the mam srnaller stons-s and r ochs scattered across the Nordic landscape The twin pettks ofTrold fintlteme . whichwerelx Lrythe shrning goldol gleamrngcoral caves.tttmecl to -stoneIn dctr-hght. for e. tht. t l90C I Denx DwaRr-s @elow) -*te lotmed from mup4ots tn tht Thc gods thought them rottrngfesh o/ the siarn . . the sea Ranloved gold. the mttuntuin tthoes v'er( knott'n us Iiil ' ttq ti. oJ rn gathered satktrs her drowntngnetand harmful She themdown to thedepthsoJ thesta There. Lrkc dwafs. cre two bands ol\NanlngdwarJs forgot to retre(lt beJttre sunnv v'hrspmngbehtnd " d**ufs' talk" As dwatJs had a httbtt ol who rochs.l Gr.s lost gnef whenthe RhrneMardens thcrr gold Htre.emergngfrom 1n the to thett'ater lltt through forest-s summcr The nt'er's wrth tumtngbluch. tn lcelantl tht hrghest peuhs are named lohul whrch dmvts Jrom Jotun ot Gtant l9g5 l lt ilr rL-srRrnat\ Ntct BEAIE 187 . formed bl foohsh grants who were caught outstde at slinnsr Snntlarly.s ch a-sth e Rtescngehr ge t' (nght).qNrs persontlted the vost crdlgr mountdlns and storm clouds Rocky thastn. -€': v'ho etherul spntes Tsr Rtlnr tr4qtorNs (abovd rvere m tlv'el.named the FlameoJtfu Sea. \rR4ri( j\ E] {RfHl R R{(kr/4\1 r' la00 .s rs Satlo seekrng the Jluorescent sone gold rhe tnp pocheted Ran'sfovour wisely Jrv ( I L L L\ l R 4 l ( ) \ BI ARTHtR R{akHA\l.t lakesand nters dunng thett'inter.reflected shfting h. were petnfred bv the light of dt+'. somettmes somettmes moods the ocean. moods. the reJlected n tmphs' colour. ormat i ons.s the gods berate RhmeMdrdens ratnbott'bntlge abot't 'ttr'.wtth rlrag4ed rn her enttrtained viclim. howa'er.elpful.. a stormyspint of the seu.s her Aegr.aJttr (#alit\/ of ltordtc wave.xample. uncl condemned them to a lfe undergound thus aplatmng Lrire ganr-s.

and any wounds they sustained were magically healed. as he tumed inro a dragon ro guard his hoard The legend of his rreasure drew many aspiring heroes to his lair in search of fame and forFanNtR his slays Jather. Fenrir would nor have it Loki when hir by a lightning bolt round his neck unless one of rhe unleashed by Farbauti Little else is gods put his hand berween hrsjaws known of Loh's paren6. was the son other gods laughed when the wolf of the mischief-making god roxi bit it off on finding that the chain and the frost giantessANGRBODA could not be broken Fenrir was He was the devouring wolf. however.rhe doom of the gods His was "an axe-ag?.Nonse MyrHoLocy DAZHBOG was the Slavrc sun god. ODIN. goddesses rhe of destiny. Laufey Although it seemedto be a silken ("Tree isldnd") who gavebirth to ribbon. he was bom again everymoming and rode through the slcy on his diamond chanor unril he becamean old man in rhe evening In some versions he is married to MyESyATs. Until then. he slew his farher. the moon. l9l4 ) ODIN's private army. c jg90 ) mouth was kept open by a sword so he could not bire. or Fenris. rhe god of the sky. son of rhe magician HREIDMAR. bur by trove Andvai The dwarf cursed the yourhful sicuno. and brother of svenazlC. he decided that Fennr should be restrained No chain. and Odin was swallowed by him FnNrus seeFENRIR Flnltn and his brother Galar. was strong enough ro hold rhe animal Finaliy. which he raised ro fight ar RAGNAROK. in Germanic mythology. choosing bravesthuoesJor Odin's the ghostlyarmy A chosenherosawa soaing VollEriejustbeforetheJatalblw GHE Roe oF THE VALKYRTESBy W T MAUD.a sword-age. outwirted the dragon and thewaningpair. was comrpted by the cursed ring Andvarinaut Lusting after the fabulous ring-hoard. a frost grant whose paren$ they had also kiiled Unlike the dwarfs. rhe dwarfs made a ("Cruel srriker") was magic fetter called Gleipnir from FenneUTI a giant and father of the fire god strange materialssuch as the r00ts LOKI According to one tradirion. the chief of the gods. Fenrir was a fearsome spectacle His vast mourh gapedso wide that the lower jaw touched rhe ground and the upper one reached the sky.were gathered Jrom thebottlefeldby the up VallEieswho galloped arcr theJray. (Seealso rHE vALKrRrEs) beast of RqcNaRoK.a wind-age. Hradmar. because tune Most mer their dearhson the heisbewitchedthetreasure stolen blasted heath ourside his lair.AR were the "heroic dead" of Germanic mytholory Theywere garheredfrom the battlefields by rhe vALr<rRtES In vALHALLA. of a mountain and bird's spitrie his wife was anorher giant. gods onin numb won his ill-fared reasure the gaze dismay lttusrnarn9 BYF yoN Sussilt. the doom of rhe gods This was the final battle between rhe gods and the frosr giants on the WGRID Plain. known as Dabog to rhe Serbs and Dazbog ro rhe Poles Son of Svarog. the then secured to a rock and his THE ErunrR/A& or 'huoic dead". and quarrels between them are said ro causeeanhquakes DNAUPNIR DTNTruCH SCC R/NG5 POWER OF SCC RINGS POWER OF EECON SCC AEGIR THe EtNHrn. were the wicked dwarfs who killed the wise man KVASIR order to gain his in magic powers They mixed his blood with honey in a cauldron and made a mead rhat besrowed wisdom Bur Fjalarand Galarlost the wonderful drink to Sutrung. before the wrechng of rhe world".according to prepared ro risk his hand. cANVAs.rhe Einherjar formed FRnNtn. was destined to become his vicrim Kidnapped by the gods and brought to AscARo where rhey could keep an eye on him. as a pledge that it was as harmless as it seemed Tyr was the only one FeNntn. armed with s from thedwarf ing canbeseen glitteing Hreidmqr' on s his father's sword and guided by as forefinger hewithesin thedustBehind Regin. god of fire. Suttung was boastful abour his . but when the NORNS. When freed from captivity at Ragnarok. Fenrir was so savage that oniy the war god rrn dared to feed him At first Odin was uncertain about the wolf. helped by his brother REGIN Greed made him monstrous in nature and form. wamed him about his own fate. these dead warriors would fight every day and feast every nighr. and the Germanic mythologr. a wolf-age.

and the it was from the spittle that Kvasir eagleand flew back to ASGARD. Reaching the secret cave. Once the hole was drilled. which he placed in the wolf s crrurunv. and his mother with a broken heart shonly after this raglc event.arsiR and before he turned himself into an the VANIR. fermentation. To put rhe seal on their peace agreement the two The passionategiantesslet Odin drink up every drop of the mead. branches of the gods. and so when retum Suttung gave chase as Flalar and Galar mixed Kvasir's another eagle. Although Forseti plays only a relatively small role in Germanic mythology.r.NORSE MYTHOLOGY acquisition and it was not long before the gods heard about the mead. theJair god oJ Solomon-lihe forcefor peace He sat in (abwe).8m F. chainedhim to wasso satage that the gods an undergroundroch Only a maglcal cord tobindhim Here. he failed to reconcileeventhe bitterestJoes 1995 Bv BULE.+n belw) andhisbrother Galar slew the wise Kvasirand drainedhis blood to extract his wisdom Two glisteningbowk and the Kettleof Inspiration clntained the s maglcal fluid. his father stabbed by a piece of mistletoe. thewolJ Fer. the. ODINhimself decided that he would go to JoTUNHEIM. we are told in demil that his hall of Glitnir "had pillars of red gold and a roof inlaid wrth silver " There he sat in judgement and resolvedstrife Fnrn seeFREUA FREYR FNTY SCC Fnryn seeFREYJA r89 .ANoen. and laY hold of the magic drink. he journeyed to Jotunheim and persuadedthe frost giant Baugi to tunnel through a mountain to where Suttung kePt the mead under the care of his daughter Gunnlod. it is clear that this is a myth about they created a magical mead connection The berween insPiration. and was known to the Frisiansas Forsite He was the son of neronn and Nanna Both of his parents were killed. and some form poetry and wisdom of potent drink occurs in several mythological radidons was the Germanic god FOnSffI of jusdce. had spat into a jar.but just failed to blood with honey in a cauldron catch Odin. was a Fonsrn.. Glitnir.. and settled the disputesoJ godsand men. Odin changed his justice. like yeast. There he sPat had been formed. Disguised as evil Bolverk.. home of the gods.) mouth as a signoJtrust (Drc. ) BY Poetry (Iuusrnartoru JAMES shape from Bolverk's to a snake. rhrown unwitringly by the blind god noon. ln the account of Kvasir'sdeath. which the brother mixed wtthhonq to producethe goldenMead of 1995 ALE]. Spittle. the mead into jars left empry for his causes fermentation.rRIn Jathtedby Lohi.the Iand of the frost gianm. judgement in his goldenhall. ) changed himself into a handsome (lrrusrnertor NICK one-eyed giant and for three days and nighs he was Gunnlod's lover. and slithered downwards to the hidden treasure as quickly as he allaying stiJe and resolvingfeudsHe nuer could.the was strongenough bravegod Tyrfetters Fenrir at the costof hts ovn hand.a.

was the spells and charms of the Vanir Skin means "shining". associatedwirh the wind and the earth in search her rovinghusband. ("Lady"). was Odin. Sweden was YANIR.l helow) Jla. of whom she changed inro a boar sea Freyr. 1852 . the virile son of Dionysus younger AESIR. which were rymbolsoJ her warm Germanic ferdlity goddess FRDgA. token of friendship also SORCERYAND SPEUS) alongwith his father Njord and his goddess lwe. rain. which she obtained by sleeping with irc four Fnru.qrvvns. with ootN and THOR. spnnhling morning don and summer sunlightbehindher She shoohsping flowersJrom her golden hair and wept tears which turnedto gold. or Od. shetoured heavanand many admirers. sheddingtears of gold all thewhile She was said ro be a sorceresswho was one of rhe principal gods He (Fnrv.blue-eyed Frefa's greatest treasure was the BRISINGS'necklace. rode in a chaiot drawn of Fnrrye.the slain berween rhem ar the end As late as 1200. who were led by known but his name. she taughr the gods the fruitfulness and peace His Fnfv.the god airborne love spiits. of whom norhing is Priapus. Sessrumnir [t is Possiblyfor this reason the Romans divided After awar the Vanir seem possible that Fref a's losr husband had always identified him with ro have been supplanted by the Odur. on her arrival having conrrol of sunlighr.t over the earth. the voluptuous. alfections Accompaniedby a JlochoJ dwarf makers Her beaury won her Their father was NJORo. 4 ) 19t 190 .) could fly in a falcon's skin Some was marnly concemed wirh feniliry. somerimes in fugard. Njord wenr well as love. Freyr by benveen rhe rwo sides.A rirle of known as Freya or Frea.n av NJ O BLoMMER. dividing ried. Freyr's statue in She ity goddessand a member of rhe of every battle Odin's share wenr his temple ar Uppsala. somedmesFrey. tradirions state that. Odur.the younger branch of rhe where they lived with the Aesir as a and the lover of destruction (See gods under the leadership of Odin.one of the two branches to live invALIIALI q.Nonse MyrHoLocy ("Lord"). c. Fnnn was the twrn brother of the by cats. was an importanr fertil. and the daughrer of rhe sea god NJoRDin Both Odin and Frefa took an name of the frost giantess he marGermanic myrhology and sisrer of interestin rhe heroic dead. and Aphrodite Although a memODIN When peace was agreed For she was rhe goddess of lust as ber of the VANIR descent. derives from "field" FREyR. a suitable partner for moved ro ASGARD live with the ro wirh Freyr and Freyja ro ASGARD.r. including OTTAR. Odin who was rhe farher of barrles AEslR. GrRoe. while Frefa's noted for the size of its penis inro which the Germanic gods were lived in her hall.or to amberat sea Shewasso beautlful that shewas wooed and pwsued by all liwng creatures (Ilrusrn crroN F voN sy SressH.

goddess not unlike the Sumerian deity Inanna. Having leamed of this love. Skimir tned to persuade Gerda to plant that she did not bother about it This proved to be a mistake because the fire god roru got the blind god uoon to throw a branch of mistletoe at Balder which killed him. Shmirwent to rhe JOTUNHEIM. 1gg5 suaded Gerda to pledgeherself to housaviJery (Iuusrnarroru By NrcK BEA:-E. the chief of the gods.igg has much in common with nnrY_1a Although her role as consort of Odin shows her to be a devoted wife and mother. whether her father liked it or not. and mother of natPnR She has given her name to Friday Frigg was a fertility goddess who "will tell no fortunes. that no harm should happen to him Apparently. herhusband.his magic horse and his magic sword The servant was instructed to bring Gerda back to fugard. waslord the and. a gatb godofsummtrsun shouters. he sorelymissed his mighry magic weapon. datyoJtheatmosphue. Frija and Fricka. persontfyng cbudsHs Jlnshing the of symbohznga sutbeam. Frigg's subsequent effon to have her son releasedfrom rhe land of the dead also failed. Skimir said that he would impose on her an unbreakablespell astheconstellationFng's Spinning of that would make her a perrnanent \Mheel Herheron plumes rymbolizehu whileherhrys stgniJy divine outcast and it was this that perher discretion. Freyr's myth is about his wooing of Gerda. ) GEFION GNTNTNN SCC the oJ FRrGG enloyed pivilege sittingbeside throne. witnessing events present andfuture she nqer rqealedher Aparagon oJ silence. when Skirnir then threatened to a webs cloud decapitate her with Freyr s sword. ) accord0uusrnenox ALE&{N 1gg5 sister Freyja. of Jairyrealm Here. Jabulous pair the Hlidshialf . *vord. was the daughter of Fjorgye. also known as Frigga. yet well she knows the fates" When Balder dreamed of impending danger. since it could fight giants on its own (See AND TALISMANS: also TREASURES TMGIC LOYERS) FruCXN SCC FRIGG SCC FRIGG FruJn see FRrGG FruTHIOF TMGICLOYER5 SCC She refused both this gift and Skimir's second offer of one of Odin's arm-rings Gerda'sresolve was only strengthened further Fnrcc belout). fought tx wn ryJ^MEs DER. onhis Odin. in Germanic mythology. land of the gians. goddessof the earth and atmosphere. forehnowledge (ILLU5TRAIION H THLAKER.NOnSr MYTHOLOGY Fnrn (ndrl). On reaching Gymir's hall. taking two of Freyr's greatest treasures. 1920) 8y C FRIGG. because Loh refused to moum on behalf of Balder Thus it would seem that Frigg was a ferriliry. she roo a possesses falcon skin and has a great passion for gold ft is quite possible that the two goddesses had their ongins in a single earthmother deiry FruCCN declare her love for Freyr in retum for "eleven of the applesof youth" the fertiliry god with an agreement to meet Freyr in a forest in nine days' time In this way the passion of Freyrwas fulfilled. though ir cost him his horse and sword which he gave ro Skimir At nacruaRoK. oJ Elves oJ Alftam. the daughter of the frost giant Gymir When Frep first saw Gerda he immediately fell in love with her. and becausehe did not lcnow how to gain her affection he became ill Njord became so worried about him that he asked his faithful servant Skimir to find out what was amiss.the doom of the gods. spunlong pearly oJ from her jovelled which in distaff shone thenightslE Finally. except the mistletoe. though she lacked rhat goddess's ability to enter the netherworld F. the mistletoe appearedsuch a harmless l9t .Shidblndnir.home theLtght hets sailinghis ship.wife of oDiN.fromwhere divine could viav the nine worlds. as a gesture of goodwill that had been ageed at the end of the war between the Vanir and the Aesir. Ftigg extracted a promise from each and every thing.

Thor succeeded in driving the chair downwards and crushed the frost giantessesinstead However. as Grnoru (abwe).and she wamed Thor about the plan while Loki was asleep She also lent the god her own magic belt of strength. sraight through an iron pillar and deep into Geirrod's stomach After this. was a Germanic godthe dess of fertility akin to rnEYTA. she cut from the mainland the whole island of Zealand.1995 daughters ried to hll the slumbering Thor by lifting up his chair and dashing out his brains on the ceiling But with the aid of Grid's sraff. Thor threw the still hot and smoking ball back down the hall. in Bqondthesleeping shrouded cobwebs in of the gantsparhled Chamber Treasures jovelsandweapons came the Here full oJ later. Gefion's name is connecredwith "g. the GftnnOD and father of rwo daughters. she was persuaded to marry by Freyr's when he faithful servant SKIRNIR. the thunder god laid about the frost giant's sewants with the magrc staff. though. they rested on the way at the home of a friendly giantess named GRID. LoKI accused Gefion of selling herself.ring" She was usually imagrned as a vrrgin and as the protector of virgrns after their deaths However. disguised abegar. and was one of THoR'smost formidable enemies lt happened thar LoKI. like Freyja. Gfnnn. but the giant's servants received the visitors It was not Iong. Thor amved at their destination. before Geinod's rwo by body. wife of oPtw Approprithe ately for a goddess of agriculture. Geinod himself then appearedin the hali and using a pair of tongs he picked up a red-hot iron ball and threw it at Thor. who reluctantly became the wife of the FREYR. also known as Gefinn and Gef on. wirh Loki hanging as usual on his belt Geinod was nor at home.managed to trick Kirg Gylfi oflsweden out of a great tract of land In retum for her hospitality.her supernatural sons Thq and draged the tllledfield to the coast the Jloatedit across sea to Denmarh. and FRIGG. part of present-day Denmark was a frost giant. whereitJormed the island oJZealand (lr-r-usrnqrron 1995 ByIAMES Ar-rx. a consunt companion of Thor. was a beautiful frost giantessand daughter of the giant Gymir. The Aurora Borealis was believed by some to be the radianceof Gerda (SeCAISO TMGIC LOYERS) L92 .qrtotn. Danish hero. who caught it in Gnd's iron gloves Angered beyond measure by this exremely discourteous action. a roid on years Thorhill. GJALP Greip. fertility god Although inidally resistant to the idea. representingthe nine months of the nonhemwrnter. disguised as an oid beggar. threatened to recite a terrible spell This spell would have made Gerda so ugly than no man would ever come near her again Shewould be transformed into "a sight to make the blood run cold" So it was that Gerda met Freyr in a forest after nine nights. sister of the fertiliry god nnrrR.NoRSE MYTHOLOGY GgntON. By BEA ) for hishing {trtusrwloN NICK tI-.lay theCityoJ Not-Dead. GEIRRoD's immense slain QeJ) the Thor. wtthfour plougheda vastJieA in Sweden glant oxut. the king offered Gefion as much of his kingdom as she could plough with four oxen dunng one day and one night Wirh the aid of her four giant sons. ) in Germanic mytholory. transformed in[o oxen. magic iron gloves and magic staff Thus equipped. for a necklace Her myth concems ploughing and doubtless recalls the ancient ritual of ploughing a token strip of land each spring Gefion. had uken the form of a hawk and was caprured by Geinod The only way Loki could avoid death was to promise to bring Thor to Geirrod's hall without his magic belt and maglc hammer which protected the god againstfrost giants BecauseThor rrusted Loki he went with him to Geirrod's hall Fortunately.

she and Greip then med to ram the head of sleepingThor againstthe raftersby suddenly raising his chair The thunder god woke just in time to force the chair downwards by using a maglc sraff. ng. Thor managed stem the tonentby who. stihingGjalp with aboulder He then ed ashoreby graspinga tned to kill rnon. pimal abyss at the Gltvruuncacap the between iq of the dawn creation. intomassive fiery the and melted ice. sheremarned unmoveduntil Jorcedby threat of magc to c 1920 BY consent (l[usrnqnoru H THEAKER.tlfngThor as he wades to giantess.mountain ashnamed "Thor'sSalvatton" 1995 ArcxeNotn. ) GlerY (nght) stirsup a iver into a great across GJAIP ("Howler") was a frost flood. mythology. along with her sister Greip.and ra. with four dwarfsnamed Nordi. daughter of GrrRRoo.ODIN.vIU and Vr. Buri's three grandsons. By licking the ice.fIR. ) By panied by the fire god LoKt. his teeth rocla and stones. which lay berween the realms of fire and cold.auPnuMLA. 1995) By 193 .ealedhu master's in portrait reflected water.his hair the treesand his blood tumed into the lakes and seas The brothers used his skull to form the sky. the frost grant.NonSr MYTHOLOGY in Germanic GINNUNGAGAP. accom.inspired Grnpa (above). the world of men. came (lrrusrncrroN'JAMEi to the hall of Geirrod. Gjalp did what she could to harm the visi- tors Even before their arrival she added a torrenl of her menstrual blood [o a river in order ro drown Thorand Loki Awell-aimed stone stopped Gjalp and sent her howling home However. from his body Ymir's flesh became the earth. wd a "yawning emPtiness" at the time of creation. from the sparhs slowly a anergedfrostglant iry droplets slowly (ir-rusinarrorv NICK BEALE. Sudri. killedYmir and took his body to the centre of Ginnungagap There they made Midgard. and. the Germanic heav himselJ thunder god When Thor. ancestor of the gods.lay swirling north andfery southTwelve and into gushed itsvacuum Jroze streams In icebloclu thesouth. the ice of Ginnun1agap melted and from the drops was formed Y.the primeval cow.a Jrosty the lne of Frqr who sent Shirnir to wn hu hand Althoughheoferedher the applesoJ glowing youth. Austn and Wesrn holding up rhe comers beaury. As the warrn air from the south met the chill of'the north.lts massiveweight broke the backs of rhe rwo giantessesand they died in agony on the floor (nght). his bones the mounuins. Audhumla uncovered nuru.

Thor failed to nodce rhar Harbard was his father oDIN. GruO was a kindly frost gianress who helped rhe Germanic thunder god raon in his struggle against GEIRROD. enreaty for Odin's aid. the dwarfs decided ro please the gods by using the fumace to make a ship for FREYR and. Thor had been lured by LOKI. though it has been suggested thar he may have L9+ . Grid loaned Thor her own belt. three-comeredstone when it had collided with Thor's hammer in mid-air So excired was Groa. he needed the assistanceof four men ro canrylt. as an roused from the grave by her son. the deceitful croublemaker and braggart. "gri* and greedy. rhe sons of lvaldi. In the fierce struggle that ensued. 1995) GROA. into dangerwithout the protecdon of his magic belt of strength and his magic hammer. ln his fury.'{NS) GUONUN GUNNNR SCC VALKTRIES THE SCC NORSE HEROE5 GnlunILD SPELLS see soRCERy AND ("grey-beard"). Some thrown over the heads of an enemy time after her death. It was in this lair rhar.that managed to be both srrong band that she unfortunately failed and slender. at rhe same time as a wig of spun gold. ) GnENOEL was the name of a water monsterwhich was invulnerable to weapons and rroubled the kingdom of King Hrothgar of Denmark One night Grendel. pain jedbachtohiswatery and Grendel lair bledto death@ruslunoN ByArrrN rg84 LEE. Having made the wig. Grendel's arrn was tom off and he ran away and bled to dearh in his watery lair.but the boatman remained away from the bank. When rhe Svipdrag. It was required in Viking a few fragmenrc of whetstone custom that a spear should be remained in Thor's head. whose frozen toe THORtumed into a star by throwing it up into rhe sky. he was. for Odin. met hismatch thefearless in warior Beowulf. order to obtain wisdom. according to Germanic mythology. however.They had come from Hrungnir's sharpedged. and rhis was why mark. BEOWIJLF. was remains uncertain. which rhe fire god rorc ordered as a replacemenr for the golden hair of THOR's wife SIF. GRoA. later. Groa herself tried by magic ro remove whetstone fragments from Thor's head aftei his fighr with the frost gianr HRUNGNIn. bur a visidng warrior. held one of the monster's arrns in a vice-like grip. Beowulf killed rhe monsrer's mother Grendel's head was so Iarge that when Beowulf broughr it back as a trophy to King Hrorhgar. who sazed creature'shairy in a the limb vice-lihe andwrenched gnp itJromits sochet Howlingwith andrage. only ro be met by insuls. orAurvandill. Thor could rhink of no responseto Harbard's abuse other than anger. the god THORsummoned Harbard to ferry him over. In some rraditions she is said to have borne ODIN a son. a man-danuring monster.Nonse MyrHoLocy GRENDEL.Thor revmled rwhly thather Iong-lost husband alive The was happy news ucitedGroa sheforgothr so that spelk solefta splintuin Thor's and head (Irrusrnenoru ByNrcK nutt. rhe leaderof rhe Germanic gods. the silenr god vloaR. was a seeressand rhe wife of Aurvandil. was a surly boatman. stabbed with a SPear (See also TRMSURES AND TALISA.the fire god. and never missed its to finish the spell. and to have made for him a special shoe which enabled him to stand in rhe mourh of the wolf Rnrurun.Mischievous Loh had cut off her beaudful locks as a joke. in Hennnnn Germanic mythology. who needed her advice god hung himself on the cosmic on how he could win rhe love of uee YGGDMSIL nine nights in for the beaucifulMenglad. just like Christ. a chants charms wer Thorin ordertoloosen stone the splinters lodged thegod's in Feelingrelief forehead and gratitude. Groa was before batde commenced. bruully cruel". a spear star and the rerum of her lost hus. Exacrly who this Aurvandil. [t was forged by dwarfs. came to the royal hall and ate a sleepingwarrior. while Thor is hottempered but honest. The meeting between the two gods reveals their differenr characrers: Odin.byThor's news about the GUNCNIR was rhe magic spear belonging ro oDrN. iron gloves and unbreakable scaffro face Geinod. Wishing to cross a deep river. been a fertility god of the werlands. glftedhealer.

) the sacredosh (ttusrntrloNBYALAN 1984 Guwcltn (abwe) wasthe name of Odin's spear. ) 1995 nv GuNGNn's Gelow)spear shaftwa cawed Jrom the sacredwoodoJYggdrasilAfter gaining wisdom at the WorA Tree. andhear grassgrovingon the htlLsideWith his cumedhuaW's horn.both slenderand strong itwas unsttervrngin its Jlight The weapon was so sacred that oathswere svtomon its point Dvalin. the son of nine mothers and the watchman for the Germanic gods Originally. Disguised as Rig. the mortal who esmbIished the three social groups: the nobles. the peasan$.bnght guardian of the BtJrostBndge. carvrngit wtth maglc ruNES (ODIN BY R FOGELBERG. as he was thought to be the supreme watchman perched at is top. and Odin made the snfr. HNNAOET.There he stood ready to blow his hom Gjall at the onset of RecruenoK. srurdy children for the peasans and illfavoured children for the slaves. C 1890 ) or Heimdalr. sleepingless than abird Gtftedwith specialsightand heainghe couldseeJor100milesby "rght or day. SCCHEIMDNL r95 . wds a)er alert. he may have been an omniscient skygod. MARBTT. andJashioned staf Jrom its holy wood Here.the three-strand bridge that linked ASGARD and Midgard (heaven and eanh respecdvely).rt. above the higlrest rainbow. the dwarf. and the enslaved. he would summon the godsto Rngnaroh (I[usrRArroN NrcxBEI. Heimdall's name may be related to the concept of a "world [ree". He stood upon BIFRosr. was HetUPnLL. He disguised himself as RIG. Odin apaJect broheoff obough. the god visited in turn three houses in Midgard and fathered handsome children for the nobiliry. all-seang god peers through the boughsoJ Lee.N. He could hear the sound of grassand wool gowing.forgeditshead. and see for over a hundred miles.the one-qed.during which he was to be the last to fall in single combat with L}KI.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY HETMDAr (nght).

t h t ' d c r r y -o f .the Sampo. l l l o l r t t / o r r l v l c i u n .l r r r lrtt h rltt rnLi{l( fnll }r't sur h prt'r-rou-s g/rs wrre tovett'tl Lry (ohove)netkluct wus trat'tet)\t Tur' Bru-SIwGAMEN four tlwarJs wirh such aftstry thut tt gltttuedlike tt constelkttron starsin the of nrght.. Most amazing of all.*er cned. ) l l 196 . With superhuman artistry and secretwisdom. Fenrir. such as the silken thread which fettered the fierce wolf.s Irlurt ttrtJ ho applts oll m tn tll-fattLl atttnlpt fir . others were supematurally powerful.zuqlHE MosT cELF-BR{TED fsMhN of the Norse world were wise and gifted dwarfs who laboured underground in ca'erns studded rvith gems.slzy AroundFrry1u's lovdy nech.. Gungnir. such as the golden apples of youth.. and Sif's golden hair which grew narurally. only Volund the smirh r& could match the dwarfs {ffi in artistry and crafr while. Most indispensable . perhaps.^ L^ \.Nonse MyrHoLoGy TneESURES AND TALISMANS (. Whenher tears on roch.ingship for Frelr and a sword that fought of its own accord once drawn.tht' thret' w .vcaijUrrs Tl lrrol ' 5 DOOmcianS nammer.undFrqluwrpt sht fttr proJuse\. s ( l t J t ) r o l c / t ' n r r p p l ts k e p t r h r ' s o d s r t e n r u l l l v r r u n g I ht' lrihtrlrrus lntn trtt ir'. s r r r i { h l f ( ) s l r r y rr h t g o r i s o l t h a r r r g r r u r a n d r v r r i t l i i l J t r t f / r t l r c r r i l l . the Finnish Ilmarinen excelled in magical crafr and produced a peerless talism?il. S p r r n g .produced trrdsures tht earrhwhenr.in her turn. and udins I I r . NUollnlr. among sorcerers.slcri/ thc q r r c l S l r . they lashioned fabulous treasures and tahsmans for gods and heroes. . B) .Is l t r . / . ( a / n t ( .^ l ^ ' 5uu5 ---^- wulluruuS l--^--^ ---^ \. Some of their creationswere exquisitely beautilul.1852 crNvA-\ ) t l r t g r c l r r t . l s t ' \ ' r r r ... The tireless dwarfs were aiso innovarive engineers who crafted a collapsible. were their living rreasures.upetrully dunngher search Odur lorherhusband.n s r h o . I D I ' N ' .ts tandcd dn(l g-t(uLlt(l b^. ttbecame tmblrm ol the an and lntits ol the heuvens earth She. r t rr l / l t f t e l l r . rl infallible spear.the goldbristled boaq Gullinbursti. .LlrL . but tearsshed at lell sta turntd to amber (i:Ri\tA N / () BrttrvrnDErAiL..f i r I J i r r rl r r N .h r a s r t J i s g t r s e c /u s a b t r t l .ryLlL. r R 1 r i . fl1. such as the Brisingamen necklace. Among morrals. thty turned to gold. Some precious marvels were created by nature.^.

stling wrnd and outstnpped eagleThe floatrngJortress fumedfar and was the -*ide A r { \l R4rr( )\ B} .the tahsman was mystenously t'ashroned from oneswft tlutll.the mastersmithloolzs and tntentlytnto thefurnace to seewhat theJrre hasproduced ( f H I .( 1906 BlH u.tt ghcled land. craltedLry du.NoRsr MyTHOLoGY M. F ( ) R G t N Gc t r L H t .Elhdara.5 2 ) WorutRous LoNGsHIps(above) to helongerl both Freyr antl Thorstern Thegod'sshtp.an everlasting source of weakhand power (tr. r _ l 8 .Skidbladnir. Ellida. Draupntr.rnilk of thet'erttle cow.neyermrssed mark its Thespearshaftwasfashtonedby Odinlt'romthe sacred ol ash Ygdrastl and carvedwtth the god'smaglc ntnes lust as valuable was Odin'sJabulousnng.ensuing of lastingprospenty power Here. ) Tar Senapo(below)was forgedby llmannen. ( A \ ! ' 4 5 . wasusedto of and hallow both btth and death ceremontes Gr.afs A personftcrttion was the of theclouds. it consrsted aflour mtll.was never Jar poseof the from htsgrasp. sea across and av Akhoughtnussle enough to cot"Nel/ the gods all and an ennrehost.r lsrRqrro^.Iaunchrng shaJts hghtning.jar\ r I 900 ) .ftJrom theseagod.avcNrn(nght). the Etemal Hammerer Finmshmyth.ed wrth the whi.erchteJ. whohammered the slry oJ out at thedawn of time Oyer threedays.rt couldbefoldedtLpand hhe Thorstein's pocheted a handh. of and as a weapon for smashtngglants'shulls It was a talisman bothcreat:ity and destruction. salt mrll and monq mrll. S a v p i t B l ' A G A L I E \ K A L I E I i .'vln Qef).HFIDRI.a gatn of barleyand thefleece a summerlamb So oJ out oJthe maglcal flames oJthet'orgetheSampowascreated. fabulous was u g. Odin's great spear.l i llrr.Aegr Shapetl sruellng planks which grew lry togethtr tn thefotm oJa *-rnged dragon. drugon boat.orr.whichproduced etghtsimrlar gold nngs everyntnedays.as seenherein thischaractensttc god with his hammer clutchedclose hts hean The Mlollnir to wasusedas a t'iery thunderbolt. Thor'swondrous hammer.

