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Book - Advanced Steel Structures, Fire and Fatigue Design - By W Lu

Book - Advanced Steel Structures, Fire and Fatigue Design - By W Lu

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Sections

  • PREFACE
  • CONTENTS
  • 1 STRUCTURAL FIRE DESIGN
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.1.1 Development of fire in buildings
  • 1.1.2 Fire safety
  • 1.1.3 Fire protection
  • 1.1.4 Structural fire safety design methods
  • 1.2 Design Curves and Fire Models
  • 1.2.1 Nominal temperature-time curves
  • 1.2.2 Natural fire models: compartment fires or parametric fires
  • 1.2.3 Natural fire models: localized fire models
  • 1.2.4 Natural fire models: advanced fire models
  • 1.3 Material Properties of Steel At Elevated Temperature
  • 1.3.1 Mechanical properties of materials
  • 1.3.2 Thermal properties
  • 1.4 Passive Protection for Steelwork
  • 1.4.1 Fire protection systems
  • 1.4.2 Thermal properties of fire protection systems
  • 1.5 Heat Transfer in Steel
  • 1.5.1 Type of heat transfer
  • 1.5.2 Heat transfer equation for steel
  • 1.6 Mechanical Analysis of Structural Element
  • 1.6.1 Required fire resistance time
  • 1.6.2 Mechanical actions
  • 1.6.3 Design value of material temperature
  • 1.6.4 Design value of fire resistance time
  • 1.6.5 Critical temperature
  • 1.6.6 Load bearing capacity
  • 1.7 Design of Steel Members Exposed to Fire
  • 1.7.1 Design methods
  • 1.7.2 Classification of cross-sections
  • 1.7.3 Tension members
  • 1.7.4 Moment resistance of beams
  • 1.7.5 Lateral-torsional buckling
  • 1.7.6 Compression members with Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3 cross-section
  • 1.8 Use of Advanced Calculation Models
  • 1.9 Global Fire Safety Design
  • 1.10 Design Example according to Eurocode 3
  • 1.10.1 Introduction
  • 1.10.2 Design loads and load distribution in the frame
  • 1.10.3 Fire resistance and protection of a tension member BE
  • 1.10.4 Fire resistance and protection of steel beam AB
  • 1.11 References
  • 2 FATIGUE DESIGN
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.1.1 Different approaches for fatigue analysis
  • 2.1.2 A short history to fatigue
  • 2.2 Fatigue Loading
  • 2.3 Stress Methods
  • 2.3.1 Standard fatigue tests
  • 2.3.2 S-N curves
  • 2.3.3 One dimensional analysis for fatigue assessment
  • 2.4 Strain Methods
  • 2.4.1 Cyclic material law
  • 2.4.2 Fatigue life
  • 2.5 Crack Propagation Methods
  • 2.5.1 Characteristic of fatigue surfaces
  • 2.5.2 Fatigue mechanism
  • 2.5.3 Linear elastic fracture mechanics
  • 2.5.4 Crack propagation under fatigue load
  • 2.5.5 Short crack behavior
  • 2.6 Fatigue Analysis Under Variable Loads
  • 2.6.1 Fatigue testing under variable loading
  • 2.6.2 Palmgren-Miner rule
  • 2.6.3 Cycle counting
  • 2.6.4 Crack propagation under variable loading
  • 2.7 Fatigue Analysis of Welded Components
  • 2.7.1 Factors affecting the fatigue life
  • 2.7.2 S-N methods for evaluating fatigue life
  • 2.7.3 Crack propagation method
  • 2.8 Calculation Examples According to Eurocode 3
  • 2.8.1 Introduction
  • 2.8.2 Given values
  • 2.8.3 Stress calculations
  • 2.8.4 Assessment for the trolley carrying the full load of 150 kN
  • 2.8.5 Assessment for the trolley returning empty
  • 2.8.6 Assessment for the trolley returning carrying load of 70 kN
  • 2.8.7 Assemblage of the calculated damage and determination of the fatigue
  • 2.9 References

Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Steel Structures Publications 29

Teknillisen korkeakoulun teräsrakennetekniikan laboratorion julkaisuja 29
Espoo 2003 TKK-TER-29










ADVANCED STEEL STRUCTURES

1. STRUCTURAL FIRE DESIGN
2. FATIGUE DESIGN

Wei Lu Pentti Mäkeläinen













ABTEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU
TEKNISKA HÖGSKOLAN
HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT HELSINKI
UNIVERSITE DE TECHNOLOGIE D’HELSINKI
Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Steel Structures Publications 29
Teknillisen korkeakoulun teräsrakennetekniikan laboratorion julkaisuja 29
Espoo 2003 TKK-TER-29















ADVANCED STEEL STRUCTURES

1. Structural Fire Design
2. Fatigue Design

Wei Lu Pentti Mäkeläinen

















Helsinki University of Technology
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory of Steel Structures

Teknillinen korkeakoulu
Rakennus- ja ympäristötekniikan osasto
Teräsrakennetekniikan laboratorio














Distribution:
Helsinki University of Technology
Laboratory of Steel Structures
P.O. Box 2100
FIN-02015 HUT
Tel. +358-9-451 3701
Fax. +358-9-451 3826
E-mail: srt-sihteerit@hut.fi

 Teknillinen korkeakoulu

ISBN 951-22-6732-2
ISSN 1456-4327
Yleisjäljennös - Painopörssi
Espoo 2003









PREFACE


This report is prepared in the Laboratory of Steel Structures at Helsinki University of Technology
(HUT) in 2003. This work is a part of the project “Teräsrakennetekniikan opetusmateriaalin
ajanmukaistaminen” (Teaching material updating for advanced steel structures). This project is
financially supported by TKK/Opintotoimikunta (joint student-faculty committee in HUT), which is
gratefully acknowledged.

This report was developed to use as a part of teaching materials either for graduate courses Rak-
83.122 Advanced Steel Structures or for postgraduate studies Rak-83.J. Two topics are included in
this report: structural fire design and fatigue design. The structure of each topic is basically
composed of three parts: theoretical backgrounds, design rules and worked examples. The design
rules that are presented in this report are based on ENV 1991-1 (1994): Eurocode 1-Basis of design
and actions on structures-Part 1: Basis of design; EN 1991-1-2 (2002): Eurocode 1: Actions on
structures –Part 1-2: General actions-Actions on structures exposed to fire; ENV 1993-1-1 (1992):
Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures-Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings; and ENV
1993-1-2 (1995): Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures-Part 1.1: General rules-structural fire
design.

The materials used in the part of structural fire design are based on the books and papers that are
collected, and researches that have been carried out in the Laboratory of Steel Structures. The
materials used in the part of fatigue design are based on materials available in the Laboratory of
Steel Structures and the materials distributed in the short course Fatigue of Materials and Structures
organized by Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials at HUT. I would like to express my thanks to
these authors and organizers.

The authors wish to express gratitude for Lic.Sc. (Tech.) Olli Kaitila, Lic.Sc. (Tech.) Jyri Outinen,
Mr. Olavi Tenhunen and D.Sc. (Tech.) Zhongcheng Ma for providing extra materials, nice
discussions and useful comments. Many thanks go to secretary Mrs. Elsa Nissinen for her kind
assistance.



Wei Lu, D.Sc. (Tech.)
Espoo, August 2003





CONTENTS


PREFACE........................................................................................................................................... 3
CONTENTS........................................................................................................................................ 4

1 STRUCTURAL FIRE DESIGN................................................................................................ 6
1.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................... 6
1.1.1 Development of fire in buildings .................................................................................. 6
1.1.2 Fire safety..................................................................................................................... 7
1.1.3 Fire protection.............................................................................................................. 7
1.1.4 Structural fire safety design methods ........................................................................... 8
1.2 DESIGN CURVES AND FIRE MODELS...................................................................................... 9
1.2.1 Nominal temperature-time curves ................................................................................ 9
1.2.2 Natural fire models: compartment fires or parametric fires...................................... 10
1.2.3 Natural fire models: localized fire models................................................................. 15
1.2.4 Natural fire models: advanced fire models ................................................................ 15
1.3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE........................................ 16
1.3.1 Mechanical properties of materials ........................................................................... 16
1.3.2 Thermal properties..................................................................................................... 23
1.4 PASSIVE PROTECTION FOR STEELWORK .............................................................................. 26
1.4.1 Fire protection systems .............................................................................................. 26
1.4.2 Thermal properties of fire protection systems............................................................ 28
1.5 HEAT TRANSFER IN STEEL................................................................................................... 29
1.5.1 Type of heat transfer................................................................................................... 29
1.5.2 Heat transfer equation for steel.................................................................................. 30
1.6 MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT .......................................................... 37
1.6.1 Required fire resistance time...................................................................................... 37
1.6.2 Mechanical actions..................................................................................................... 41
1.6.3 Design value of material temperature........................................................................ 42
1.6.4 Design value of fire resistance time ........................................................................... 43
1.6.5 Critical temperature................................................................................................... 44
1.6.6 Load bearing capacity................................................................................................ 45
1.7 DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS EXPOSED TO FIRE .................................................................. 47
1.7.1 Design methods .......................................................................................................... 47
1.7.2 Classification of cross-sections.................................................................................. 47
1.7.3 Tension members........................................................................................................ 47
1.7.4 Moment resistance of beams ...................................................................................... 48
1.7.5 Lateral-torsional buckling.......................................................................................... 49
1.7.6 Compression members with Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3 cross-section ..................... 49
1.8 USE OF ADVANCED CALCULATION MODELS ....................................................................... 50
1.9 GLOBAL FIRE SAFETY DESIGN ............................................................................................ 51
1.10 DESIGN EXAMPLE ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 3.................................................................. 52
1.10.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 52
1.10.2 Design loads and load distribution in the frame........................................................ 54
1.10.3 Fire resistance and protection of a tension member BE............................................ 54
1.10.4 Fire resistance and protection of steel beam AB........................................................ 58
1.11 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 62