Thor had no trouble in breahng Himinrjot's neck. Thor would have landed the prize had not the sight of the serpenr rising from the depths of the sea terrified Hymir In the confusion that ensued Hymirwas able ro cur the greatsea serpent free. somerimes Hodur or conflict is finally resolved when Hod. is possibly of who one thing not to do her son any harm. This Danish version shows mythology. his morher Frigg exacr. kna. a plant the goddessconsideredto destined remain cheerless ner. for when Odin's son BALDERwas hlled Helrefused to retum him to his parenrc Her brothers. The unpleasantnessof Hel's realm standsin marked contrast to the pleasurable and enviable afterlife that was enjoyed by the heroic dead who dwelt in Odin's wondrous hall veulerte. ("Sky Bellower") was the head of a giganric black ox The ox belonged to HY 4/Rwirh whom THORwenr fishing foTJORMUNGAND. of who A sole exceptionwas the misdetoe. Hodr and Balderare rivals for HOO SCC HODR the hand of Nanna. bur her thighs and legs were those of a corpse. thestawed inmates HeI Balder. When Hel refused to let Balder go unril everyrhing wept for him.to assail thebared oJHeI Within. though it was Hel and her ghastly home which were adopted by the Christians as rhe name for rheir realm of etemal damnation. I 760 ) the animal's vast size. the land of men He was senr there by Odin to consult a Finn named Rossthiof about his worries conceming the future. However. he acted as a divine messenger Hermod also shared these gods'interest in the dead. however.OT. the son of optl and FRIGG. and used its head to bait his hook Jormungand rose for this delicacy.pain andhunger in thar cheerless. and guided Hodr's hand when he threw it at his brother.and brother of netorn Rather like the Greek god Hermes and the Roman Mercury. Hel's throne was known as rhe Sick Bed and hersubjecrcwere "all who died through sicknessand old age" Hrnuoo leapsbravelyinto mis$ Hel on Her.the brothers in averydifferent lighr tion.hneeling. rhe chief god Once there. In a very different version of rhe story. who fell down dead. or Himinbriorer. gate ing death. the fire god. despire god rorc leamed about rhe mistletoe. was rhe son of oolN and FRIGG. the eightlegged SLEIPNIR. He was saved by magic. for it was he who was sent to HELafter Balder's death to ask for his brother's release He rode there on Odin's famous horse. Hel's subjecs were little more rhan silent attendants of rhe semidecomposed queen She was only partly decomposed because she had the face and body of a living woman. to in HeIfor (ILLUSIMTIoN be too insignificant. Hermod was allowed to take back ro A5GARD the armring which Odin had fastened to Balder'sbody as a memento Hermod nearly met his own death on ajoumey to Midgard.Nonsr MvrHoLoGy Hflwas the daughter of trickster LOKI. Hodr was sent to join him as a punishment. ro which she had been banished by oDIN. Hodr kills Balder wirh a magic was the blind god of Germanic sword. and the frost giantessANGRBODA.tthe hnatt hewas that futurewell. r98 . Their HODR. The branch of mistletoe went straight through Balder. her powers were stronger than Odin's.oat. dreary home (luusrnerrol ByJAMEs AlrxAruoen. In the Icelandic tradi. was ruler She of the Germanic netherworld (also called Hel). FENRIR the wolf and. the prwohed the gnm guardian.Balder canbe waitingstoically smt beside ed a promise from each and every an alarmingcreature. and Balder is portrayed as a hateful figure.listens oJ unimpressed Hermod'splea to release to the much-loved god Balder Jromher dismal realm Behindher. The rickster FRoM THE PROSE EDDA. and retumed to reassure fatheras best he could. Hodr unintentionally killed his brother BALDER. the gim goddess the dead.bur the head stuck in his thr. in Germanic myrhology. were as terrifying as she. Modgud. Once it became clear that Balderwould have ro suy in the land of the dead. 1gg2) HnnUOD. however. When Balder Hrnuop below)spurs Jabulaus his steed was noubled by dreamsof his com. however. sea the serpent.oRlzutrcAND rhe serpent. his HIIralN BRIOTER seeHrMrN(/or HtUtNn. sichor ciminal who suferedceaseless cold. to complain imtably that Hermod mustbe aliye (IttusrnqloN BypErER Huno. thereore rows of her sad subjects soulsof the old. ) 1995 his vain mission to seehBalder's release from death The great noisemadeby the hero and his eight-hoofed horseSleipnir when thq crossed crystal Gioll Bidge.

handsome and ly betrayed the Val$rie BRYNHILD. while darr at the (rHE othu godslmh in shochd dtsmny. Gunner.BaAer. his fellow Aesir.NoRSE MyTHoLoGY HONtn. The when Hogni and Gunner inherited killed Mimir and sent his head second brother. on death. goodwill after peace was agreed from the world of the dead". who had unwtttingly betrayedher love Although refusingto hill SigurdhimselJ. Sigurd. Hocll to below) listens suspiciously Brynhild's passionate pleaJor vengeance on her lwer. First ring's spell.y hisbelarcd sla. he doomed and suffered at the hands of the Germanic creation story. (ILLUSTMTIoN ByARTHUR RIcxrrnv. was believed that Honir was the (Seealso NORSEHEROES) of his nature that mkes delight in god who gavehumans their senses. his other promiDrrruor Bfl-DER Ecrcnsrrnc. it represenls his blind spor. way he appeared always to rely on kind. to a new eanh.. promptedhy twkted the god. Not for nothing was Balder slain by his blind brother in a game that involved throwing potentially dangerous objects. who benryeenthe nvo warring branches onciled. unwittinf.of the gods. is the oppoSrgurd'gfonune. rhe side of the Atli who coveted the gold. Apart from a terrible inability to HOOUNSCC HODR make up his mind.the doom of among the VANIR as a token of the gods.v brothu. Sigurd had unwittingbecame increasingly angry at the there is Balder. w6 a member of the ersm goup of gods and brother of oDIN. of any hnd. Honir unfortunarely two sons of Odin are menrioned tune generated by u magic ring proved to be a grave disappoinrtogether here shows their imporcalled Andvarinaut. rec. as the arrangedSigurd's death. Honn (abwe)whowasblind . ) nent characteristic was said to be HonNmsee HoNrR his long-leggedness. or Hoenir. Under the ment to his new companions. ahnost too good for the She asked the brothers for help. they in rum were back to the Aesir. prsuaded Guttorm to he undmalu the awfuldeed Brynhildwas laterflled wtth remorseand hilled herself . "Balder and Hodr rerum HOCNT and his brother. bewitched by the curse. rhe chief god. Sent to live After &{GNAROK. L*i M&3pi#i llodr'slvnd n aima dradly of mistletoe BaAq. c 19OO ) r99 . However. Lohi Hre. they when it came to making decisions side of his father's nature. according to Germanic mythology. In some versions site of Odin's foresight. Instead.befriended the hero SIGURD. c 1840 By C cANvAs. Thar rhese owned a famous but ill-fated for. world. who tance in lcelandic myrhology. the wise MIMIR. The Vanir therefore god of magic and inspiradon. Hodr. Jrombirth. He represens rhe posirive and.

but he was killed as well Jotunheim on his back and to kill HnrrucrutRQO. accordHnfnUen. The heart of a dead mare was used to animate the clay grant.NORSE MYTHOLOGY or Reidmar.the nine worlds and challenged pensared and told Loki to obrain him to a horse race Mounted on Odin won a enough gold to cover Otter's flayed eighr-leggedsrntPruiR. hean and shield were made of stone. guard rhe gold and Regin asked the hali in which the honoured to SIGURD slay him and recoverthe dead lived with Odin. rhe land of the gianm second son. Thiolf couW outrunhts frosty step speed ivalwhogathered at every Jor. he hurled his magic weapon at Hrungnir. who swiftly launched his own sharpedged.an outstipshts Hucr (above) of a warior. except FREYJAand THOR At this point the grant-slayer retumed and waved his magic hammer ar Hrungnir. Thor acceptedeagerly. Hreidmar demanded to be com. o rughry frostglantwtth balances a stony heart and shull. awaiting the anival of Thor. where Hrungnir was invired to rest before retuming to pleased with the gold that he did not wory/ about the curse But his JoruNHErM.t'oolishly on his stoneshield.came to covet But Hrungnir drank too much srong ale and became alrogant He the treasureand killed him for ir Fafnir changed inro a dragon to even threatened to carry VALLIALIA. the glant tnes to deflectthehammer Uthhis whetstone (iLLUsrMfloN By IAME' ALEXANpm.er 1995 BY action (Irrusrnqnoru Ar-rx. Hugl to unhnown ThiaIJi. i 995 ) nvalThialf. or Golden O[[er.As soon as Thor was in range. Although the hammer shattered the whetstone and went StR all the gods. but the frost giant.competingincontest athletic Try go& shillsbenveen andglants ashe not would. Thor. was a magician-farmerand rhe father of ANd OTTERWhCN FAFNIR REGIN. they were both proud and anxious: proud that Hrungnir had challenged Thor. off to fieasure. challengedThor to a duel on the border between fugard and Jotunheim No one had met the thunder god in single combat before. in Germanic mythologr. inside and out The wily fire narrow victory over Hrungnir on god seized the dwarf ANDVARI's Golden Mane By this dme.mb olizngThought. divine curse upon it Hreidmar was so stronghold. The weapons met in mid-air.believtng that lt* expected Joe. and he held his sharp whestone in readiness. who was a shape-changer. Fafnir. understandingthat he would be easily killed without his own weapons. skin. but the dwarf placed a had ridden to AsGARD. Mane He encountered ODIN on one of the god's joumeys rhrough was killed accidentally by LIKI. the two the treasure.quor* ) JAME' number So they made out of clay a man so huge that the thunder god would shake with fright when he first caught sight of him. but anxious lest the god slay the most powerful of their 200 . The frostSantlnew rhat he had to avoid his opponent's hammer. whom they called Mist Calf Alongside Mist Calf stood Hrungnir. HRUNCNIR.even though Hrungnir's head. was the sffongest of the frost $ants and owner of a powerful stallion named Gullfaxi. When the frost giants heard about the forthcoming duel. plans to attqchhim the frombelow FuIIyexposedto impactoJ Thor's crushinghammer. three-comered stone in Thor's direcdon. ing to Germantc mythologr. wasan illusion than ev Jaster q.

accordrng to some tradidons. ln the confusionJormungand tore Tyr's mother advised them to hide itself free of the great hook and until she had expiained their pres. Thialfi and his sister RosKYA inadvenendy slept in the thumb of an empty glove belonging to the enorrnous frost giant SKRIIIIR. Thor became known as "Hrungnir's skull splitter". In order to be informed about events in the nine worlds.was an airborne gatheru oJ news Alongwith hisbrother raven.rIRandThor below) food t'orageJor on bait tantalizing tip afatedfishing Thor's wster the sttracted monstrous serpent. the thunder god himself being wrestled down on one krree by an "old. Odin sent the ravensout everyday to see and hear all that happened there. however. though he felt suffice for food instead Back in Hymir's hall. had cause to remind Thor of the superiority of brain over brawn At one point Thor. After this heroic incident. Inside the great fortressThor Odin and whisper the latest novs into his and his companions failed in a CAT. I260. Throughout the joumey the trickster LOKI. Sure enough. or Memory.sank bleeding beneath the surface ence. w6 a young frost giant who ouuan THoR'shuman sewant HIALFI in a race The story of Thor's joumey to the srronghold of nGARD in the land of the frost giants is full of magic. the chief Germanic god.At the end of their adventure. The next day their deterioratedinto violence. old woman".he on to crush Hrungnir's skull. whosefloffd tfleoflS Thought. Theywould then retum to rest on Odin's shoulders and tell him what they had obsewed. Gobles host suggested they go fishing if were thrown before Thor left wirh they wanted to eat again.cuttheline howarcr. Hymirhad an enolrnous cauldron. ("Thought") and HUCTNN Muninn ("Memory") were the ravens o[ODIN.1760) number of tests. When he woke. so T1n Thor set about its head with his hammer. the which Jormungand. HUCI ("Thought").Muninn.one Odin's of fabulous ravens. a number of stone fragmens lodged in Thor's head and he was also pinned beneath one of the fallen Hrungnir's legs.Thorused his hammer to black ox When the sea monster such effecr that all were hlled Hucttw Aef). (ILLUSTRATTON FROM THE PRO5E EOOI'. there was no way that the sea god Hr. (ILLUsrMrroN FROM THE PRosE EDDA. the travellers saw that Slcttmir and Utgard were no more than magic creations sent out by the frightened frost gians to m1atifr m€hty Thor. [-oh.Nonse MvrHoLocY took this bait and AEGIRcould offer hospitality to JORMUNGAND ODIN and his companions. when the travellers reached Utgard.the god of fire. Without this huge vessel.Together the grgantic cauldron When Hymir they put to sea in Hymir's boat. Slqmir wamed them that at Utgard there were gians even greater than he.) 201 . Two whales had to offered them a meal. relations uneasy Thor astonished the assembled company by eating two whole between host and guest quickly oxen byhimself. Hymir found them and of the waves. father of the war god trR. in Germanic mythologlr. theywere unable to see the top of its batdemens without pressing the crowns of Jlew through the nine worldscollecting their heads on the napes of their information Thq would thenJly bach to necks. which shows Thor to be an ineffectual suong man in the face of cunning spells. so deep that it could brew ale for all the gods. The race between Hugr and Thialfi was but one incident in this strange adventure.le Hymir. delighted godwho withhisglantcatchWen battledfuriously theboat. threatenedcapsize to thestrug. ("Dark One") was a frost HWtm grant and. and some frost gianrs attempted to follow him in order to regain the Thor baiting his colossalhook with rhe head of Htvttl4yor. the giant's cauldron.infear. mistaking it for avzrsthall. Hymir shookwith terror and tHoR were sent to fetch it When they anived at Hymir's hall. only to leam afterwards how its other end was in the sea. He also failed to empty a drinking hom.

who allowed the rain to fall. in Germanic mythology. which produced ltfe-ging apples Here. Svarul{heim. w6 the serpent son of about him. cosmic ITeeYGGDMSIL.bliuards and roanngwinds From hre the frost giants dtrutedblasts of wind to nip thebudsof spnng orJ-usrp. The loss of rhe apples ar first caused the gods ro become weak and old. Thiassi awaited hs prey.TANS) IOUNIE SCEIDUN was rhe crearor god of JUUnlt Finnish mythology and their in Germanic supreme deity. mphology.was one Among the Swedeshe was linown it of the nine worlds sheltered by the as Sto{unka. was caprured by the frost giant THIASSI. and so the goddess trustingly accompanied him into the forest. By threat of magic Loki to bring back he compelled Idun and her apples. that he encircled rhe earth. He was later giantessANGRBODA. settled gathered and found as a general fear of death on fugard. the land of the lighr elves. With its regarded as "lord of the herds".NORSE MyTHoLoGY IDUN. the home of the VANIR. or "Great Lord". where. washurled into the icyoceanby Odin Therehe grevvto sucha monstrous ske thathe encircledMdgard and threatened. others The were ASGARD. changed and carried The frost grant gave chase as an eagle. Loki then resrored Idun to her true shape and she gave magic apples to the ailing gods. had to promise ro sreal he the apples from Idun to securehis release. or over the sea. Then IOUNNOR INCTNORG Jrzl Bann SCC IDUN SCC TMGICLO\4R5 see BABAYAGA AESIR. was a snwt<wred the ocean edge. rymbolizng immonality and Jmility.r PENRo5EtSgO ByJ c ) skin. Verylittle is lcrown JOnUUNGAND. Here. kidnapped and brought ro AsGARD. and cold Niflheim beneath Yggdrasil's100ts. their minds began ro weaken. except thar the oak tree LOKI. thehome oJ thefrost wastelandon Jonrunelu gtrants. and the frost was sacred to him.1gg5) ayNlcx 202 . the saryt sonoJ Lohi. Midgard. also a supreme and FENRIR and nnt ODINananged for god. but a deiry of the sky and the these monsuous children to be air. A mountainous region of freezing cold. the the ocean. god of fire. which sugHe then threw Jormungand into gesrsa linkwith unopER-AKt(A. was. He took Idun and her apples in his claws and flew to JOTUNHEIM. rhe come on to the earth and be slain northernmost people of Europe. rhe land of the dwarfs. Loh rold Idun rhar he had discovered apples of much better qualiry gowing nearby.one branch of the gods. the god of poetry.rhe land of the frost glan6. possiblynear the Nonh Pole Itwu a rmlm of mtsts. Idunnor or Iduna. dtngling from Thor's ftshing line THE EDDA. Alfheim. but he was bumed to dearh by fires placed along the tops of Asgard's mighry walls. Jotunheim was variously described as being inside Midgard. Vanaheim. the WorM Seryent risesto afuit of ox head. Loki flew to Jorunheim ldun into her home. in the shape of an eagle. where he grew so long creator goddess of the lrpps. At lasr ODIN srrengrh his remaining Loh. When LoK.apps. the other branch of rhe divine family. shehands outher precious gJtsto the wer-youthful gods Jrom her inuhaustible cashet The mythic tradition oJthe golden apple. wirh blearyeyes and loose Ioutt guarded a Jabulousfruit tree. and was known as the Midgard Serpent. can beJound inboth ancient Greehand Celtic Cultures (luusrpqTlor.sailors throughout the ocenns. At IQro I(tnJunMELwas a srone MGNAROK Jormungand was ro god worshipped by the [.rnoru BFA:.the home of rhe I(NNNTTHILD SCC TRAGICLOVER5 Jonuuvcewo Qdt). rhe fire god. the land of mortals. Ukko's wife was Akka. rhe land of the dark elves. Nidavellir. ) 0uusrnenotFRoM PRosE I Z@ (nght). stronghold of LTTGARD. realm of the the unworthy dead. by THOR. HEL. the goddess who guarded the apples of youth. rhe home of humanhnd. brother of replaced by Ukko. (See also TREASURES AND TALISA. as a a nut falcon.On his retum ro ASGARDtherefore.(Seealso MGNARoK) Reindeerwere sacrificedto Kied I(e Jubmel as late as the sevenreenth was the land given century to ensure successin the JOTUNHEIM to the frost gians by oDIN and his hunt. She was the wife of BMGI. He seems to have been brothers at the Creation.

As the protector of bears. created the Jrom oJ the spittle thegodsHetravelled world gods withhts sense inspinng and mortals was Afterhis death blood his andwisdom to of used mahe mead inspiration a (IrrusrnenoN THE Eoon. He was killed by two dwarfs.Slr'lrn1 honeyfrom bq ond the highestheavm (Lrurrxeruru's MoTHER avA GnurN-IGr r FLq. (Seealso woRSE HEROES) KUIITRVO SPELIS SCC5ORCERY AND KVnStn was a wise man in Germanic mythology. At bear festivals hunters used to sprinkle their faces with an exrract of alder bark.+reR and Galar. he travelled the world and wherever he went people stopped what they were 203 . But his magician mother put his body back together again and restored him to life. Renowned for his great wisdom. who wanted his wisdom They mixed his blood with honey in order to make awonderful mead which gave the gift of poerry ro everyonewho drank it L-EB-OLN4AI ("Alder man") was a Lapp bear god. the VANIR and the AESIR.the god of the dead. His most dangerous exploit was an attempt to kill the swan of TUONI. many of his adventures involve the pursuit of women and he accompaniedvAnvavoINEN on ajoumey to the land of Pohja in search of wives. As a child.Nonsr MvrHoLocY LrurruxerrurN (abwe) was slain and dismembered duingone of his uploits But his maglcianmothr gatheredhimup and restoredhim toliJe Hue shecallsuryn a bee to bing lrfr. Leib-Olmai required certain prayers before he would allow any man to hll a bear. The Aesir then took the jar and Kvasir was made from the spittle. c 1890 ) doing to listen to him. he was bathed by his mother three dmes in one summer night and nine times in one autumn night to ensure that he would become a wise adult. cqNvAs. Failing to protect himself with magic. A carefree young man. r'|. grfted endowedwith Kvesln(nght). His name means "spittle" and recalls his creation when the gods spat into a jar to mark the end of conflict beween two branches of the divine family. he was tom apartby Tuoni's son and his remains were scattered in the river. ) FROM Pnosr I 760 with a talent for song. character a ww wondrous wisdom. ("Lover") was LgutNxnINEN one of the heroesof Finnish epic.

who coveted their gold. was a Jormidable foe Bang nather immortal nor invulnerable.plqedhis harp with hisfeet. cast into a serpent's pitwithbound hands. the Norse gods were heroic. the Norsemen fought with undiminished spirit. For the vikings. defuingdeathto thelast (Wooo c. the N ibelung brothers.while acceptingthe inevitabiliry of death on the field and doom at the end of the world. slnying giants with andrechless rage ffirtless ease Alongwrth someof the othergods. CANVAS. thq refusedto sunenderunder threat of death Hogni died laughing as his heart wascut out. 12TH cENr. Guvxrnexo Hocrr AeJ).NoRSE HERoES He MrcNcs were famed for their fighting spirir. facing doom at Ragnarokwith fighting spirit. the bravestheroes went to Valhallawhere they awaited the fated and fatal showdown at Ragnarok. Finnish heroeswere quite as determined and brave in their way. and Gunner.gnaroh. but also by a sroic fatalism.qnvtNc. c 1890) . after puttingup a Jtercefght and slnyinghisarchfoe. here. while agedVainamoinencould alwaysslip out of a dght comer by shifting shape.) T non (nght). death was not always final: Leminkainen had more than one life. After death. Armed with magical forces. Thor was destinedto die heroically at Ro.hefought with a fearless spirit. the World Serpent (rnonnNo THE GIANTS BY M E WINGE. supematurally strongandarmedwtth the maglcal Mjollnir.andhoarded his gold When sazedby AtIi.No less than the heroes.died gallnntly thoughnatherlived aJlnwless ltfe Drawn into the web of tragedy wovenbya cursednng thE sleuy the peulesshero Sigurd. though perhaps less grand and stoic. word-fame was everything.they battled with incantadons rather than force of arms. redeemingand surviving a hero's death.Their hardy heroism was doubtlessshaped by the crushing Nordic climare. DETAIL. facing death and doom with vigour and courage. For the Finns.

most the slewthe famous oJlceland'sheroes.and soughtvengeance his hinsmen (ruusrncrro. as Fafnrr slitheredacross his datly tnp to thefoul Jorestpool. by biting of a wolf s tongue. c 1900 syp ) Jor 245 .N wlsox. ) Slcutrlp rHE VoruNG (nght) prwedhis heroicstdtus by drawngJorth a maglcalsword thrust into the Branstoch Mh by Odin With this word he wonJame throughout Scandinavia.but alsoprovohedtheenvyoJ his brother-rn-law. tembledragon. Sigan who resolvedto slay all the Volsungs All ten sonswere tied to forest trees prq to the beastsoJ the Jorest OnIy .Nonse MvrHoLoGY Srcunp (above). Sigmundexapel.. hu lfe Jrom then on was bhghtedby the cursethat camewith the ill-Jated treasure 0LLlsrmrror AL-4N 1984 B' Lrr.Fafnir Armed wtth hisJather'sinvincible sword. thrusthis on sword rnto its belly Thebloatedcreature had grown increasingly monstrous shape in and character. the betterto guard hrs all cursedtreasure AhhoughSigurd'sheroicdeedwon himJame andfortune. Sigurdhtd tn a holein the dragon'sslime traclzand.

The fact that his paren$ were giants may help to explain his tendency towards evil deeds. in Germanic mythology. trickster and shape-changer. Through the branchestheywill see a new sun bum as rhe world ends and surs again " LtrmneslR see un 206 . His chief attribure. I NSNM SCC THELE5HY LnsovtK see rHE LEsFry LOODFAFNIR.lohihelpsOdinquietar raging thc il*orf. disappearing from his woodland home undl the following spring. where the gods held their daily assembly. LOKI. was a man who leamed the wisdom of the gods. (Iuusrwnot ry NrcrBar 1995 u. He I-oto helped precipitnte cycle to a of iolenceby callously slayng Ottafor hls Otter'sfatha. it will not even touch them. He visired rhe Well of uRD. when he would rerum wilder and noisier than ever. 1860 c ) In (nght) and her mate. l9l{. who "was tired of the string of days that unwound wirhout a knot or a twist in them". sometimes a tall as the tallest tree A jealousgnrdtan oJ hLslmJy realm. was his abiliry ro change size: he could become as small as a rnouse or as tall as the highesr tree Every October the Leshywent inro a hnd of hibemation.invohnghis bittn anv. Lifthrasir. and stayed in VALHALL{. It is an interesting mixture of commonsensical advice about good conduct and superstitions conceming the avoidanceof witchcraft. however.the end of the world. afrah green age age inwhich thq were destinedto repopularctheworWand so renav the human race. theyoungcouplecltmbed dmn and a nf:t^t dawned. which would rise from the sea like a volcanic island. Ygdrasil After theeanhhadbeat purged byfire andflood.olrtrr'sbrothcrs sc a weqingNorn. and their food will be rhe moming dew. also known as Lesovik and Lesiye. rhe doom of rhe gods. Hqe. was rhe Germanic fire god and son of the gians FARBAUTI and Laufey. somerimes Lopt. tooh shelterat the end of theworlil in the sunlitbranches oJ the cosmicashtree. whibat thetop. thoughhe appearedin the shapeoJa man. He was a mischief-maker.) Ltf and Lifrhrasir ("Life" and "Eager for Life") were the man and woman who were to hide in the cosmic ash tree YGGDMSIL al MGNARoK.NORSE MyTHoLoGY I Fsnr Qef). Toa??eaft dwarfs trasure. and grew progressively more evil until eventua\ rhe gods bound him in a caveundl the coming of nacruaRoK. Akhough human in form. ) THn LESHY.whichrwls omen an oJ doom QuusrunoN ry F yop Srrssnr. "The bellowing fire will nor scorch them. he lwed to lead tresrysers AStrAy 0[usrunoN By voN M ScHwtpo. Boredom was a problem for Loki. His myth comprises a retelling of the knowledge he gathered there. castno shadowwherehewalhedand could easily camoujage himself among hisJorest trees. ODIN's hall. was the Slavonic spirit of the forest who led travellers and hunters asray in the woods. he had a long green beard and casr no shadow. They were destined to survive this catastrophe and then repopulare a new world. sometimesas small as aleaf. spint of theforest.lohistole a fur.

if a male child was to be born. (See also MGNAROK) Lopr seeLoKr (which probably LUONNOTAR means "Daughter ofNature") was the creatorgoddessof the Finns. Without these maglc fruit. moon rnot avNlcxBrerr. gods continued to tolerate his presence in ASGARD. wtth hisface atposd to thefay drops of a snaltc's c 1870 venom 0[usrnnnourYD PE]rRosE. for insance.a primal goddas. ) Luorworen @elo. brought about the loss and rerurn of toul and her apples of youth. while Uksakka. feast Butwhen he anived atAEGIR's and began to torrnent everybody present with insults and sneers. Lolrr (abwe).NORSE MYTHOLOGY simply could not help plapng tricks and exposing the gods to danger.unnqout. Later she floated for cenuries on the cosmic ocean.with whom he had two sons. the tncluta god. was the hand of mEtnA. The price for the hammer's retum. Madder-Atcha was responsible for the soul and Madder-Akka for the body. vntt and Narvi. At the beginning there was only Luonnotar "all alone in a vast emptiness". Sarakkasupponed women during childbinh. however. its egsbroht andformed the urth and slE. whue shednful unnl an eagb built a neston her hnee Wat she acadentally upset the nat. grat restlrssin theheawns and sltppd into the cosmicua. who immediately attacked his brother Nawi and hlled him. But the goddess became excited and upset the nest. Loki was then placed in a dark care.. Then he was to emerge to lead the army of evil in their final battle with the gods. their patience came to an end.was atfrct just a pwful pranlutr. Odin located the fish and to mounted an e><pedition catch it. To escape their wrath Loki changed himself into a salmon. and the whites the moon. Their three daughters were involved with procreadon as well. When Thrym took out the magic hammer. Narvi's intestines were then used to bind Loki beneath the dripping mouth of a venomous snake. When Loki led Thor unarmed to the hall of the frost giant GEIRROD. the thunder god.JORMUNGAND ruler of the underworld: all fearsome representatives of the evil side of his nature. although it was often his quick-wittedness that afterwards saved them. In this dreadful prison. first to the giant ANGRBODA and then to SIGI?. Loh discovered. who lived undeqEound. Thor seized it and laid low all the frost grants present. the fertiliry goddess. lvlenoeR-AKIG and her male companion Madder-Atcha were. but becameso ilarh and twrstedtlllr. and gave birrh ro vAINAMoINEN. FENRIR.1995 and stnts Ouusrn ) 207 . the gods were subject to the ra\xages time of like everyone else. His son Vali was changed into a wolf. On occasion lohwas even prcpared to riskserious harm to his companion THOR. His monstrous children byAngrboda were ANd HEL./. Scatteredhagmentsof these eggs were transformed into the stars. undl one day a bird made a nest on her knees and began to hatch some eggs. toh tricked his friend because the price of his own release by Geinod had been delivery of the thundergod into his power. the god awaited Ragnarok. according to the kpps.n). Yet it was Loki who devised the novel scheme to get back Thor's magrc hammer after it was stolen by dwarfs and passed into the hands of the frost gianr TlIRrM. only the loan of weapons from the hndly frost giantess GRID saved the thunder god.tthe godsrealQedhewas to evil and resolved imprtsonhim l-ohi was amnlrrrlly bound to a ruh.Juksakka ensured that the baby changed from is originally female gender. The yolla became the sun. the divine couple who created humankind. He therefore persuaded Thor to go to Thrym dressedin Freyja'sclothes. looked after the interests of the new-bom child. Loki was manied twice. with the result that from the broken shells of the eggs the heavens and the earth were formed. Even after he brought about the death of oDIN's the son BAI-DER. stn. when Loki would meet his own end at the hands of. The child they made was then placed in the womb of its eanhlymother. Loki. the Finnish hero. From his hgh seat in Asgard. SeealsoJUMAr:{. Afterwards Luonnotar fashioned the continents and the seas.

the fertility goddess Dressed in Frefa's clothes and accomDanl . and appeared libations oJhemp oil Bowingto the eut. ) 1995 said to have been the child of a love affair berween Saule and pnRKUNo. she was an object of veneration up to the early years of the rwentieth century. or Menulis. fertiliry and resurrection. however. "ft's a pity I didn't come sooner. smeared the severedhead with herbs so thar it would never rot He then recited a charm over it to restore its power of speech [-ater. only by night. Magni and Modi togerher would inherit Thor's magic hammer. wth oil (Iuusrnenoru Nrcx ny Br. 1995) MIMIR. ("Moisr Earth Mother") was the Slavonic earth goddess Archaeological evidence suggests that her worship may have originated in the basin of rhe River Don as much as 30. the Germanic rhunder god. however. Odin gaveone of his eyesfor permission to drink at the well MJOt-l-NIRwas the magic hammer of the Germanic thunder god THOR Made by the dwarfs Brokk and Eitn. Men Sne Znurvewa invohedby Slavic the thunder god For this reason farmersathawest time Thq entered thar the moon god.Mimir's head was placed by Odin to guard a magic well under Mecm andhisbrother.west. Thor fell wounded ro the ground. stide across the root of the cosmic ree the sunlit Plain of lda at the dawn oJo YGGDMSIL To gain Mimir's wisdom. at the age of three years.s Arrxtr. rhe doom of the gods. was awise god sent by rheAEsIRro the VANIR order to seal the peace in after these rwo branches of the divine family tired of war.north and south. while Modi the children of Menu and Saule.I stole it The price for its retum was the hand of rRnY.000 years ago Believed ro possessrhe abiliry to predict the future and ro settle disputes wisely. eachtime soahingtheearth through the day. in shame and anger. fields at dawn andblessed earthwith the avoided his spouse. it was an instrument of destruction. ODIN.thq invohedthe dess was huppy to be seen all pnmal daty. in Germanic mythology.the frost grants That is why the gods were so worried when the frost giant THRy." Magni comrnented "lf I had met this gianr first. and brother of Modi Afrer his duelwirh HRUNGNIR. Magni proved strong enough to free his father Thor.after the world destruction truths unknown ro any other person". In Thor's hands Mjollnir was the gods' certain protection againsr their enemies. Thorshowed his gatitude by giving the young frost giant Hrungnir's magnificent horse.roER. when Russianpeasantwomen were still performing elaborate rires in order to summon her presenceto protect them from disease MNNUUS SCC MENU MENU. as fragmentsof whetstone had lodged in his. which comprised "many Jreshgreenage. ("Courage") Jollows behind (Iuusrnnrroru ny The Moming Star.p. Thor wetted himself when he noticed the clay gianr Mist Calf Insult was nearly added ro injury when. MJOLINfR Mert Syne Zevrye. the patroness of green snakes The of Rngnaroh Magni ("Mighty") swings Letts believed that the stars were Thor's sacredhammer. Golden Mane After MGNAROK. Modi.they cut off Mimir's head and sent it back ro rhe Aesir. he would be fallen to my bare fists " Akhough oDlN was rather put out by young Magni's inrervendon. was the Baldc moon god The sun was imagrned as the goddessSAULE. the strongest of rhe frost gianrs.head He was also unable to move because one of Hrungnir's lifeless legs pinned him ro rhe ground Even worse. was Jaur.qu. even rhough none of the gods had been able to shift Hrungnir's leg. while the sun god. Because the Vanir felt that rhey had been cheated. and the grantessJamsaxa.Nonse MyrHoLoGy MeCNt ("Mighry") was the son of rHoR.

Mist Calf was ani- mated by the heart of a mare. the day of and the end of the world. however. aJter The withhis thegods arrogance children chaiots weremadeto dnve theheavenly the across slE At leJt. they solved the problem of its illuand glowminadon by using sparl<s ing embers from the sun. and could onf be held by an iron gauntlet It was not just destructive. After doom MGNAROK. Thor hlled Hrungnir but wet himself at the sight of Mist Calf His human servant THIALFIwas less impressed. Waher and Rapid Goer. glou.ed end. moon oJHamdall's besidethe crescent By Br.qr-r. it was very slow-moving MJorrNtn QeJ). pull the larger sun 1995 Srrweno.the moon is drawn by Early All-Sw{t. Thor raised his hammer certain magic words and its legs were vulnerable to attack On the day of the duel. had a son and a daughter so handsome and beautiful that he called one Moon and the other Sun The gods were angeredby this comparison Odin snatched the brother and sister from Midgard and tumed them into constellations to guide the real heavenly bodies on their daily and nightly journeys acrossthe sly (below) hts named lovely MuruotrraRl angeing and children thesun moon. and swung his axe at the clay giant's legs When Mist Calf toppled backwards.the original frost giant. the in of the frost gian$. When Odin. carvedthe world out of the carcass of YMIR. MUNDTLFARI was a man who offended oDIN. single combat.Mundilfari. ) Bv GTENN chaiot (Irrusrpqrro. the thundergod. ) 1995 horn (IrrusrnenoN NrcK Nanna. the land of the frost giants. along with his brothers yILI and vE.whirlingpattems oJ Vihing art beautifuIlydepict the blazng qes oJthe god {srwenpENDANr.NoRSr MyTHOLOGY MtulR saws Odin a draughtfromhis wondrousFountain oJWisdom Thepnce demanded this pivilege was one q/e. He was made from the claybed of a nverby frost giants in order to tenify THOR. while two eagersteeds. a rymbol oJ the Jull moon.N and chanted to consecrate the ceremony.rymbolizng Thor's red-hot at the mallet thunderbolt. but it proved Though inadequate for the task into the creature towered the clouds. was a gigandc or Mist clay giant. who lived in Midgard.greater ision Odin's qe floated in the Jountain.but ako creativeand hallowedweddingsand births The acquisite. of Mjollnir passed to (See ownership Thor's sons MAGwI and Modi also TREAS URESAND TALISMANS) MOXKURALFI. for rymbolinngthe saciJiceof oneviu Jor another. Calf.oruNHElM. his fall shook. moon and stars. cENruRv) torH . before Thor strongest This occunedjust met HRUNGNIR.

the nvo branches of the two birds.1g3O) people honoured W layingaside iron het all tools weapons donning e and and festiv dress0uusrnrTroN Arxqtprn.she feet What Sludipiclzed dunng biannual her Neither fire nor flood could deter foundthatshehadwon*t)eet. Sacrifice by drowning was a pracdce also favoured by the ancient Slavs in eastem Europe. the consort of Dazhbogand morher by him of rhe stars.NoRSE MyTHoLoGY MYgSYefS was rhe moon deiry of Slavonic myth.the sea god. of hts Njord. bur age on fhe cosmos in some way. which was the lowest of the nine worlds. god. When peace was up and tree on an errand of insult. Quite possibly Tacitus was describing a local cult of FRafA. alone Auusn. where the dragon lived. others. Some raditions represent him as the cold.aldi.yono up to belw) lines wtththegods destined to survive the final cata. The name of the goddess may have meant "powerful one" because it refers to suength.) 2r0 . ) EvJAMEs 1995 and afterwards slaves who had helped in this ritual were drowned in Nerthus' honour. chariot hq was the dragon from its ceaseless quite feast. divine family. NenfnUS was a Germanic goddess. During these sacred journeys peacewas expected to prevail because "all iron was put away". Freyr and who were perched at the very top.when devouing not corpses. her image placed in an ox cart and attended by a priest. Someversions of the myths of .According ro him. Both Yggdrasil and Nidhogg were N. was the dragon lMng ar one of the three r00ts of the cosmic tree YGGDMSIT. she was an important morher goddess who had a sacred grove on a Frisian island.At a cenain lake the goddess bathed. smgod a oA Jmilityfestival with Bedeched Jlowen. Freyla came to live with the Aesir as When momentarily dred of the a sign of goodwill. The freezing misr and darkness of Niflheim.whose cult was described by the Roman writer Tacitus in the first centuryAD. Every spring the divine pair are remarried.have Jeet hu inspected Sll. Nidhoggwould some versions of the myth. baldheaded uncle of rhe sun god DAZHBOG. Myesyars is a In beaudful woman.asceRo. the gods and the end of the world.with passions opposite herwn. doom of obliged choose rhe to afutsbandJrom shape the Nrnrnus ides in a tiumphalprocession.Njord's own sister NERTHUS. dwelt in iq Nilheimand. tthabitually nibbled rootof the Ygdrasil.home of the gods. NIOHOGG. in Germanic myrhology. ripping NIOnO was rhe Germanic sea corpses apart and eadng them.tnoN BvJHuARD. suggest that Nerthus was sister and wife ro NJORD. but in the autumn Dazhbogleaves his bride and only retums to her after the cold winter months have passed. o gruesome dragon. to drawn t*o hafm. and mother of Freyja and rRna.8ru cnvruRy. According to tasteof dead flesh. stag tree a browsingon thelearcs Ygdrasilis in of its turnnippedby Nidhog rejectingthe hJe deathstruggle therootof the and at UnNeTSe (Wooo crnvrNc. was Nlpnocc kJt). whichsymbohzed ing on the vast and inexhaustible andso she soon to hr chilly tooh hilk W pimal motherhood abundance and The supply of dead.thecosmic Here. a member of the divine race of Between mouthfuls he would send VANIR and father of the fenility gods the squinel Ratatosk the cosmic FRELR f'nrrye. was who W strophe of RacrueRoK. mother of Freyr and Freyja was presumably hoping to inflict dam. At regular inrervals Nerthus travelled inland along a recognized route. for the agreed between the AESIR and the agile animal periodically disturbed Vanir. Njord. an eagle and a hawk. the gnaw at the root of Yggdrasil iself.

too cold and barren. Njordlwedhis sunlit coves and creehs. he aided shipsin distress. encountered in Greek myrhologr. homeof his sacred seagullsand swans Popular with sailorsandfishermen. were the Germanic fates. ) called Urd by the name of Wyrd. in Germanic mythologr the Greek and Roman concept of the Fates spinning an individual length of yam for each mortal life does not appear THg NOnNS. the land of the frost gianrc. while Skadi disliked of shipbuilding of Noatun the noise and bustle around Njord's hall nighrs in each place they decided to live apart Skadi went back to her favourite pastime of hunting on shs and the weather-beatenNjord retumed to a life at sea The apparendy unbridgeable gap between them probably reflecs more than personaluste Njord was certainly seen as a god of fertility. they were seen as three sister goddesses: Klotho ("The Spinner").1 995 IAMES since the Aesir disapproved riage between brother Nerthus of mar- and sister. but alsowealth and good fortune in the form of land and sons Skadi's associationswere quite differenr. fu in the Germanic mythic tradition. akohnown as the Nordic of Fates. The as well in Asgard After nine humankind Anglo-Saxons 2tt . blo. 1995 BYJAMES lrorn.N"Jonocalmedthe stormsraisedby the tempestuous Aeglr A gentle soul. which was situated under one of the roots of the great cosmic ITeeYGGDMSIL.whileyoungVerdandi of the andvaled Shuld symbolizes present. who chose him on the basis of his beautiful feet However. wiseold Urd reads from the scroll thepast. the coupie could not agree about where they should live Njord found Skadi's home in JOTUNHEIM. or Nomir. where nothing was able to grow or prosper at all. The original undoubtedly Well of Urd.decidedthe destintes both gods and mortak ds thq wove the Web of Fate Here.the Three Sisterson "the blasted heath" obviously owed somerhingro rhe Noms A clear parallel of the Noms are the Moerae. Njord's second marriage was to the frost giantess SMDI. and in Engiand there was maintained a belief in rhe tremendous powers of rhe three sisters long after the arrival of Christianity For instance.v favourable windsand causedsummer showers (Irrusrnenoru By ALEXAwoTn. as of It was believed decided gians the destinies and dwarfs. Lachesis ("The Decider") and Atropos ("The lnevitable") lt would seem more than possible that the Noms were also originally thought of as spinners Howevet. or "Fates". her did not accompany husband and children to fugard.) . in Shakespeare'stragic play Macbeth. her clasps closedscrollof thefuture (lu-usrnarroru ALrx. god. was the site where the gods heid their daily Noms assembly known by ("Present") The rwo name other are Verdandi and Skuld ("Future") that the of Noms gods. since he provided to those who worshipped him not only safe voyagesat sea. there was hardly any scope for humankind Nonrqtn seerHE NoRNs Tan Nonrys. however She came from a range of frozen mountains. the goddesses Nom was The URD ("Fate") of destiny. atleft. where heavy clouds masked the sun and harsh rock made the ground as barren as death [n her wild and unforgiving land.

were at risk as they might easily be trapped on earth if caught without their plumage.ffi: heroine.:'ffi.On the battlefield. Swan-maiders.sprayingdewandhoar frostwer a .and often fell in love with mortal heroes. meting out fare in the name of Odin. li e b e l u n g e l i e d . fallen Valkyrie.TLKYRIES ALKvRIES wERE oRrcrNALLy srNrsrER sprRrrs slaughter. of dark angelsof death who soaredover the batrlefieldslike birds of prey. especially. virginswith golden hair and snowy arrns who served the chosen heroes everlasting ff. Ide ahzed Vallcyries were infinitely more vulnerable than their fierce predecessors. Chosen heroes were gatheredup and borne away to Valhalla.Brynhild or Brunhild. w h e r e t h e n .THE V. Moururro Verryrrrs Aeft) soaredoverthe battlefeld throughstorm clouds lying on steeds Their prarly mountspersonifiedthe rain clouds.the heavenlyabode of Odin's ghostly army. In later Norse myth.mead and meat in the greathall of Valhalla. they soared over the host as lovely swan-maidens or splendid mounted Amazons. the Valkyries were romanticizedas Odin's shield-maidens. This far more appealing n d I . was a beautiful.

. i t t ..il.lirrrit.it j. . l . j \i. r . . 1 . 1 1 /1 ' 1 11 .'. l t / / .i!: rrl. . . l l t . i . l ' t . r . \ ( l / l r r i t l l l i i t .'. t r t l i i . 1 1 1 1. t r l . l l . . t r . r 't s L it r r / 1 I / r r r ( rt1... r \t tir. 1 { t 1 . 1 t ' t' \ / ) l ll i r r ' r r i .1 . l i 1 . . ) / 1 ' . . ' / t g / i t . L i r r t t L it t l f i l l r . l.it lltt lrl t\tl\ 1r. .. t i /1. t l t t i i i r r \ \ \ i t r .l .. i i ' 1 1 i 1 i 1t i . r 1 . .i iii( .l f 1 . l . i 1 l . i ' .ilJ i\. l l . r / ./ 'lrrriri. l l l r . /".. q 1 r i . . r 1 l .'.r .. . .Non. ) l . : 1( . ' l r . 1 rr t . i 1 1 l. t . : / r . . f . . . r r i l r i \ \ (( f . 1s.l ipl. r i r i . i r \ l l ( r / 1 ..iill ltl . . 1i r . l l l . 1 ...J 'lrt. 1 1l t t L r i r i l I f l t .. i i . l r .l\t 1 1' l r 1 1 1 . 1 1 r 1 1 . r 1 1 ... i l l. . l l {l . (\ littr\fll.. / .iir.:l.1'. i \ r I l / l it.1tti I t i l . .. r t . / t i t t t Ir. l r i f l r rr t .sE MyTHOLOGY r 1 1I r t t t . l .1' \ \ tiltri.r r. 1 1t l t . r \ .rlt r \ i I / i i r i r l l l ! ' r / 1 (. .. 'r i r .t1L/l/tt 111' r . lr. ' i t . \ . i t . t r . ) r t t i . r t ( ) i l t r tr l t .l r r r ttLlL/\.' l r ' \l r l l . i i . . 1r . t i .ilL{Lllsr ' 1 ... . . f 1 1 ri 1 . . r 1r 1 i . r l l r .. q i t . .{\r /. / r .. i L t r i l L l r l i l l . . l i . r s f ' r r r i . 1 r .lLr))i()l 1 1 1 .. ' .il rlrrr: \r l/lr.rr! /il' :lt. r r q . l rtnrlt.. . 1 1 1 1 .r/ iiit '. . t l i' . f ' l / t t r I / . l lr( /)l \() rlll{( il I J t ' 1 g i . q.

the son of BOR and grandsonof nuru He was particularlyfavouredby the Vilcngs a n d ro se to p ro mi n e n ce in the eighth and ninth cenrunes These seafarers raiderswere attracted and b y Od i n 's l o ve o f b a trl e as the "lather of the slain".rvrs.nii t^.NonsE MyrHoLoGY OPIX. bur Odin was looked upon as the insprration for hard-bitten warriors He alonehad rhe power ro inspiremen in battle to a stateof berserkragein which rhey fearednorhing and felt no parn The terrible berserkers would rush naked into the fray. theWtldHuntsman. immense hall in rhe an diwne forrress ascaRo. the darh omens doom (THe DHuNr wl oJ oF ODIN. biting the edgesof their shieldsin a maddened frenny Odin's name meanssomethingahn [o "fury" or OorNQep. however. onhrs oJ srrs uunite.i th"nno Hi. while at hisJett crouchhis pet wolves.ved was said Lo prresi. as in the battle-frenzyexhibited by rhe Irish hero Cuchulainn That Odin becamerhe foremost god shows how important wartare always was in Germanic tradition It should be noted.) 214 .I870.hrrh t^.theavbornen(ws reporters.irb. ry I'NAruo. the oneof e.that he did not embody martial esctasy himself. Norsemen fanciedthq heardOdin's phantom idrrs sweep across sIry. whom rhe Romanshad identified as the sky god of rhe north European peoples Tir rerained his interest in war. for in VALHALIA. rather he inspired it in a devious manner Odin was ever (below). lB72 ) mighrywatch-tower overloohrng ntne the worlds Hovenng nearbyare his tteless rayens. was the chief god of Germanic myrhology. Gen and Frekr.Je er gocJ erv. Huglnn and Muninn. ghostli'hunt throughthe stotmymidnight slry In the roar and rumbleof thestorm clouds. alsoknown as Woden or Wotan. OorN as ieudstheheratchostcn c.omcnsot'good luch (Onr^.E BuRNI-/r. ("glorious dead") Ar the EINHE(/AR rhis penod it seemsrhat Odin drsplaced TtR. ar c .thelughest gods.n< n "madness" It indicatespossession. ctNves.

Just as the cycle of Germanic mythologystarted with a cosmos awash with the blood of the original frost giant YMIR. wife in Asgard. even being regarded as a shortcut to Valhalla. Among those said to be HODR. He gained insight in another way by hangrng himself for nine days from YGGDMSIL. This heyday. monstrous offspring of the fire god roro and the frost giantessANGRBODA Besideshis authority over the battlefield and the glorious dead.beJ edivinginto riors slain in battle was the only in helmet policy he could adopt under the the Jor Jray Armed battle eagle slE. fu the oldest of the gods. and v. But during the Vikings' wolf watches the halls of the gods". MGNAROK) OF RINGS POWER: OorN (abwe). Odin took the place eleventh century. These Einhe4ar armed hisinJallible which in were desperately needed for the andhiswondrous g Draupnir.when Odin and his brothers vtt andvr.the doom of the gods. For Odin's love of wisdom was so profound that he was prepared to sacrifice himself to plumb its depths. The great Viking raid of 842 on Nantes in north-western France can thus be seen as the outcome of a barbarouspledge to the god. prior to the end of the world that would come at Ragnarok his In addition to FRIGG. carved the world of men out of his dead body. though.he tunic. while his lost qe. Gathering to Valhalla heroic war.His only consolation was the foreknowledge that his resurrected son Balder would be worshipped in his stead in a new age and a new land which would rise from the sea. symbolizngthe is constant threat of RecrueRoK.sword-age" a violent interlude . a god of vision. Ragnarok. with doom of the gods. Most of the ciry's inhabitants were slain and hanged naked or clothed from trees. Shifty-eyed and flaming-eyed he might be. rhey had tolerated the growth of evil. His conflicting negative and posidve aspects are indeed very similar to those of the Hindu god Shiva. the first-bom son of Bor. his sonswerc THOR. Violent times were Harald to his death. When asked passingasVihng colonists settled down as peaceful farmers and about such withdrawals of luck. beganwith the death of Odin's son Balder and the realization by the gods that in Loki. Odin was often ponrayed as a grey-bearded old man with one eye. Odin had many other wives. gave Odin greater wisdom and set them at each other's than anyoneelse. the oJhis final battle on the vIGRID Plain. at the close of the of the hng's charioteer and drove Viking age. There was nothing that Odin could do to prevent the catastrophe.sacifced one qe Jor a draught of Mimir's Fountain qe oJWisdom His single symbohzedthe radiant all-seang sun.ANVAs. where the gods were predestined to gush out their own blood. It is possible that the obvious throats" so that their vassalswould wade through torrents of blood on parallel between this myth and the the battlefield. Gungnir. scene. because he had cast an eye into MIMIR'swell in retum for a drink of its "immense wisdom". instructed in mctics by the god and Odin's own worship appears to granted manyvictories. the floatingin Mimir's well. was rymbol pwu andwealth c c. he was treated by the other gods as their father. VALKTRIES. Odin's own ravens HUGINN and Muninn flew about and then "whispered into his earsevery scrap of news which they saw or heard tell of" The birds' names mean "thought" and "memory" respectively Becauseof his wrsdom and his knowledge of events. Odin kept himself informed about the affairsof the nine worlds with two faithful ravens As Vihngs at sea sent out ravens in search of Iand.signtJied full moon Odin hung himselfJrom Ygdrasil. tolearn the the cosmic ncurl c 1950 ) secrets the dead (Bnoruzr oJ 215 .Oow belm). BALDER. Odin was a god of magic and wisdom. 1875) where nearly all would fall in a (Opru's Lrrve-rnKNtc ByF LEEKE. hanging formed an important part of Odin worship. struggle berween the gods and the frost giants Odin himself was to be the hlled by the wolf nr'ruruR. the god of [ire.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY ready to stir up strife.qu. and he fathereda number of children. and on one voluntary death. so the final scene was to be a batdefield. and his subsequent resurrection by means of occasion commanded the fertility to goddess FREUA "find rwo kings magic. Odin was oppressed by the approach of Ragnarok.lt was "an axeage. The Danish King Crucifixion gave Christianity a Harald was supposed to have been head-smrt in northern Europe. ln his final have gone into decline in the early battle. the great destroyer-saviour of Indian mythology. in a timelessbattle or s e n clasphiswtJ Io gngly.the andblue spear. his face hidden bya hood orabroad-brimmed hat. the cosmic tree. (See also rHr AND SORCERY SPELLS. Odin used to reply that "the grey traders. treeJor nine dEs. but Odin also had a strongly posidve side to his character as the most learned god.

seehingprooJ of Ottar's hingship seer The imparted Ottarhis to withsome Memory to help Beer familytree himrecite correctly a contestfor it in the throne(lu-usrnarroN Arcxeuorn. whereas at Romowe in Prussia. wearing a turban. was the Baltic thunder god. known as Perkunasin Lithunia. saying that whoever owned them would be destroyedby rhem Loh put the ring on his own finger and retumed to Hreidmar with the gold There was enough ro cover the whole skin. (t utrurroN Nlck (which probably PrnxUNO meant "striker"). he took it The wamor caughr the goddess's awaywhenever he had a desire ro attendon through grand sacrifices tasrehuman blood Ar some point He buih a srone altar and tumed ir before the advent of Christianity into glassby rhe consranrhear of Patollo seems to have taken on a the fire he used in preparing his more pronounced role in respectof bloody offering Fref a transformed the dead. home of the gods. and the the moon god vrruu. and was said ro be a disunr Baltic region He bestowed good descendantof the hero SIGURD fortune and.hewas to easy prEJorInhi whocaveted otter's the Jtne BY Br-qrc. ) By 1995 JAMES Orrrn was turned anottu byhis into dinner. the idendfied him with rhe Devil.he Jathutocatchfshfor nibbles salmon a withhisqes closed to avoid seeinghis dinner dimintsh each with mouthful Blind theworld. She even used the disguised Ottar as a mounr PrnxoNIS see pERKUNo Ottar may have been a leader of a warrior band. He was obvrously OTTER. Prnuu seepERUNU PfnUNU. sun goddess. It is of considerable interest. Vladimir 216 .NoRse MyrHoLoGY Andvari tried to conceal. He was the chief god and a creator god. a was rhe human lover of horse and a cow Offen FREYA. he also be given a ring which not unlike the Germanic rrio appearsin a surviving myth about SAULE.rhe rhunder god THoRand the fertiliry god FREYR were revered. Perkuno and potRIMPo. magic. the moon chosenot to appear in the sky with the sun becauseof Perkuno. was the Slavic thunder god. a lover pleasing to Freyla who shared rhose fallen in battle with Odin. therefore. rhe ruler of Kiev who was later raised to rhe sainthood. so Loh was compelled ro hand over the ring as well.with a fiery face and a curly black don The otter's flayed skin was to beard. connected with rhe Slavic god was the son of rhe magician-farmer PERUNU. Unfortunately. Whereas the sun goddess carried on as if nothing had happened and conrinued to show herself to all humankind during the day. and the curse passedto Hreidmar. PnfOfJ-O was the Bakic war god. His sacred objects were the skulls of a man. the one-eyedgod of battle. although Perkuno was rhe HREIDMAR When rhe fire god rOrcr standard European god of the killed him by mistake. Their love-child was rhe Moming Star. angry-looking middle-aged man Hreidmar demanded compensa. "howling and foaming in frennl. in Germanic mythology. Here. This would explain why him into a boar so rhar she could Christian missionariesimmediately keep him with her in ASGARD.lefr a uail of terror and leaped like wrldfire over land and sea". Germanic fertiliry godthe Patollo was the chief god of rhe dess. Frqtjarides him to theseer Hyrdla. like Odin. After living rhe qpical life of a Slavic prince.Piorun in Poland and sometimes Perun. for he had storrn He was depicted as an taken the shape of an orrer. Perkons or Perkonis in Latvia. Perunu's supremacy was ended byVladimir. inspiration and che dead He was depicted as an old man with a long green beard and dearh-like pallor. According ro rhis tale. and insisted that have possessedthree main gods. as quick to anger as the giant-killing Germanic thunder god. There'the war god ODIN. beardless god Potrimpo was the Baltic Freyri grim Patollo was the Baldc Odin: and the Baltic Thor was Perkuno. Andvari cursed both the ring and the gold. Frqja Here. An order of priess is known be covered inside and out with to have mainrained a perpetual fire gold Loki succeededin taking as as part o[ Perkuno's worship much gold as he needed from rhe Bahic mythology appears ro dwarf ANDyARI. Menu made himself visible only by night. In the myth ir is suggestedrhar he is related ro rhe berserkers. PgnxoNS PnnxuNAS seepERKUNo seepERKUNo worshipped at Uppsala in Sweden. waniors who. excepr flor one whisker. next to nothing of Baltic mythology has survived. that Perkuno Orrnn was disguised a boar his as by divine lover. wirh numerous wives and misresses. At Kiev in Russia he had an important temple until the tenth century. who had an affair with Saule. apart from the names of gods and goddesses. ) 1995 Ju.Baltic peoples gaveworship ro PAT)LL). the equivalent of Germanic ODIN. known as pyerun in Russia. The young. A late account of the Balts even supposes a migration from Sweden in the sixth cenrury.

in Croatia Peruna Dubrava. wanderedwer as the earth. was burned in his honour (lLLUsrMiloN ay Nrcx BE/. Jlashes lightning his (llrusrnerroru By IAMES ALExANorn. In Russianfolklore the memories of Perunu's great skill with the thunderbolt can doubtlessbe found in stories that tell of dragon-slaylng and other supematural deeds rhat required enorrnousstrength PERUNU PTONUN SCC was the Baltic god of POTTUPO fertility and the equivalent of the Germanic fertility god FREYR.young on Potimpo.names still indicate In Slovenia there is Perunji Ort.Nonsr MvrHoLocY "rired of the desire forwomen" and sought a newway of living He sent out ambassadors to witness the religious ceremonies of both the Catholic and Orthodox churches. It seemsquite likely thar Thor provided the native Slavic thunder god with a developed mythology. it is hardly surprising that there are obvious parallels berween Perunu and THOR Oleg was referred to as a "wizard". dancing in a magic circle. crownedwith Iruitful wheat. Prnxrno can be seenherendingwith his divinecompanions: theleft. 1995 ) Elsewherein Europe the Slavic peoples also revered Perunu.he appearedwith a silver head and golden moustncheHe was transjormedinto St Elijahwtth the arival of Chistianig.. the "Rus" owed more to north-westem Europe. nv 1995 orrusrpcnoN NrcxBFr''ts.. secretary to the Greek general Belisariusin the sixth century. for the esmblishment of the Russiansrare resulted from Viking trade and settlement on its greatrivers. as place. Prior to this conversion in 988 though. with though he was also associated rivers He was depicted as a happy young man without a beard and crowned with ears of grain PERUNU PYENUN SEC ".u. next. bombardedthe lands he oJthe wrchedwith hailstorms The oah. as well as those of the Jews and Pnncnvuroamedthe tkundery sly onhrs milktone. afertility god. ) Moslems. With this Germanic influx.::i 217 . I 995 ) PERL. in Bulgaria Perin Planina. since surviving details of Perunu's worship suggest that he was originally believed to be an aid to agriculture. the Slavs worshipped above all the god of lightning. Whirling and drinhng seem to have been important in his Russian worship.jnshing shaftsof lightning Jr om htsthunderbolt Inhis efiig atKia. and in Poland Peruny as well as Piorunow According to Procopius. naked and decked with flowers.TNU. whilehis hornedturban recallshis sacred cow Perhuno.at right. chasing awayclouds and meltingthe snow A god with a socialsense. lndeed. The Viking leader Oleg had captured Kiev in 882 and raised its status to "mother of Russian cities". and sacrificedcatde and orher animals to him. his sacredtree. veteran Patollo bears a shull rymboliztnghisffinity withwar and death. rainmaking ceremonies are known to have involved a chaste girl. His choice fell on rhe Bfzantine form of Christianiry and thereafter the Russians and the Greeks shared the same form of Chrisdan worship. spreadingsummer sun.

whileThor slays monstrous serpat. There he tutored the young hero SIGURD and urged him to overcome Fafnir. Hamdall. "has such terror appeared as rhis we have now I RecxnRox (abov was e) ed foreshadow by a chillingFimbulwinter Soland Mani grat. fair and green" Before the batrle rwo humans. Though usually imagined as the watchman of the gods.According to Rig's myth. Andvarinaut. a new world was desdned [o "rise again our of the water. while with rhe fire god LOKIand the frost gians fought the "unworthy dead" from riEr (the Germanicnetherworld).Lohiwrestles thebnght At with god. whose onslaughr on westem Europe is still the stuff of legend Once they understood the effectivenessof the standhogg. then. Fenrir. while under the spell of RHTNT MruONNS SCC NATURE a cursed ring. among them Odin's sons VIDAR and vALI. Thor's sons Modi and MAGNI.rhe short." Alcuin lamenred. and the noble or chieftain.a sword-age" It was a rehearsalfor the "wind-age and wolf-age before the world is wrecked" Ahhough Christianiry did evenruallycome ro the Germanic peoples of norrhem Europe. the world though dyngJrom Jatal its Jormungand. as Alcuin remarked in the eighth century.ery host (lLLUsrMTroN BYJAMES ALFxANorn. which SPIRJTS made them covet their father's gold While Fafnir turned into a RIG was the name assumed by the dragon in order to protect his gold. pale with fear. LIF and Lifihrasir. or "hrg". and his brorher HONIR. The Last Judgemenr exercised their minds during the MiddleAges It maywell have been that behind the Nazis' resolve ro fight on in World War Two lay a folk memory of Ragnarok RNN SCC NATUM SPIRITS RECIN and his brother FAFNTR RTNUER SCC HMIDMAR slew their father. "an axe-age. Germanic god unuoeu when he Regin settled down as a smith in created the three categoriesof men: the royal Danish household. "no one is free from fear" ln 793 the British offshore monasrery of Lindisfarne was sacked and Sr Cuthberr's church was spatteredwrrh the blood of the monks "Never before in Britain. the free peasanr or harl. sharp shore-raid againsr the ncher lands ro rhe west and south. the god once approached the lowlydwellingof an old couple. Regin then plotted to murder Sigurd. and BALDER who came back from the dead Ragnarokheld a grear appeal for the Vikings. andboth diein the gods conflict(lrrusrRenoru ALD<ANDER. known as jarl. yenom left. plus the fearsomewolf rETRIRand the sea monsterJORMUNGAND There was nothing rhat rhe chief god Odin could do to prevenr rhis catastrophe His only consolation was the foreknowledge thar Ragnarok was not the end of the cosmos After he had been killed by Fenrir. ByAMEI I 995 ) J suffered at the hands of rhe heathen " Bu[ for rhe Vikings ir was like Ragnarok. equally as corrupted by the curse as his brother.a final batdewould be fought berweenrhe gods and the frost giants on the vIGRtD Plain On the side of ODrN and the gods were ranged rhe "glorious dead" who had fallen in battle and were raken to live in VALHALIA. However. THOR had been overcome by Jormungand. the magician HREIDMAR. their preoccupationwith a cosmic carasrrophedid not fade altogether. had taken shelter in the sacred rree yGGDMSILand they emergedafrer rhe camagewas over to repopulate the earth Severalof the gods also survived. who inhented rheir father's hammer. he reckoned without the young hero's insight: Srgurd was forewamed by the birds and killed Regin first the slave or thrall. Heimdall was also idendfied with Rig. Odinwrestles with thesnarlingwolJ. blizzards swept down touteredaver Jrom the pealx and icebergs thefrozen earth Lohi brohe Jree from his bondsand set sailwith thef.Nonsr MyrHoLoGy RACNAROK was the doom of rhe Germanic gods Afrer a terrible winter lasdng rhree years.scanning the horizon for the Iinal frost giant attack at Ragnarok. which he did But. and mosr of the orher gods had died in the mutually destructive encounter with the frost giants. 218 . 1995 ) RAGNARoK's warraged the on Aef) iq Plainof Vignd Hue.