2 FATIGUE DESIGN.................................................................................................................. 64
2.1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................... 64
2.1.1 Different approaches for fatigue analysis .................................................................. 64
2.1.2 A short history to fatigue ............................................................................................ 65
2.2 FATIGUE LOADING .............................................................................................................. 66
2.3 STRESS METHODS................................................................................................................ 67
2.3.1 Standard fatigue tests ................................................................................................. 68
2.3.2 S-N curves................................................................................................................... 69
2.3.3 One dimensional analysis for fatigue assessment ...................................................... 76
2.4 STRAIN METHODS ............................................................................................................... 77
2.4.1 Cyclic material law..................................................................................................... 77
2.4.2 Fatigue life.................................................................................................................. 79
2.5 CRACK PROPAGATION METHODS ........................................................................................ 82
2.5.1 Characteristic of fatigue surfaces............................................................................... 82
2.5.2 Fatigue mechanism..................................................................................................... 83
2.5.3 Linear elastic fracture mechanics .............................................................................. 84
2.5.4 Crack propagation under fatigue load....................................................................... 86
2.5.5 Short crack behavior .................................................................................................. 88
2.6 FATIGUE ANALYSIS UNDER VARIABLE LOADS.................................................................... 88
2.6.1 Fatigue testing under variable loading ...................................................................... 88
2.6.2 Palmgren-Miner rule.................................................................................................. 89
2.6.3 Cycle counting............................................................................................................ 90
2.6.4 Crack propagation under variable loading................................................................ 92
2.7 FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF WELDED COMPONENTS................................................................... 93
2.7.1 Factors affecting the fatigue life................................................................................. 94
2.7.2 S-N methods for evaluating fatigue life ...................................................................... 96
2.7.3 Crack propagation method....................................................................................... 106
2.8 CALCULATION EXAMPLES ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 3................................................... 107
2.8.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 107
2.8.2 Given values ............................................................................................................. 108
2.8.3 Stress calculations .................................................................................................... 108
2.8.4 Assessment for the trolley carrying the full load of 150 kN ..................................... 111
2.8.5 Assessment for the trolley returning empty .............................................................. 113
2.8.6 Assessment for the trolley returning carrying load of 70 kN ................................... 113
2.8.7 Assemblage of the calculated damage and determination of the fatigue life ........... 114
2.9 REFERENCES...................................................................................................................... 115





1 STRUCTURAL FIRE DESIGN

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 Development of fire in buildings

A real fire in a building grows and decays in accordance with the mass and energy balance within
the compartment in which it occurs. The energy released depends upon the quantity and type of fuel
available and upon the ventilation conditions. Figure 1.1 illustrates that the fire in a building can be
divided into three phases: the growth or pre-flashover period, the fully developed or post-flashover
fire and the decay period [2]. The most rapid temperature rise occurs in the period following
flashover, a point at which all organic materials in a compartment spontaneously combust. Anyone
who has not escaped from a compartment before flashover is unlikely to survive.












Figure 1.1 Typical temperature development in a compartment [2]


In the pre-flashover phase, the room temperature is low and the fire is local in the compartment.
This period is important for evacuation and fire fighting. Usually, it has not significant influence on
the structures. After flashover, the fire enters into the fully developed phase, in which the
temperature of the compartment increase rapidly and the overall compartment is engulfed in fire.
The highest temperature, the highest rate of heating and the largest flame occur during this phase,
which gives rise to the most structural damage and much of the fire spread in buildings. In the
decaying period, which is formally identified as a stage after the temperature falling to 80 percent of
its peak value, the temperature decreases gradually. It is worth to point out that this period is also
important to the structural fire engineering because for the insulated steel structures and unprotected
7
steel structures of low section factor, the internal temperature of cross-section will still increase
significantly even though in the decaying periods [12].

1.1.2 Fire safety

Fire safety design is an important aspect of building design. A properly designed building system
greatly reduces the loss of the life and the property of finical losses in, or in the neighborhood of,
building fires. Current fire safety concepts are defined as optimal packages of integrated structural,
technical and organizational fire precaution measures, which allow well defined objectives agreed
by the owner, the fire authority and the designer, to be fulfilled [8]. The essential requirements for
the limitation of fire risks have to be fulfilled in the following ways:

o The load-bearing capacity of the construction can be assumed for a specific period of time;
o The generation and spread of fire and smoke within the works are limited;
o The occupants can leave the works or can be rescued by other means
o The safety of rescue teams is taken into consideration.

The central objective of fire safety in the current Fire Codes is to confine the fire within the
compartment in which it started. These consist of a collection of requirements, only or mostly
related to the structural fire resistance of load-bearing elements and to walls and slabs necessary to
guarantee the compartmentation.

It should be noticed that the objectives of fire safety are a historical concept, in which the contents
can be changed with the development of fire science. Besides, the additional objective can also be
implemented if the client or authorities require a particular building or a project.

1.1.3 Fire protection

Structural fire protection is only one part of the package of fire safety measure used in a building.
There are two broad groups of measures [1]:

o Fire prevention, designed to reduce the chance of a fire occurring;
o Fire protection, designed to mitigate the effects of a fire should it nevertheless occur.

Fire prevention includes eliminating or protecting possible ignition sources in order to prevent a fire
occurring. Fire protection measures may be passive or active, which are used according to the phase
of fire development as shown in Figure 1.2 [5]. Active measures [1] include detection and alarm,
fire extinction, and smoke control, all of which may be operated manually or automatically. Early
detection and extinction lead to early fire fighting and decease the risk of a large fire. For instance,
the combination of automatic sprinklers and a designed smoke-control system has been used to
protect people escaping from fire in large buildings.

Passive measures include structural fire protection, layout of escape routes, fire brigade access
routes, and control of combustible materials of construction [1]. Normally for pre-flashover fires,
8
passive protection includes selection of suitable materials for building contents and interior linings
that do not support rapid flame spread in the growth period. In post-flashover fires, passive
protection is provided by structures and assemblies, which have sufficient fire resistance to prevent
both spread of fire and structural collapse. The controls of fire spread include controlling fire spread
within the room of origin, to adjacent room, to other storeys and to other buildings. The most
important component of passive fire protection is fire resistance of the structure.















Figure 1.2 Fire evolution and fire protection [5]


Often a combination of the above measures is applied. Ideally, the fire safety design concept should
allow for a certain between the various measures i.e. emphasis on one or two of the possible
measures should lead to relaxation of the remaining one(s). For instance, a sprinkler installation
would lead to reduce overall requirements for the fire resistance. Such a trade off is not generally
accepted at present but needs to be pursued with the appropriate authorities [5].

1.1.4 Structural fire safety design methods

Currently, the design methods may be classified into two classes, i.e. [12]

o Methods related to fire resistance only;
o Methods related to global fire safety.

The first category of methods concerns the verification methods of fire resistance. The Eurocodes
are for the time being strictly limited to this category. The method related to fire resistance is
governed by two basic models: a heat model and a structural model. The heat model defines the
evolution of air temperature, the convective and radiative boundary conditions and the spreading of
fire in a fire affected room if possible. The structural model defines elements or parts of the
structures, thus allowing the prediction of the temperature increase in the structure or in elements
ensuring compartmentation, of the collapse temperature or the collapse time for a given load. To
9
date, the use of a conventional fire scenario based on the ISO standard fire curve is common practice
in Europe and elsewhere. Safety level in buildings referring to fully developed mainly.

The second category is based on the fire risk assessment technology, which is being developed for
particular buildings, important structures or individual projects. The purpose of developing the
global fire safety concept is to establish the basis for realistic and credible assumptions to be used in
fire situation for thermal actions, active measures and structural response.

1.2 Design Curves and Fire Models

When dealing with fire resistance, the ignition stage is generally neglected, although this stage is
generally the most critical for human life since it is during this stage that toxic gases are produced
and the temperature can reach 100 °C and more. To select the relevant fire model, the fire scenarios
need to be defined. It is a selection of the possible worst cases as far as the location and the amount
of fire load are concerned [5]. For instance:

o In a small room, it is assumed a fully developed fire, using the maximum fire load which can
be in the compartment;
o In a large room, at least two assumptions can be made, either a uniformly distributed fire
load leading to a fully developed fire in the compartment or localized fires depending on the
possible location of the fire load;
o For element located outside the facade of the building, flames coming through windows and
doors will be considered.

A design fire shall be expressed as a relationship between temperature, time and space location,
which may be [5]:

o A nominal temperature-time curve uniform in the space;
o A ‘real fire’ either specified in terms of parametric fire exposure, or given by an analytical
formula for localized fire, or obtained by computer modeling.

1.2.1 Nominal temperature-time curves

The nominal temperature-time curves are a set of curves, in which no physical parameters are taken
into account. The main purpose of the prescription of the nominal curves was to make the fire
resistance tests reproducible. The ability of fire resistance of building elements can be evaluated
under the same heating curve [18].

Fire resistance times specified in most national building regulations relate to test performance when
heated according to an internationally agreed time-temperature curve defined in ISO834 (or
Eurocode 1 Part 2-2), which does not represent any type of natural building fire. This standard
temperature-time curve involves an ever-increasing air temperature inside the considered
compartment, even when later on all consumable materials have been destroyed. This has become
the standard design curve, which is used in furnace testing of components. The quoted value of fire
10
resistance time does not therefore indicate the actual time for which a component will survive in a
building fire, but is a like-against-like comparison indicating the severity of a fire that the
component will survive [17].

Where the structure for which the fire resistance is being considered is external, and the atmosphere
temperatures are therefore likely to be lower at any given time (which means that the temperatures
of the building materials will be closer to the corresponding fire temperatures), a similar “External
Fire” curve may be used. In cases where storage of hydrocarbon materials makes fires extremely
severe a “Hydrocarbon Fire” curve is also given. The formula for describing these curves are given
as follows [3]:

for standard temperature-time curve
θ θθ θ
g
= 20+345log
10
(8t+1) ( 1.1 )
for external fire curve
θ θθ θ
g
= 660(1-0.687e
-0.32t
-0.313e
-3.8t
)+20 ( 1.2 )
for hydrocarbon curve
θ θθ θ
g
= 1080(1-0.325e
-0.167t
-0.675e
-2.5t
)+20 ( 1.3 )
These three nominal temperature-time curves according to these formulas are shown in Figure 1.3.
















Figure 1.3 Nominal temperature-time curves

1.2.2 Natural fire models: compartment fires or parametric fires

Before get into the details of this model, the following definitions are clarified [2]:

o Heat of combustion or the calorific value of material is defined as the amount of heat in
calories evolved by the combustion of one-gram weight of a substance [MJ/kg].

0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 30 60 90 120 150
Ti me (mi n)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C

)
Standard Fire
External Fire
Hydrocarbon Fire
11

o Mass loss rate is defined as the mass of fuel that is vaporized from the solid or liquid fuel per
unit time [kg/s].

o Burning rate is the amount of fuel that is burned within the compartment in terms of airflow
per unit time [kg/s]. This is distinct from the mass loss rate and is dependent on the available
oxygen.

o Heat release rate is defined as the rate at which the heat is released [J/s] and can be measured
experimentally or obtained by calculation. It is the source of the gas temperature rise and the
driving force behind the spreading of gas and smoke.

Background

Parametric fire models provide a simple means to take into account the most important physical
phenomenon that may influence the development of a fire in a particular building. Like nominal
fires, they consist of time temperature relationships, but these relationships contain some parameters
represent particular aspects of the reality. Normally, three parameters are included in these models,
namely, the fire load present in the compartment, the openings in the walls and/or in the roofs, and
the type and nature of the different walls of the compartment. These models assume that the
temperature is uniform in the compartment, which limits the application to post-flashover fires in
compartment of moderated dimensions. These models require the following data: fire load density,
rate of heat release and heat losses.

a. Fire load density

Fire load density is defined as the total amount of combustion energy per unit of floor area and is the
source of the fire development. The fire load is composed of the building components such as wall
and ceiling linings, and building contents such as furniture. The characteristic value of fire load
density is provided by:
q
f.k
= [Σ ΣΣ ΣM
k.i
H
ui
Ψ ΨΨ Ψ
l
]/A ( 1.4 )
where

M
k.i
is the combustible materials [kg]
H
ui
is the net calorific value [MJ/kg];
M
k.i
H
ui
is the total amount of energy contained in material and released assuming
complete combustion.
Ψ
l
is the optional factor to accessing protected fire load. For instance by putting
it into a cabinet.
A is the floor area.

b. Rate of heat release ( RHR )

The calculation of RHR is different from ventilation controlled fire to fuel controlled fire. The fuel
controlled fire refers to the case that there is always enough oxygen to sustain combustion. While for
12
the ventilation controlled fire, the size of openings in the compartment enclosure is factor to control
the amount of the air to enter the compartment.