Rigwas given coarsefood to satisfi his hunger and a place in the bed berween them when itwas time to sleep. who {ew up to be a natural farmer Here. and girls called Prettyface. Jarl could use bow. Husbandman and Smith. sunbumed arrns and a big nose Their many children included boys like Noisy.who had turned himselJ into a dragonso that he could t2rHcENruRy guard his gold NvooocARVrNG. and she bore him twelve sons One of rhese learned magic so well rhat he could prevent forest fires. Rig stayed three nighs and gave them good advice Nine months afterwards Edda bore a son. control storms and cure the sick lt was said that he excelled even Rig in understanding and almost became a god The implication is that in his person he combined the roles of pnest and king The myth of Rig sheds light on the structure of Viking society In con[rastwith the Celts. Thrall.weighed down with generations of hard labour Rig visited a second house.in battle 2r9 . a drudge with crooked legs. gave good adviceand departed after three nights Nine months afterwardsAmma bore a son. the orher main rribal people of pre-Chrisdan Europe. Karl andhis w{e. he could classesmen.1995 Bv ) god. the sturdy free peasant. but he was strong Thrall took as his wrfe an equally ungainly person. One day Rig rerurned and greeted mortal child. Fatty and Beanpole From these ill-favoured children descendedthe thralls.can worhing theirJrurtful land be seen (lrrusrnatrrrruNrcK Brerr. FaJnir. freemen jarls earlsHereRigsups withaged rustrcs their in seashorehut. thick fingers.seizing booty and distriburing treasureto his free followers At last he married Erna ("lively"). as a serpent's When he grew ro visiting people Jatheing three manhood. Jarl rode through the world. long heeis and bent back. swollen lcruckIes. Sigurdslew Regln'sbrother. was bornlabourer Jather wrsdom and relling him how to claim his lands In obedienceto the oJ the serfs (lr-rusrnerroNBvNrcK Bzarr. farmhousewhere entertained Amma by he was hospitably and Afi Rig stayed threedaysand Jor a Jathered fine sturdy.karls oJ ride and swim and hunt experrly and or . fighting and slayrng. accompanied by fine conversation and dnnk. the enslaved labourers of the oppressed class Eddar's son Thrall himself perfecrly sums up the back-breaking toil of his oppressedclass. its and the or or spear. Amma spun a thread Once again Rig shared their table and bed.short nails. namedKarl. thralls sufs. Maiden and Capable Together they ran farms and were free A third dwelling Rig stayed at was a splendid hall belonging to Fadir and Modir ("farher" and "mother") While Fadir attendedto his bow and arrows. Jarl. mythoiogy AsJulius Caesar the ancient Germanshad no equivalent of the druids and cared lirtle for ntual They found religious significance in the depths of forests But the Romans. were in no doubt about the Germanic love of warfare and the role of the armed retainer.Nonsr MvrHoLocY ing "daughter-in-law") and rheir children included boys named Strongbeard. a fair and wise noblewoman. Modir saw to her own looks and clothes After a large meal.the swordwasso strongand sharp that it split the iron anvil in two With it.ra had alreadylost a priestly classby the time we encounter their noted. as well as girls such as Laz1bones. who was fair-haired and handsome. and later the Vikings'victims. imparting ganngwith pndeathisJirst who o and Thrall. Snor. Jarl as his speciai son. Afi and Amma (literally "gandfather" and "gandmother") The well-dressed pair were spinning and weaving: Afi prepared a loom. wrth rough skin. ) Rtc nextvisiteda thnJq. Roughneck and Horsefly. 1995 ) Ai and Edda 0iterally "great-gandfather" and "great-grandmother") After introducing himself as a lone wayfarer.with a bright cheek and an eyeas piercing Rtcwandered the throughout earth. Gram Once mended. Rig slept between his well-off hosts He stayed three nights and gavegood advice Nine months afterwards Modir bore a son. rhe Germanic tribes of and northem Europe Scandinar. Karl.sword and shield. dirty feet. who was red and fresh and brighteyed IGrl took to wrfe Snor (mean- RrctN reforgesthe shardsoJSigurd's wondroussword. who was black-haired and ugly.blue-qed boy. warrn and better fumished Inside he encountered an industrious couple.

developed his skills over a lifetime of search and sacrifice. he learnt rhe secrers of the dead and restored himself ro life. the heroes of Finnish myth were often gifted from birth with asrounding magical powers and arcane wisdom. the arch-sorcerer. clad in a blue mantle and slouch hat . was a born sage and sorcerer. bur also by dwarfs and some privileged mortals.stffid with a rochwhich shattered family hntJe his times Norwegian kings forbade people ro In response.. much like a morml shaman. d toftured soul. Although disringuished heroes. Odin. Ever thirsry for wisdom and power.cAN\. Llsually women. Finnish sorcerers were so famous that in medieval Kurrrpvo cursesllmannen'swichedwtJewho had tauntedhim bqond endurance. Equipped with a repertoire of sacred songs. Vainamoineh. Cnme (THF.SORCERY AND SPELLS oRCERY AMoNG THENonsrMEN was a unique and precious art practised essentially by Odin and rhe Vanir deides of nature. such as Sigurd.unlovedJrombirth. he wandered the nine worlds as a vagrant. tumedher gentlecowsinto bearswhichdevouredher themilhing he at s a i l t o F i n n m a r k f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f Kullewo. the Finns penetrated to the roors of life. punishedhisenemies he bqtondtheir consulting magicians. After hanging himself on the World Tiee. glvinghim a dry loalJor hts lunch. they usually lacked any magical powers.KULLL-nVO ByA GALLEN-KALLELA. respondedto the world'ssleightswith distortedmalice Grftedwith powuful sorcery.The wise wtzard.while debonair Leminkainen was bathed as a baby ro imbue him wirh wisdom and sorcery.As. By contras[. c 1850) . gathering and garnerirg every snippet of information he could find. Cunsr or. were blessed with magical weapors.

was after thetalisman. l c t . v t e r 1852 ) doomed Kurrrnvo (above). 221 . Vatnamoinen TheSampowas brolzen its gatheredsome fragmentsand partly restored power ( D r . ptpingloudly onhis cowhorn. setout 0n his last journq. loveand intelligenceOdin quichly learnt all that Freyja surpassed couldteachhimand. cANVAs.she for feared her maglc Withher spells and controlhis wrll Whenshe memory a erase person's Sigrd her maglcmead. the Vanir in maglc arts ln later myth.N : ' g n 5 g : M Y . i :H o L o G Y (above)fendsot'Jthegnffin perched his on VarruaiuornreN Louhi. ewr thirsry Jorhnowledge. Jrom birth.QueenoJthe Nrebelungs. who had tumed shrp Themonsterwasthe sorceress.as predrcted the brrdswhose mysteiously (li r 1920) B)IJ songheunderstood I t/. c 1850) Fnrl7a (nght) was renowned her maglcal crafts. the A RrrucoF FInE (far left) enctrcled ValLeyne. and practitilners forehnowledge power overliJeand death.srmrr()N THF.along for l. r . sleep in protectingher an enchanted from all but the to bravest OnIy Sigurddared the Jieryctcle of Jlames win spiit camed him through' the sleepingbeauryHrs fearless by unharmed. c . was Gruuulro QeJt).his mother'sBlachie oJ ablastedstretch dogrunningbehindEn route hepossed hrs greenwherehe had unwittingly despoiled long-lost the bemoaned maiden's sister Here the meadow grasses weightof guilt and a terible fate Feelingthe crushing Kullemoeventuallythrew himselfon liJetimeoJ bitterness. Frqja wasrdentiJied oJ with ldun. r p .the bird She into u metalhc herself Sampo Justas sherearedto stnhethefinal blow. .A(ER. and nner learnt theway of deniedlovethroughouthis lit'e things {xuttERVCl ByA GaLLrN-KeLLnq.) daughter.seenhere 0lrusrn+nos Brynhild. famed and could and potions. ofyouth.heJorgot hts unsuspectrng ofJered love Brynhildand rnstead rn lovewith Gnmhild's fell for c RR{( B) Gudrun (lrrl \rR{li()\ ARIHT Klr'\r1 1910. Kullewo was his sword Although a powerfulsorcerer. ( ) r r H t : S A M P L )B \ A G A L I F N .rJh the otherVanir deitiesoJJertiliry and nature Shewas the Jirstto teachthe wamor Aesir the practiceof seroror glvrngrts maglc SerorwasuseJulbutcould be dongerous. goddess Spnngwho guardedthe maglcapples BYARTHITR c 1910) RAcKrlAM.K A i l F l A . her raisedhis rudderand crushed talons Vainamoinen but and scattered.

It was long held that seeing one in the countryside meant that either a maniage or binh would follow. they were commonly pictured as beautiful. rhe child who was to avengethe death of reLorR In one version. god of archeryand shing She is the subject of a strange myth in which the trickster LoK. Odin was deposed as king of the gods for forcing Rind to submit simply in order thar he might farhera son. the Rusalh came out of the water on to the land and lived in the cool of the forests. unkempt and unattractive creatures. who travelled with him thereafter.The sight of a dead one was believed to bring tears to the eyes of the sun goddess Even after the conversion of the Lithuanians to Christianity in the fifteenth century . taking on different forms in different regions For instance. rhe sons of lvaldi used the remaining heat in their fumace to construct a collapsible ship named Shidbladnir for the fertility god FREYR and a magic spear called for ODIN. During the summer.of Uu. and the mother. and the fire god said he would get the dwarfs to weave a wig as a replacement. probably a representation of ripe com and therefore fertility.a cool Nordic pnncess. in Jirstby bathingher ahotbath The warm water thawedher Jrozenheart and symbolized meltingoJtheJrozen the nnd oJearth (trlusrnerroru NlcKBute. Thor demanded to know what he was going to do about it. thE emerged from the ivers to dwell and dancein the eniching the grassin thar wahe Jorests.the peasants SIF *as the wife of ttoR. ROSnfn was a farmer's daughter who became a seryant of the god THOR When Thor stopped at her father's house and asked for food and shelter they were too poor to provide mear.r Lre. was [he daughter of King BILLING and the mistress of ODIN. becameill with a mystery malady and was nursedbach to health by Odin in disguise The old nurse. 1984 ) continued to reveregreen snakes. stronghold of the gods. Next morning Thor was beside himself with rageat Sils distress When Loh protested that it was only a joke. Saulewas imagined as pouring light from a jug. the mistress of the thunder god rERxuwo Shewas worshipped by Lithuanians. Every house kept one: under the bed. (lLLUsrMfloN ay Ar.for it was so light that a breath of air was enough to ruffle its skeins and so real that it gew on her head by magrc Thinhng to get the gods even more into their debt. Prussiansand Letts before they were converted to Chrisdaniry Her worship took the form of looking after a harmiess green snake. in the RiversDnieper and Danube.which was at the start of summer.they were the last people to be Christianized on the continent . restoredRind to health. in contrast.who pursued her in various disguises Their love led to rhe birth of yALi. in Germanic mythology. who were the divine twins Castor and Polydeuces The unnamed Baltic rwins are said to have rescued Saule from the sea and built a bam in which the goddesscould rest. the water nymphs were considered to be malevolent.NonsE MyTHoLoGY Rrrun (above). they lived in the great rivers of eastem Europe. in south-eastem Europe.4l. the god of fire. But Roskva's brother THIALFIbroke one of rhe thigh bones and when Thor came to resurrect the goats one of them had a limp The enraged god was only pacified by the promised servrce of Roskva and Thialfi. one night cut off her beauriful golden hair. So Loh asked the sons of Ivaldi to make a wig from spun gold The completed piece of work was quite remarkable. so Thor offered his own goats on the condition that no bones were broken. crossingthe underqround 222 . even under the table Apart from ensuring a household's wealth and fertility. 1995 By ) THE RusALxt (nght) dwelt in ivers and lahes The southern spites were pearly beautieswho lured travellerswith their sweet song Duing Rusalhi Weeh. the Germanic thunder god. SRVTPO SCC TRM5URE5 AND TALISMANS was rhe Baltic sun godSnUlf dess and. in a corner. according to one tradition.The golden liquid which she generously gave to the world was the basis of life isell the warmth so necessaryafter the cold north-eastern European winter Another fragment of myth about Saule concerns the Baltic equivalent of the Greek Dioscuri. siren-like creatures who would attempt to lure unsuspecting passers-byinto the water with their magical song In the nonhem regions. On his way GUNGNIR the back to ASGARD. THr Rusnlru were warer nymphs and can be found in both Slavonic and Russian mythology They were thought to be the spirits of drowned grrls During the winter months. the kindness shown to the snake was regarded as a guarantee of Saule'sgenerosiry. by a previous marriage. when the rivers were warmed by the sun.To hll a snake was an act of sacrilege. sTGURD Strcr'ruED see SMCUUND SCC TMGICLOYER5 RIND.who would grab travellers from the river banlcs and drag them down into the river and drown them. Vecha.

1995 ) Slctw (nght) Queenof Gotaland.Nonsr MvrHoLoGY S. which caused Loh to plan a revenge against Thor (See also TR&{SURESAND TALISMANS) stcuut tD seeNoRsE HERoEs SIGI IY. ) he tried to flee. fu a result.theBalticsungoddess. symbolwng npe haw estcorn When Lohi att ofiherlocluher misay representedthe winter season when the cornJiel&. BYJAMES 1995 ) caverns where the dwarfs lived. the boat and the spear that Loh persuadedthem ro make something better.are reducedto stubble Hue.EMNoen. Loki also met the dwarf brothers Brokk and Eiti. The gods were delighted with the treasuresLoh and Brokk had brought back. Brokk demanded Loh's head. abweher. Signy got a slave to smear Sigmund's facewith honey so that the wolf would lick him instead of biting him Sigmund was thus able to catch the wolf's tongue in his teeth and overcomethe beast Signy helped Sigmund to plot revenge She even slept with him in disguise and bore a son named Sinfiotli When Sinfiotli grew up she placed him in Sigmund's care. Jor hair.qvoen. the scourgeof the frost gians.but they had no objecdon to Brokk sewing up Loh'slips with a thong when Thor dragged the god back home after j*irg Src (abwe nght) wa Jamous her gold. who bittuly resentelher brother Signund's victory in a maglcal strord contest 0rrusrn cflor'r JAMES By 1995 Atrx. in Germanic mythology. rushes down the glacialfiord to greether hinsman Shewamsthem oJan ambush planned Siggar. was the unfortunate daughter of VOLSUNG. However. the dwarf brothers fashioned the magrc hammer known as MJOLLNIR.Married againsther will to the Gothic king Siggeir. goldatlight poured from herheavenly the haghtthrough summery clouds downto the earthbelw Thesnahe onhcrcrown her symbolizes Jertility abundance and The her Morning Star. losn. until only her youngestbrother Sigmund was left alive.a sore W hn vengefulhusband. she nied to wam her fatherand her ten brorhers about Siggeir'splot against them.. Lohi lurlu menacingly behindthe dreaming beAuty (Irusrnerroru NrcK By Brnr.A magic sword freed them and killed Siggeir and his sons Signy chose to die herself in the burning Gothic palace. but they were both captured by Siggeir. The gods would not agree.eurr(abwe). supposedly a descendant of ODIN. but they were ambushed in a forest and bound to a fallen ree Each night a wolf devoured one of them in lum. but not before she had told Sigmund the truth about Sinfiotli'sparenmge 223 . chiW. They were so jealous of the workmanship that had gone into the wig. he even smked his own head on their inabiliry to do so. Jbshes (IlrusrncnoN Ar.

Sigurd succeeded in slaying Fafnir.qn had first acquired rhis treasure. 1880) Stcunp (righl confronts theJire-breathing dragon. since Fafnir was said to have understood the language of birds When he realized that Regrn intended to hll him for the gold. get rheir hands on the To gold Regrn and his brother FAFNIR had then killed Hreidmar. winning of Jame and aJateJulfortune. By cunningly stabbing the monster from underneath. but Fafnirwanted the rreasurefor himself and tumed into a dragon to guard it. RINGS POWER) OF SIGYN. kgn.which once belonged to the dwarf ANDvARI. (Seealso NORSE HEROES. was the faithful wife of the fire god toru and morher of his sons Narvi and vau. also known as Sigunn or Sigrym. guardian a Jabulous ill-Jated oJ but treasure (Srecrrueo THEFoRGE REGIN tN Bl oF W rr)N HANScHltp.vAs. Srgurd slew him before carrying it away himself.TMGIC LOYERS. thus apparendy gaining borh dwarfish wealth and wisdom. Fafnir. cc^. Once rhe gods realized that in Loki they had allowed rhe growth of evil in their midst. in Germanic mytholory. 1906 ) 224 . who senr him to recover a fabulous hoard of gold Regin's father HREtoiu.rnrsco. they watches fascination with Stcunp (above) as kgln Jorges brohen the shards oJhis wondrous sword. or Siegfned as he was lcnown in German. and slayshim. to the FaJnir. (srecrnreo rro FAFNIR 8Y H HENRTCH. he roasted the creature's heart.Nonsn MyrHoLocY StcnyN StcuNN see srcn{ seesrcrN StCUnO. On the advice his mentor. wzls a northern Germanic hero similar to the Celtic KingAnhur He was the foster-son of REGIw. liching somr-spilt blod Jrom which he learnt thespeechof birds. smith at the court of the King Hjalprek inJutland. gftlrom Odin a father's Theconquenng swordwould$elp Sigurd in hisdestined mission slay dragon.

According ro rhe Vihngs. c NVAs. Fafnir.Nonsr MyrHoLocy Slcunp (abwe) oatls inhiswondrous nfit weapon. he THIASSI. c 1890) apples. the land of the frost giants. the venom fell on Loh's handsome BALDER. decided that ir was best to live roamed the mountainsonhq snow shoes apart.a multiply ing nn g.oruNHEIM. provided thar dripping from the snake in a woodSkadi chose her husband by his en bowl. When Freyr wished to marry the frost giantessGERDA. Frqr. the magic fruit that kept the gods young. was a figure in banished to an iq prison There she nofihem Germanic mythology. When the gods had tied the Iast Iqrot. however. Skirnir had some difficulry in persuading Gerda to agreeto the match. ODIN'S Son. however. it cover that she had picked Njord was these compulsive movemens The merrimenr was provided by that accountedfor eanhquakes. the danted wtJeoJInhi. who tied his resticles io a goat. Sigrn remained rrue to him offer of gold. RACKH ) SruRun (abwe) gallopsthrough aJiery ringguardingthe iqhome of Gerda. To ensure Loh's discomfort the frost gianressSIi{DI. Draupnir. fu the couple were unable ro sxenn see sK{Dr stand the conditions in each other's hornes. shewasJar happir on gods continued. his sufferingbycatching the venom This was agreed. Shirnirbears gJ* oJliJe-gving apples. or Skade (which means "destruction"). for the beautiful frost giantesswas to be transformed into a loveless outcast. capturedin his dinhinghom (rlrusrncfloN BY GLENN Swmp. NJORD's wife. Gerda at last consented to meet Freyr and so Skimir received his promised rewards. and it hn o! slop tlun in hq husband'ssunlit was she who placed the venomous cwa. Equipped with the shatpestblade and neves of iron. fasteneda snake ro a sulactire above the god's head and there he wuls to remain undl RAGNARoK SKADI. Germanic god of the fertiliry. First they took hold of rhree slabs of rock. 1995 ) bound him in a cave.c 19ff. Her relationship with rhe A Wirit ol winta.iEs Awxtxoen195 ) troublesome god in a cave. stoodbyhim uen afterhehadben Slcvl (abwe).shahingtheearth trorc killed her farher for srealing IDUN's ANDSrcYN ByMEWrNcE. were no temptation to her Nor was one of Odin's arm-rings Gerdashowed no fearwhen Shmir threatenedto beheadher. Njord and Skadi Src{Dt. she demanded a and did what she could to lessen husband and a bellyful of laughter. As a result of this threatened fate. sheguidcd thcir sleigla am the gods eventually imprisoned the snox4 0ulstttnoN cf l/o. Then the entrails of Loki's son Narvi were employed as a rope which bound the fire god to the stones. a cnl anil indqndnt huntress.a companion of the "unwonhy dead". he promised Shmir his horse and his sword and senr him ro.anticiryting victory wer hk fightful foe. whenever she feet only. However. Skadi armed herself and went to the gods' srronghold to Despite all that her husband had seek compensation. Thinking that the mosr went awayto empry its poisonous shapely feer must surely belong ro contents.. head and causedhim to wirch vio.a Jrost glantess On a mission to win Gerda Jorhis gentlemastu. and a glwingportrait of Frqr. the enrails became as hard as iron. Refusing an done. When the gods ofascenp face Wen she writhedin agotry. stood them on end and bored a hole through each of them. On another occasion. but she began to panic the moment he started to recite a powerful spell It promised to deny her any joy or passion. SrtnNtR ("shining") wasa servant of FREYR. Shmir acted in his role as messenger by going to the dwarfs on Odin's behalf to order a magical fetter so that Odin could resrrain the terrible wolf FENRIR 225 . A deity oJhuntm and mountain snake above Loki's head when the climbs. Eleven apples of youth. theeager hero setofl ucitedly onhisfirst quest This strileing portrayal highlights they outhful iilealism of the zealous Nordichero 0rrusrnrnotByARTHI/R M. She lessened pain by catchingthefery his was the wife of the sea god tryOno venomdnbbledby a serpenttied abovehis and daughter of the frost giant went to empty the bowl.Skadi made her choice only to dislently. L2KI.

Sleipnir was the horse that carried Odin into battle.. Sol sPIRITS seeNATURE ("Black"). So huge was he that on a joumey through the land of giants THORand LOKI. the Skoll was destined. the citadelof thefrost giants The travellm strug. When Thor later tned to hammer in the skull of the sleeping Skryrmir. in Germanic mythology. following the catastrophe. unaware that Shrymir wa in Jact only a gant illusion santto thwart and mtslead them sv 1995 0rrustpcno^/ NtcxBw-e. ) SxnYUtR ("vasr") was an exrra Iargefrost giant in Germanic mythology.to seizethe sun between his jaws and swailow her Jusr before this happened. was a wolf that pursued the sun in her flight across the sky At RAGNAROK. in Germanic SUnf mythology. a massiveJrost g1ant. frost giants. the sun would give birth to a daughteras beaudful as herselfand this new sun would warm and illuminate the new earth risen from the sea.He was identified with the fire god Lo:rc. and L2KI. and was swift enough to beat any other horse in a race.the frost giant awoke in the belief that either a leaf or an acom had dropped on his brow Afterwards it dawned on Thor and his companions that Slcrymirwasa giganticillusion. chased sunacross slE. This fabulous creature was the offspring of an unusual union benween Svadilfari. w6 a fire giant with a flaming blade who would set the cosmos alight at &{GNAROK.who had disguised himself as amare Sleipnircould travel over sea and through the air.Nonsn MyrHoLocy SKOLL. though. a magic creation sent out by the frost gians in order to prevent them from reaching UTGARD. was rhe eight-leggedhorse ridden by oDIN. pointingout the shortestroute to lJtgard. the the to sole from dawn dushSholl's aiminlfe was wertahe devour heavenly to and the orb. doom of rhe gods. named Hati. thinhng it Skryrmir's was a hall. Slcrun. a stallion of greatstrength.plunglngthe worldintoprimordial darhness (Itusrnnrroru ByGLENN 1995) STEwARD. giants' cimdel. the land of flame. Another wolf.At Ragnarok Surt was ro rise from Muspell. The nine worlds were to become raglng furnaces as gods.actsas mountain guideto Thor andhts parly. the shapechanger.led on through snow diJts. chased after the moon Both creatureswere said to be the sons of a giantessliving in Iron Wood Ravenous dogs often threarened to eat the heavenly bodies in rhe myths of northem parts of both Europe and fuia Chinese families today sdll bang cooking utensils ro frighten "the dog oflheaven"during a lunar eclipse Sxorr below). and fling fire in eYerydirecdon. JincewoIJ. a symbolizng Repulsion. At necNARoK. inadvertently slept in the thumb of empry glove. the SlgtPNtR ("Glider"). the 226 . "fresh and green". the chief of the Germanic gods. along with their servanB THIALFI and ROSrcya.

which were a widespread custom throughout the Germanic and Slavic peoples. was named Sursey after the god Surt SVNNTEUT SCC 5VANTOWT The building contained a fourheadedsmtue of Svantovit that was nearly thirty feet in height Multiple headswere indeed a feature of the Slavicpantheon. guarded worVonJour the sides stone at Rugenwr His efri.Nonsr MyrHoLoGY Slaprun (abw e). certainlydeservedhrs name "Glidu" forhe slippedthroughcloud.was the Siavicfire god. the worshippers of Svantovrt at Arcona believed that the god would mount a sacred white horse and nde out at nights against those who denied his diviniry In the moming the horse was often discovered to be covered in sweat Omens for successin war were read from the behaviour of the sacred horse as well Human sacrifi. he set the nine worlds ablaze. Svexrour (nght). the in stormcbudswhen Odin travelledacrossthe sly as god of thewrnik 0uusrnenoru ayGuuN 1995) Srnverp.g worshippedbeforebattle deity . the fabulous eight-hoofed (or somesay.hebore and ahom Jertility. ) N 1995 0uusrnqnorutcx dead. the German bishop of Mecklenburg In some traditions.a meaning that can sdll be found today in the Romanian language).Then the eanh would sink into rhe sea. sometimes Svarozic or Svarogich (which probably meant "hot" or "torrid" . elves and animals were all to be reduced to ashes. Jour-headed the war godoJtheSlaw. a new island. burning them to blactcned cindm which sanhbeneath the boiling oceanonly to nseagainJresh. dwarfs. afircefire roseJrom g1ant. also known as Svantevit. monsters. including. after his capture in 1066. was the war god of the Slavic peoples of central Europe His temple at Arcona on rhe Baltic island of Rugen was destroyed by King Valdemar of Denmark and his Christian advrserAbsalonin I 169 SVNNOZIC SCC SVAMZIC . fresh and green.ces. formed by a volcanic eruption off the coast of lceland. plattyandrode oJ ahorse divrnation A oJ white was horse hrptin thetanpbfor itual divinatton sy BEArr.usrnAnoN BYJAMES ArD04Noe* ) 1995 SVANTOVIT.greanand nqt tlJ. the living. It may be that the view of the end of the world as an immense conflagadon was influenced by the volcanic nature of lceland. from where many of the wrirren myrhs originated In I963-7..or Svarog(who was identified with the Greeksmith god Hephaistos) and the brother of DAZHB)G The fire god was depicted wearing a helmet and carrying a sword. especiallyof the fire that was used to dry grain. He was the son of Svaroz. lt is thought rhar Svantovit may also have been worshipped as a supreme deity and seen as a father to other gods Prior to the Danish destruction of the temple in the Christian era. SVnnnZIC.before rising again.4s a of plenty destiny. thefurnaceoJ Muspellat Pagnarohtolead hisfiay hordes against the diine host With hislnming sttord. seaor earthwith eqnl ease Slapnir'showes rumbled. were made to Svantovit before any great undertakings. Svaraztcwas idendfied with the flame of lightning SVNNOCICH SCC SVARAZIC Sunr belwD. and on his breast was a black bison's head Human sacrifices were made to Svarazic.eight-bggd) steedof Odin.

Brynhild.obstacles Frithiof faithfully guards his sleeping rival. when In other tales. symbolizesthe armed with a sunbeam. where a cursed ring wrecks the lives of severalpairs of doomed lovers.both ailunng traglc Jates. Srccuuxo and Sieglinde QeJt). otherin chiWbinhThechiW of thar sadunion is thegreathro.. the lwen uchange secret glanceswhile in the cornpanyoJ s Sieglinde' suspicioushusband.TRAGIC LOVERS yet are TALES TMELESS OFTMGICLOVE common everywhere. Cloistqed Jor by hu watchful brothm. Sigurd. Freyr. he and Sieglinde enjoy bneJlnebeJore dyng one on the the battleJieV. beforemeetingby chanceand Jalling in lwe Here.for instance. only at the start and closeof his shining career dawn-maidenwhose path he crosses as simply serveto test the lovers' honour and courage.mess. the gods seem Iuckier than mortals. shewas daied contnctwrth Fnthio[. c Nv s. Sometimesa trouble.Sometimesthe trials of love symbolze the battles of naure. in the heartwarrning tale of the summer god. belieing to husef honourbound to. By contrast. ?s when Odur flees Frefa or Skadi lives apart from Njord. In their love affairs. dispels darl.obq thewshes IAMENT of her royalbrothers (lNcrnonc's BYFNJENSEN. 1895 c ) INGEBoRG(abwe).were siblingswho grot. in the sanctuaryof Balder's temple. if short-lived. stopsspinning and pines hcr lover. rarelyso stark curselies at the root of the and bleak as in Norse mythology. Sigurd Ritg. though friction is rife. up apart. Hunding who plnns to slnySiegmundin a duel \ilhen Siegmund wins. he wins his frosry bride by sheer warmth of love which melrc her icy heart. while his lover. FnthioJ. Such conflict might symb ohze seasonalchanges: Njord's sunny love can only hold wrntry Skadi for three months of the year. as in the tale of Sigurd and Brynhild.might be seenas a sun lord who. c 18N) . who wos considred beneathher royal status Yetwhan Fnthiof brolu the sanctity oJ the tanple to rescueIngeborg she reJusea flee wtth him. Stgurd (IuusrmnoprYF lEEtc.

c 1840 ) BRnvntro and Sigurd @bwe)findpeace togetherat last after a romancewrechedbyaweb oJ intigue and vengeance AJterpledglnghislwe to Brynhild. J*itf"l hawest (Fnrvn EBuRNE-JoNEs cANVAs.the blach eaglesIndeed.Shirnir. wi.someyears later the dreom cametrue as inlwe with the greathero Sigurd.Gunner and Hogni. ) Prrurv C BLTTLER.rant. c 1890 ) Fnrrnror and IngeborgQeJ)are at last united in Balder'stemple Thechildhood g' sweetheartshad been thwarted by Ingebor s hostilebrothers Wile Ingeborgwas forced into a mariage with an old chieftain.emblems av c t 0 JoNEs. FnthioJ roamed thehtgh seas misery \I/hen his undying love drwe him home. caughta glimpse theradiantJrostgldntess. of beannghis wheat.o gentlesummer god.Iater KreimhildJell slninby her two brothers. but doubtedhis chancesuntil his decisive ser. in her turn.Sigurd wasbaryttched into marrying Gudrun Brynhild.MsrRoM. wooo.. shecned outfor vengeanceSigurd was slnin and BrynhiW.Gerda. was unwittingly tnched by Sigurd into marrying Gunner. he waited honourably until the oA hing died nuo beforeat last wtnninghis bnde (FrurHron INGEBoRG ByJ A MAr. cANVAs.who is symbolized the white bird and that he wtll be hilled W t*o murderers. Kramhild is depictedtellingher mother about her dream. 1909 . setoff to woo the gyl for his master Gerdaranained unmwed until shewasJorcedby threat oJmaglcto atleast consentto a meetingwith FrEr Oncein thecompanyof thefiery god. hilled herselfto be Intd to rest besidehim (TnrFuurnel ct+ttves.Sigurd in Ring. who wue actingunder theinfluenceoJa curse Here.thhis boar at htsJeet. a poet and a Chnstian pontifi ponder the meaningoJ theTeutonicepic.oJ Fnnn QrD.from aJarand at once Jell in lwe. Gerda's iq heart thawed Frqr appearshereas a dreamysummergod.overcome W 5"4. Whn Brynhild discwered Sigurd'sapparentbetrayal. while below a bard.the Niebelungenlied trHe LEGEND or Srecrrueo By F PILorY. 87 ) KRrtvntlo (ngh) wahes from a nightmare in which she dreamt that a lavely whiteJalcon was struch in Jlight by nvo blach eaglesHer mother interpretsthe dream to mean that Kramhild will arcntuallyJall in lwe with a by peolesspince .

however.he beard was notjustoJ lord plants. cANyAs. also but of forest beasts theherds woodland and oJ forest cattle(trrusrnerroN Arrruxoen. In another myth Thialfi deservedThor's gratitude when he toppled the enormous clay giant Mist Calf. the srongest of the frosr giants . green of theFinnish god o dwelt oJ Jorests. who. to secure his own release from Thiassi. was a frost giant and the father of sxaot who stole from the goddess IDUN the apples of youth It was reallyLOKI'sfault thar this event occurred Disguised as an eagle. he ignored this instruction and split a thigh bone ro ger ar rhe marrow Next moming. He was placated only when Thialfi and Roskva were given to him as his servants Although Thialfi lost a running contest to HUGI during Thor's visit to the frost gnnt stronghold of IJTGARD. af[er cooking. Thor's goats provided an endlesssupply of mear as long as. when Thor used his magic hammer to restore the goats to life.creatingthe clatterand the rumble oJ storm clouds Thor alone among the gods neverrode.the grantgrabbed hold of the god and.Nonse MyTHoLoGY TANNCNOST (meaning "Toorhgnasher"). which had causedThor to panic with fear He also fetched aid for the wounded thunder god after his duel with HRUNGNTR. ) ByJAMEs 1995 THHSSI. or Thiazi. c 1890 ) Teuo (abwe). in thedepths thegreenwood. they grew anxious and old In this crisis Odin alone had the determination to rally enough strength to plan a recovery The gods captured the tnckter Loki. in Germanic mythology.in Germanic mJthology. master was his ourwrtted by magic in severalchallengestoo. along with his wife Meilikki and his son Nyynkh. all rheir bones remained intact Thor would then wave his magic hammer over the skin and bones and rhe goats came alive TAPTO was rhe Finnish forest god. growingftr-lihe clad and a Alongwith sylvan other daties. Loh promised to deiiver the goddess and her magic apples into the frost giant's hands The effect upon the gods was immediate Without ldun's apples to eat each day.but eitherstrodeor drovehisgoat-drawn chaiot (THon rHn RNo GLnnrs ny M E WNGE. was the name of one of the two billy goats which pulled rHoR's chanot The other was named Tanngnsnir ("Tooth-grinder") The rumble of the chariot was heard by people on earth as the sound of thunder Like the magic boar of VALHALIA. as he enjoyed tickling or smothering peopie to death His daughter Tuulikki was a spirit of the wind Tapio is often portrayed as wearing a cloak of moss and a bonnet of fire THTRIEI and his sister ROSKyA were the children of a farmer and servanrcof the Germanic thunder god rHon When Thor and roxr were travelling through Midgard they stopped at the farmhouse and Thor provrded goats for supper on condirion that all the bones be kept intact Because Thialfi had nor had a satis$ring mealfor a long time. in moss. was believed to ensure that woodland game remained in plentiful supply He had a dangerousside to his narure. which could be eaten one day and reappear alive the next. and made him fly as that one animal was lame He was so enraged that he threatened desrruction of the farm and demanded compensation. the thunder god noriced Tarurvcruosrand Tanngrisnir Qef) wereq pair of goats who pulledThor's chaiot across slE.

r. burned to death by the flames Eventually.nl B'" Nr(. "Let Hel keep what she holds " Some versions of the myth maintain that Thokk was none other than LOKI in a falcon to Thiassi'shall in order to THoxx.Thor battersthe glant'shead. and when they explained their mission the giantess replied thar she had no use for Balder and added. dead and alive. pestered Hontr Loki Thiassi At pornt a tip to Mtdgard one up gods' swooped andscooped the down Lokt at dtnner Enraged.NonsE MvrHoLocY Tuutn Aeft)and his sister. thq sheltered a g1ant's glove.until wohenby his gus\t snoresHere. of again into an eagleand flpng after snowitself mourningtheloss themuchB.tr. as disguised Turasst afrostg1ant. journq to Thor on a Jabulous accompanted rn Jotunheim En route.so destroytnghrs chance bur the frost giant almost thwarted oJescape Jrom Hel Around bttter Thohhall and stones the plan by turning himseif yet creationweeps the leaves.. on and aneagle. however. (lrrtrsrnarro. HEL. the queen of the "unworthy would dead". ) 1995 Bv lovedBalder (JtusrncrtoN NrcK the god He very nearly caught up with Loki. weeps for him" Messengers were therefore sent out to ensure that everything moumed and were satisfied thar they had achieved their aim back On their way they to ASGARD. Odrn. tearfor Balder. lunged the pot stuch to with but eagle hisstafJ became t'ast av PrtrR 1882 thebtrd (/ri rrsraarro^ Http. his and Roskva gazeon in dazeddisbelieJ.Thiassi'sdaughter Skadi came ro Asgard to seekcompensation for her father's death When her demands had been satisfied. said that she allow him back ro the land that of rhe hvrng on the condirion "everything in rhe nine worlds. whtle Thialt't hoping to silence snores.o.l'rr. ) found Thokk in a cave. Odin took Thiassi's eyes from his cloak and threw them into the sly as stars "Thiassiwill look down on all of us. aloneamong all the creatures to bring back Idun and her apples the nine worlds.reJused sheda stngle one This Loki was able to accompiish.Roshva. 1995 ) THNZT SCCTHIA5SI THOKK *ut the callous frost After giantess of Germanic myth the popular god BALDER'sunfortunate death.K Bp." he said.. but as Thiassi flew over ASGARD wings were set alight by his fires thar the gods had placed on top of the stronghold'shigh walls The giant could no longer fly and so fell to the ground. "for as Iong as the world lasts " 23r . QeJt).

who had fled sourhern Norway to escapethe aggression of Danish and Swedish rulers. the goddess of earth When the Angio-Saxons eventually adopted rhe Roman calendar. hamrhe mer. preferred honesr Thor. hk (luus'Ix'Anor.may once have meant "lightning" Among Icelanders and Norwegians family names like Thorsten recail rhe name of rhe god. spirits lightningHue. he let the ing. which allowed him ro ear a whole ox at one sitting And. and Fjorgrn. Snatchinganap. with the resuh rhat rhe chair fire god lead him to Geinod's hall came down hard enough ro crush without the protecrion of his ham.cfloN ByARTHT/R R{cr<rl^M. VinglrandHlora. where servan$ into danger as a price for his own grudgingly received them. The thundergod still had a piece of this dead frost giant's throwing srone stuck in his head to prove it. By I 995 ) JAME. MJOLLNIR. the land of the frosr giants. Thor and Loki spenr rhe nighr with cRID. usually atrached himself to Thor's beh . the thunder god swingshisfiery missile (Ir-r. Thor sucson of Loh.wasa tireless warior and glant-slayer With his red-hothammer and belt of strength.Grid's staff to push againsrrhe ceilpany and was so trusdng. which he used to handle rhe red-hor hammer shaft. Geirrod's daughter. 232 .oruNHEIM. the sons of lvaldi ft had a huge head and a short handle and always hir its mrger Thor was rhe mightiesr of rhe Germanic gods and rheir sraunch protecror againsrthe frost gans At MGNAROK. Thor opened his avoid death only by making a eyes and saw rhar his head was promise to deliver an unarmed about to be rammed against the Thor into the frosr gianr's hands ceiling. These mer. they named rhe fifrh day Thursday after Thor.he was tured by Geinod when Loh was in surprised when he dreamed he was rhe shape of a hawk. until Thor blocked the source of the blood with a wellaimed srone k struck GJAL?.so rheir vrsit to the hall of the frosr Thor sat down in a chair ro await giant GEIRROD Having been cap.swept away. the rwo gods were poisonous venom of the seaser. prwed toomuchJorhis mother andwwrakedby twosaintly guardians.whichdoubledhis power. for rhis was the day belonging ro Jupirer. was in many aspectsnor unlike a gianr himself. rhe powerful but straighrforward opponenr of rhe frost giants Yet Thor. whose menstrual outpouring had swollen the he was destined to be hlled by the river Even then. gloves and belt. edgeof. rhe doom of rhe gods. red-headedThor. iron gloves and unbreakable staff.I9O0 c ) TnonAef). especially Soon Thor and Loki arrived at when Loki led rhe thunder god Geirrod's hall. rhe birrer enemy of the frost giants. Loh and he ceededin gabbing a mounrain ash had many advenruresrogerher. Crossing a torrent of water and blood near the frost giant's hall proved difficult. very THon. he could floating in the air.rhe srrongesrof the frost giants whom Thor had hlled in a duel. The freedom Such was rhe casewith owner was nowhere to be seen.his retum. But on the rwo daughrers of Geinod had been large .his frequenr companion L2KI.as Thorlost his foonng pent JORMUNGANo.usrp. was the handiwork of two dwarfs.energeric and had an enormous apperire.Gjalp and Greip to death.t Ar-Dhrvorn.Nonse MyrHoLoGy THOn was rhe Germanicrhunder god He was the son of oDtru. thefiery of youngster displnys impressive both temper might and bywhirlingbearshin in aft ofrage. so Thor was most grateful at Grid's loan of her own beh of stengrh. of course. and a beh rhat increased his strengrh MJOLLNIR. although nor and Loki clung desperatelyto the before Thor had hlled the monster belt of Grid that the thunder god Before he was slain by rhis terrible was wearing Happily. rhe fire god.asaheadstrongchild. He was exceptionally srrong. Quick as a flash. inhis most popular guise as champion oJ the gods. for these farmers had lirtie sympathy with the foorloose Vihngs who worshipped Odin. bales while guardians his soothe anger. however. iron gaunrles. rhe Roman sky god and peer of rhe hot-tempered. he was a formidable foe Here. a friendly giantess Grid wamed Thor abour Geirrod's hatred of the gods She told him rhat he would be especially pleased ro avengethe death of uRuNcNIR. there was his relish for a contest. overhanging the flood and scramThese adventures were often bled ashore on the opposirebank dangerous for Thor. really a thunderboh.rhe chief god. along with the Greek Zeus and the Hindu Indra His name means "thunder" and his magic hammer. he used BecauseThor enjoyed Loh's com. the father of rhe slain The Icelandic colonists. a trial of strength Two goats drew Thor's great chanot acrossthe sly: rheir names were Tooth-grinder and Tooth-gnasher His magic weapons were a hammer.

Afterwards Thor smashed the skulls of all the sewants. but the thunder god caught it deftly in the iron gloves he had been given by Grid. had fallen in single combar with Thor. the frost grant challenged Odin to a horse race but then.trn. None of the gods could releaseThor and it was fortunate that his own three-year-old frost giant son IvfiGNI tumed up after the fight. hisbronze and a made raclutlilu theclash clnttr of the luttbs. They built a clay grant 233 . When Thor rerumed at this point the giant challenged Thor to a duel The frost giants did what they could to aid Hrungnir in the forthcoming frght. hewasnichnamed lkttb copper Vendor. Mist Calfs fall shook Jotunheim. much to Odin's ruledthe THonbeW). although the thunder god was left of was hammer a symbol Tnont Qeft) pwer and creatwe destructive anda source ls and of Jmtlity. Using a pair of tongs.thesign the Ch*tianity s'wept oJ often cross fusedwtththesign the contr. rhe clay giant was animated by the heart of a mare and. as a guest at the gods' sronghold of he ASGARD. Thor was delighted to see Magni's strength and gave him the dead frost giant's steed Golden Mane as a reward. the land of the frost grants ln the fight with Hrungnir it was Thor who came off best. The iron ball passed tl"otgh an iron pillarbefore tearing a hole in Geirrod's belly. IorH cENr. On the day of the duel Thor wet himself at the sight of Mist Calf. cross within ahammer.Nonse MYTHoLoGY of such enorrnous sZe that Thor would be struckby tenor on seeing him.1995 ) J thrusting it upwards. clouds gathered round his towering head.renonal goodfortune of north. Magni also told his flattened father how he could have dealt with Hrungnir with his bare fists. thethundr god. bears red-hot chanot As tn its iron gauntlet. slow movrng though he was. and Wtth and storms tempests qesablaze hammer his he hairaflnme. the powerful Hrungnir. (Strven. Named Mrsr C. The frost giant mentioned by Grid. The son of the frost giantess Jarnsaxa. he launched a red-hot iron ball at Thor.asin this charm. Foolishly. Then the frost giant rerumed and ried to hll Thor as well. and rerurned the compliment by throwing it back at the giant. 0uusrn rnop BY AMEIAtaYArrlorn. drank too much and insulted the gods.) pinned to the gound by one of the dead frost giant's legs and with a piece of whetstone lodged in his head. a mistress of Thor.ininga hammq. although his charioteer had the good sense to topple the clay giant by attachng his legs with an are.

Thialfi and Roskva neared Urgard. when Thor used his magic hammer to restorethe eatengoats to life. most embarrassing of all.NORSE MyTHoLoGY THzR battleswith his arch enemy. and Thialfi against his own thought. could have fitted inside ir ar rhe same rime Later rhey realizedrhar rhe hall was in fact the rhumb of a frosr gianr's empry glove Ir belonged ro sKRr 4tR. and gained two human servants named THIALFI and Rosrye. Thialfi and Thor all failed to shine First the fire god lost an eating contest A second event saw Thialfi easily outpaced in a foot-race Then successively Thor lost a drinhng contest. was easily wrestled down on to one knee by "an old. managedto lift only one paw of a cat. whose name said that sizewas of no imponance means "vast" Blows deliveredby a . the leader of the frost giants revealed that he had used spells to gain the advantage. they spenr one night in an empry hall It was so big that severalof rhe halls in Asgard. old woman" Once Thor admitted on leaving Utgard that they had come off second best. Thialfi and Roskvapledged themselvesas Thor's servants As Thor." complained Odin Another famous advenrurein Jotunheim concerns rhe visir of Thor and Loki to the srrongholdof UTGARDOn rhe way rhe rhunder god passed through Midgard."the bigger they are. the serpentwasdestined to ovewvhelm world at Ragnaroh Here. Loki. but tinally their arivalat Utgard.He told them how Loki had actually been pitted against wildfire. while Thor had tried ro swallow the 234 . the whtle Thor strug. cutshim Jree (THon rHn rN Bcr.eyed the four guests Their leaderat ing his brow during the nighr On firsr ignored rhem. the home of the gods. ) 1790 "You should not give a the son of a giantess annoyance horse to instead of your own farher. crr sr H cexvas. and. Hymir. the rhunder god noriced that one o[ rhem was lame As compensation and in order to prevent him from slaying the household. a brorher and sisrer Ir happened rhat Thialfi disobeyedan instruction of Thor when rhey dined rogerher his parenrs'farm ar Thor toid everyone ro be careful with the bones of some goarsrhey were eadng Bur hungry Thialfi split a thigh bone ro ger ar rhe marrow.he devrsed a series o[ games in hold's dimensions While Thor which Loki. caught on his Jishing line A lurhing evil coiledaround the earth. before throwing rhe bone on rhe goat skins in a comer Next moming. in fear. rhe land of people.the J ormungand.rr Hyrr4rn Fr/sELt.they fall" .les oyercome to thebeast. the rravellers acknowledged "little" Thor Then were just as amazedat rhe strong.Loki was more thoughring head were dismissed by rhe ful lnside Utgard huge frosr gians glant as either a leafor a rwig brush. the heavier flrustratedThor to SkDrmir'ssleep.

Thor its smashed ugly headwith a Jatalblow of nine hishammer:he then staggeredbach pacesand drownedin theJlood oJvenom s flowingfrom the beast' gapingj aws (ILLUsrMTroN BYJAMES Attxenom. 1995 ) off by his "bridesmaid" Loki as a blushing bnde.Iift the massiveseaserpent Jormungand and wrestle with old age As soon as this messagewas delivered. ) ocean. the strongholdoJthefrost glants. for the two gods "both enjoyed each other's company" (Seealso NORSE HEROES:MGNAROK) 235 .break their skulls. Thor was passed Tnon QeJ)andhis party visitedthe iq citadel of Utgard. and crush their bacl<s" Like his Hindu equivalent Indra. bahinghim over the head to silancehis snores.andThor overcomeby Thor faik to drain ahombnmful of the OCCAN (ILLUSTMTION EYJAMES ALEXANDER. Thor's magrchammer.+. new owner. the fertiliry goddess Loh got Thor ro dressin Frefa's clothesand go to Thn'm's hall instead Despire his god-like appedte..wherethq underwenta seies of allegoical tests Thialfi was outstipped by the speed Thought."fo smash their legs. and an excited Thrfm handed over Mjollnir The ensuing massacredid a great deal to restoreThor's fierce reputation. fell into their hands after it was stolen by the dwarfs Is 4. the frost giant THRY demandedas the price of the hammer's retum the hand of RRrr. vast creations sent out by frightened frost giants But it gave Loki some satisfactionto leam that brain had indeed triumphed overbrawn EvenThor had to admit that on certain occasionsLoh's clevemess was necessaryto hold the frost grans in check Such a moment in time was when Mjollnir. Lohi out-eatenby of Age Here.Thorleamt that Shrymir had nv 1930 beenan tllusion (IrusrmrroN I Hueno. which had been tamished by the god having to dress like a woman Mjollnir was the sole protection of the gods against the frost giants It was the thunderbolt which terrorized them prior to the catastrophe of Ragnarok Apart from is destructiveside. confronted mryhty Shrymirwithhis tiny hammer.butto no avail Each time the giant wohehescratchedhisbrow and noddedof again Later.NOnSE MyrHoLoGY Tnon (abwe) impukive ds uer. I995 ) with Jormungand in THoR (above)wrestles theirJinal combatat Ragnaroh Trapped within the serpent's crushingcoils. Wildfire. Utgard vanished Only then did it dawn on Thor that Slcymir and Utgard were illusions. Thorwas the scourge of evil and in Germanic mythology this could only mean frost grants Loki's eventual siding with these gnm opponents is therefore one of the saddest events to befall Thor. for otherwise Thrym would not have been so ready ro place Mjollnir between Thor's knees when the thunder god was disguised as Frefa But throughout the myths relating to Thor we are never unconscious of its unlimited destructive powers For it was the thunder god's purpose to quell the enemies of the gods . the hammer had other magic powers over fertility and death It seems to have had the abiliry to restore animal life It also hallowed marriage.

it was alsooften buned with the nng-lordJorthejournry to the otherworld. consolidating his vastwealthand dominion overthe nine worMs Draupnir was crafted by the dwarf. the dwarf Sindnfashions the magnificent ingwithfre and arcanemaglc in his undergroundforge (luusrnanov Ar.Yetthe pure nngs Lf of Onhnit. corrupredby greed. but not alwayshappinessand somerimes tragedy. formed by a circle of stone statues surrounding a punishment pillar in front of his temple. Tur. but later retnevedit when Hermod ventured to Hel The return of the nng rymbolized the promise ofJertiliry afbr winter bleahness Here. Odin castthe ing upon Balder'sJuneral pyre. A gift of honour and form of currency. suchas thisbunal treasure Exquisitely wrought. such as the swedish sviagriss. or Thor's Oath Ring. One famous examplewas the cursed ring. Another ring of doom was Thor's Domhring. Much morejoyous and fabulousrings were Odin's astoundingDraupnir which literally dripped eight similar gold rings everynine days.it was also sometimesa royal heirloom. fortune and fame. Dneuprurn.RTNGSoF PowER MONG trtr VrrcNcs.Orn 1 crrurunv ) . a s. while his brother. which blighted many lives. Sindn.qru :j84) ay Ler. The Domhring possibly symbolizedthe inevitability of retribution. The rings of heroes inevitably brought wealth and power.bold lines express the vigour and strength Vihing craft of (Gtr strvrn.The magicalrings of Norse myth were also symbolsof destiny and. wasan emblemof abundance and power Preciousbqond compare. Goto Rtrltc among the Vlhings wos a precioustohenof power.'mbol of fair play and good faith. Brohh. symbolsof doom. the ing's clear.it dnpped eight similar gold ings every ninth night. Andvarinaut. Odin'sfabulousing. Wolfdierich and Dietrich were symbols of a ring-lord's circle of power and everlasdng fame. fame and as fortune Sometimesbequeathedan heirloom. pumped the bellows ln an extrayagdntgestureof gnef.the ring was a potent symbol of power. in their bleakesr form.

l | O i l a t r r r r r d r o u .S i q u r L( r r h o r t ' . ( . s r r i r r d n c Ji l r r t s t r r n g .i afto r. s r n ' uds u g o n 1 . .e .s m a g r a / g o l d n n g a s r . rg u a r r i t h c n r r t . s p u r n n g lo r t h t h t c l k n t r e a s u t e l r e W f h e E r n p l ' r ..h o a r d I t l u n u . Fafn rr Ai thouch n'ilrtricrlf hrm-self..4ant-sFalner and fot bttillhnq Vrrlh. \ t ' c jn n g .h o a r d h u r x t t h / s rl . { l h t r r n $ t l i ' d s i i r e s r i i l r . s u l l u l r o n t f l t t ' . r .stc.u l l l t r r n i f t c / r l f . s{ r r ' .l VulLune Bntnhrld hr trtt.tl by rhc hrrrer c ur.nt Frtr'ta a.\ IlrI i')\ -\ii\-\r\ l'll+ l .( ) s g L i r ( / ( ' t t . u dwarJ rf rhe Nrebelungen[cd./ tht qrrirl \c.irrlg0n quttrtltan. r t a1 i 1 1 l i / r J 1 l r d v . E c . . t t r l. sr l n g r r a .eb tr/ cloorn Alto lalling n1 l()\c urfh the splcndrr.rlla. lorged u nngol pctwer rr/ rhc sold rohben DtffRtCH ( a b o t ' c ) a G o f h r C h t t o .s lris st. sr n € f r r . B n r r h r i c / r u l t o c . l 1 r tr /t t t r t s t b t l t o r t r n c t { i c c t .Nonse MvrHoLocY ffi r. ttntl cctnted ofl tmdThc.4.rt Fu.r Fu.fnn ttn. { n c l rc i l l l l c l L { l l. s t r r ' r r g f i e t c { .serrl AnrJlarr Hrt'rclntttr t^. l r 1 o l / c J r c f r r r h H c r c D i t t r r t l r h r L ' .sl l t r ' \ f r l l u gtntclfathu r ) r l r ' t r \ i l l c c lh D t c t r r r l t ' .ho th t r s r r ' i c r . i r r r t ) ' 237 . ' t i i i r b S l a . t f t t t r r r r h l c t t i l r c \ \ r 1. g r " i t e f /r.soltcicriranclttl tht nng::l p()\m. s I h c f i i s r r .r . r l t ( ) n . r r . trtgcrl trtt ll rt rortcfir/ Brr nhr/d sechrrrq hucl dunundetl the nng tttm|.s r h r ' l r c r r rh l : a t h i l h r s / c t s l ht &d r c r l l r n gr .h o a r c l W ' i r e n r h e v o u t h f i r l h c r o .g G utlnnt r?lcr Whc n hrs rncnrrrrl rctunrcd hc s u | | t t c c lf r o m q r i i l t a r r c l gre/ -Srerlc/ s {rrlci tn f titrt c r t r i r c c ir h c c i r r r r r f t h c Nrhr'hrne bnrthcrs tlhrr . : . l h t l / ( ) t { s r fronr thc Rhrncgold stolen lrom the Rhrnc I'latdcn. f t r t t t ' t n n t n .rr Firiirrr rrho lLr. ' 1 1 p 1 .s Odtrr Fngg Lohr Frnr t t l l s e a r c h r . l e t .. .ha / > t i / / t ' r c J t i ' D t f h t ' r t r 1 8S w. e la .rncl. i i r -ls ? l ( rL d t i n n s t ' r t c i t u r t l e d .ittir.\tir8eIn the horcier rhcgocl. l l i i r . l f - [o incied gotlsantl grants tthLze octt()n Ihc . r i r f h c r / r r c r r l I . i L l r .lfffl slcnrng lt-\ (.nt'tlhrnr-sel/ t() dsst/dgr' hcr h()ll()llr .f l o r l e r . r u r t h r r r q c l o r n r r h g e n r s A f r t ' r r u r r r .scr hLr.sleir lttnt ./ r .s be:nttchttl h Gnnhila B r n t t r h c t r c i . R D ( r r g h f) l \ ( r n l h ( ' Lt i l .'rs+ lrir . r ' i n g n r r h r l c ih rh-ul. L i t s ch l c r l l r r r .( o / dr r r r r rL o h r u a . s r r r r l e sa r t J i r t t r r q r t c s f ) t t t t t r i t r r t r ' t . s c r g r r l i c o / .s l c r t t h c d r r i g r r n h r n r h c r r r e ( l l h t / r t h r r / r r t t n n g . a n c l L l a t m u l h r .s \t1r\ untl nng of pour r h / u r i c i o .1 t{ +H\ AlrrRrcH ioflnc).t t t g '\ i|-1rtr lrt .

was the daughrer of rhe rhunder god ruon and his wife SrF Shewas promised ro rhe dwarf ALVISas a payrnenr for his handicraft Bur Thor prevented the dwarf from claiming Thrud by keeping him mlking until morning. o danng storm g1ant. goddess of illness One of the few heroeswho managedto escapefrom Tuonela was VAINAMOINEN After SucceSSfully crossingthe river that marked the border of Tuonela. one renrh being the amounr due to the god at the end of a campaign The best remple at Stettin housed a black horse for Triglav's use In the twelfrh century Chrisdanity amved and Tnglav'sstatueswere broken and their muldple heads senr to rhe Popein Rome as curiosities TUONT was rhe Finnish god of the dead.Nonsr MyrHoLocy THnUn. in Germanic myrhologr. who gavehim beer to drink But while her visitor slept.vprn. and scoutingtheiq wastes search of the hammer. the glantbroods onhis roclE hilltop wqloohedby Lohi.causingpanic at Asgard Here. the hero changed into an otter and swam easilythrough the net Tuolt guardedthe darh realm oJTuonela on thebanhs ablachiver When oJ VainamoinenvisitedTuoni in search of maglccharms. including Kipu-Tytro. Loki cleverly managed ro talk him inro producing rhe hammer.995 ) J. from which few travellers rerum With his wrfe Tuonetar he had severalchildren who were deities of suffenng.1995 ) 238 .which Thor then used ro lay low all rhe frost grants in sight TsRru Qrf). dtsgutsed a as in falcon.tuns TIR seerrn Twvlzsee rYR TruCf.stole Thor'ssacredhammer. in Germanic myrhologz. but thehero the changedinto an otter and slipped through (ILrusrMIoN NrcK By Butr. Triglav once boasted four separate temples Thesewere mainnined by war boory. was the frost gianr who came to acquireTHOR's maglc hammer The gods were at a loss becauseonly this weapon could protecr rhem against rhe frosr gianrs When Thrym said he would exchangerhe hammer for rhe ferrility goddess FREUTA. who lived in the dark land of Tuonela.buned aght Jathoms dou'n j (Irru5rneroru ev Auxe.wwas a rhree-headedgod of the Slavsliving in cenrral Europe At Stettin in present-day Poland..he was trapped by a vast iron net. he was received there by Tuonerar. fire god rorc persuaded rhe Thor ro go ro the frost gianr's stronghold disguised as rhe bride in order to recover the hammer Loki also wenr along in the form of a maidservant Thus rhe unusual pair arrived ar Thrym's hall Even though rhe frosr gianr was quire suspiciousabour his bnde-ro-be. her son createda vast iron mesh across the river so rhatVainamoinencould not retum that way and would be rapped forever But when he woke. when rhe sunlight tumed Alvis inro stone THnYU.flung across iver.

since it was customary for the Vikings to casr a spearover the heads of an enemy as a sacrificebeforefighting commenced in earnest.l995 ) early sly god whose powers were later passed to Odin and Thor 6UNGNIR.the of ftercewolf-son Lolzi Yet Fennrhepton uery day.stnarror llr /.l rrrsAtExlroi. dunng whrch it was Garm. U r d w ar ned the c hi ef of the Germanicgods.persomt'ied Llno (above).andhadhis rune engraved blades He losthrs nght hand in a t'ight with hrs with Fennr.may once havebelongedto Tyr. Although he bit off Ty'r's Tyr was in agony. and might.srn. Jamed htsbravery Jor wasassigned taskoJ the feedtngFennr. and the son of ODIN and his wife nrucc The Anglo-Saxonsusually called him Tiw and gave his name ro Tuesday (Tiwesdaeg in OId Englsh) He was closely associated wirh Odin and. the doom o[ the gods A Cehic god by the name of Nuada was forced to grve up the leadership of the lnsh Tuatha De Danann ("the people of the goddess Dana") after he lost a hand at rhe first battle of Magh Tuireadh But Tyr was still able ro light ar MGNAROK. w as one of thr ee s i s ter s who were the Germanicfatesand The rwo were }crown as the NORNS other sisters were Verdandi ( " Bei ng" or " Pr es ent" ) and Sk ul d ( " N ec es s i ty " or " F utur e" ) U r d gaveher name to the well thar was situatedbeneathone of the roos of the YG G D R ASIL. whrleher ststers andt'uture fate The Nornswatnedthegods oJ from the Juture evtland drcw lessons on past Urd fer)two swens the IJrdar pool oJ whogavebtrth to theswans theworld (lrrr. T\T.honoured on dances. but was lustas shrlful the left. ) By left). also known asTiv and Tiwaz.l 995 ) the awrse Norn.and at Ragnaroh slew hell-hound Garm (lt-tt.a popularswordgod. was the Germanicwargod.and over recent years archaeologistshave found numerous splendidly omamented spears dedicatedto Tyr The myth of Tyr relatesto the binding of rhe wolf nrruRtRThis monstrous creaturehad grown so powerful that rhe gods decided to restrain it No ordinary chain was strong enough. acting as watchdog to rhe land of the dead. Odin's maglcspear.NonsE MyTHOLOGY Tvn Qeft). growrng. and belore Fenrir would consent to a magic one being placed round his neck. was Tvn (above wrth sword invohed before battle. ODIN.n .arioN At B) JAME-S ExqNI)IR. receivedsacrificesof hanged men Ir is not unlikely that Tyr was an destined that the hound which srood at the gates of HEL. . c os m i c tr ee. was [o leap at Tyt't throat and they would hll each orher 239 . Iike that god. present representecl past. stronger andt'tercer the unttl all-seeing Odin reahzed danger and thegodsdectded brndthebeast to 1930 underground(luusrnerrrx J HL)ARD. and that was where rhe gods would hold therr daily meetrng As was also the casein Greekmythology. The be the other gods just laughed downgrading unconnected hand of Tyr may not with the loss of a URD. the gods w er e not s upenor or beyond the infiuenceof the fates Indeed. orWpd (meaning"Fate" or " Pas t" ) .that he was destined to be krlled by rhe at remble wolf nrrunlR RAGNAROK. Tyr had to put his hand in rhe wolf's mouth as a sign of goodwrll When the wolf discovered the chain could not hand be broken.

in VnnrHnUDNIR. Now Odin could pered Vafthrudnir recognized that no one and admitted tell what into the god had whis- the ear of the dead Balder. thought. The frost giant's last words were: "So I have alwap pitted myself against Odin. when the god asked the giantwhat he had whispered to his dead son BALDER before he lit the pyre on which he lay. w6 the huge mythology. Seehng to test his knowledge serpent JORMUNGAND wresrle againstthe gianr's.ODIN. after MGNARoK.ina'itably portrayed the ail gianu in just such aharsh realm. UTGAu. Possibly like contes$ against unequal oppo. "risen out of the water.THORand Thor's ser. their knowledge of rhe pasr. pick up the sea died.the cosmic not keep pace as a runner with tree. w6 a wise frosr giant. the wisest. who nen6.vledge allowed him to assure Balder of future resurrection and worship on the new earth.Nonsr MyrHoLocy ("Ourer place"). fresh and green". the gods journey to Vafthrudnir's land in realized that Uqard was an illusion disguise. It is implied in the story that Odin's forelano'.AN I9g1) I-EE. After an impressive display on the part of both Odin and Vafthrudnir. There he challenged the made by the frighrened frost grans gigandc "riddle-master" to match to deter Thor. the giant was eventually defeated by a quite unanswerable question. theiq atadel oJ thefrost gwnts. the chief of rhe gods. He was believed to have gained his where LOKI. UfCnRO in Germanic Germanic mythology. Loh failed to consume more voluntarily hanged himself for nine food than wildfire. whtre numbing coWfroze the muscla and paralyseilthe will (tuusrntnoN ByAr.When they lefr. Thialfi could nights on YGGDMSIL. and Thor was unable to Vafthrudnir had also temporarily drink the sea dry. wu cawed out of snowblocls and f. rhe doom of rhe gods and the end of the world. Odin decided to or old age. rhe present and the future. in order to become wise.' 210 . gians' stronghold in JOTUNHEIM.ittmng icicles The Norse poets. their greatestenemy.impressive store of wisdom byconvant THIALFIfound themselves in sulting rhe dead.whohnant all about the terorc oJ the ice of thar northern homes.

returning to her humanform (Tnr. Louhi raised a great storrn and. ByA I(aLLEt.he on setsatlin a copperboat and embarhed a VeluaiuotN rN helow) courtsreluctant Aino in herJathu's grwe Promisedto the old man againsther willby her brother.she drownedhersefrather than marry. but during the storrn rhe Sampo was lost to the winds When the storrn had passed. who from birth possessed wisdom of rhe the ages. was the son of a primal goddess. When he sought a bride from among the women of Pohja. so Vainamoinen and llmarinen. c 1890) TRlprycH av A GIIl. they succeededin recovering it.only to wind up as a salmon onhis fishingline.Vainamoinenwas grfted with extraordinary m.1 995 ) VnINRUOINEN.ouorNEN GATLEN.l'. He was always depicted as a vigorous and sensitiveold man. he joumqed across the hnown returned world and.aJter quizingeach other on €ve'ty aspectoJlrfeand death. Jrom the undemvorldAt theendof his hJe.LLr. joined VarrHnuorutRsparswith Odin in a f"*dly contestoJwits Evu thirstyfor hnwledge. Odin emerged thewisestoJthewise as (lLLUsrRATloN By JAMES ALExAworn. Vainamoinen collectedall the scattered pieces togetherand was able to restore some of the talisman's former power With his mission completed.. was alsoa gentle. in the form of a griffin. cANvAs. (Seealso TREASURES AND TALISMANS SPELLS) : SORCERYAND VelrueuotNeN (above). After several greatadventures.ge without end (vel. Odinhad resolved testthe to wise Jrostglant andlearn any new snippets oJwisdom Yet. off to find the set Sampo. however. leapingbachtnto the iver and beJore Arro voya. Vainamoinen built a ship and embarked on an endless voyage. However.agrcal powers He was lesslucky in love. . alone amongheroes. the chief hero of Finnish epic. As by LEMINKAINEN.N-I/.LUoNNoTAR.he was promised one of Louhi's daughters if he made the magic talisman. for he was in his mother's womb for at least thirty years.humane hero A tireless explorer.NoRSE MYTHOLOGY the champion of the Kalevala (which means "the fatherland of heroes"). the Sampo He gave the task to his comrade Ilmannen and so Louhi's daughterwas manied to Ilmarinen instead. But the bride was killed and the magic talismanstolen. Only the swift action of Vainamoinen savedthem.l' CANVAS.a peerless mage. c 1890 ) 2+r .l. descended onto their ship.