When fire is ventilation controlled, according to Kawagoe (1958), the burning rate m [kg/s] can be
calculated as [2]
m = 0.092 A
v
√ √√ √H
v
( 1.5 )
Where A
v
is the area of the openings (m
2
) and H
v
is the height of the openings (m). This equation is
derived from the experiments for a room with a single opening. Despite the findings showing that
the burning rate depends on the shape of the room and the width of the window proportion to the
wall in which it is located, this equation is formed the basis of most post-flashover fire calculation.

The corresponding ventilation controlled heat released rate (MW) for steady burning is calculated as
[1]:
Q
vent
= m H
ui
( 1.6 )
The duration of fire can be calculated as:
t
b
= E/Q
vent
( 1.7 )
where E is the energy content of fuel available for combustion (MJ). In addition, the amount of
ventilation in a fire compartment is described by the opening factor O (m
0.5
) given by
O = A
v
√ √√ √H
eq
/A
t
( 1.8 )
where H
eq
is weighted average window heights on all walls (m) and A
t
is total area of enclosures
(walls, ceiling and floor, m
2
). If this formula is multiplied by gravity g, then the product is related to
the velocity of gas flow through openings.

Researches show that if the ventilation openings were enlarged, a condition would be reached
beyond which the burning rate would be independent on the size of the opening and would be
determined instead by the surface and burning characteristics of the fuel. For the fuel controlled fire,
the duration of the fire can be assumed as 25 min for slow fire growth rate, 20 min for medium
growth rate and 15 min for fast growth rate. The RHR can be calculated as
Q
fuel
= E / t
lim
( 1.9 )
When the duration is not known, the RHR is estimated from the information about the fuel and the
temperatures in the fire compartment. In the current Eurocode[3], the RHR is implicitly calculated
using A
v
√H
eq
.

c. Heat losses

Heat losses suffered by the combustion gases are important factors to the temperature development
of a compartment fire. Heat losses occur to the compartment boundaries by convection and radiation
and by the ventilation flow [3]. The most popular way to model the heat losses to the compartment
boundaries is through the concept of the ‘thermal inertia”, b, of the wall material, i.e.
b = √ √√ √ρ ρρ ρcλ λλ λ ( 1.10 )
where λ is heat conductivity (W/mK); c is the heat capacity (J/kgK) and ρ is mass density (kg/m
3
).

13


Parametric temperature-time curves

Current Eurocode[3] gives an equation for parametric temperature-time curves for any combination
of fuel load, ventilation openings and wall lining materials. The equation of temperature Θ
g
(ºC) for
heating phase is provided by
Θ
g
= 1325(1-0.324e
-0.2t*
-0.204e
-1.7t*
-0.472e
-19t*
)+20 ( 1.11 )
where t
*
is fictitious time (hours) given by
t
*
= t·Γ ( 1.12 )
where t is the time (hours) and
Γ = (O/b)
2
/(0.04/1160)
2
( 1.13 )
In the case of compartment with O = 0.04 m
0.5
and b = 1160 J/m
2
s
0.5
K, the parameter curve is almost
exactly the ISO curve. The maximum temperature occurred at t
*
= t
*
max
where
t
*
max
= t
max
·Γ ( 1.14 )
with
t
max
= max [(0.2·10
-3
·q
t.d
/O); t
lim
] ( 1.15 )
The time t
max
corresponding to the maximum temperature is given by t
lim
in case the fire is fuel
controlled. If t
max
is given by (0.2·10
-3
·q
t.d
/O), the fire is ventilation controlled. When t
max
= t
lim,
t
*
is
the temperature formula is replaced by
t
*
= t·Γ
lim
( 1.16 )
with
Γ
lim
= (O
lim
/b)
2
/(0.04/1160)
2
( 1.17 )
where
O
lim
= 0.1·10
-3
·q
t.d
/t
lim
( 1.18 )
If O > 0.04 and q
t.d
< 75 and b < 1160, Γ
lim
has to be multiplied by k given by
k = 1+ [(O-0.04)/0.04]·[(q
t.d
-75)/75]·[(1160-b)/1160] ( 1.19 )
This is due to the fact that the influence of the openings is still present when the fire is fuel
controlled. [3] uses a reference decay rate equal to 625 ºC per hour for fires with duration less than
half an hour, decreasing to 250 ºC for fires with duration greater than two hours. The temperature
curves in the cooling period are given by
Θ
g
= Θ
max
–625

(t
*
-t
*
max
·x) ( 1.20 )
for t
*
≤ 0.5
Θ
g
= Θ
max
–250(3-t
*
max
)

(t
*
-t
*
max
·x) ( 1.21 )
for 0.5 < t
*
≤ 2
Θ
g
= Θ
max
–250

(t
*
-t
*
max
·x) ( 1.22 )
for t
*
> 2, where t
*
= t·Γ; t
max
= (0.2·10
-3
·q
t.d
/O)·Γ and x = 1.0 if t
max
> t
lim
, or x = t
lim
·Γ / t
*
max
if t
max

= t
lim
.
14


Examples

The effects of the fire load density and the ventilation of the fire compartment on the gas
temperature are shown in Figure 1.4 and Figure 1.5. These calculations are based on the formula
given above with the parameters given in the figures, which are based on the seminar materials [16].
These curves are suitable for using as alternatives of nominal curve of internal members of a
compartment.

















Figure 1.4 Parametric temperature-time curves considering the effects of openings


















Figure 1.5 Parametric temperature-time curves considering the effects of fire loads
15

1.2.3 Natural fire models: localized fire models

The models mentioned above have assumed a fully developed fire occurs and the same temperature
conditions throughout the fire compartment. However, in some circumstances, possibly in a large
space where there are no nearly combustibles, or in a fire partially controlled by sprinklers, there
could be a localized fire which has much less impact on the building structure than a fully developed
fire. The thermal actions of a localized fire can be assessed using the analytical formula that takes
into account the relative height of the flame to the ceilings. These formulas are given in [3] and [5].

1.2.4 Natural fire models: advanced fire models

Two kinds of numerical models are available to model the real fires: multi zone models and field
models. The multi zone models are used when the fire is localized, e.g. in the growth phase of a fire.
The fire compartment is divided into a hot zone, with a uniform temperature, above a fresh air zone
and a fire plume that feeds the hot zone just above the fire. A two-zone model is shown in Figure
1.6. For each of the zones, the heat and mass balance is solved. (Semi) empirical relations govern
plume entrainment, irradiative heat exchange between zones and mass flow through openings to
adjoining compartments. Particularly, the (growth of the) fire size should be taken as an input
besides the parameters mentioned in the one zone model [18]. The application of this model is
mainly in pre-flashover conditions, in order to know the smoke propagation in buildings, and
estimate the life safety in function of toxic gas concentration temperature, radiative flux and optical
density.

















Figure 1.6 Zone model [10]


16
Field models are also called Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. These models are based
on two or three dimensional heat and mass transport, solving the equations of conservation of mass,
momentum and energy for discrete points in the enclosed compartment. In this model, material
properties and boundary conditions may be defined as the function of temperatures. The fire
simulation problem represents one of the most difficult areas in computational fluid dynamics: the
numerical solution of re-circulating, three dimensional turbulent, generating eddies or vortices of
many sizes. The energy contained in large vortices cascades down to smaller and smaller vortices
until it diffuses into heat. Eddies exist down to the size where the viscous forces dominate over
inertial forces and energy is dissipated into heat. Field models will provide accurate information
about temperatures from the pieces of the fire room [18]. The complexity and the CPU time needed
with field models allow few applications of such model in respect to fire resistance particularly for
fully developed fire. In fire domain the use of field model is often reduced to the application of
smoke movement.

1.3 Material Properties of Steel At Elevated Temperature

1.3.1 Mechanical properties of materials

When structural components are exposed to fire, they experience temperature gradients and stress
gradients, which are both varied with time. Mechanical properties of materials for fire design
purpose must be consistent with the anticipated fire exposure.

1.3.1.1 Components of strains

The deformation of steel at elevated temperature is described by assuming that the change in strain
consists of three components: mechanical or stress-related strain, thermal strain and creep strain [1].

Stress-related strain

Figure 1.7 shows the stress-strain curves at various temperatures for S275 steel in Eurocode 3. It can
be seen that the steel suffers a progressive loss of strength and stiffness at temperature increases.
The change can be seen at temperatures as low as 300°C. Although melting does not happen until
about 1500°C, only 23% of the ambient-temperature strength remains at 700°C. At 800°C this has
reduced to 11% and at 900°C to 6% [17].

A value of yield strength is required at elevated temperature. Most normal construction steel has
well-defined yield strength at normal temperatures, but this disappears at elevated temperatures as
shown in Figure 1.7. In Eurocode 3 [7], the 2% proof strength is used as the effective yield strength.
However, Kaitila [9] summarizes the possible values for yield strength at elevated temperature from
the literatures: Ala-Outinen and Myllymäki, and Ranby suggested the use of the 0.2% proof stress
for the effective yield strength at elevated temperature; In the Steel Construction Institute (SCI)
recommendation, the use of 0.5% proof stress is suggested for members failing by buckling in
17
compression (mainly columns) and the 1.5% proof stress fro members failing in bending (mainly
beams); and Kirby and Preston recommend using 1% proof stress as the effective yield strength.


















Figure 1.7 Reduction of stress-strain properties with temperature for S275 steel (EC3 curves) [17]


The modulus of elasticity is needed for buckling calculations and for elastic deflection calculation,
but these are rarely attempted under fire conditions because elevated temperatures lead rapidly to
plastic deformations.

For the fire design of individual structural members such as simply supported beams that are free to
expand during heating, the stress-related strain is the only component that needs to be considered. If
the reduction of strength with temperature is known, member strength at elevated temperature can
easily be calculated using simple formulae. The stress-related strains in fire-exposed structures may
be well above yield levels, resulting in extensive plastification, especially in buildings with
redundancy or restraint to thermal expansion. Computer modeling of fire-exposed structures
requires knowledge of stress-strain relationships not only in loading, but also in unloading, as
members deform and as structural members cool in real fires [1].

Thermal strain

Thermal strain is the thermal expansion (∆L/L) that occurs when most materials are heated, with
expansion being related to the increase in temperature. Thermal strains is not important for fire
design of simply supported members, but must be considered for frames and complex structural
systems, especially where members are restrained by other parts of structure since thermal strains
can induce large internal forces [1].