the by magnificenthall glittered with precious metals. Mead was provrded from the teats of a goat It was said that everyday the Einheqar pur on their armour. or Valholl. Hermod or Brag1.alongsidethe gods.ft for thefnal bauleat Rognaroh (lrrusrncrroN B Dwcx. Even before they reached this entrance. ) c 1920 Veuanut was a Vihing's paradisewhue heroes chosan Jought andJeasted from dawn to dush Woundshealednernight. went to the pracrice ground and fought each orher If hlled. and meadand meatjwed Jreely The hutic round oJcombatensuredthatheroesstayed in fightingform. rhehall was ("heroic dead"). (above). 242 .the HaII of the Slain. Verueu. conductingthem thefoot oJOdin's to throne. including a fasr-runningnver of air Once in Valhalla"[he men hlled in war" were miraculously cured of their wounds and were able ro indulge endlessly in the pleasures of feasdngand fighting The meat of a magic boar was prepared as wonderful stew in an inexhaustible cauldron.Odin's sons. the doom of rhe gods Then they were destined ro fall again.rhe regionswhere most of the raiding expedidons came from. ) l914 V AtnAttA' s V allzy . The sameboar was eaten day after day through a processof resurrection.aSGARo by Odin.its walls were built oJspearsand its roof of shiningshields This starlit scene aohes a sense the untold wonders that oJ lie within (llnisrnnrro. each wide enough to allow up ro eight hundred men to march through abreast These wide doors were designed to allow rhe chosen warriors to pour fonh ar rhe first sign of MGNAROK.v F voN By srAssEN. in a grear battle on the VIGRID Plain. rheywere restoredto life.beauttful battlenes maidens.whileOdinhimselfroseto greet the bravestVihingsat the gate 0uusrnqnor. At midday they retumed ro Valhalla and started drinhng Such an existence for a Vihng heips ro expiain Odin's popularity in Denmark.1900 svw ) vnlnellA.Nonse MvrHoLocy The newly fallenjoining the residenrs in Valhalla had to enter by a door called Valgrind ("the sacred baned-gate of the slain").welcomed chosenslninwith the openarrns At other times.recavedthehrroes. Valhalla was enormous It had over five hundred doors.c. southem Norway and Sweden.r BY EWALLCousrNs. in Germanic mychology. they must pass severalobstacles. was built in the shimmenng grove of Glesir Encircled strongouter walls. of the EINHER/AR those warriors slain on rhe battlefield and chosen by ODIN himself as his followers Buik in.

caught up in a benerk fury.995 1 ) choosersof the slain") were ODIN's battle.he survived MGNAROK.lrrrnrrs (below) rode through the maidens. the gods were constantly threatened by Ragnarok.or sometimes the or bechoningJrom strand (TnrRroe rne VALKYRTE ByH HERMAN. when he beheld a greatwitch on an island. Theyprobably derived from something more dreadful than the attendants of Valhalla. Something of this early terror can be imagined in an account of the battle of Stamford Bridge.AR("heroic dead") who would go to uALHALLA. Hsre. no matter how vain the attemptwould prove to be. the idyllic abodeoJOdin's ghostlyarmy Although quite charmingin Valhalla. MGNAROK) 243 . with a fork in one hand to rake up the dead and a trough in the other to catch the blood (Seealso rHE VALKIAIES. lnValhalla the Vallcyries would carry food and drink for the Einherjar. When asked about his habit of Sving luck to a warrior in a battle and then suddenly tahng rt away. At least Odin's men. wild Amazon-like creatures who rook great delight in the severed limbs and bloody wounds of battle. and must have originally been the goddessesof slaughter itself. Odin said that "the grey wolf watches the halls of the gods": that is to say.and whosesoahing manessprayedthe eanh with Jmile Jrost and dew Thq alsoscouredthe seas.Another Vali was one of the unlucky sons of LoKL V. By 1870 death GaevrLKyRrES voN G LEEKE.lucnrrs (abwe). Along with his half-brother wDAR. cANvAs. They rode over battlefields and selected the elNHr4. (Seealso THEvALKTRIES) VEMOIT SCCVALHALIA VnU was rhe son of oDIN and RJND and was destined to hll blind HODRin revengefor his unwitting murder of nerprn. Fulfilling a prophecy. personilyingclouds. Kirg Harold's victory over the Norwegians shortly before his defeat by the Normans at Bartle in I066. ) stormyslE on magnificentpearly steeds. Ragnarok was always given as the reason for creating Valhalla.altghtedon the battlefieldto select the bravestwariors for Valhalla. he grew from a baby to manhood in a single d^y and rushed off to hll Hodr. He thought he was on the hng of Norway's ship. reachingmanhoodin a singleday and rushing of wrth uncombed hair to slay Hodr.NORse MYTHOLOGY Odin was known as the father of the slain and he was the host who presided over Valhalla.or shield-maidens.on the battlefieldthe VallEnes becamesinister goadinghcroesto thar spiits of slaughter. snatchingsailors from ships. could be guaranteed to tear into the enemy ranks in one last bartle. the camstrophe inwhich theywould die in mutual destrucdon with the frost gianm and the forces of evil The gathering of the "heroic dead" in Valhallawas the onlyway the gods could prepare to face their own fate. c 1890) Tng Vnucrues ("female young Vett was of the bnght one gods fu to suwive Ragnarolz Destinedfrombirth to avenge Balder's death. and daily senr our rhe vALKYUESro add ro the numberof the dead.he ts portrayed stridingdcrossthe nav earth aJtu Rngnaroh 0rrusrnenoru Nrcx ay B::lrrc. gravat an he amazng rate. A soldier in the Norwegian army dreamr of a Valkfrie before the battle. Odin's martial V.

Jormungand. q'! rcru AeJ). Mjollnir. at Ragnarok.however. Inherently fragile. MARBLE. the earth emerges fresh a n d g r e eD . some gods survive and .beJore Jrom its venom (THoR By B FOGELBERG.MARBLE. In . 1 q" highlights the heroism of gods and heroes. the i"'i'i" . with a dart of mtstletoe The wantondestruction the bestof the godsmarlzed of a turning-pointin Inhr's downwardspiral oJevil Yet evenafter the cnme. F ::: enmity of the hostile giants gathered momentum + until.1 the Norse myths . but the Norse vision is ""*i starker than most and unique in the loss of its gods. Balder.i to roam unrestrained. yet also . Loki went on to slay Balder. The seedsof doom were sown at the dawn of time when the world and its first creatures emerged from the violent extremes of ice and fire. all the world's destructive forces burst forth in cataclysmic disaster. symbol of goodness and beauty. Beyond Asgard.RAGNARoK AGNARoK wAS THE preordained doom of the gods.guidedblind Hodr to slay his brother. Apocalypse is a common mythical theme.Loki. p u r g e d b y flood and fire. 1890 ) Tnn Mrcur or THon (abwe) andhtshammu. *. a catalyst of evil. the godsallowed Inh. dytnghrmselJ the world of the glantmonster. the oJ rymbolizedtheJoremostdeJence the godsagarnst threat of might the glantsand the doom oJRngnaroh Yet Thor's sustained to provedultimatelyinadequate withstandthecombined Thor id onslaughtoJ glantsand monstersAt the end. Consumed with hate . The inevitable climax was precipitated by a Sj series of disasters. the i universe was beset by forces of destruction and flawed from the outset. Ragnarok casts a dark shadow over .c 1890 ) . spawned three {' fearsome monsters against whom the gods were o ultim ately powerless.d '::i one hopeful version. c. growingder more bitter and twrsted (Lor{ AND HODR By C QvARNsrRoM. and the climax of the cosmic drama.orcr envious anyonewho was oJ goodandbeautlful.

c . lh t . i r .Nonsr MvrHoLoGY 1 1 1 . t l r q h t i r t S u r l r i t t / t r l t s r r r r l tl l r .r . r th n r r w l t ' . ' t l t t r L t . '.:lll. lr r t t l t r r t r r h t \ r l ' r r .llr/r'tl\(ilthtrrJ anJ ltrntrl htrtfltlrclJ Iht'rr1 lLr l rrlh. X C n . r h t ' s : \ t c l l l r ) I r t ' Jt h t ' t u n . . r r . \lrlrlJ hrrrl c. 1 . l n 4 r t g / r r r r nt h t \ r r t t t t ' r l i q g c i r . l t t gl h t . l .llrhr tt IJr . i l t ' h r sh r r n c / s r t t i J r ( ) L l r l r i ' rrih c t . t t r t t t l . / f h t t c l r t h s t u t h h t r t t ' t t t ht h t f q r 1 f 1q 1 1 1 . t t t t . i r t r l l t ' \ i r l i r I l t r r t J l t . l n ' t ' i l : i l t r l i r . t ( ) c l r n . i q 1 r /. \ f .i . r r ^ 1 r \/ \1 r . l f J f r r ' l l r ' ( l t 1 r \ n l L i ! ' l i ..rl . l r r t l r l i ) 1 t .l t f r \ \ li I i \ \()lr()!r '. \ r t n ( i I ) l i l l r l \ f r h l r l ( .l c n .ftltrl lrrrnt fht f]ttt rhrtlJ rTtr.r t / l / l \ I tt 1 ( l l i . t b r r r c rt h r r n r q h n r r r t / l r. r . l t ' r t r r \ t ' c i .r h . . i t .tLtt..i h . . s t 1 3 r r r ' / qw'r t \ \ r l .ttXIRIF5'/C/f ) ()1jp1 1f1r11111iltthlrnrlfr. r 1 ' 1 .ll ic a i l i i \ r l i ) i t t I . j !rl 1' \ ( ) u r (( \ r r t t h r t ' t n f r r rtr h l t . J l t r 4 g c t n l t . J . rIt . l ) l r 1 1. i l l J l t t ' t l l r t n r F t ' r t n t h r r .il . r l c i: t ' r l t r t t r r t ' t ' fh r r r q r r t t ' c i l r 1 n r /t ' r r q n r l / t J h . l r r h . r r t c l i l r r r g c a r h .l l l \ r r / l h . httr. / r r c r r f s q r r c j s t n r / n l t r r l r t l s t ) d t r t l c u r r t r f h t ' l r t s c J r r r(l)tf t h r r l r r t r ' \f r r r n t f h t .r .f ) r l l L ]f ( ) f 1 4 r s t j r ) r i r I h i ) t ] t ' 1 1 ( ' d tI f t r r t l r r w t l i i t ' t u l i h r s \ | l r ' r . l ff h t q r l r l S ) f f h t .t t h . ' . t t t n / .ii Jt'tt'nrtlncJ tr) ful tif I. l r l l h t r s l r r h r l t h t r . 1 1 tr } 1 \ f()flll tlrllll R. P t d l i C ft i l l q ( ) u f t 1 l l t ' \ 1 l /l r l n c l t . lrghrrnq R] . . t n t n t s f \ \ r / / h t r r r rt r t t / t l t 1r | 1 1 f 1 / f .. : i l t c 1 .i f i i r i L r l. l . r l i t \ r t l l c L! i ' t t hl t t t { t . q t t l | r l r. l t t . i v r / { rh r ( ) ( ) ( l s .lIRU{nrlrolr \ \ r .f'. t t 1 . t t t t t r L r r h t r r t f l t l t t . . r L ( . . . r r t ' ' ! r { : .r 1 1 1r r l t r l t l l l \ r Ll{c]lrl\. J sl h l t t : t l r t . r i / f l t t ' t t i t t t 11 r r ' o t l . ' r t l t I } t f r r . l r . t f .lrtrrt(. 1 1 1 1 1 r \ . U t L . 1 1 i r t l c l r t/ t r l r r t .a ( ) i . i r r h r r ' r r hh r s \ r . i l t . l t .r. /i h t . rl-r l r ) ) l l r ' r t t t/l. . t r . t i s . r t r fHf \. r n ( ) ( ) r l r l n r l t r t r t ) g q d r a i r l r t r t ' / / . t t i t .)/ Rr/(|r|rJh /'rr.tri. t . r 1 . h r i . t t t g l t t t l l t / r . r * . i r r i l h L r r s l/ r r r r r ti h t f / r r t r n t r t t t i l r t .tl t rrp rh.l r r t . t t t . li l . r n J .1 t i t t { t s t r g r r c l st r t ' t t ' . : l t . u ! ( ' n ( ) n rr n . l n r . . t . r r t l t t .r R i l ! i\ I \ 245 . t . tltt rrrlhl \l{|\ f . . / r r r . l r r r t n 4 f R f C . r / { r t t i l r l htrmr . il ) l r t r r r 1 t t h t r t ' r l t t t t f \ r t t r s t ' l . : t tt J t h t t f l t t 1' l w h t r l t r t q r t ' i t s l . r q r 1 1 . t ' r ll 1 1 ( r i t { n t . . f i r . t i J . lir r 1 ' . ' . 1 ' 1 1 1 'l l t h t r n t ( )clltl .r l i i l r ' \ ( ) l l l i t r . rt t l n r ' r i t 1 c n t h r r r q 1 .. t t l t l r .

there was speculation about the origins of the two groups. however. Vili and Ve. Thorand Lohtin the rear. From the wood they made first man and then woman. Eventually. gand-father of Ve. were all gentle. Today. wereworshippedbyfarmers The threemain Vanir gods. so they slowly faded into the background The distinction between the older Vanir and the younger Aesir was uncenain even in Vihng times. Frryja and Frqr.NORSE MyTHoLOGY THf VANIn were the older of the rwo branches of the Germanic family of gods and were fertility deities. the fortified residence of the AESIR. The Vanir sent to Asgard the sea god w. formerly called Vanaquisl.ucqtfor Oilinwho. thefruitful VanirtwinsJollm OdinanilFiganq the with BfrostBndge. They lived at Vanaheim. daties oJJmility. health. which reached embarrassingproportions whenever Mimirwas absent To the Vanir it seemed that Mimir was not only Honir's voice but also his brain.l9l4 ) . At first Honir and Mimir were welcomed and accepted by the Vanir.e.the younger branch. He is described as being utterly evil. ln some versiors of the creation myth. (l-l:usrtAnoN ByF voN Sr ssEN.wealth and THE VANTR. but the gods gadually came to the conclusion that theyhad got the worst of the exchange with the Aesir.bnW spiits oJ nature. who and granted nouished the earth and seas. these theories have been discounted. At the beginning of creadon the primeval UMIA sustained herself cow AUDH by licking the ice and from her ample teats flowed enough milk to feed the frost giant Y /IR.Njord (centre) and his lwely twrns. in Germanic myrholory. arcr hrs rapidty eager incrense hnwiledge. who were primarily war gods. and daughter FREYR who was believed to be also KVASIR. and that IHOR was the grandson of King Priam of Troyand oonv his descendant in the rwendeth generation. Audhumla's lichng also uncovered BURI. their dislike tumed to hatred and they slew Ymir. 1995 ) VE. far from AscARD. Although this did not rekindle the conflict. Vili gave them intelligence and emotion. the first living creature. second to none in his wisdom The Aesir despatched to Vanaheim long-legged HoNn and wise MIMIR. for it went right back to the killing of Ymir. The Icelander Snorri Srurluson thought that the name of the Aesir recalled their homeland in Asia. After the Aesir had won. The problem was the terrible indecisiveness of Honir. Myth relates how the Vanir and the Aesir fought for supremacy not long after creation. Afterwards the three brothers found on the seashore two fallen rees. an ash and an elm. was one of rhe sons of non and the brorher of oolx and vltt. so in anger they cut off Mimir's head and sent it back ro Asgard. the implacable enmity berween them could not be denied or resolved. Ve is known as Lodur or Lothur. Although the blood of the frost gians and the gods intermingled.Hue. When the sagaswere collected in the late rwelfth century. ciloN Jair weatherand good hawests (lnusrn BvJAMES ALEX{Nonn. Odin. All the the gods were descended from Buri. Vili and Ve disliked Ymir and his growing band of frost giants. making the world (the "yawning in GINNUNGAGAP emptiness") from the giant's body. Odin breathed into them the spirit of life. it effectively caused a rift between the Aesir and the Vanirwhich greatly reduced the mythological significance of the Vanir. and Ve added the ability to see and hear.onD and his rwin son and and nnr1. while the Vanir were originally inhabinns of the land by the River Don. b absorbed theVanirarts. peacewas sealedby an exchangeofgods and goddesses. because his son Bor married the frost grantessBestla and had three sons.Odin. However. THE VANIR wreJamedfor magX and themacho Aesirwqe oJvvhxh a foraryht Iittlexspnous.

Vili and Vn (abave) Odin. the doom of the gods and the end of the world. He was the son of ODIN and the frost giantessGRID.1995 0[usrprnor rv NtcxBpcLE. who was a shepherd and martyr from Cappadocia. he surwved into the nineteanthcentuty. (r-r-usrpcnoN 1995 rvJeurs AuxrNoen. smashed one of his well-shod feet against the wolf's lower jaw. When Vladimir. Prayers offered to this to protect and saint are expected increase flocks of sheep and goats Vrrrs guarded cattle andJlocluJor the Slavs Espeaallypopular with farmers. the Onhodox was baptized faith in 988. ) into the Christian fyt^S him with St Blasius. Veles was incorporated faith by idend- andhrsbrothm. ) or Volos. and then Odinbreathedlrfeinto them. god who had authoriry and herds.It was Vidar's destiny to avenge his father's death at MGNAROK. ) 1995 Bv NrcK woven into a plait }crown as "Veles' beard". when Russnnfarmm still honouredhim in the lawestfelfuby curlingthe earsoJone sheafof corn (seeight)..fashionedhumanforms from two piaes oJdiJtwoodlyingon the cosmic beachat thedun of ttme Odin created a manJrom the ash. survives.o stron& silent and solitary god. was the Russian over flocks to VELES. rymbohzngthe god's atrly hair andbeard . ears of the last sheaf of com are still 217 . where all was quiet and peaceful. lt was customary swear oaths in the names of Veles and prRuruu.NORSE MYTHOLOGY Wpen (abave). When had overthe terrible wolf FENRIR come Odin in a fierce and bloody struggle and swallowed him. lived alone in a leafypalacedeepin his pnmalJorest He personrfiedthe imperishable Jorcesof nature. however. and then with both hands he forced the upper jaw open till the ravenous beast's throat was tom asunder. he had a statue of Veles thrown ln into Russian the River Dniepner.qtr.and lived in a place called Vidi. VtOnn was rhe silent and solinry god of Germanic mytholory.whllehisyoungu brothmformd awomanfrom theelm. Vidar stepped forward. into ntler of Kiev. and was one of theJew gods destinedto suwive Rngnaroh He slew the wolJ Fenir with his iron-shod foot (lr-r-usrnrroru Br. time the the god of flocla at hawest For insmnce. Also in Russian Orthodox tradition. It is more than likely that the meaning of Vidar's own name refers in some way to this ripping in half of evil. folklore. who was the thunder god.

which in the forestsof northern and eastem Europe was the animal most feared.ofering divine to thewinner. it was predicted that the assembled hoss would cover it completely. VoruuD seewAYr. Volsung and his ten sons walked into Siggeir's trap when they accepted an invimdon to visit his coun. When Sinfiotli grew up. Vigrid was said to stretch l20leagues in every direction. This refusai made the Gothic king really angry. Sig. of maglcal arcntwhen appeared Odin one night ond thrust sword. In one Icelandic poem Vili is given rhe name HONIR. the glft Signund themuch-enwed was champion (lrrusrpqnoru ByAtaN Lre. VOTSUNG was the subjecr of a late Germanic myth.Odin gave rhem the breath of life.however. Theywere ambushed on the way and left in the forest. k was Odin.of all Signy rried to have her own sons trained by Sigmund.NORSE MyTHoLoGY MCruO. was the son of noR and Bestlaand the brother of opll and yr At the beginning of creation he helped his brothers ro slay the frosr gianr yMtR and form the world from his carcass. When Signy. was married against her will to the Gothic king Siggeir.hilt-deep. He was said to be a descendanr of ODIN. He sruck a sword deep inro an oak and told the company that the weapon would belong to the man who pulled ic out. a warior with double Volsung blood. SIGURD. In Scandinaviahe was known asVolund.built around sacred wu thescene a a oah. bound to a fallen nee. a one-eyed stranger appeared among the wedding guesrs. VfXOOIAKwas the Slavic wolfman. except the youngest of Volsung's sons. First. the maglc sword secured their release and allowed them to take revenge on the king and his sons. But Siggeirdid not succeed.Despite Signy's Votsulc's fuelwv) great hall. Signy slept with him and bore Sinfiotli.According to Germanic myrhology. bur they lacked courage A second attempt to reinforce her brother involved incest.cN (abwe) was mapped Our of counesyVolsung invited his son-inJawSiggeir to rryhis luck first. the chief god ooll was destined to be hlled by rhe wolf FENRIR MGNARoK.eryhost swarmedinfrom the swirlingseas qnory JAMES (It-t-usrR By Arcxeuorn. Tnr Vtcnrp Pr. the warringhosts convergedJromall corners of the earth. lt took a long dme to prepare a revenge. As a result. in Germanic mytholog/. Whoever wielded rhe sword could never be defeated. Wayland's myth is a srory of revenge King Nidud of Sweden cur Wayland's leg sinews and placed him and his forge on a remote island. and in Germany asWielund. godsandherocspouredover the BtJrost Bridge.{ND WnYf-. known in German legend as Siegfried. Signy sent him to her brother to be trained as a warrior Although Sigmund and Sinfiotli were captured bySiggeir. until only Sigmund was left alive. Volsung's only daughter. he exists becauseof the ancient respect accorded to the ravenous wolf. The son of a sailor and a mermaid. Each night a wolf came and ate one of them. When Siggeir offered to buy the magic weapon. the a into geat oah Hechallengedthehroes to pull it out. and had another son. who came to see his treasures. The smith god avenged this mudlation by hlling Nidud's nvo sons. There ar MGNAROxthe two sides and their allies would engage in mutual destruction. 2+8 . while Ve added the powers of sight and hearing. orVolundr. Sigmund. was the name of a plain that was destined to be the sceneof the final conflict berween the gods and rhe frost gians. Even so. Afterwards Sigmund reumed home. More a figure of folklore than mythology. chief of the Germanic gods. in Germanic myrhology.y succeededin rescuing him. but this is not cenain. Sigmund refused ro parr with it atany price. Siggeir wrongly believed that no one had escaped the attentions of the wolf He relaxed his guard and Signy was able to brry her family and help Sigmund. and sending their heads studded with preciousjewels and mounted on silver to King Nidud. Nor was anyone else able to pull out the sword.while Lohi and thefi.tND was the smith god of the Anglo-Saxons. A huge expanse of land. 1984) MLI. ar the doom of the gods. ) 1995 waming. VOIOS VELES SCC out as the battlefieldoJ Ragnaroh Wlrcn Hamdall soundedthe call tobattle. Without his knowledge. When they later created the first man and woman from wood. he was renowned for mahng coats of mail and swords. Vili's contribution was sharp wits and feeling hearts. He may also have raped Nidud's daughter.

maze. flew aJterhis wtJe. and w ornaments fashtoning ondrous master. captlve a desolate inhis underground tsland. to .q. Near a long bar- row has ancient assoclations with Wayland.Alvrt. like the Greek inventor Daedalus. on wlngs he had made for hrmself Uffingron rn Wiltshire.dx KocH.rly on the island of Lemnos how A second explanation tells was born a Hephaistos dwarfish figure wirh a limp Hera even tried to drown him.qX SCCODIN 249 .Iaboured Jorge. andflew away toJreedom fashtonedwrngs 0i/ELqND By M. / 900 ) Afterwards have flown Wayland is said to to vALHALt-. his smrthy that of and is locally known as His lameness parallels the Greek Hephaistos.i? .ets a purestgold Waylandwas also craJtsman a designtng Jabulous on thegrand scale. i 904 ) Wen-aNp (abovenght) and hts brothers tn bathtng a upon threeVallrynes chanced lahe Thq tooktherrplumagelet'ton the years. but he was saved by sea nymPhs The lat[er version of the myth is most relevant to Wayland in Germanic the master crafrsmen mythology were mainly dwarfs.AlJhetm (lLLL.i WArLAND's (above)smithywasvrsitednot arms.orrrttn. bankandkeptthemon earth nlne Jor unttl thq escapedFashromngwrngs Jor Wayland htmselJ. like volcanic island acto the remote rvhich way'and had been banished wtgHND see wAnAND WOPEN ODIN SCC WOT.I'lidud weapons his oppressive Jor Wayland oJSwedenLtheDaedalus. Zeus and Hera So annoyed did Zeus become rhat he flung his son out of Olympus and ler him fallhear.srRA il()N sv H THEAxEn. smith god whose in. 8rH crxruRY ) on Werr-ctvp helow).but by lust by wariors seehing oJ w noblewomen anttngdain\ tnnh. uarrnc. and Wayland's own mother was a mermaid It is interesting to note that Lemnos was an island with tivitv.rng interfered rn a \nolent quarrel between his parents.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY df .ury had two different explanations In one version it was claimed that his limp was the result of his har.hnownas Volund'sHouse Icelandic 0VmrrnoruE cARVING.

) was theftrst creatureto anuge from the pnmal wastes ice in oJ theyawningabyss oJ Ginnungagapat the dawn of creation Asfirefrom the south mehedicefrom the north. thewhirling patterns Vihingart stihingly of capture the wirlingvitality at thecentre life A stag of brwseson its evergreenfoliagewhile a strpent nipsthestag's nech. It was thought of as the backbone of the universe. or yggdrasill.oruruHEtM. The idea of a cosmic ree is common in the myrlrs of the nonhem parts of both Europe andfuia.) Yuln belou. where MIMIR'swell stood. the second ended in fogg.NOnse MyTHoLoGY YGGOnAStt. Its branches overhung the nine worlds and spread out above the heavens. like Christ. sometimes refened to as "Vidoftrir the tree snake". the structural support of the nine worlds. An archaeological find that reveals the extent of this ghastly ritual is rhe Tollund Man. Although it is possible rhat the Crucifixion was known ar the time that rhe Odin myrh was recorded. reflectingthe ItJe deathstruggje therootof hfe and at (Wooo ccnvlNc. Odin had long been the god of the spear. (which means something like "dreadful rnount") was the cosmic ash nee in Germanic mythology. the last root was embedded nearaSGARD.t-t. his weat formed other frost glants (lnusrnnnory NrcxBry. Skuld and Verdandi. The corpse was so well presewed that it was possible ro deduce that he was a prisoner of war who had been sacrificed as a thank-offering after a batde. but sacrificial hangings from gallows trees were also a favourite Viking way of worshipping the god. where rhe dragon NIDHOGGgnawed the roor from belowwheneverit tired of chewing corpses. the god of the hanged. the sacreduee acquired a different role. Another bird in its branches was a cock. Is name is a reference either ro the gallows or ODIN's horse. there is litrle doubt rhat his hanging on the cosmic tree had pre-Christian origins and derived from ancient pagan worship. Water was raken from the well each day by the NoRNS. the iq droplets fused toJorm a massive frost glant As he slept. Yggdrasil is described as the largest and most stately tree ever to have grown. Odin was also pierced with a spear and. It was supported by three great roots: one descended ro. the three fates. Although always associated with otherworld splendour.r Niflheim. cried out before he died. An eagleperched on the very top of the cosmic tree was daily harassed by a squinel named Ratatosk. 8rn crNruny. stronghold of the the gods. who brought unpleasant commens and insults up from the dragon Nidhogg. The parallel beween Odin's volunmry dearh on Yggdrasil and Yccppslr (nghl theWorldTree. the musical branches of Irish mythology acted as cures for 250 . rhe land of the gians. close by rhe spring of Hvergelmir. ) ny 1995 the Crucifixion remains srriking. beneath URD's well. where the gods held their daily assembly. Not only did Odin hang himself on Yggdrasil for nine nights in order ro leam wisdom. at lay theheart theuniverse of Hqe. however. In lreland. and mixed wirh earth as a means of prevendng Yggdrasil's bark from rotting. found in a Jurland peat bog in 1950. Urd.

How much rees were once revered can be seen from the reactions to early Christian missionarieslike St Boniface. his unbroken bones mountains. One he pushed upwards to form the heavens. under rainbow fing dwarfs of nact. who first came from the sweat of 25L . He was a frost giant who emerged from the ("the ice in GINNT/NGAGAP yawning empdness"). Marduk. Hins of such maglc are also present in Germariic mythology.. 'ise with anddarhelves Jromtheocean. Vili and Ve then threw Ymir's carcassinto GinnungagaP.) FRoM sickness and despair. lakes and the sea. Odin. who were the gandsons of whom Audhumla had licked BURI. free of the ice. his blood rivers. with the exception of BERGEI^fiIR his wife. Growing dred of the brutality of Ymir and his ever-increasing band of frost giants. also Midgard but reached lts and. The obvious example must be the apples belonging to the goddess IDUN.theworlds mortak. bndge. Only this magic fruit prevented the gods from gowing old. was the first living creature. which was held up at its four corners bY dwarfs Sparks were used to make the sun.rnQumrs.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY -q*-. the emPtinessat the bottom of the universe. in Germanic mythology. the moon and the stars' Such an extremelY violent creation myth is by no means unique The Babylonian chamPion of the gods.. who manand aged to escape by sailing on a hollowed tree trunk. Odin. In a number of tales these magic branches of silver or gold were brought by messengers from otherworld lands.the other he used to make a floor above the deep.-*-o-* up Yccoustt's mightylimbshe? the Sean oJ nineworlds theNorsemen here (abwe) thethreehighest rmlmsoJgods are the andlightelves. and his skull the slcy. itslowest touchedhell was oJ generalfthought asthestructural of support theuniverse (lrrusrpcno^J4N 1984 sv Lw. until he himself was felled at Dockum by an outraged pagan. lt came from a branch of silver with white blossoms. YMIR.Asgard topmostboughs It root while heaven. Vili and Ve took up arrns They slewYmir and then drowned all the frost gianr in his blood. They were clearly the gift from the Yc copasrl-(nght) Jtlled hnwn world.He was slain by the brothers 1DIN.. to the telror of the Frisians. ) At another sacred tree. His flesh became the earth.wLJ and yE.ln the eighth cenury he cut down sacrificial trees. his teeth and jaw rocks and boulders. before sPlitdng her carcassinto rwo Parts. slew the chaos-dragon Tiamat with raging winds and an alrow. the at glanS'land theiq edge frost 1847 (I[usrnnoN NORTHERN Ar. depths oJ not in darh tahingroot only the in Niflham(bottom). which a beautiful lady took away after telling of the delights of her world beyond the sea. YCCOMSILL YGGDRASIL SCC his armpit. Thus the fabulous voyage of Bran b"g* with the sound of music that caused him to fall asleep. Ymir fed on the milk of the primeval cow AUDHUMIA. He was evil and the father and mother of all frost gians.

206BR.2308L. 16T.83 (all). I9gT. Tintagel: 100T.222TR. E.L+7L. 34TR.153R. 206TL.5OBL. 85TL.6+T. 66BR. Fine An Photographic Library: Z4BR.IgL. 2138. 168T.L40L. 161 (all). 7T. Christies Images:2L2T. 2298R. l8lB. 6gBR. 66T. I23BR. 62T. 7B.49TL. 59T.IGlvingrove: l5T. The Bridgeman Libraqy:g4BVPhillips An E.22ITL. 34BR.156 (both).Copenhagen: IO3B. EdinburghMuseums and Art Galleries: 245MR. 82T. T42BL. 44TR. L37TL.. 1 5 I B . Scala. 2L5T. T43T.P r c r u RE Ac xN owLE D G E M E NTS PTCTURE AcKN owLEDGEMENTS Publishers gratefullyacknowledge Th. T26B. Helsinh. : l33BL.102T. Davison: 119L. 231. 237TL. T25L. 7gB. Manchester Art Galleries: Ciry I0IB.I91T. The TateGallery. fuchiv ftir Kunstund Geschichte. 88B.l33BR. Oldsaksamling. Nasjonalgalleriet.1498.45. 50TR. 6g8.2378L. 245TR.65T. 166. 7 4TL. I4IBR.Florence 29TL.I25R.I34TR. Celrrc Mvrnolocy 245ML. and IO4B. 53 (all).89T.I08R.87T.203T. ClesstcAL MyrnoLocy Nonse MvrnoLocy Ateneum. The Bodleian Library:l39TL.2+5TI'/Ihj odminjasafin. The Bridgeman Library/Bonhams: An BirminghamMuseumsand An Gallery: LT9lJRoyal Library.Copenhagen: Museum. Counesyof the Boardof Trusteesof the Victoriaand Alben Museum: 1508L. London: L3+8.158 (all). Alan Lee: 44BR. 36L. glTM. . Alan Lee:I05 (all).London: 42T. . I3BL.23. I97BR.g0T. 202BL. Rey$avik 233N niversitetes Kirg futhurs GreatHalls.162 (both) L6+L. 205.l5T. 5. Modena:858R. Stockholm: 189TL. 1458. 2 I 3TR. 68T.18IR.Copenhagen: I98BR. The Tate Gallery. Ateneum. 169T. 35. 243T. 1688. Oslo: I 75. I10. 196R.63T. 252 . I37TR. r66BL.I59BR. Amamagn aean titu te. MirandaGray:l02BL. E. 160. IIIB. 170 (both). T. 22gTR. I90T. FineArt: 9}/Lady LeverAn Gallery.190B. I 28R/Bibliothdque Nationale : AlanLee: l8lT.30 (all). 43R. 52TR. I57BR. Statens Museumfur Kunst. NationalMuseumStockholm:I82T. FineArt PhotogaphicLibrary'.LT+BL. DanutaMeyer:I07L.14ITR. DundeeAn Galleries Museums:103T. +7T. Copenhagen Ins : Archiv ftir Kunsrund Geschichte. 1 2 0 8 R1 3 5 . JeanLoup Charmer:197TR. 4LT. London: I79R. Manchester City An Galleries: 17P.140R. I97TL. INTRoDUcTIoN Archiv ftir Kunsrund Geschichte. The CentralAn Archives:2.2+gB. T12BL.I88BL.104T.113T. London: r76L. WemerForman Archive:L74.528L. Archive:3lTR. 1158L. I30BR. 1 5 7 T .7gB.4IBR.70R.4OR. Helsinki. 93T.240. 2+gB. 107R.72T.L46T. 15 ITR. YvonneGilben: 148ML.2428R. I64R.106T. Sunlight 9 4l*/frirvare : Collection: 243BR. 20 (all).I32R. Galleries: 192B.l7IBR.242TL. I the following for permissionro reproduce the illustrations indicated. l46BL. L3+TL. 75.. I 38TR/Private Collecdon: Manchester Museums An City and I4lVGiraudon: 155T. 14B. 6lTR.23 6BL.55 (all). BildarchivPreussischer Kulturbesitz 224T. fuchive: 186T. 38TR.l 4 I L .237TR. StuartLittlejohn:Il4T. Glasgow Museums:An Galleryand 25OTRAlational Musuem. 20I Goth).T32L. 76.Vienna:778[the National Gallery.1498R. CounesySusanRussellFlint: t 46BR.The Central Art fuchives:197BL.22+8. 220R.210BL. 878.2+TB.I45TL.I57BL.5lBR. of II8B. 598. L49TL.I5OTM.2+.. l 0 I T . tgT. London: 6. Archiv fi:r Kunst und Geschichte: 12. 214B. I 236BVStatens Historiska Museum.I3IT. 22I TR. I++T. II4B. T.58BR. 183T.67T. L67T.39T.London: S5BVGalerie Estense. NationalGalleries Scotland:99L.25lrR. 1288L.1958.57T. I33TlPhillipsFineAn L36B/Ciryof 205T.56T.184T. 60BR. The Bridgemanfut Library/BristolMuseum and An Gallery:84BlKunsthistorisches Museum.2L58. Z09BL. Boardof Trustees the NationalMuseums of and Gallerieson Merseyside 0MalkerArt Gallery):638. 12IT.48TL. zIL.Port FineAn Photogaphic Library:188T. Oslo: 1868.203BR.92.I65L.. LZZT.2468.

King of 185.56 Il. Brangaine r 8 5 .246.168 Cemunnos I I2.I83. I 1 2 . 103. Boyne.73. 1 6 Q 5 6 .79. t47.5 3 . 150. 66.1.i85. 6 7 .21. I42. 13.202. 3/.28. Borl8I.+3. I47 Corinth 23.237 Acrisius 3+.26. l5l Dublin 126.I75 Dvalin 185. 2r8. ll7. Andvari Acrs74 Bodmin100 26 Astraeus 200. Balor Ares17. I06.1+7. 32. t57.r 7 I . r29. I84. 53. 5 0 .28.i89.143 242. 1 4 8 .42. 14.77. 168. 33.r 5 . 166 Queen139 99 Cneisgel Becuma 6.24. 3 4 . 2 3 .21 Cronos L9. Amairgen 97. Queen o[ Carthage 14.38. 74. I22.203. r95.73. 12I.48. Antigone 18. Amma2I9 246. Arcas20 Agravain. Abundanti60 Sea Black I l. 167 D e i a n i r a6 .67 Berling185 t 2 0 . I95. Agamemnon II. 1 2 5l. Annwn97. 94. +2.38.250 Cu Roi.I I l .34. 98. Ailill Mac Mam 96 27. I50.132. Brynhild A r g 0 2 2 . 183 4 7 .185.33. 170 and seeAnu D a n a e2 I . 136 Creon 18. 39 185. Amaethon 96.147. I66 .109. 2 4 6 . 30.130.1 3 0 .f09.58.16I.202. r70.1 7 .19. Branwen 107. I03. Calydon 25 18I. 4 3 .2 t . 2 9 . 126. Angrboda Aeaea32.82.26. 43. 169 Coronis 24 Craiftine I I7 Creidhne ll7.60. ll2. . 14.196 t99. Agenor.r88. 1 8 4 . Aetna. I99. 5 0 .I 3 9 .26.39. I19 Conn of the Hundred Battles 99 Connacht 96.7l ll7.40. 86 Demeter33.97 B e l il l I . 2 + 8 I75. I65. l13. 4 r .2r7 .229.26. Aegrr 178. 2 2 . 15. 2 2 4 Amphion 20 King l8a.165 I8I.37.56.23. 107. King of Ulster I12.236. 195 Dyfed 99.I 5 9 18l.1 9 8 .I 9 3 . r 8 3 . 122.6r Bron139. 54. 1 3 7. 9 2 . r+6. 69 84.37 . 6 8 8 0 .28.3 I .34. 36. 7 r . Beltaine Alcyone 73 Caladcholg I48 150 Beothach 57. 152. 24. i5. 31. 129. 5 4 .83. Ajax 12. I2I Blathnat r95.74 222 19. I52.4 6 . I13.126 E Eagor seeAegir Eber 97 Eber Donn 126.2I. 1 0 4 . 198. 1 0 2 . +1. Avalon I0l. 18. 3 7 23 Apsyrtus 5 + . 120.32. I 9 . 6 0 . 106. 6 8 . 28. Apulia4I I Brigantia l0 153 Arawn. 7 4 . t29 Calypso 65 248 1 r 1 4 . n8. Arcadia 18. i7I Conchobhar Mac Nessa. 126r 2 7 .83 Colosseum 85 Colossus of Rhodes 46 Conaire Mor I I2-I I3. Marcus 34. I08. i66. 59 Diarmuid Ua Duibhne 98. Afi 2r9 1 r27.123. ll0. 14.19.165 l. 7 9 . IL4.86.67 Cocalos.84. r35. 28.152. 47.r 0 5 . I16.22. l12. 9 3 .25. 6 1 .16. I I 4 . 1 0 2 . 163 I78. 49.129. 6 0 .4 7 . ll7. 3 4 . r44.7. 162 28. 159 103. +9. 1 6 2 r87. I04- r 05 Celtic romance 140-141 cennurs 6. 13. 1I7. r 7 1 . 8 8 r07.238 Chrysippus 10.222.60 Colonus18.76. Mount46. 2 + . Brokk 236. 58.5 I . 5 6 .6I Cyclopes 33. r07.89 69.171176.30.r 3 6 Aerope 26 t47 18I.79. 148. 142.I(ng of Annwn Agave 1I.54. 71. I70 of rebinh 132.38. l19. . I 1 5 0 .216. I33 CenTneian hind 48 C e s a i rI 1 2 .25.6 I . 225. 152. 1 5 . Sir I42 27. 125.22. 66.207. r 4 2I.164. 4 5 .218. 22. 56.I 3 5 . tugus22.I88. lB0. Aurora38 Aeson 23.147 Donn I26. 48. I13 Cloelia 3I Clontarf 102 253 . Achilles l2-13. I 3 . 7 1 .20. 8l Echo 63. I 2 2 . I30 Cupid 33.4 . King of Ulster I12.1 2 7 . 1 4 7 Eibhir 159 r52 cauldrons.l t 8 1 3 I . Boreades 180. ur. 3 4 .37. 126 Dons 86 Draupnir 197 .82 r 2 0 . llI.0 0 .I70 Cumae 80 Cumal 120. I83. l+0. 6 4 .62 Cepheus l8 Cephissus.I07.I04 99. r 9 . 102.228. l6l.60. I79. 2 9 . 19. I44.129.67. Artemis 13. 89 Crucifixlon 215. 16. r43.23. 6 1 . ll6ll7.34 Dazhbog 188. 48.216.2r2. I32.59 Christ I34. I80.208. 1 6 7 . 8 0 . 71. r88. II5.42 Clymene 25. 2 6 . Alberich 237 and see Cad'Goddeu 96.250. r44. 5 0 . 6 4 246 1 0 9 . 42. Ariadne AlbaLonga 17. Bifrost 18l. 23. 23 .I9l.28. L22. zll. 1 0 3 . 6 5 . l l l 60 r 6 . 1 0 9I. I66 Cecrops 25. 158 Callisto 20 2L1. 1. 1 5 . I98.117. 46. B 1 2 . I09.184. 3 4 . 4 7 . 148.207. Aphrodite 2I0. 2 9 Andhrimnir2i3 I06. Aegeus 13. King of Colchis 236 2++ 25. I23.2t0. 13. 2 2 .1 4 6 .140. r04. Brown Bull of 96. I53. 3 8 .67 Bran 104. Beowulf Anhur. 2 7 .216 berserkers I 3 4 . I29. 166.82. 109. nt. Andromeda 18. 178.36. Aeolus 65 + 1 2 6 .54. ll8.33. 1 3 2 . Baucis 56 60 Airmid 122. 29. 2 4 6 .24 Amphitrite68. ll8.73 BolthurI84 Aulanta24-25. 4s.43 4 7 . 2 4 . 184. 74. 184.84. 6 2 .4 9 .66 Ciabhan II2.Mount 52 Antiope20 Aegle52 I 0 7 . 15. 2 3 . 178. i3.19.243.64 Cassiope I8 Casde of the Fountain 156. li7 Comwall92.25r 54. Amphitryon f6. 15. I03.22. mares of 48 D i o n y s u sI l .54. 22.54 184.136.54. I82-183. C a m e l o tI 0 I .l+6. Baugi I89 1 Argos 5. 6 2 .147 AurvandilI94 1 7 5 .170 Cigfa I46.12. 99. 2 7 . 2 1 . 43. 3 2 .26-7 Boreas .144. Aili r99. Andvarinaut Acaeon13. 7 3 . 7 8 . l0l.87 Chiron I2.140. 12.71. 2 + .15.33. 1 3 2 . 1 5 .53.224. .60. 5I. 1 5 7 .29.184. I16.240. 205 A n u9 8 .81 Celeno 73 Cellach I 17 Celdc otherworlds.188. 84. 1 5 3 . 6 7 .86.76. 3 8 . 73. t22.INorx INDEX r87. 188. t43. 120.63 Edda 218-219 Eetion l7 Efnisien 107. 2 4 . 62.236.54. 2 3 . 122. I1. 106.66. tugonaurc Nne 96-97.105.227 D e c h t i r el 1 2 . r07. 7 1 . River 63 Cerberus 28.5 8 .l 1 .54. 4 8 . 98.83 79. t27. 67 r29 Ailill96. 19.73 Clytemnestra 10.86 Cairbe lI7. 160.210. r16. 3 + . l18.67. 5 4 . l'+.202 Calais22. 38. Anchises 14.222 Caswallon I I I CathbadlI2. 60.I33.194 Christianiry 67. 72.87 Cercyon 82 Ceres 36 Ceridwen tl2.4+ I. 133. 143. 4 0 . Billing. 157. 63 6 7 .27 f3i. +0.37.25. T 1 A e n a d . 16 2 5 .37.67. 3 4 .t 2 1 .h e 1 .57.98.29 Circe 32. 2 5 r 117 Spear I89. 2 1 4 .79.r 9 3 .I 5 .142. 120.25. 122.24.1 6 6 .97. t52 Conlai 6.I I 0 . Atropos +2.67 Charybdis 32. I84.79. IO3.66. Athena 19.34. Aonghus 99.59.33. I t9.1 3 7 . 122. 14I.98-99.249 Dagda7. 2 8 . 133. 138. I14. King of Munster 103. 5 4 .237 Adonis19.97.27 Britomartis 2t8.83 Pagenumbersin bold type refer to illusrranons 1 1 t l I34. 4 2 . 21.97. l16. l14. Alfrigg 185 I CaladnIl. 136. 1 1 8 .23.79 Derbforgaille 122 Dia22.52. 2 8 . 86 C o l c h i sI I . I27 Eber Finn 126 Echidna 28.132. 15. 86 Crete6.78.96 228.28. 1 2 I Aeneas 14. 120. 2 3 . t19. 2 6 . 238 r27. I0.103.68. 1 3 . 26. 57. t22. Alcmene 16.216.86 207. 5 7 . I82.122. . r 3 0 .31. t2I. 56. 7 r . Balder 96.3r. 114. I52 Conall Caemach 96. Calliope 63. I36 Cormac. 97. 2 8 . 8 9 . Admeus 16.123. Blodeuedd 207 17. lI7.73 Akka 202 Byrsa 85 Bebo.I9. Athens I0.123 I 8 5 .60. r23.56. 7 3 . 222. 4 6 . 194 1 0 0 .38. 8l Coriolanus 32. 1.236. 158. r38 46. lI8-119. 104.5+.29.27. King of Tyre I Brigrndo l0 184. 191.15. tuclepius 16.1 2 7 .87.6 I . i16.64.I 1 6 L6+. I'1.53. HighKing102.123. I43. 2t5. 2 3 .156.99 Alcippe 34 C a e r 9 8 . 5 4 Aillil OIom.f08. 98. 4 1 . 5 I . 83 Dian Cecht 109. 18+.221. 88 164. 9 8 . 84 Anica27. 23.42.77 Al{heim 191. t2l. 2 3 . 135. 61. 17.28.33.196. 154.159 Caia 46 Cama 54 Carthage 14. 127 .248 r 6 6 . c I03. ' 153 Daphne 31. Aegrsthus t5. 1 3 1 Chaeronia. I r 3 7 .5 7.205. A u l i sI 2 .28. ll7. r 0 2 . 9 8 . 156. 4 8 . l4I. l 2 l . Asgard 85 Abana96 I 5 6 . 1 2 6 .67.245.82.237 102. I90.66.27.8 5 .167 Sir 6. I l 7 . I80. il9. 26.28. 3 9 .244.25. 1 2 3 . r00. 120.85 Cassandra 15.2r3.98. I61 Crldydd l2O Cimon 83 Cincinnatus 29.231.25 185. I I BrigantesI0 BadbI02. Atreus I5. t98. I28 Banba 22. Nvir249 Calchas 41. High King of Ireland 99. 7 0 . 6 1 . 1I0. 5 I . 156.152. 1 9 . I0. r00.76. f08. 126. 2 8 .162 Dylan 99. 3 0 .r70.I79.34 Cybele+9. Brisingamen 1 9 I . I I 0 . 53 Alan 139.199.62 Coeus 57.2I5. 50. 153 181.154 Diana 23.79 73 8 8 . 4 0 . 1 4 3I.s 0 . r22. 155.67. 7 r . I09. 44. l7l Cuailgne. 2 2 .85 Dietrich 220. 120 Culhwch 96. Bellerophon tut 99. II2. 86 I1.2r5.I78. 139. 3 9 .17.85 Cacus 77 Belenus 103. 9 8 . 120. ll2. 7 5 . 2 6 . 146. 6 I 7 . 2 5 .45. I90 Domhall I I9 Domhring 236 Domnu 154 Don 97. 98 Ard-Greimne Aietes.I84-185. 126.73. 2 t 4 .87. 9 8 . 1 8 l . 2 0 .2lI.lI0. ll2.25I ll5.208.26. 236. 1 9 8 . I5I Camulos I I1 Caradawc I I I Carbonek Castle 105.143.70 Aglaia 44 190.153. 103. 36.i I 0 . f83. 98.89 Creusa14.73. I3I.237 Diomedes. Asterius 39. 1 2 7 . 5 7 .6 6. r37. 5 2 . Bnan.166 Balius 88. Bestla I 3 8 .76 33. t3. I 2 3 . 202.7r.I80 ?l ?a 4) 4q 46 \4 I09.66. 5 0 . 182.48 Augeas I8-19.I 5 2 futerope 73 i79. 27.242 2 Adas 5.4 9 . r52 Delbaeth I27 Delbchaem 99 Delos 50. 227 Arcona Ai 2I8-219 208.I t l . I99.26. Battle of 39 Chaos 43 Chanclo 86 Charities see Graces Charon 28. 1 3 7a n d r23. l+. r67 Dicrynna 27 Dicrys 2I Dido. 2 1 .28.I35.84. T7L Daman 129 D a n al 2 I .137.119. 84.211 Branthe Blessed 98.22. 15 25r BeFind 13I 48. lI4. I18. 36. I30. 2 67 r . 8 7 . 65.41. l16.13. I 2 2 . 46. f03 Bedwyr 62.17.I90.106.t12.+5.215 83 Bors.32.83. j2 Cormac Mac Art. 45.l 0 l . 160. Atlas. 15.144. Boann 106. 120.237 Dryads 69 Dubh Lacha 126. r08. i48 C u c h u l a i n n6 .83. 18.200. LuciusJunius Brutus.106-107. 98. t66 Camlan. I29. 1 4 2 . I59. nI.79 I12 Birh 29 17. Bergelmir I02. 8 3 .I 5 8 . 120. 179.122.97. r36.214 Culann 118. I 32-133 ofplenry f04.37 Brigid 109. 6 9 . AfagdduI 12 B r e s0 9 . 1 0l34 .59 Castor 22. 46. I82.129. A o i f a .1 3 6 .23 I85.2+5 Bragr 178. 1 2 9 . 70. r97.84 I8. 2 5 .I80.215.120. l l I 2 6 .81. ll6.65 Chimaera 26. Bellona 79. 185.82. 5 4 I70 Munster 96-97 t99. 1 3 l7 . C a i l t el l l . 109. 183. 54. 2 8 3 I . Clotho 41.56. I32. 16 39.222-223. King of Kamikos 34.I03. 7 r . 92. t85.127. 91. 87 Curtius.211. 4 7 . 131. I58. I05. Banshees 102. 3 7 .6 .57.r 0 1r. magrc 93. ll8.9 0 13. Brendan 94. 7 . 26.64.65 Clio 63 Cliodhna l12. 7.78 Cythera 28 D Da Chich Anann 98 Dabog see Dazhbog D a e d a l u s2 3 .i2l Aino 24I B u r il 8 I .2+. r66. 8 2 . 72. 159 Cyprus 19.66.119.29. 5 4 . 8 3 . 22.King93. Belenus see Arion 50 Alcesds 16.92.65 27 6 4 . Alvis 178. 1 9 Deimos l9 Deirdre of the Sonows lI2. 2 5 . t42.83 32. 1 5 2 Anueus 48 21r. 17. 8 68 6 . 56. l8l. 57 pelphic Oracle 13. Il+. Amulius A Blacklftight121. 6+. 1 7 .64. 116.153. I04 2 5 . 13. 132.+5. Arianrhod 106.60 22. t42. I02. 1 4 0 . 3 1 . 2 4 .51" Andromache L7.25r 18.20t. I16. Amazons 17.23 I89 Bolverk I5.97. 26. Areopagus 43.r43 Andvari Cadmus13. 28. Aethra 82 Breg168 Autonoe13 Apollo13. f l l . 6 7. 147. Audhumla of Aonghus theTenible Aesir178.4 8 .225. BabaYaga 18l 88 AppiusClaudius BriciuI I0 1 B a c c h u s1 . I80 Cynon I21.46. Attis 49 1 2 9 .58. 8 7 8 8 92.202. l13 Cian 102.28. 106. I37.37. 139.I 9 9 . I12. 12l. 10.23. fucanius 14. 7 3 . River 98. 2 4 6 . I 9 . Battle of 100.29.

lngeborg 228. 134. I 9 5 .213 Eioneus 54 Eithlinn I43 Eiri222-223 Eirn 208 Elaine I59 Elarha 109. Iolcus22. I02. 1 I 9 I ./_55 Goil I30. I37. King of Tiryns 48 Eurytion 77 Everes 86 Ewawg 160 Excalibur I00. 79. r 229 GunnlodI84. 2 2 8 . 220. 39 Enid 14l Enna I26 Eochaid 163 Eochaidh Mac Erc 168 Eochaidh. Hebe47 Hecate45 H e c t o1 3 .4 2 . 232 FIed Goibnenn 136 F l o o d . l4l Emhain 146 Enarete 8l Endymion 38. II7.166. 4 2 . 2 3 5 . 3 4 . I59.2l4 J a r l2 I 9 . ll8. Gullinbursti I96 Gundestrup Cauldron 7 .1 5 5 .2 15. 19. 167 F i a n n a9 6 . I44. I29 Ethne 129. 7 4 .73.89 23. 163. . r83 Grer185 Grid 192. Indra 232. t. 122. 73 Electryon l6 Eleusian mysteries 72 Eleusis 36.2I5.79 Eurus 26 Eurydice 19.2r8.22t. 136.6I.7I I .37. 28. I30.32. 127. 1 2 81 3 6 . ll8. 2 1 9 l 7 l L I L Hlora232 Hodr178. 2+6. 53 Harpies14.Id I42 6 1 .75 Heimdall I78.147 GwythyrI37 Gylfi. 1+6. 127.73. Il0. 207 208.207. Hestia 45. 1 9 0 . I93.229 Fuamnach 150 96. I I 5 .124. 4 6 . 232 Glastonbury l0l.216. 3 0 . 8 5 Febal 106 Fedlimid 129 Fenians seeFianna Fennr I75.i82.l 2 t . I63. 193. I29 Fergus Mac Leda I24. 7 5 . 2 2 2 .129 Eogabail 96 Eorann 168 Eos 26.I 2 3 .73.218. 232 Hippodameia 26.104. 215.1 6 . 180. 137. l I 7 . 189.: n o n2 8 . l0L. 198. 55. 4 7 .I 5 3 . 222. 69. 4 3 Garm 239 Gaul 92. 6 3 . 192.2+1 199.60.2t8.I17. Hel 179. 56. sons of 194. 82 Elis38. 53. 188. 242.I 9 7 . tZ5.202. 3 1 . Galahad. 7 5 . 200. I 7 .9 0 . I50 Eteocles 33.I96.239. High King of Ireland I 13.206.67 Eurymome 44 Eurystheus. I l 4 I . 2 0 7 . I29.r27t29 . 17. 1 8 4 . 127 Erichthonius 25.77.42 F a u s t u l u sI 7 . 48. I88. 2. 1 5 4 . t22. 83 J Hippolytus 7. 71. 1 3 9I . 52 Ismene 66 Heroes 30-31 Ith 139. King I39.215. I29. 1 2 6 . 19+ HrungnirI94. 5 7 .146 Fannell I 18 Farbaud 188.1 9 6 . 9 2 . 62. 129. I48 Gungnir194.2 r 5 Fraoch I3I Freki2I4 Freya175. 194 Grendel's morher 183. the Salmon of Knowledge 106.3 I .192 Geinod I92.I89. I83. 192. 2 8 .26. t54. 189 FotlaI29 Founders 84-5 Founrain Wisdom of 2 0 9 .218 Horatius Cocles 31. Helios 32. r 63 Golden Fleece l.2 I . 1 3 7 . 122.64 Hereydd 162 lman i37. r 3 I . r29. l6I Gwynap Nudd 137 Gwynedd 137. King of Sweden t92 Gymir191.228.79.+ 6 . G Gabhra. . 8 5 . t52. 232-233. 53 7+. 3 3 . r . 1 0 6 . i 9 2 .243.242 t07 Hero52. 4 5 + 8 .127 Elbha lI2.4 9+ 8 . I30.t h e I 1 2 . 137 Hermaphroditos 49 49. I88.142. r93. 20020r.182.245 Icarius 72 Helen Troy15.r 9 5 . r24.224. 4 7 . 8 4 . t 12 and see Taliesin Gwyddbwyll158 Gwydion 99.225. 215 HarbardI94 Harmonia 17.209.214.184.88.246. l3I. 80.6 1 .183 Gefion I92. L49.68 Fintan I 12 Finnn. Iliad. 182.2 2 t .109. 167 Fimafeng I78 Findbhair i3I Findchaem I 12 Finegas 130.230 Hugrnn 201.24r 2 5 .156 Gerda 190-19I. Iphicles I6 1 4 . lsle of Women 106. 88 Eumenides see Furies Euphrosyne 44 Europa 20. I48. I29 Etruscans 52.127. of Icarus 35. 6 5 . 19.20I. .248 Iapetus 75 25. r 3 7 .1 9 9 . lasus24 .I 9 8 . 163 Erato 63 Erebos 39 Erechtheus. 60 Glaucus 26 Gleipnir 188 Glitnir I89.227 Imbolc I I0 .1 9 6 . 147 G i n n u n g a g a pi 8 l . 4 5 + 9 . 103. 6 4 . 122. 198.1 7 . I23. +9.I17 Graces 44.198. lr7.1 3 t . 128.200.77. r+7 Emer I 16. 196.30.215. I67 Gram 219.74 Gorias I70 Goronwy 106 Govannon I23.239. 1 0 5 . 5 3 . 7 0 . 193. t 1 3 . l0l. 102.215. 188.82. 26.62 34. 152. I40. 229. 150. Ino 53. 152 Erhal98. I 9 2 . 4 5 . I38. T 4 Z4 9 .1 6 3 .7I Ellida I97 ElysianFields I6. I36.201. 130 Finias I70 Finn MacCool92. 218. 205. r35.5 0 . Frey174. 18.4 5 .+ 9 . 39.I7I F o r b al i3 I . I9 Emain Macha l12. I29. I0. 53 249 Iolaus 48 Heracles ll. 4 4 . I96.3 3 . I18. Hypnos 53. Kng27 Eremon.222. 203 Fjorgrn I9I.I9I. 137.225. 4+.S i r 1 3 4 .76-77 Gilvaethwy 99. 20t Hyperion 46. 1 3 . 68. I 3 7 . r88. r62 Gwentls Coed168 Gwem107. r68 Firbolg 109. High King of Ireland 96. I 2 3 .246 Frigg I78. rzr . 4 3 . 136.2+7 Griddylad137 Grimhild185.237 Falias I70 Fand 128. 5 2 . I75. 1 2 8 . 225. 7 5 . 166 Glauce 54. 6. 3 2 . I52 Elcmar I06 Eldhrimnir 2I3 Elecrra 38. 85 Hellawes l5 I Ilmarinen 196.66.237. 8 6 . 1 8 5 . 199. 5 0 . 38. 148. 1 44.247. 23L. 200.8 9 . 1 4 7 . 2 1 6 . 198. 5 5 1 . 2 3 72 4 6 .180. III Ethiopia I8 Ethlinn I02.22r. 137.l9l.I 3 6 r 3 7 . 188.5 2 . 207. 194.1 6 6 .239. 6 t . 54 Hlidshalf i9l.I 4 . 4 3 . I30.202. 8 1 . 146. 68.46. 15. 180. Iphigenia 12. 23r. 38. 5 0 . 48. 5 7 . .237 Groa194.218.52 Hreidmar I79. 197. 5 1 . I30. Idun 178. 199. 7 9 . 1 8 0 .2 1 6 . I62 99. n0. 15. r 4 4 . 7 9 .2 5 . 7 I Hecuba 28.3 .77 Giants 16. Island of 77 Erytheis 52 Ecain96. I 3 4 . 13l.8 t . l l I . 6 9 .r 5 1 Halicamassus 49 Wartooth Harald I75.178. King of Ulster 152 Fadir 2I9 Fafner 237 Fafnir 7. 4 9 .96.I 3 6 . 99 Erymanthian boar 48 Erytheia. 2 2 . 4 8 .29. 140.9 t . I08. 8 3 . I28 Ema 219. L 4 O . 10. 1 2 7 Foltor 96 Fomoni 102. 13l. 235 3. I33.237 Guinevere. r22. 5 I+6. 60 2 2 . 1 5 9 . Furies 13. + . 42-43. 126 En 109. 59 Hati 226 Havgan I05. I54 Emin Oig I12 Etar I29. High King of Ireland 97.2 I 3 . 1 5 9 Flora 19. 143. 3 9 .25.3I. 3 0 . 203 Galarea 71 Ga\ada92 G a n y m e d e4 . I39 Fergus Mac Rorh 96. 5 4 . 1 4 7 Forces narure of 68-69 Forsed I78. 2 r 8 I 2t9.73.210. 38. Helenus l7 225. Ivaldi. I94. 4 7 . 3 . i93.15I. 3 8 . I2+. 5 2 .194 G u d r u n 8 5 .38. 2 1 6 . 52.150.194.81.86 llium 84.5 8 . Holy seeSangreal Grainne 98. 6 5 . 2 7 . I 229. 202. l5l Heroic I t h a c a2 5 . l+0. 4+. 2 2 I . 200.89. r12. 2 1 0 . I89 Goewin 99 Goibhniu 102.129.2+6 Frithiof220.t22. +4.r27. 58 Hylas69 Hymir178.r 3 8 . 39. I88. Iapyx2l 183.l4l. Queen I 0 5 . Iarbus 85 202. 38. 249 Inachus 53 Hera 16.5 t . 8 0 . 2 0 0 .50. 2 8 . 2 t 62 r 7 . 3 9 .207 r8. 17. r 7 9 .195.224. 106.76.+8. 7 2 QuessI56-i57 Hespera lubdan. 8 68 7 .1 6 7 Galar I88-I89.214. 206 Fasolt 237 F a t e s1 6 . 2 2 . 194. 6. 219 E r o s2 0 . 1 9 4 . 6 0 . 159.INorx Eileithyra 16. 150. 93. 137 Gordius 6l Gorgons 8.19. 54.6 2 .t84.28. 4 9 . 25. 6 3 . 3 0 .+ 9 . 7 8 .I09.179.7 t . 158 Gowein I37. 245. t 9 I . Ilt. 54. I89. 55 Einhe4ar. Sir 1 3 4 .232-233 Hugr 20I. Hermes I6. 48. the I75. lt7.65. 7 + .3 6 .236. I+7 GwionBachI 12. I93. ZII Fauni 42 Faunus 12. I97.2 236. 215 Hunding 228 Hvergelmir 250 Hydra29. r30. 231.73. 5 9 Hippolyta +8. Indech I54 2 0 .5253. I89.47 Erik Bloodaxe 176 Eriu I26. 14. I98-r99. 66 Eterscel.150. 1 6 9 7 3 . 4 2 . 130. I16. 120. 17. 167.239 G u n n e 1 8 5 .40.32.229 5 3 . 2 5 . 237.1 5 . . I79.i84. 1 5 . 88 33. I00. 105.6 4 . 2 I 5 . 4 4 . Hephaistos 15. 86 38. i37. 3+ 3 . l l u s 4 3 . 2 0 5 .I 5 I I. 5 5 . 189. 77 Epidauros 24 Epirus l4 Epona 128. 228.151 F Fabulous voyages I64165 Fachtna Farhach Ii6 Fachma. i44 G a w a i n .88 42. 13I. 224 Green Iftighr 135 Greip 192. 218. 128. 5 4 . 8 5 76. Hogni 229 HonirI79. 4 1 .79 254 .175I78. I26.205.7 2 . 1 3 2 .3 8 .t4I. t37. 97. 1 9 0 . 185.I92 H H a d e s 2 . I24.86. 60 Golden Mane200. +7. 138-139.L + 3 .130. 13. 19. t Isle of Menimenr 106 Hermod I82-I83.246.25r GiollBridge 198 Gjalp I92. 1 6 7 .+ 6 . 1 3 5 .198.189 Gurtorm199 GwawlI25. Jadhg I20 83 Janus 54.248 Fer Cherdne 103 Ferdia I29. 8 71 5 4 . 2 5 . 4 + . I84.154. ZO7. I 4 4 . 136. 124. ll9. 69 Floralia festival 69 F o g a l ll 1 8 .129. Io 53.45 Graiae 73 Grail. lseult I08. 168 Fjalar I88-189. 1 6 0 . 82. 22. 7 0 .208.198. 9 8 . The 89 +6. 5 I . 7 1 . 6 I .229 Geri2I4 Geryon18. r 3 6 . I 4 3 .232-233 Geraint. 16.3 4 . 251 Helgi 2I3 Igraine 100. 1 + 3 . 98. 230.208. 182. 51. King183.5 0 . 7 7 7. 5 + . 1 9 2 . Iuchar 109 52 Iucharba I09 Hesperus 63 52.86. 232 Grendel I3I. 8 . 136. . 224.r 9 1t . 136. 4 7 . 193. I 4 3 . t54-I55.199. r36.237 HrimthursI80 Hrothgar. 137. Ill.7t.139. I39 52 Hesperides 48. 51. i70. 169.207. 7 0 . 120.77. I9.+7. Bartle 159 o[ Gae-bolg 166 G a i a 9 .