18
Creep strain

Creep is the term that describes long-term deformation of materials under constant load. Under most
conditions, creep is only a problem for members with very high permanent loads. Creep is relatively
insignificant in structural steel at normal temperatures. However, it becomes very significant at
temperatures over 400 or 500
°
C and highly depends on the stress level. At higher temperatures, the
creep deformations in steel can accelerate rapidly, leading to plastic behavior.

Creep strain is not usually included explicitly in fire engineering calculations because of the added
complexity. This applies to both hand and computer methods. The effects of creep are usually
allowed for implicitly by using stress-strain relationships that include an allowance for the amount
of creep that might be expected in a fire-exposed member [1].

1.3.1.2 Testing regimes

Constant temperature tests of material can be carried out in the following four regimes [1]:

1) The most common test procedure to determine stress-strain relationship is to impose a
constant rate of increase of strain and to measure the load, from which the stress can be
derived;
2) A similar regime is to control the rate of increase of load and measure the deformation;
3) A creep test is one in which the load is kept constant and deformation over time is measured;
4) A relaxation test is one in which a constant initial deformation is imposed and the reduction
in load over time is measured.

Two other possible test regimes are available when the effects of changing temperature are added.

5) A transient creep test is that the specimen is subjected to initial load, then the temperature is
increased at a constant rate while the load is maintained at a constant level, and the
deformations are measured.
6) An alternative is that the applied load is varied throughout the test in order to maintain a
constant level of strain as temperature is increased at a constant rate.

The most common of these are regimes (1) and (5). The regime (1) tests depend on the rate of
loading because of the influence of the creep. The region (5) tests depend on the rate of temperature
increase. The stress-strain relationships at elevated temperature can be obtained directly from
steady-state tests at certain elevated temperatures (Regime 1) or they can be derived from the results
of transient tests.

This procedure can be demonstrated from the following example, i.e. the small-scale tensile tests of
steel at high temperature [15]. This research has been carried out in the Laboratory of Steel
Structures at Helsinki University of Technology from the years 1994-2001 in order to investigate
mechanical properties of several structural steels at elevated temperatures by using mainly the
transient state tensile test method.

19
The testing device is illustrated in Figure 1.8. The oven, in which test specimen is situated during
the tests, was heated using three separate temperature controlled resistor elements. The air
temperature is measured with three separate temperature-detecting elements. The steel temperature
was measured accurately from the test specimen using temperature-detecting element that was
fastened to the specimen during the heating.













Figure 1.8 High temperature tensile testing device [15]


During the transient test, the specimen is under a level of constant load and a constant rise of
temperature. The temperature and the strain are measured; the temperature and strain curve are
recorded. The results are then converted into stress-strain relations using the scheme shown in
Figure 1.9. Thermal elongation, which has been measured separately [14], is subtracted from the
total strain.














Figure 1.9 Converting the stress-strain curves from the transient state test results [15]


In the steady-state tests, the test specimen was heated up to a specific temperature, and then a
normal tensile test was carried out. The mechanical properties can be determined directly from the
20
recorded stress-strain curve. The comparisons of Comparison of the steady state and transient state
test results of structural steel S350GD+Z at temperature 800
°
C are shown in Figure 1.10. It can be
seen that the results using these two testing methods are different.



















Figure 1.10 Comparison of the steady state and transient state test results of structural steel S350GD+Z at
temperature 800
° °° °
C [15]

1.3.1.3 Mechanical properties provided in Eurocode 3

The steel grades in Eurocode 3 [7] are based on EN 10025 (S235, S275, S355) and EN 10113 (S420,
S460). The mechanical properties of steel at 20 °C is taken as those given in Eurocode 3, Part 1.1 for
normal design. The stress-strain relationship at elevated temperature is given in Figure 1.11 and can
be used to determine the resistance to tension, compression, moment or shear. This is suitable for the
heating rate from 2 to 50 K/min.

Strain range Stress Tangent modulus
ε ≤ ε
p.θ
ε⋅E
a.θ
E
a.θ
ε
p.θ
< ε < ε
y.θ
f
p.θ
- c + (b / a)[a
2
- (ε
y.θ
- ε)
2
]
0.5
b(ε
y.θ
- ε) / {a[a
2
- (ε
y.θ
- ε)
2
]
0.5
}
ε
y.θ
≤ ε ≤ ε
t.θ
f
y.θ
0
ε
t.θ
< ε < ε
u.θ
f
y.θ
[1 - (ε - ε
t.θ
) / (ε
u.θ
- ε
t.θ
)] -
ε = ε
u.θ
0.00 -
Parameters ε
p.θ
= f
p.θ
/ E
a.θ
, ε
y.θ
= 0.02, ε
t.θ
= 0.15 , ε
u.θ
= 0.20
Functions a
2
= (ε
y.θ
- ε
p.θ
)⋅(ε
y.θ
- ε
p.θ
+ c / E
a.θ
)
b
2
= c(ε
y.θ
- ε
p.θ
) E
a.θ
+ c
2

c = (f
y.θ
- f
p.θ
)
2
/ [(ε
y.θ
- ε
p.θ
) E
a.θ
- 2(f
y.θ
- f
p.θ
)]

21
















f
y.θ
is the effective yield strength;
f
p.θ
is the proportional limit;
E
a.θ
is the slope of the linear elastic range;
ε
p.θ
is the strain at proportional limit
ε
y.θ
is the yield strain;
ε
t.θ
is the limiting strain for yield strength
ε
u.θ
is the ultimate strain

Figure 1.11 Stress-strain relationship for steel at elevated temperature (Eurocode 3) [7]

The variations of the reduction factor for effective yield strength, for proportional limit and for the
slope of the linear elastic range are shown in Figure 1.12 [17]. The reduction factors, relative to the
appropriate value at 20
°
C, are given in Table 1.1.















Figure 1.12 Reduction factors for stress-strain relationship of steel at elevated temperature [17]

0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Temperature (C)
R
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

f
a
c
t
o
r Effective yield strength
Slope of linear
elastic range
Proportional limit
22

Table 1.1 Reduction factors for stress-strain relationship of steel at elevated temperatures [7]
Reduction factors at temperature relative to the value at 20
° °° °
C Steel
temperature
θ θθ θ
a

Effective yield strength
k
y.θ θθ θ
= f
y.θ θθ θ
/ f
y

Proportional limit
k
p.θ θθ θ
= f
p.θ θθ θ
/ f
y

Slope of the linear elastic range
k
E.θ θθ θ
= E
a.θ θθ θ
/ E
a

20 1.000 1.000 1.000
100 1.000 1.000 1.000
200 1.000 0.807 0.900
300 1.000 0.613 0.800
400 1.000 0.420 0.700
500 0.780 0.360 0.600
600 0.470 0.180 0.310
700 0.230 0.075 0.130
800 0.110 0.050 0.090
900 0.060 0.0375 0.0675
1000 0.040 0.0250 0.0450
1100 0.020 0.0125 0.0225
1200 0.000 0.0000 0.0000
Note: For intermediate values of the steel temperature, linear interpolation may be used


As an example, Figure 1.13 illustrates the stress-strain relationship for steel grade S 355 at elevated
temperature using the values given above. For steel grade S355, the yield strength is 355 MPa and
the elastic modulus is 210 000 MPa. In Figure 1.13, no strain hardening is included. However, for
temperature below 400
°
C, the alternative strain hardening option can be used according to Annex B
in Eurocode 3, Part 1.2 [7].



















Figure 1.13 Stress-strain relationship for S355 at elevated temperature
23

Hot-rolled reinforcing bars are treated in Eurocode 4 in similar fashion to structural steels, but cold-
worked reinforcing steel, whose standard grade is S500, deteriorates more rapidly at elevated
temperatures than do the standard grades. Its strength reduction factors for effective yield and elastic
modulus are shown in Figure 1.14. It is unlikely that reinforcing bars or mesh will reach very high
temperatures in a fire, given the insulation provided by the concrete if normal cover specifications
are maintained. The very low ductility of S500 steel (it is only guaranteed at 5%) may be of more
significance, in which high strains of mesh in slabs are caused by the progressive weakening of
supporting steel sections [17].




















Figure 1.14 EC3 Strength reduction for structural steel (SS) and cold-worked reinforcement (Rft) at high
temperatures [17]

1.3.2 Thermal properties

Such material properties as density, specific heat and thermal conductivity are needed for heat
transfer calculation in solid materials. Density, ρ, is the mass of the material per unit volume in
kg/m
3
. Specific heat, c
p,
is the amount of heat required to heat a unit mass of material by one degree
with unit of J/kgK. Thermal conductivity, λ, represents the rate of heat transferred through a unit
thickness material per unit temperature difference with unit of W/mK.

Two other derived properties which are often needed, i.e. the thermal diffusivity given by λ/ρc with
unit of m
2
/s and thermal inertia given by α=λρc with unit of W
2
s/m
4
K
2
. When materials with low
thermal inertia are exposed to heating, surface temperature increase rapidly, so that these materials
ignite more readily. In the following sections, the values of some thermal properties provided in
Eurocode 3 [7] are described.
0 300 600 900 1200
100
80
60
40
20
% of normal value
Temperature (°C)
Effective yield strength
(at 2% strain)
Elastic modulus
SS
Rft
SS
Rft
24
1.3.2.1 Specific heat

In Eurocode 3, Part 1.2 [7], the specific heat of steel (J/kgK) may be determined as follows:

c
a
= 425 + 7.73·10
-1
θ θθ θa - 1.69·10
-3
·θ θθ θ
a
2
- 2.22·10
-6
·θ θθ θ
a
3
(20° °° °C ≤ ≤≤ ≤ θ θθ θ
a
< 600° °° °C)
c
a
= 666 + 13002 / (738 - θ θθ θ
a
) (600° °° °C ≤ ≤≤ ≤ θ θθ θ
a
< 735° °° °C)
c
a
= 545 + 17820 / (θ θθ θ
a
- s731) (735° °° °C ≤ ≤≤ ≤ θ θθ θ
a
< 900° °° °C)
c
a
= 650 (900° °° °C ≤ ≤≤ ≤ θ θθ θ
a
≤ ≤≤ ≤ 1200° °° °C)

The variation of specific heat with temperature is illustrated in Figure 1.15. The value of specific
heat undergoes a very dramatic change in the range 700-800°C. The apparent sharp rise to an
"infinite" value at about 735°C is actually an indication of the latent heat input needed to allow the
crystal-structure phase change to take place. When simple calculation models are being used a single
value of 600J/kgK is allowed, which is quite accurate for most of the temperature range but does not
allow for the endothermic nature of the phase change.
















Figure 1.15 Variation of the specific heat of steel with temperature [17]


1.3.2.2 Thermal conductivity

The thermal conductivity of steel may be defined as follows [7]

λ λλ λ
a
= 54-3.33·10
-2
·θ θθ θa (20° °° °C ≤ ≤≤ ≤ θ θθ θ
a
< 800° °° °C)
λ λλ λ
a
= 27.3 (800° °° °C ≤ ≤≤ ≤ θ θθ θ
a
≤ ≤≤ ≤ 1200° °° °C)

The variation of thermal conductivity with temperature is shown in Figure 1.16. For simple design
calculations the constant conservative value of 45W/m°C is allowed.