24 z+5. 6 1 . MeliotI I5 215 1 9 0 . 208.67 39 Phosphorus 63 Orthnit236 P h r y g i a4 3 .7 1 . 7 0 .22. MuriasI70 I 62-63.+I Ladyof the l-ake100.1 9 5 . 7 0 . 1 8 .163.Queenof Le Morgan Fayl0l.6 2 . I J a s o n1 . 6 0 .79 Leshy.1 2 0 . 7 1 .206.158 see Matholwch. 96.25.Z5l 208. 203. 122. 206.200.r 5 0 . I 2 9 . 2II I+3. I4. 2 3 9 i5l.201.86 Njord 178. 5 5 . n Nemglan I l2-l13. 7 1 . i t22. 3 3 . 203 L labdacus56 Labynnth 13. Neoptolemus l7 I 2 2 . t12-L+3. 29.206. 1 2 5 . 71. 37. 100 Sir P e l o p1 0 .7r 222 P e r s e p h o n eI 6 . 6 0 .I 8 8 . King of Comwall 225 . 6+-65.170 Lugus 144 Luned t. I 7 I Nanna I82. I 5 I . 56.202.242-243.60 Pelles 159. 37. i20. 167. Madder-Atcha 207 198. I13.25.82 13.21. 1 3 7 . 250 Manannan Lir 96.82 lamfhada seeLugh Sir I-ancelot. 102.L + 5 . ]67 o[ Midgard I79. 154. Narcissus 63. 6 I . 67.+0.seePerunu Pittheus.3r. 74. 33. I88. 217.7 0 .74 PeleusKingof Phthia . II2.2 6 . 16. l I 1 2 . 8 2 Morpheus Oath Ring236 92.63. 237.1 6 6 Jormungand Latinus.20+. I09.216-217. t 2 I .I09.75.54. l Corinth 56. 1 4 9I. I53. 15 Polydeuces 22. 225. t97. Milesians 97.129. 5 5 . 2 5 .+1.153 of I52. 2ll.+.2I8. Nidhogg 2I0. t 5 l nymphs 68 138. i I 0 I . 67. 246. I68 |erun see Perunu |gmalion 78. 71. 6 2 .235. 6 1 . 203.60. King of Oscar I59 Osins 183 Troezen 13. 1 8 . I05. i3I. 7 5 Proteus. I05. 142.246 Pnapus 49.73 6 7 .207.86 1 z+7. 1 7 . 1 2 .248. 6 9 .85 255 . 50.6 7 .147. l 1 6 .168 P s y c h e3 3 . Minthe45 1 4 6 .208. I 4 9 . Mnemosyne Marduk25I Mochaen I09 2t0-2r r.72. King of Macedon and 40-41 39 Philyra 29. 231 .239. 1 4 6 . 196. 234. Is 2 6 .23.66 156. 8 2 . 7 0 .r 8 0 .208.r r 7 .INorx landvaettir L86 208.208.16. r 5 . Miach109.88 Lugaide Mac Con 99 Lugh 7. 14.I 6 5 209. 2r. 153. Pericles 84 l 5 6 . 58. 69 Medus 60. I0I. Nemain I02.2+5.190.178.2I6. 99 2I8 Lindisfame I7I.2t6. Kingof EIis 7t. 7 3 .66. 1 . 180 Potnmpo 216.62.147 Nuada 102. 1 9 l . 40.176. 2 0 I . l5 Norse Heroes 204-205 9 9 . Niebelungenlied2L2. Phleyas 54 3 8 . r I46. 71.51.217 P a t r o c l u s . Melpomene 63 Munster I20 1 9 4 .92. 7 9 . I 2 5 . Noatun 2I I 1 4 6 . 67 0 1.54.206 I4. 11+.lslef92. r 3 6 .I I 1 . Oisin I04. I98 Merope 34.245. Mark. 42 1 8 0 .King ofThebes 33. I2l. Mac 6 2 .3 I . 2 0 I . Myrtilus 7I . 4 5 .246.24I Lovers of Zus 20-21 Lucan 168 Luchnr Il7.1 7 8 . 82-83.73 N a o i s eI 1 2 . Battles 127.87 1 5 9 .223. 77. 122. lsland of 46. I29. Lars 3l P o s e i d o n7 .85. 5 0 .237 r 5 5 . 1 5 45 5 . 5 0 . 53 L + + . l 0 I . 1 2 . s 7L . Oceanids Medusa 26. s . 1 8 .207 .I 3 5 . l18. Myesyar 26.24+ bull of 13.1 5 5 . Pollux 38.81. 7 5 Pwyll 97.22L Kumarbi43 Kvasir 188-189. L25.237 MaimedKingsee Pelles 6.6 1 . Mimir I99. Perkonis. I8. 3 0 .l18. Manawydan I25. 159 Luonnohr 207. 46.207. King t5.I09. 3 1 . Modi208.63.2t6 Podarge 88 O u r a n o1 9 .I59. 68.1 5 4 r 9 8 l .89 Meitikki 230 Mughain.72.162. the 93.73. 2 3 0 . Mile see Milesius Nemed ll2.22. 97.204. I 9 .6 1 Mil. 142.50.209.+4. 238. 1 3 . 73. 1 9 2 . 56.78. 45. 6 0 . King of $los 64 t24-125 62 Niam of rhe Golden Magni 208. 102II2. S I60. 160. O d i n7 . Modir219 '55. 1 8 .1 6 l Nimue 9+. Leminkainen 203.45.I 4 2 . 2 2 . 2 3 .216 26. 4 9 . 63. 73.167 Neptune 10.214-2t5.85.l l I . High King 13I. Noms.25r I53 Maeldun 104. 160-16t. 82. 5 7 . the I79.144 Llud see Nudd Lludd LIaw Ereint I37 Llwyd la6. t6l.73.46.28. 136. I89. 2 8t Pandion. Lavinium 24 of Joseph tuimathea Leander 52 100. r52 Madder-Akka 202.r 5 t . Nidavellir 202 Man. l6I. 3 1 I t 4 . 39.l+4 maenads 67. . 48. 23. 2 + 6 . 1 9 3 . 2rr.200. Paphos 78 P a r i 1 2 .I 4 0 . Nemesis 63 Maga 122 102.82. l 83 248-219 u 3 . Latium 50 202. +2. I 8 9 . P e r e d u rI 3 9 . 27.207 I 8 4 . 1 2 .+ 2 . 143.52.60. Mokkuralfi Mist Calf 170. 3 1 . 8 6 .6 17 0 7 1 .I 2 9 .208.226. Menglad194 Menu208.200.168.75. 7 5 . Perkons. 5 I . I02.1 0 6 .153 150I5t.2 1 9 KiedKieJubmel202 Kipu-Tytto238 Klotho2I I Knightof the Kestrel L+9 Knossos 23.46. 89. 154 I Pleiades73 t'lur nam 5an I)J Ottar 90. 82 62. Hair 153 2I8.2r5.153. 1 6 . 206 zL9. I2r. l5l Nuada o[ the Silver Mongan 117 Monsters Savage and Hand I53 MathonwvI23 58-59 Nudd 123 Beasts 4I Mad Syrabmlya2oe. 2I0. 1 7 . 6 5 .1 8 5 . t 4 1 . 4 2 . I. 22. I52.160 knd of homise I09.209. Laufey I88.43. 148. 2 5 . 2 3 2 . I 2 6 . 16.232. 2 8 .82-83 Nibelungs 205. 7.75. r44.48. 7 T Peneius J+.6 0 . I80. 1 9 . r N I 5 0 .210. I I 4 . r79.I 9 l .r 3 I . I89. 8 I s Nechnn I06. I. 62.235. 160 Notus 26. Phaea 82 114.71 r5z.57. 63. 1 3 9 .I 8 8 .23. 137.83 Kreimhild 229 Kullervo 220. Phaethon+6. 2r0. Moerae Fates sec of Ireland 107. 19.57 5 6 . 7 5 . 2I8 JupiterOptimus Lifthrasir 206. Jukakka 207 249 Caesar 24. l6I Llyr I07. I . 2t7 P n a mI 4 . 7. 159.64. Modred. I 5 3 . 160. l MistCalf200. r53 I84. 69 I 0 9 .3 2 .222223. Phaedra . 155 Maia49.1 2 7 .7r. L63 2 0 9 .79. 50.r 7 9 .232.l 3 l . 5 4 . 5 6 .202. I 5 7 . 246. 7 6 . 163.86.83.32.66 I:ke Regillus.57. Nestor. 68.8 3 .1 3 . ll. I63 2 0 .17. IIl.225. 1 3 5 . l 1 9 . I43. 198. Kng 26 Pryden137. 103.154. 12. I52. 2+6 Modgud198 I 0 8 . 152 NY)'nkki 230 152. 20r . 113. r52. 1 8 . 1 8 .37.86.30. 137. 1 6 . 14.1 4 6 . 233 Jamsaxa Laocoon 56. 206-207 .205. t 7 9 .216 1 2 Otrer179. t99. . I 4 3 .202. 4 6 . 198.I 1 9 . 144 89 Narvi 207. 1 98. 20I.72. I50 Nemean lion 48. 6 I . 2 8 .I48. 224-225 Macha 102.239.146.72 240.82 otherworlds 92.144. 201. Nidud. 3 2 . ir I34. 68. I t 7 .60. 119. 6 1 Orthos77 Orthus 8l Piorun.72 65 laestrygones Laius. ++. 1 8 l . Midir96.209. I66.65.2r2. 18I. I 5 4 .240.I 8 5 .60.I I l . I6.96.25. 5 6 .209 Meliagaunt. 2 5 . Curse I19. 7 t . 1 2 7 .34.86. Menelaus I9.73 151 P e r s e u IsI .236. 66 P o l y p h e m u s6 5 .73. I2l.180.L46 o 2 2 .209. Maximus 56 K K a i1 0 3 . 2 3 . I.1 3 5 . 116 Liriope 63 Llaser 133 LIeu 99. I 8 3 .170 . 4 8 . Longa 17.54 Orestes 25. Laurin 237 235. Nudd of the Silver Mopsus 208 Hand I53. 1 0 6 l. 10. 7 7 .217 .7 5 .31. 2I4. 2 2 5 .65. 1 3 6 . 16I. 12 61. PlatoI0.209. 1 9 2 . 138.53. Nineve 150 Batde 70 of 233.55.166 57. 229. 3 2 . 2t5.153 r52 Mac Cecht I44 Metis 13. 109. 28.196.6 2 . I10. 158.3 8 . 2 6 . l Z 9 .58.73.1 7 .43. 7 1 . Polydectes 73 l7I Polydegmon see Hades P Pactolus. 6 3 .67 . 166 Pellinore. 8 6 Peibaea 72 O e d i p uIs. Pluto seeHades 216. 211. t67 Odysseus I2. Nenhus2I0.239 I I I . I84. 1 3 9 Kalevala 24I I Q r l 2 l 9 . Leinster 14+.200.79. 3 7 . 150 I-aeg Il. 6 2 .62.7 8 . I70 65.r 5 2 .208Mani218 209.3+ . I+1 Lopt sec Loh Lothus see Ve Lotophagi 65 Louhi 221. 49 1 4 4 .176.l 3 i . I 8 2 .Kingof Gwynedd 137. Monigan 102. 238. 9 i l 4 .44. 109.73 24 Philemon 56 Ophiuchus Oracles Prophecres Philip.86 96. 218 Lir 109. 7 r .4 6 . 235 . 63 Mac DaTho I16. 2L3. 23.3 0 . 84 220.156. 16. 92. 64.122. Numitor. 228.179. I 36. I52.2+8 London 100.1 6 3 OIcgtheViking217 Perunu174. 137. 8 9r 6 8 . I 5 . of Milesius I39. 50. King of Troy 18. Orpheus +9. Sir I88. 6 6 . 2 9 . 3 9 . I 4 l .lll. 3 4 .71 second Baule I02. 58 I-adyof the Fountain l.26. 8 6 . 232.72.92. 139. 136. t5I. 8 5 Pamassus 58 Partholon 159.77 Porsenna. r40. 7 3 . + . l .237 Merlin9.55. 2r8.4 4 . Battleof 38. 159 P a s i p h a e2 3 .5 I . 4 2 . I00.166.8 I Last Supper. Perkunas seePerkuno 86 Perkuno 208. 156. Lavinia I5. 1 6 8 I0I.142.100. 180. 7 5 . 94.22.221-225.1 7 Penrheus 1. t I. 1 9 . I26. 9 6 .7 1 . Mundilfari 209. 48. 7 3 .86 Pax60 P e g a s u8 . 25.2+5. Lema 48 60. Oceanos 11.6 0 . 153.12. the 206.70 19. 6 1 .167 knd of Wonder 99. 4 9 . 182. 7 2 . 241 L y c o m e d e s1 2 . 4 5 .141. r 2 0 . 6 6 . .143. I53 MorfanI l2 Medb. . 162.1 9 4 .r44I54. 206.217.3L. 107.5 5 . 4 2 .1. Morholt Nyx 39.96. I95. 49 Magrc enchantment Minerva and 25.1 5 . 2 5 .233 Niflheim 202. 3 1 . + 71 4 8 .167 Moming Smr 208. + 6 . n9. 240.77 rndeDe ) / 27 Orithy'a P h o e n i c i a1 4 .24t.250 N e s s aI 1 6 .38. 1 1 4 . I30.lI4.223. Melicenes 53 Muninn 1 8 4 . 1 5 2 I70 wellof 245 Nessus 6.l0l.I 8 5 . 1 9 . JokulI87 176. Penelope 51.162. 1 3 4 .207 . I42 Sir 1 8 0 . 57. 250. 6 0 . 15.202. Queeno[ Melanion 24. 136 L u c r e t i a2 7 .206. 38 s 4 4 .206.251 r 4 6 .99. I0. 70. 12. 1 9 .I+4. Mjollnir 250. 2 1 6 .222 Polyhymnra 63 Polynices I8. 1 6 .2r2 65.77. 2 2 .72. 8 3 . 8 7 Polybus. 9 3 .t 9 8 . 69 143.88 74.218. Ogham 154 Ogma28. 8 2 Laomedon. 1 4 6 . 5 0 .88.I70 7 Mount 19. 13. 82 Patollo 216. 98-99.16.65. I44. 19. t 1 1 2 .56 I65 Jasconius Laoghaire II0. l .I l . 1 8 .10.230. 4 9 .226.1 5 . Jupiter 33.85 Muspell226.+ 6 . 6 0 . 98. Minos. 1 9 5 . 5 6 . 1 3 8 .1 4 2 . r r 2 . 150 Marathon.144. 1 7 4 .216. 12I. + . King of I03.89 Pelias. MaghTuireadh.244.3 7 .L53 Nature spiris 186-187 r52 M i d a6 1 . Julius Leodegraunce.15455. 7 9 . I 6 0 .2I9 202 Scotland I0I Jumala leprechauns 143 J u n o1 4 . Penthesilea I7 2 + 5 .1 2 7 . Medea 13.38. 2 6 . 06.I I6. 1 4 6 . 7 t . Modron144.56. 7 4 . I-andof Shadows It6. 1 9 3 .2 I 1 . 19. I9I. I19.250 Math. 2i8. 202. Mycenae I5. 6 2 . Larissa 54. 4 J .2II. I43. 1 9 6 . 2I0 2 2 7 . 4 5 .2+4. 8 I .5 4 . I 9 7 .180 Jocasta 33.247 Olwen I03.7 8 . M Ma Greine I28 Mabinoglon 16l Mabon 144. 88 9 9. 2Il kdon 52. 223 o 53 3 I . 7 3 . 2 2 8 Percival. King of Sweden r 0 2 . 2. Nennius I00 fint Battle I09.207 . 1 2 3 . Leda32. 6 6 .26. 3 4 . T7T 5 I . 16l cnd see Lir Loddfafnir 206 Lodur seeVe Loki I75. 45.73.251 93. Leto i9. l5l.152.I34. 159. 237 . 8 2 .222. I.+. I39. 1 4 0 . I58.16l 6 + . L7+.251 O d u rI 9 0 . Krng of O w a i n2 I .22.32. I3. Minomur 7. I 5 6 . Muses 63 202. Oenomaus. 6 0 . 5 0 . i06.38. Phaeacians 65 I58. 1 6 9 2I8 Nodens I53 M a n 1 0 . Lif 206. t.t 3 9 . Mercury 37. 85.165 98. 4 8 . I I 5 . 57. 33. of sonsof sse Milesians Nereids 18.79 I 1 6 . 2 4 . 7 4 . KingI3 Pandora 70. 190 Pnde o[ the Cleanng I6I Procopius 2 I 7 P r o m e t h e u sl Z .2I0.I 2 I .218. 3 8 4 1 . King7.128-129.76. 2 . 2 4 0 . Mess Buachalla12. 215.230-23r.I 9 6 .152. Il I04-I05. 7 t .234. Olympus.94. 1 6 4t.71.t29. King 23. Jotunheim Leib-Olmai 203 t9I. 1 3 3 .I 4 3 . I52.24r 2I Judaism 7 Lemnos. 250 220. t3l. 1 1 7 . 38. 216.1 2 8 . Niamh 153. 6 1 . 56. King of Alba C o n n a c h t2 .83 l:cedaemon 84 Lachesis 41.209. 8 5 . 6 6 . I t42 Laenes 61.233 3 4 . 2 3 12 3 2 . 6 7 Phobos i9 Oion73.15158.25 UlsrcrI i8 1 7 5 . Miletus79 Nereus 86 I 2 9 . 6l Rrver Pallas 82 P a n 1 . 30.

+ 6 .204.t 9 l . 17.220.239. 8 5 . 2 r 8 .22. 59. 7 4 .209. 7 5 . 232 Tanngrisnir 230.7 9 .81 S a n g r e a l9 3 . 2 3 1 Thomasthe Rhymer t04 Thoosa 74 T h o r7 .I 7 l . I78.+3.208-209.3I.I39. Sinon56 Il4. I Scota I67 226. 66.25.235. I6. 89 57.222 ShmirI9l.I 1 2 n R Satum 42.218 I48-I49 Rosterus 184 Single combat RoundTable.r39. 8 8 . 1 9 .Scotland 92. L67. r 5 6 . 7 7 . t l0 St Patrick 92.87.167 Seige Perilous I34 200. 1 4 .198.+3. + 3 8 .86 Sualtam Mac Roth I I8.70. 214. 2 222-223. +6. 19. 26.2+7 Vlkodlak2'18 VolossccVeles Volsci32 Volsung 223.225.213.226. r63.26. 5 2 .31. 5 3 . 8 2 . I. 113 Treasures mlismans and t96-197 Triglav238 Triptolemus 36 TrisranI08. r93. r69 Triton 74 War 10.238 swanof 203 Tumus 87 Tuulikki 230 Twrch Trwyth l4'+. I50 Storyunka 202 Strymo 75 Sturluson. Trold Tindteme187 Tros43. foundadon I'1.206. 5 8 . of 22+. 2 3 9 .239. + . 239. r22.222. 7. 240. 4 6 . 176. I8I. 1 9 3 . 230.232235. 2 9 . 100 Sarpedon 39. 230 Tara 96. 200. 205.78. 5I.2r5. 1 4 . l. 1 7 4 .88 Virginius 88 Viviane150 MadimirofKiev174. Sieglinde 228 243 Siegmund 213. 6 3 .209. 4 5 .167 Suibhne Geilr.8 4 . 7 1 . 238 I84 Thrudgelmir ThrymI85. 4 8 . 213. 222-223. Yggdrasil 195. 8 0 l 14.6 .66.79.250 Regin 175.26. 17. UtherPendragon 1 1 5 0 .1. 168. r71. Shining I68 Shiva 2I5 RhineMaidens 176. 2 3 9 .r 8 0 Titans 33.64 Urania63 U r d2 I 1 . 14. r98. 7l 2 t 3 . 1 5 0l . $thagoras 154 $thon 19. 5 4 9 . 6 5 . 87 T y r1 7 8 . 240. Seriphos.215. Mane186 162. Skadi 2lO. Snoni 175. 18.57. 15.2r5.+2. 5 7 . 76.5 8 . 45. 2 + O .167. 46. Scamander. 2 r 8 . 2 r 5 .88.82 Tarquinius Superbus 27.215.43. r29. 1 0l.218.r 6 r . 248 Scylla 58. 138t39. Riesengebirge 187 5 0 . 8 1 .228. 2 r 7 .2 1 8 . l l 2 . r22.60.28.6 2 .l .1 0 9 . 4 5 . Island 12.180. I I l . I2. Ulster 96. L19. 6 8 . r 0 9 . 226.61.202. 2+2. 222.23r. r 9 1 .8 4 . 2 + 4 . I46.1 5 . Ruadh163. + 2 3 .192. 170 z 19.2 I 9 . 20.180. t 7 l Uu222 V Vafthrudnir 240. l0r.199.226. 2t8. 1 6 3 l Silenus .3I. 63. r02. 216-217.222. 7 3 . s i f r 7 8 .235. Rhiannon Shakespeare.25. r05.19. Scathach I 19. 207.207. the 2. I60. 3 1 .1 9 7 . 163.t I 0 .202. r 5 6 .27. 7 3 . 7817 Selene 39. 163.8.1 8 .87.3I. t51 Taranis 168.2 0 8 . 104.218.130. 230. 1 3 t .200.25r Ymir18I. 6 5 . 2 I 8 . 8 0 . 9 7 . 8 I . 238. 3 9 . 8 . 2 0 9 .250. 5 66 0 . 246.2r0. 2 4 7 I Venus 18.2+r. 6 3 . I 2 0 . 2 0 0 .236 Roc I29 Siggeir 205.215.r 9 6 . 73 I90 Sessrumnir 87.2'23. 176. r68 226-227 Surr . 17.168.179. 239. 88 2 v e r d a n d il l . 7.243. 2 + 3 .Knighrcof Sinis 83 the 94. l Sigmund Volsung the I 2 8 .78. 1 7 0 l(ng of Tyndareos.227 Salmacis 49. 170 Tuonela238 Tuonetar238 Tuoni238. 52. 25. I00.250 85 Vespasian Vesu 88 Vidar178.169.200. 9 2 . 2 4 2 . d 250 Sages and Seers I 14II5 Sleipnir 182.208. 6 0 .225.7 r .25r Vingir 232 VirgrlII. 238. 32. 16. 97.71 Tapio 230. r99.River 17.1.75. Spana x X a n t h u1 3 .206.22L.27. Thebes 28.202.235 163. 8l 53. 7 + . 18l. 6 + . r80. 109. 82 T a r t a r u s5 + . .85. 225 85 R o n a nl I . Thyone2I Tiamat 25I Tiber. 176. Il. 8l 178. 168 T a r p e i a8 I . 2r+. l5'+. 2 3 I .231. .167. 48.210.2I. of 83 Ratatosk 210.221. .75. f78.34.12 Volund 196 and see Wayland Volund's House 249 Volupms 33 Vonigem I7I. 166 225. 2lr. 7 6 . r88.82.239. II7. 209. 201.205.198. 167.86. 4 6 . I79. 5 46.78. 5 0 .River 12. Thessaly 16. 5 I . 136.223. 2 82 8 .20+. 183.2+6. r06.202.85 Semele 21. t 9 1 .70-7r. 60. of Brutus son 27 Irbemus/u Tinugel Casde i00 Tiresias 33.20-2r. 6 0 229.2+0 Thiassi 196. Sisyphus 54.230.144. +1 5 3 . 232. 163 S k u l2 l I . ll9.208.152. 241.170.2+6. 8I 1 4 2 . Thialli 20I.1 3 . 2 I l .230-23r Ruadan163 Shidbladnir I97.79.23.227 Svarazic 188.201. 3 2 . 5 0 . 67. 215.84.246 ThorkillI92 Thorstein I97 Thrace +8.152. 242-243. Ra81 satyrs 58. t87.49. 3 8 .206. I 5 2 .2I I. 7 6 . 136.sonof Brutus27 Titus.38.8r StBlasius 247 St Boniface 251 St Bride I I0. 7 9 . 29. 8 4 .+6.220. TuathaDe Danann 97. I66.50.239 TuireannI09. 8 r . 33.2+8.3+.243. 6 2 .87 Tithonus39 Titus.239 Tyre37. 2 l r . f08. 23t. 185. 7 0 .7 9 . t93. 78. 187 Scyros. 230. 17 Sigurd Ring228. l7l Talos 39.229.I 8 0 TuachellI 18 96. 8 08 0 . 2+6 Ve I78. 8r 6 3 4. 33. 223 River75 r99.230. r 8 6 . Ragnarok I75.189. 2 r 5 . RanI78. 2 7 . 2r8.1 6 .150. r 8 7 .250.136I39.8r.87. 168 Stheneboea 26 Stheno 44 Stonehenge ll4.60.38:.133. 1 4 6 . 9 4 . 15. 58.28. 98. 1 8 9 . r70. 33. 2 1 8 .2+0 I00. 1 5 7 .36.72. 222. 44.236.4 1 .85 Woundrous Cauldrons r32-I33 Wyrd 21 1 and see Urd 66.9 .202.150. 190.I 7 0 . 8 5 .7+.i 8 8 .223. l 1 5 .37. + 9 . 8 l Tarpeius.2 .2+5.1. 36.+6. Zephyrus 69.I35.126. 2 2 0 6 .INoex r32.246.8I.237. Saule 208.2+9 Vali I8'1. I I I. I29.2 1 8 . of Rhea 33.127. feast of 98. 60. 1 L43.228. l9l. 209.2LL I 2 8 .64.248-249.7 0 .248 Rome 4. l7l Uaithne U a t h9 2 . 17. l l 2 .34. 2 0 I . I18. 2 1 5 .79. 88. 40.2+8.43.39.25r I20.8l 61 Rosliva Sindn236 201.2r2.232. 7 8 . Yspaddaden I58.36. 5 1 . 8 3 .202.79 Sera Island 21. r I 1 9 0 .39 Terpsichore 63 Tethys63 Teucer I5 Teumtes 168 Thalia. 5 3 5 6 .I 9 2 .49 S n o 2 I 9 . I 17.225.194.222.l9l. 6 9 .24r.248. 8I Skrymir 201. 200-20r. 2 I 9 Siegfried Sigurd see Rind I84.23. 8 9 .34. 6 7 5 .t7I Uathach Ukko 202 207 UksaLka 92.224 Remus .2r5.88 w Waveof CliodhnaI 13 Wayland 183.248 Romulus . 13. 8 6 . 166.1 7 + . 8 6 Sacred Bandof 39 Theia38 Theseus 7.198. 2 1 1 .200.52. I19. 53 I59 Rhadamanthys 39.4 7 . r32. 2+7. 33.8 3 .125.27 7 : u s 7 . 232 Tantalus 54. 5 5 .222.+.2+6.237 Sicily 15. I2I.218. 2+9 Vanaheim I80. 4 r .1 5 7 . 238. l l 4 . 168.5 8 . 58. Sphinx 56. 65. 203. Annals I75 Ulpses. I 2 9 . 67.26. 207.247.238. I38.206. r05. Kingof Aetolia 56 Thetis 13.197.2L5. 1 2 .78. 3 9 . 250 UrienI59. 5 6 . r55 St Ronan 92. S i b y1 a . 48.6 3 .169 TeirtuI58 Telamon 15 Telemachus 32.32. 1 2 . 5 1 .t0. Sigyn 207. 50 Virginia 88.5 0 . 2 8 . L39. 1 2 7 .10.2+2. 5 1 .87.250 wellof 184. 226 Svalin I86 Svantovit 227. 3 Sigurd 175.50. 224-225.226. 207. King 92.25r Yecha222 V e l e s7 4 .2+8.28. 52.1 5 . 6.215.Jonathan I39 Sychaeus 85 T Tacitus 2I0 Tailtu I68 T a l i e s i nI 1 2 . 1 9 . l 5 l .79 Quirinus 79 S a t a4 5 .79.22.2t2. Searbhan 7.226. I01 219.2r3.98. I70 see Sol(Classical) Helios Sol(Norse) 2I8 Samildanach see Lugh 186. 249 Wolfdietrich 236. 9 2 .I 6 3 . 250-251.229 Skoll 226. 45. t8'+.226.24L Vainamoinen 203. .223. 215.215.28.167 2+5. 7 3 .185. 9 . 138.t 5 4 . 220. 188.238 Thyestes I5. I Sirens 58.t 2 8 . 2 r 0 . 7 5 .210.217 VrgridPlain175.129. 211 S p a r tIa . 2 4 7 . l7l Usna152 Utgard201. I2. 67.6+.122. 82. 63 Thanatos 79. I88. 1 5 9r.88 Tiberius.208.227.88 ktes22.2+8 VokungSaga2I2 Volsungs 205 Volumnia 32.208. 6 2 . 15.6 0 . 2+7. 7 8 .I85. 39.212. 188. I 5 3 . 4 2 . 168.200. 3 7 . 184.80. Sadb I2. 1 9 6 .47. 211.+1.rhe 222. 234.79 33. 163 222 Rusalki. t97 .1 9 4 . 1 7 5 .14. 2 1 6 .1 4 . 65.2r3.134.+ 0 . 1 8 8 .241 Valhalla I75.23L. I8. 2+6 Vanir178. 202.29. r 0 .216. Z + 2 . 142. 5 + .237.22t. 147 oJ Ukter.2 1 9 r Samhain.5+. l0l. 7 9 . Il3.166. Spurius 8I Tarquinia 27 Tarquinius Collatinus 60 Tarquinius Sextus 60.2+8 R o m a nIs 0 .169 o the Saral. 8 9 s Y 174.232-235.1 9 3 .56. 8 1 .230.238 236-237. 133.202. 6 7 . 87 s TaurusI5 Taygere 73 Teimon I6I.60-6r.rka 207 QuestingBeast. 100.229 7 8 . 38. 207.216.8I.58 64 Tphon 28. 6 8 .227 Svarog I88 Svaroz 227 Svanalfheim 202 Sviagriss 236 Svipdrag I94 Swift.56 10. 190. 63 38. l0l. 65.l8l.225.23r T h o k kI 8 3 . 1 7 1 119. r52.249 256 . 3 7 . l8'+. 8 7 . 231. I29. 6 2 . 8 7 R i gI 9 5 . 3 2 . 225.85. 8 6 .19.140. 5 8 . 85 U I7l. Trojan r7.38. 8 6 8 6 .6 6 . 65 32. Samos 47 Sorcerers spells and 220-221 Sampo. I 7 I . 19. 239. 162. 89 Rhea 17. 2+3 Valkyries I85. 159.23+. 2+.22r.37.215 Suttung 188-I89 Svadilfari 180. I79.69 Thrall2l9.I9'+.86.24. 14.230. 89 8 . I35. 65 32.231 Sinfiotli 223. 76 Tammuz I83 Tanngnost 230. 82.2r8. . 166.218 vili 178.30. 188. 230.85 T r o yl l .237 Wooden Horse II. + 5 . 8 2 .228 Ringsof power I79.5 I . 8 5 . 246 Stymphalian birds 48 Sryx.37.5 t . 8 8 .65 Telephassa 28. l l l . 2 1 . 224. 237.226. 8 8 .184. r 205. 88 3 . 85. l7f Voyagers 50-5I Vulcan 46. 8 6 . 4 6 .226 Sabine women 79.48.sonof Vespasian 85 Tiw 239 Tory Island102. 204.2+8 . 196. Sestos 52 Silvia 79 Setanta Cuchulainn see William I24.8 9 .86 Tiryns16. 235. 9.2r9.2l9 ThrudI78. 1 9 5 . 43. 5 9 Thesdus.r 9 3 . 7 2 . 1.1 Signy 223. 217. 2 4 . 79.15. 7 5 .

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