5000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Temperature (°C)
Specific Heat
(J/kg°K)
4000
3000
2000
1000
ca=600 J/kg°K
(EC3 simple calculation
models)
25

















Figure 1.16 Eurocode 3 representations of the variation of thermal conductivity of steel with temperature
[17]


1.3.2.3 Thermal elongation

In most simple fire engineering calculations thermal expansion of materials is neglected, but for
steel members which support a concrete slab on the upper flange the differential thermal expansion
caused by shielding of the top flange and the heat-sink function of the concrete slab causes a
“thermal bowing” towards the fire in the lower range of temperatures. In Eurocode 3, Part 1.2 [7],
the thermal elongation is defined as the function of temperature and may be determined as follows:

∆ ∆∆ ∆l /l = 1.2× ×× ×10
-5
θ θθ θ
a
+0.4× ×× ×10
-8
θ θθ θ
a
2
-2.416× ×× ×10
-4
(20° °° °C ≤ ≤≤ ≤ θ θθ θ
a
< 750° °° °C)
∆ ∆∆ ∆l /l = 1.1× ×× ×10
-2
(750° °° °C ≤ ≤≤ ≤ θ θθ θ
a
≤ ≤≤ ≤ 860° °° °C)
∆ ∆∆ ∆l /l = 2× ×× ×10
-5
θ θθ θ
a
-6.2× ×× ×10
-3
(860° °° °C < θ θθ θ
a
≤ ≤≤ ≤ 1200° °° °C)

where, l is the length at 20°C; ∆l is the temperature induced expansion; and θ
a
is the steel
temperature. The variation of thermal elongation with temperature is illustrated in Figure 1.17.
When the exposed steel sections reach a certain temperature range within which a crystal-structure
change takes place and the thermal expansion temporarily stops.

In simple calculation models, the relationship between thermal elongation and steel temperature may
be considered to be constant. In this case the elongation may be determined from
∆ ∆∆ ∆l /l = 14× ×× ×10
-6
(θ θθ θ
a
-20) ( 1.23 )




10
20
30
40
50
60
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Thermal
conductivity
(W/m°K)
Temperature (°C)
λa
=45 W/m°K (EC3 simple calculation models)
26

















Figure 1.17 Thermal elongation of steel as a function of the temperature ( Eurocode 3, Part 1.2) [7]

1.4 Passive Protection for Steelwork

1.4.1 Fire protection systems

The traditional approach to fire resistance of steel structures has been to clad the members with
insulating material. This may be in alternative forms [17]:

o Boarding (plasterboard or more specialized systems based on mineral fiber or vermiculite)
fixed around the exposed parts of the steel members. This is fairly easy to apply and creates
an external profile that is aesthetically acceptable, but is inflexible in use around complex
details such as connections. Ceramic fiber blanket may be used as a more flexible insulating
barrier in some cases.
o Sprays that build up a coating of prescribed thickness around the members. These tend to
use vermiculite or mineral fiber in a cement or gypsum binder. Application on site is fairly
rapid, and does not suffer the problems of rigid boarding around complex structural details.
Since the finish produced tends to be unacceptable in public areas of buildings these systems
tend to be used in areas that are normally hidden from view, such as beams and connections
above suspended ceilings.
o Intumescent paints, which provide a decorative finish under normal conditions, but which
foam and swell when heated, producing an insulating char layer which is up to 50 times as
thick as the original paint film. They are applied by brush, spray or roller, and must achieve
a specified thickness that may require several coats of paint and measurement of the film
thickness.

0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.02
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Temperature (C)
E
l
o
n
g
a
t
i
o
n
27
All of these methods are normally applied as a site operation after the main structural elements are
erected. This can introduce a significant delay into the construction process, which increases the cost
of construction to the client. The only exception to this is that some systems have recently been
developed in which intumescents are applied to steelwork at the fabrication stage, so that much of
the site-work is avoided. However, in such systems there is clearly a need for a much higher degree
than usual of resistance to impact or abrasion.

These methods can provide any required degree of protection against fire heating of steelwork, and
can be used as part of a fire engineering approach. However traditionally thicknesses of the
protection layers have been based on manufacturers’ data aimed at the relatively simplistic criterion
of limiting the steel temperature to less than 550°C at the required time of fire resistance in the
ISO834 standard fire. Fire protection materials are routinely tested for insulation, integrity and load-
carrying capacity in ISO834 furnace test. Material properties for design are determined from the
results by semi-empirical means.

Full or partial encasement of open steel sections in concrete is occasionally used as a method of fire
protection, particularly in the case of columns for which the strength of the concrete, either
reinforced or plain, can contribute to the ambient-temperature strength. In the case of hollow steel
sections concrete may be used to fill the section, again either with or without reinforcing bars. In fire
this concrete acts to some extent as a heat sink, which slows the heating process in the steel section.
In a few buildings hollow-section columns have been linked together as a system and filled with
water fed from a gravity reservoir. This can clearly dissipate huge amounts of heat, but at rather high
cost, both in construction and maintenance.

The most recent design codes are explicit about the fact that the structural fire resistance of a
member is dependent to a large extent on its loading level in fire, and also that loading in the fire
situation has a very high probability of being considerably less than the factored loads for which
strength design is performed. This presents designers with another option that may be used alone or
in combination with other measures. A reduction in load level by selecting steel members that are
stronger individually than are needed for ambient temperature strength, possibly as part of a strategy
of standardizing sections, can enhance the fire resistance times, particularly for beams. This can
allow unprotected or partially protected beams to be used.

The effect of loading level reduction is particularly useful when combined with a reduction in
exposed perimeter by making use of the shielding and heat sink effects of the supported concrete
slab. The traditional down stand beam (Figure 1.18) gains some advantage over complete exposure
by having its top flange upper face totally shielded by the slab; supporting the slab on shelf angles
welded to the beam web keeps the upper part of the beam web and the whole top flange cool, which
provides a greater enhancement.

The recent innovation of “Slimflor” beams, in which an unusually shallow beam section is used and
the slab is supported on the lower flange, either by pre-welding a plate across this flange or by using
an asymmetric steel section, leaves only the lower face of the bottom flange exposed.

Alternative fire engineering strategies are beyond the scope of this lecture, but there is an active
encouragement to designers in the Eurocodes to use agreed and validated advanced calculation
models for the behavior of the whole structure or sub-assemblies. The clear implication of this is
28
that designs which can be shown to gain fire resistance overall by providing alternative load paths
when members in a fire compartment have individually lost all effective load resistance are perfectly
valid under the provisions of these codes. This is a major departure from the traditional approach
based on the fire resistance in standard tests of each component. In its preamble Eurocode 3 Part 1-
2 also encourages the use of integrated fire strategies, including the use of combinations of active
(sprinklers) and passive protection, although it is acknowledged that allowances for sprinkler
systems in fire resistant design are at present a matter for national Building Regulations.










Figure 1.18 Inherent fire protection to steel beams [17]


1.4.2 Thermal properties of fire protection systems

Typical values of thermal properties of insulating materials are given in Table 1.2, from ECCS
(1995) [1].

Table 1.2 Thermal properties of insulation materials
Materials Density
ρ ρρ ρ
i

(kg/m
3
)
Thermal conductivity
λ λλ λ
i

(W/mK)
Specific heat
c
i

(J/kgK)
Equilibrium moisture
content
%
Sprays
Sprayed mineral fiber 300 0.12 1200 1
Perlite or vermiculite
plaster
350 0.12 1200 15
High density perlite or
vermiculite plaster
550 0.12 1200 15
Boards:
Fiber-silicate or fiber-
calcium silicate
600 0.15 1200 3
Gypsum plaster 800 0.20 1700 20
Compressed fiber boards
Mineral wool, fiber silicate 150 0.20 1200 2




Downstand beam
Shelf-angle beam
Slimflor beam
29
1.5 Heat Transfer in Steel

1.5.1 Type of heat transfer

Heat transfer involves the following three processes: conduction, convection and radiation, which
can occur separately or together depending on the circumstances.

Conduction

Conduction is the mechanism for heat transfer in solid materials. In materials that are good
conductors of heat, the heat is transferred by interaction involving free electrons. In materials that
are poor conductors, heat is conducted via mechanical vibrations of molecular lattice. Conduction of
heat is an important factor in the ignition of solid surfaces, and in fire resistance of barriers and
structural members.

In the steady state, the heat transfer by conduction is directly proportional to the temperature
gradient between two points and the thermal conductivity, λ, i.e. [1]
h
D
=λ λλ λ dθ θθ θ/dx ( 1.24 )
where h
D
is the heat flow per unit area (W/m
2
), λ is the thermal conductivity (W/mK), θ is the
temperature (°C), and x is the distance in the direction of heat flow (m).

In the transit state, i.e. the temperatures are changing with time, the amount of heat required to
change the temperature of the materials must be included. For one dimension heat transfer by
conduction with no internal heat being released, the governing equation is [1]
δ δδ δ
2
θ θθ θ /δ δδ δ
2
x=(1/α αα α)/(δ δδ δ θ θθ θ/δ δδ δ t) ( 1.25 )
where t is time (s) and α = λ/ρc is thermal diffusivity (m
2
/s). These equations can be solved using
analytical, graphical or numerical methods.

Convection

Convection is heat transfer by the movement of fluids, either gases or liquids. Convective heat
transfer is an important factor in flame spread and in the upward transport of smoke and hot gases to
the ceiling or out of window from a compartment fire. For given conditions, the heating transfer is
proportional to the temperature difference between to materials, so that the heat flow per unit area
can be calculated using [1]
h
D
=α αα α
c
∆ ∆∆ ∆θ θθ θ ( 1.26 )
where α
c
is the convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2
K) and ∆θ is the temperature difference
between the surface of the solid and the fluid (°C). In Eurocode 3, Part 1.2 [7], the coefficient of
heat transfer by convection is given as follows:



30
Table 1.3 Coefficient of heat transfer by convection
α αα α
c
(W/m
2
K)
Exposed sides
the standard temperature-time curve is used 25
the external fire curve is used 25
the hydrocarbon temperature-time is used 50
the simplified fire models are used 35
the advanced fire models are used 35
Unexposed side of separating members
the radiation effects are not included 4
the radiation effects are included 9


Radiation

Radiation is transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves that can be travel through a vacuum or
through a transparent solid or liquid. Radiation is the main mechanism for heat transfer from flames
to fuel surfaces, from hot smoke to building objects and from a burning building to an adjacent
building. The heat flow per unit area can be calculated as [1]:
h
D
=Φ ΦΦ Φ ε εε ε σ σσ σ [(θ θθ θ
e
+ 273)
4
– (θ θθ θ
r
+273 )
4
] ( 1.27 )
where Φ is the configuration factor that is a measure of how much of the emitter is ‘seen’ by the
receiving surface. ε is the resultant emissivity of two surface and can be calculated as ε=1/(1/ε
r
+
1/ε
e
- 1). σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and its value is σ = 5.67 × 10
-8
W/m
2
K
4
. θ
e
is the
temperature of emitting surface (°C) and θ
r
is the temperature of receiving surface (°C).

1.5.2 Heat transfer equation for steel

The rise of temperature in a structural steel member depends on the heat transfer between any two
elements that are at different temperature. Conduction, radiation and convection are the modes by
which thermal energy flows from regions of high temperature to those of low temperature. On the
external surfaces of the elements, all three mechanisms are present. Inside the element, heat is
transferred from point to point only by conduction. Calculation of heat transfer requires knowledge
of the geometry of element, thermal properties of the materials and heat transfer coefficient at
boundaries. Practical difficulties are that some of thermal properties are temperature dependent as
shown in 1.3.2.

1.5.2.1 General equation

The general approach to study the increase of the temperature in structural elements exposed to fire
is based on the integration of the Fourier-differential equation for transient conduction inside the
member. This equation is given as [16]:
31

dt
d
c h
z z y y x x
net
θ θθ θ
θ θθ θ ρ ρρ ρ
δ δδ δ
θ θθ θ δ δδ δ
θ θθ θ λ λλ λ
δ δδ δ
δ δδ δ
δ δδ δ
θ θθ θ δ δδ δ
θ θθ θ λ λλ λ
δ δδ δ
δ δδ δ
δ δδ δ
θ θθ θ δ δδ δ
θ θθ θ λ λλ λ
δ δδ δ
δ δδ δ
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (










+ J
J
`
'
(
|
+
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
+ J
J
`
'
(
|
D
( 1.28 )
where x, y, and z is the Cartesian coordinates inside the structural element; λ is thermal
conductivity; ρ is the density; c is the specific heat and h
D
is the net heat flux that is due to
convection and radiation, i.e.

net
h

=
c net
h
.

+
r net
h
.

( 1.29 )
where, the net convective heat flux can be determined by

c net
h
.

= α αα α
c
(θ θθ θ
g
- θ θθ θ
m
) ( 1.30 )
in which α
c
is the coefficient of heat transfer by convection, θ
g
is the gas temperature in the vicinity
of the fire exposed member (°C) and θ
m
is the surface temperature of the member (°C). The net
radiative heat flux component per unit of surface area is determined by:

r net
h
.

=Φ ΦΦ Φ ε εε ε σ σσ σ [(θ θθ θ
r
+ 273)
4
– (θ θθ θ
m
+273 )
4
] ( 1.31 )
in which θ
r
is the effective radiation temperature of the fire environment (°C).

The solution of Fourier-differential equation can be obtained when the initial and boundary
conditions are known. For fire, the initial conditions consist of the temperature distribution at the
beginning of the analysis (usually the room temperature before fire); boundary conditions must be
defined on every surface of the structure, for instance, boundaries exposed to fire and boundaries
unexposed to fire. Usually fire simulations are based on the temperature history of the fire, for
instance the standard fire curve. However, any other any fire conditions can be assumed, using other
type of temperature-time curves. Numerical methods are necessary to solve this equation.

Many computer programs are available and it is possible to carry out thermal analysis for very
complex structural elements. For instance, Ma and Mäkeläinen [11] in the Laboratory of Steel
Structures at HUT has developed a computer program to perform temperature analysis of steel-
concrete composite slim floor structures exposed to fire based on this heat transfer equation. As an
example, Figure 1.19 shows the section shape of a new slim floor beam, which is composed of a
three-plate-welded beam, a profiled steel deck and a concrete slab over the steel deck. Figure 1.20
shows the temperature distribution of this slim floor beam under standard temperature-time curve
when the fire exposure is 60 minutes.

In many cases, the general form of the equation can be greatly simplified. For instance, thermal
conductivity, density and specific can be assumed to be independent of temperature; internal heat
generation is absent or can be neglected; and three-dimensional problems can be studied as two-
dimensional or one dimensional idealizations.







32















Figure 1.19 Section shape of new slim floor beam [11]

















Figure 1.20 Temperature distribution of the new slim floor beam under ISO fire (60 minutes) [11]

1.5.2.2 Temperature calculation for unprotected steel members

Since the thermal conductivity is high enough to allow the difference of temperature in the cross-
section to be neglected. This assumption means that thermal resistance to heat flow is negligible.
Any heat supplied to the steel section is instantly distributed to give a uniform steel temperature.
With this assumption, the energy balance can be made based on the principle that the heat entering
the steel over the exposed surface area in a small time step ∆t (s) is equal to the heat required to raise
temperature of the steel by ∆θ (°C), i.e. [1]

6
0
1
1
7
1
8
3
Concrete
Rannila 120
Steel Deck
Reinforcement Mesh
Asymmetric
Steel Beam
10
20
400
200
18
fillet weld
fillet weld
33
heat entering = heat to raise temperature

net
h

A
m
∆ ∆∆ ∆t = ρ ρρ ρ
a
c
a
V ∆ ∆∆ ∆ θ θθ θ
a
( 1.32 )
and the temperature increase of steel can be calculated as
∆ ∆∆ ∆ θ θθ θ
a.t
= (A
m
/V)(1/ρ ρρ ρ
a
c
a
)
net
h

∆ ∆∆ ∆t ( 1.33 )
where
net
h

is the heat flow per unit area (W/m
2
) and is given by:

net
h

= α αα α
c
(θ θθ θ
g
- θ θθ θ
m
) + Φ ΦΦ Φ ε εε ε σ σσ σ [(θ θθ θ
r
+ 273)
4
– (θ θθ θ
m
+273 )
4
] ( 1.34 )
The meanings and the values of other symbols are given in Table 1.4.

Table 1.4 Parameter values for exterminating temperature increase
Symbols Meanings Values according to Eurocode Unit
ρ
a
Density of steel 7850 kg/m
3

c
a
Specific heat of steel see 1.3.2.1 or 600 for a simple calculation model J/kgK
α
c
Coefficient of heat transfer
by convection
see Table 1.3 W/m
2
K
Φ Configuration factor can be taken as 1. A lower value may be chosen to
consider position and shadow effect
----
ε Resultant emissivity of two
surface
can be calculated as ε=ε
m
·ε
f

with ε
m
= 0.8 and ε
f
= 1.0, ε = 0.8
-----
σ Stefan-Boltzmann constant 5.67 × 10
-8
W/m
2
K
4

θ
g
Temperature of gas nominal temperature-time curve or parametric
temperature-time curves
°C
θ
r
Effective radiation
temperature of the fire
environment
θ
r
= θ
g
°C
A
m
/V
Section factor
see Table 1.6
1/m
∆θ
a.t

Temperature change of steel Calculation results °C


Solving the increasemental equation step by step gives the temperature development of the steel
element during the fire. A spreadsheet for calculating steel temperatures is shown in Table 1.5. In
order to assure the numerical convergence of the solution, some upper limit must be taken for the
time increasement ∆t. In Eurocode 3, Part 1.2 [7], it suggested that the value of ∆t should not be
taken as more than 5 seconds.

Table 1.5 Spreadsheet calculation for temperatures of unprotected steel section [1]
Time Steel temperature
θ θθ θ
a

Fire temperature
θ θθ θ
g

Temperature change in steel
∆ ∆∆ ∆θ θθ θ
a

t
1
= ∆t Initial steel temperature
θ
a0


Fire temperature half way
through time step (at ∆t / 2)
Calculating from increasemental
equation with θ
a
and θ
g
from this row
t
2
= t
1
+ ∆t θ
a
+ ∆θ
a

θ
a
Temperature for
previous row
Fire temperature half way
through time step (at t
1
+∆t / 2)
Calculating from increasemental
equation with θ
a
and θ
g
from this row

34
An important parameter in determining the rise of temperature of the steel section is section factor,
A
m
/V (sometimes given as F/V or A/V or H
p
/V in different countries). The section factors for some
of the unprotected steel members in Eurocode 3, Part 1.2[7] are shown in Table 1.6.

Table 1.6 Section factor for unprotected steel members [7]
Open section exposed to fire

A
m
/V:
Perimeter / Section area





Open section exposed
to fire on three sides

A
m
/V:
Surface exposed to fire
/ Section area










Hollow section or welded box section with
uniform thickness exposed to fire on all sides
if t << b, A
m
/ V = 1 / t
Tube exposed to fire on
all sides

A
m
/ V = 1 / t


When the profile is in contact with a concrete slab, which has a thermal conductivity greatly lower
than that of steel, the effective exposed perimeter A
m
must be calculated using directed exposed part.
This requires an assumption of an adiabatic condition at the contact surface. The result is safe. In
fact some thermal energy passes through the colder body and, if it is neglected, the increase of the
temperature in the steel element is higher. It is very important to understand this point, because it
gives the key to deciding if the simplified solution of the thermal problem is appropriate or if it is
necessary to solve the complete the heat transfer equation.

1.5.2.3 Temperature calculation for protected steel members

For members with passive protection the basic mechanisms of heat transfer are identical to those for
unprotected steelwork, but the surface covering of material of very low conductivity induces a
considerable reduction in the heating rate of the steel section. Also, the insulating layer itself has the
capacity to store a certain, if small, amount of heat. It is acceptable to assume that the exposed
insulation surface is at the fire atmosphere temperature (since the conduction away from the surface
is low and very little of the incident heat is used in raising the temperature of the surface layer of
35
insulation material). The calculation of steel temperature rise ∆θ
a.t
in a time increment ∆t is now
concerned with balancing the heat conduction from the exposed surface with the heat stored in the
insulation layer and the steel section:
( ) ( )
t g t a t g
p
a a
p p
t a
e t
V
A
c
d
.
10 /
. . .
1
3 / 1
1
/
θ θθ θ θ θθ θ θ θθ θ
φ φφ φ ρ ρρ ρ
λ λλ λ
θ θθ θ
φ φφ φ
∆ − − ∆ −
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
+
∆ but 0
.
≥ ∆
t a
θ θθ θ ( 1.35 )
in which the relative heat storage in the protection material is given by the term

V
A
d
c
c
p
p
a a
p p
ρ ρρ ρ
ρ ρρ ρ
φ φφ φ ( 1.36 )
in which A
p
/V section factor for protected steel member, where A
p
is generally the inner perimeter
of the protection material and the values are shown in Table 1.7.

Table 1.7 Section factors of steel members insulated by fire protection materials[7]
Sketch Description Section factor
(A
p
/V)





Contour encasement
of uniform thickness
Steel perimeter /
Steel section area

Hollow encasement of
uniform thickness
2(b+h) / Steel
section area






Contour encasement
of uniform thickness
to fire on three sides
(Steel perimeter-b)
/ Steel section area

Hollow encasement of
uniform thickness
exposed to fire on
three sides
(2h+b) / Steel
section area


Normally, the section factors represent the ratio of the effective surface exposed to fire to the
volume of the element. When there is a protective coating, the surface to be taken into account is not
36
the external surface of the profile but the inner steel surface. c
p
is the specific heat of protection
material; λ
p
is thermal conductivity of the fire protection material; ρ
p
is the density of fire protection
material. These values are given in Table 1.2. d
p
is the thickness of fire protection material. The
value of ∆t should not be taken as more than 30 seconds.

Fire protection materials often contain a certain percentage of moisture that evaporates at about
100°C, with considerable absorption of latent heat. This causes a “dwell” in the heating curve for a
protected steel member at about this temperature while the water content is expelled from the
protection layer. The incremental time-temperature relationship above does not model this effect,
but this is at least a conservative approach. A method of calculating the dwell time is given, if
required, in the European pre-standard for fire testing.

1.5.2.4 Example: temperature analysis for both unprotected and protected steel members

The following example shows the temperature analysis of steel beam with three-side exposure to
fire and box protection with gypsum board under standard fire. The cross-section and the required
parameter of the gypsum board are given in Figure 1.21. The results of temperature-time curves for
unprotected steel beam and protected beam together with the standard fire curve are shown in Figure
1.22. The thickness of 12.5 mm gypsum board is used and it can be seen that with this thickness, the
temperature of steel beam drops dramatically at 30 minutes.





Figure 1.21 Cross-section of steel beam and properties of protection material

















Figure 1.22 Temperature-time curves of unprotected and protected steel beam together with standard fire
37

1.6 Mechanical Analysis of Structural Element

Fire resistance is a measure of the ability of building element to resist a fire. Fire resistance is most
often quantified as the time to which the element can meet certain criteria during an exposure to a
standard fire test. Structural fire resistance can also be quantified using temperature or load capacity
of a structural element exposed to a fire.

Verification of fire resistance should be in one of the following domain [3]:

o Time domain: t
fi.d
≥ t
fi.requ

o Strength domain R
fi.d.t
≥ E
fi.d.t

o Temperature domain Θ
d
≤ Θ
cr.d


where

t
fi.d
is the design value of fire resistance;

t
fi.requ
is the required fire resistance time;

R
fi.d.t
is the design value of the resistance of the member in the fire situation at time t;

E
fi.d.t
is the design value of the relevant effects of actions in the fire situation at time t;

Θ
d
is the design value of material temperature;

Θ
cr.d
is the design value of critical material temperature.

t
fi.requ
, E
fi.d.t
, Θ
d
are the variables to describe fire severity. Fire safety is a measure of the destructive
impact of a fire, or measure of the forces or temperatures that could cause collapse or other failure as
a result of the fire. t
fi.d
, R
fi.d.t
, and Θ
cr.d
are used to describe the fire resistance.

1.6.1 Required fire resistance time

The required fire resistance time is usually a time of standard fire exposure specified by a building
code, or the equivalent time of standard fire exposure calculated for a real fire in building.

1.6.1.1 Standard fire exposure

Required fire resistance time are specified in National Codes, for instance, in Finland, the required
fire resistance time is prescribed in E1 National Building Code of Finland, Structural Fire Safety,
Regulation, Helsinki, Ministry of the Environment (cited with abbreviation: RakMK E1), and E2
National Building Code of Finland, Fire Safety in Industrial and Warehouse buildings, Helsinki,
Ministry of the Environment (cited with abbreviation: RakMK E2).

Required fire resistance time normally depends on factors such as: type of occupancy, height and
size of the building, effectiveness of fire brigade action, and active measures such as vents and
38
sprinklers [5]. An overview of fire resistance requirements in various European countries as a
function of above factors is given in Table 1.8 [5]. From this table it shows that

o For one storey buildings, no or low requirements are needed and ISO-fire class is possibly up
to R30;
o For 2 to 3 storeys buildings, no up to medium requirements are needed and ISO-fire class is
possibly up to R60;
o For more than 3 storey buildings, medium requirements are needed and ISO-fire class is R60
to R120;
o For tall buildings, high requirements are needed and ISO-fire class is R90 and more.

Although quite large variations exist, the required fire resistance time is not beyond 90 to 120
minutes. If requirements are set, the minimum values are 30 minutes (some countries have minimum
requirements of 15 or 20 minutes). Intermediate values are usually given in steps of 30 minutes,
leading to a schema of 30, 60, 90, 120, ... minutes.

1.6.1.2 Equivalent time of fire exposure

Equivalent time of fire exposure is a quantity which relates a non-standard or natural fire exposure
to the standard fire, i.e. an equivalent time of exposure to standard fire is supposed to have the same
severity as a real fire in the compartment. This equivalent can be determined based on equal area
concept, maximum temperature concept and minimum load capacity concept [1]. The key difference
lies in the definition of ‘severity’.

Equal area concept

Figure 1.23 illustrates the concept first proposed by Ingberg (1928), by which two fires are
considered to have equivalent severity if the areas under each curves are equal, above a certain
temperature (150 or 300 °C). This has little theoretical significance because the product of
temperature and time is not heat as expected. However, his work formed the starting points of
current regulations of fire class [1].













Figure 1.23 Equivalent fire severity on equal area concept [1]
39
Table 1.8 Minimum Periods (minutes) for elements of structure [5]
In the following building types According to the regulations of
Building
type
n h H X L b x(*) S B CH D F I L NL FIN SP UK
Y 0 0 0 30*2 0/60
(7)
0 0 0 - 0*1 Industrial
hall
1 0 10 20 100 50 2
N 0 (1)*3 (1) 30*2 30/90
(7)
0-60 0 0 - 0*1
Y 0 0 0 0 H 60/90
(7)
30 0 0 90 0*1 Commercial
center and
shop
1 0 4 500 80 80 4
N (1) (1)*3 (1) 30 V 90/120
(7)
(3) 0 30 90 0*1
Y 0 0 (2) 60 (8)(9) 30 0 60(4) 90 30 Dancing 2 5 9 1000 60 30 4
N 0 30 90 60 60 30 0 60(5) 90 60
Y 60(6) 0
30*3
(2) 60 (8)
(10)
90 60 60(4) 60 60 School 4 12 16 300 60 20 4
N 60(6) 60 90 60 60 90 60 60(5) 60 60
Y 60(6) 0
30*3
(2) 60 (8)
(9)
90 60 60(4) 60 30 Small rise
office
building
4 10 13 50 50 30 2
N 60(6) (1)*3 90 60 60 90 60 60(5) 60 60
Y 60(6) 30
60*3
(2) 60 (8)
(11)
90 60 60(4) 90 60 Hotel 6 16 20 60 50 30 2
N 60(6) 60 90 60 60 90 60 60(5) 90 60
Y 120 60 (2) 60 (8)(12) 90/120 120 60(4) 120 90 Hospital 8 24.5 28 60 70 30 2
N 120 90 90 60 120 120 120 60(5) 120 90
Y 120 60
90*3
(2) 120 (8)
(9)
90 60 120
(4)
120 120 Medium
rise office
building
11 33 37 50 50 30 2
N 120 90 90 120 90 120 90 120
(5)
120 (3)
Y 120 90 90 120 (8)
(9)
120 90 120
(4)
120 120 High rise
office
building
31 90 93 100 50 50 2
N 120 90(3) (3) 120 120 (3) 90 120
(5)
120 (3)



















40
Maximum temperature concept

Maximum temperature concept developed by Law, Pettersson et al. and others is to define the
equivalent fire severity as the time of exposure to the standard fire that would result in the same
maximum temperature in a steel member as would occur in a complete burnout of the fire
compartment as shown in Figure 1.24 [1]. This concept is widely used and current Eurocode is
based on this method.














Figure 1.24 Equivalent fire severity based on maximum temperature concept [1]


Minimum load capacity concept

In this concept, the equivalent fire severity is the time of exposure to the standard fire that would
result in the same load bearing capacity as the minimum which would occur in a complete burnout
of the fire compartment as shown in Figure 1.25 [1]. The load bearing capacity of a structural
member exposed to the standard fire decreases continuously, but the strength of the same member
exposed to a natural fire increases after the fire enters the decay period and the steel temperature
decreases.













Figure 1.25 Equivalent fire severity based on minimum load capacity concept [1]
41

Equivalent time of fire exposure in Eurocode

The equivalent time of ISO fire exposure is defined by [3]
t
e.d
= (q
f.d
·k
b
·w
f
) k
c
or t
e.d
= (q
f.d
·k
b
·w
t
) k
c
( 1.37 )
where q
f.d
is the design fire load density; k
b
is the conversion factor; w
f
is the ventilation factor and
k
c
is the correction factor function of the material composing structural cross-sections.

1.6.2 Mechanical actions

Mechanical actions include actions from normal conditions of use and indirect fire actions. Indirect
actions may occur as result of restrained thermal expansion and depend on the temperature
development in the structural system and different in stiffness. A typical example of indirect action
due to fire is temperature-induced stress due to non-uniform temperature distribution over the cross-
section. In normal condition of use, the load combination for ultimate limit state verification in
Eurocode is defined as [6]:
E
d
= γ γγ γ
G
·G
k
+ γ γγ γ
Q1
·Q
k1
+ Σ ΣΣ Σγ γγ γ
Qi
·Q
ki
( 1.38 )
The actions during fire exposure is in accordance with the accidental design situation and the load
combination is defined as [6]:
E
fi.d
= γ γγ γ
GA
·G
k
+ ψ ψψ ψ
1.1
·Q
k1
+ Σ ΣΣ Σψ ψψ ψ
2.i
·Q
ki
+ A
d
( 1.39 )
where

γ
G
= 1.35 Partial factor for permanent loads: strength design
γ
Q
= 1.5 Partial factor for variable loads: strength design
γ
GA
= 1.0 Partial factor for permanent loads: accidental design situations
ψ
1.1
Table 1.9 Combination factor: variable loads
ψ
2.i
Table 1.9 Combination factor: variable loads
E
d
Design value of effects of actions from normal design
E
fi.d
Constant design value in fire exposure
G
k
Characteristic value of permanent action
Q
k1
Characteristic value of dominant variable action
Q
ki
Characteristic value of other variable actions
A
d
Design value of accidental action: indirect action in fire

Due to the low probability that both fire and extreme severity of external actions occur at the same
time and indirect actions not being considered for standard fire exposure, the above two formulas
can be simplified as:
E
d
= γ γγ γ
G
·G
k
+ γ γγ γ
Q1
·Q
k1
( 1.40 )
in normal condition, and
E
fi.d
= γ γγ γ
GA
·G
k
+ ψ ψψ ψ
1.1
·Q
k1
( 1.41 )
in fire situation. The values of combination factors are given in Table 1.9.
42

Table 1.9 Values of combination factor [6]
Actions ψ
0
ψ
1
ψ
2

Imposed loads in buildings, category (EN 1991-1-1)
Category A: domestic, residential areas
Category B: office areas
Category C: congregation areas
Category D: shopping areas
Category E: storage areas
Category F: traffic area, vehicle weight = 30 kN
Category G: traffic area, 30 kN < vehicle weight = 160 kN
Category H: roofs

0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
1.0
0.7
0.7
0

0.5
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.9
0.7
0.5
0

0.3
0.3
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.3
0
Snow loads on building (see EN 1991-1-3)
*

Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
Remainder of CEN member States, for sites located at altitude
H > 1000 m a.s.l
H = 1000 m a.s.

0.7

0.7
0.5

0.5

0.5
0.2

0.2

0.2
0
Wind loads on buildings (see EN 1991-1-4) 0.6 0.2 0
Temperature (non-fire) in building (see EN 1991-1-5) 0.6 0.5 0
Note: value of ψ may be set by national annex
* for countries not mentioned above, see relevant local conditions


The reduction factor can be defined either as [3]
η ηη η
fi
= E
fi.d.t
/ R
d
( 1.42 )
in which the loading in fire is taken as a proportion of ambient-temperature design resistance when
global structural analysis is used, or [3]
η ηη η
fi
= E
fi.d.t
/ E
d
( 1.43 )
in which loading in fire is taken as a proportion of ambient-temperature factored design load when
simplified design of individual members is used and only the principal variable action is used
together with the permanent action. This may be expressed in terms of the characteristic loads and
their factors as

1 . 1 .
1 . 1 . 1
k Q k G
k k GA
fi
Q G
Q G
γ γγ γ γ γγ γ
ψ ψψ ψ γ γγ γ
η ηη η
+
+
( 1.44 )

1.6.3 Design value of material temperature

The design value of material temperature, Θ
d
, is the maximum temperature reached in fire or
temperature at the time specified by code. This temperature can be determined using heat transfer
analysis.



43
1.6.4 Design value of fire resistance time

Fire resistance time can be described using fire resistance class (grade), or fire resistance level, or
fire resistance rating. Fire resistance rating is normally assigned starting with 15 and 30 minutes, and
continuing in whole numbers of hours or parts of hours, for instances, 30/60/90 minutes.

Fire resistance rating can be obtained using full-scale fire resistance test, calculation or expert
opinions. These ratings are listed in various documents maintained by testing authorities, code
authorities or manufacturers and can be classified into three categories, i.e. generic ratings, which
apply to typical materials, proprietary ratings, which are linked to particular manufacturers, and
approved calculation methods. Full-scale testing is the most common method of obtaining fire
resistance ratings [1].

Fire resistance tests are carried out on representative specimens of building elements. For example,
if a representative sample of a floor system has been exposed to the standard fire for at least two
hours while meeting the specified failure criteria, a similar assembly can be assigned a two hour fire
resistance rating for use in a real building. For fire resistance testing, most European countries have
standards similar to ISO 834 and in the United States, Canada and some other countries is ASTM
E119. The relevant British Standards are BS 476 Parts 20-23 (BSI, 1987) [1].

The test is mainly carried out in a furnace that is composed of a large steel box lined with firebricks
or ceramic fiber blanket. The furnace will have a number of burners, most often fuelled with gas but
sometimes with fuel oil. There exist an exhaust chimney, several thermocouples for measuring gas
temperatures and usually a small observation. The most common apparatus for full-scale fire
resistance testing is the vertical wall furnace. The minimum size specified by most testing standards
is 3.0×3.0 m
2
(ISO 834 or ASTM E119). Some furnaces are 4.0 m tall [1].

Three failure criteria for fire resistance testing are stability, integrity and insulation [1]. To meet the
stability criteria, a structural element must perform its loading bearing function and carry the applied
loads for the duration of the test without structural collapse. The integrity and insulation criteria are
intended to test the ability of a barrier to contain a fire, to prevent fire spreading from the room of
origin. To meet the integrity criterion, the test specimen must not develop any cracks or fissures that
allow smoke or hot gases to pass through the assembly. To meet the insulation criterion, the
temperature of the cold side of the test specimen must not exceed a specified limit, usually an
average increase of 140 °C and a maximum increase of 180 °C at a single point.

Fire resistance of building elements, such as walls, beams, columns and doors etc., depends on many
factors including the severity of the fire test, the material, the geometry and support conditions of
the element, restraint from the surrounding structure and the applied loads at the time of the fire.
Furnace testing using the standard time-temperature atmosphere curve is the traditional means of
assessing the behavior of frame elements in fire, but the difficulties of conducting furnace tests of
representative full-scale structural members under load are obvious. The size of furnaces limits the
size of the members tested, usually to less than 5m, and if a range of load levels is required then a
separate specimen is required for each of these. Tests on small members may be unrepresentative of
the behavior of larger members.

44
A further serious problem with the use of furnace tests in relation to the behavior of similar elements
in structural frames is that the only reliable support condition for a member in a furnace test is
simply supported, with the member free to expand axially. When a member forms part of a fire
compartment surrounded by adjacent structure which is unaffected by the fire its thermal expansion
is resisted by restraint from this surrounding structure.

This is a problem that is unique to the fire state, because at ambient temperatures structural
deflections are so small that axial restraint is very rarely an issue of significance. Axial restraint can
in fact work in different ways at different stages of a fire; in the early stages the restrained thermal
expansion dominates, and very high compressive stresses are generated, but in the later stages when
the weakening of the material is very high the restraint may begin to support the member by
resisting pull-in. Furnace tests that allow axial movement cannot reproduce these restraint conditions
at all; in particular, in the later stages a complete collapse would be observed unless a safety cut-off
criterion is applied. In fact a beam furnace test is always terminated at a deflection of not more than
span/20 for exactly this reason.

Only recently has any significant number of fire tests been performed on fire compartments within
whole structures [13]. Some years may pass before these full-scale tests are seen to have a real
impact on design codes. In fact full-scale testing is so expensive that there will probably never be a
large volume of documented results from such tests, and those that exist will have the major
function of being used to validate numerical models on which future developments of design rules
will be based. At present, Eurocodes 3 and 4 allow for the use of advanced calculation models, but
their basic design procedures for use in routine fire engineering design are still in terms of isolated
members and fire resistance is considered mainly in terms of a real or simulated furnace test [1].

1.6.5 Critical temperature

For a separating member, the critical temperature is the temperature on the unexposed surface
allowed fire to spread to other room. For a load bearing member, the critical temperature Θ
cr.d
of a
member is the temperature at which a member is calculated to fail under its given loading. This
temperature can be calculated from knowledge of loads, load capacity at normal temperature and
effects of elevated temperature on materials. This can be determined for all types of member when
using Eurocode 3 from the degree of utilization, µ
0
, of the member in the fire design situation.

The following equation, plotted in Figure 1.26, defines the critical temperature [7]:
482 1
9674 0
1
19 39
833 3
0
+
]
]
]
]


,
,
ln .
µ µµ µ
θ θθ θ
cr
( 1.45 )
This is used for all except the very slender Class 4 sections, for which a single conservative critical
temperature of 350°C is specified.

The degree of utilization, µ
0
, is a proportion of the design loading in fire to the design resistance,
where the latter is calculated at ambient temperature (or at time t = 0) using the material partial
safety factors that apply in fire design rather than in normal strength design [17]:
45

0 d fi
d fi
0
R
E
. .
.
µ µµ µ ( 1.46 )
A simple conservative version, which can be used for tension members and restrained beams, where
lateral-torsional buckling is not a possibility, is [17]

J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|

1 M
fi M
fi 0
γ γγ γ
γ γγ γ
η ηη η µ µµ µ
.
( 1.47 )
in which the reduction factor η
fi
may already be conservative.
















Figure 1.26 Critical temperature, related to degree of utilization [17]


1.6.6 Load bearing capacity

The process of calculating structural behavior is shown in Figure 1.27 and consists of three essential
component models: a fire model, a heat transfer model and a structural model.

The fire model can be nominal temperature curves, parametric temperature curves or a real fire as
discussed in Section 1.2. The heat transfer model has been discussed in Section 1.5. For non-load
bearing elements designed to contain fires, the output from a heat transfer model can be used
directly to assess whether the time to critical temperature rise on the unexposed face is acceptable.
For simple structural elements with a single limiting temperature, the output from a heat transfer
model can be used directly to assess whether the critical temperature is exceeded. For more
complicated structural elements or assemblies, the output from the heat transfer model is essential
input to a structural model for calculating load-bearing capacity. For instance, for materials with low
thermal conductivities like concrete, it becomes very important to know the thermal gradients during
the fire because these affect the temperature of the reinforcing steel [1].


46





















Figure 1.27 Flow chart for calculating the load capacity of a structure exposed to fire [1]


The structural model can be divided into an isolated element, a sub-system and a total structure. The
method for determining the load-bearing capacity can be a testing method, a simple calculation
method or a complicated computer model. Table 1.10 [8] shows the possible method can be used for
various model. In Section 1.7, the simple calculation method for isolated method based on Eurocode
3, Part 1.2 [7] are described.

Table 1.10 Design combination for calculating structural behavior in fire [8]
Structural models
Fire exposure models
Isolated member Sub-system Total structure
Standard fire Nominal temperature-
time curves
Testing and
calculations

Parametric fire Equivalent fire exposure Testing and
calculations
Testing and
calculations

Homogenous
temperature distribution
Calculation Calculation For research only Natural fire
Zone, field models Calculation Calculation For research only
Assessment of methods
No interaction
between neighboring
elements is
considered
A reasonable
interaction between
neighboring elements
is considered
All interaction of the
global structure
system are considered


47
1.7 Design of Steel Members Exposed to Fire

This section gives the rules for steelwork that can be unprotected, insulated by fire protection
materials or protected by heat screens. Fire resistance is calculated using simple calculation models
that are simplified design methods for individual members, which are based on conservative
assumptions. This simplified method follows the ultimate strength design method as for normal
temperature, except that there are reduced loads for the fire condition and reduced values of
modulus of elasticity and yield strength of steel at elevated temperature. The effects of restraint
caused by thermal deformation are not included. Structural design at normal temperature requires
prevention of collapse (the strength limit state) and preventing excessive deformation (serviceability
limit state). Design for fire resistance is mainly concerned to prevention of collapse. Large
deformations are expected under severe fire exposure, so they are not normally calculated unless
they are going to affect structural performance.

1.7.1 Design methods

The load-bearing capacity of a steel member shall be assumed to be maintained after a time t in a
given fire if
E
fi.d.t
≤ ≤≤ ≤ R
fi.d.t
( 1.48 )
where E
fi.d.t
is the design effect of actions for fire design situation and R
fi.d.t
is the corresponding
design resistance of the steel member for fire design situation at time t. As an alternative, the
verification may be carried out in the temperature domain for the member with uniform temperature
distribution as shown in Section 1.5.2.

Applied loads have been described in Section 1.6.2. The design resistance R
fi.d.t
at time t shall be
determined in the hypothesis of a uniform temperature in the cross-section, by modifying the design
resistance for normal temperature design to take into account of the mechanical properties at
elevated temperatures. The design resistance of the steel member may be axial force, bending
moment or shear force individually or in the combinations.

1.7.2 Classification of cross-sections

In a fire design situation, the classification of cross-section should be made as for normal
temperature design without any change [7].

1.7.3 Tension members

The design resistance N
fi.θ.Rd
of a tension member with a uniform temperature θ should be
determined from [7]:
N
fi.θ θθ θ.Rd
= A·(f
y
·k
y.θ θθ θ
)/γ γγ γ
M.fi
= (A·f
y
/γ γγ γ
M.1
)·k
y.θ θθ θ
·(γ γγ γ
M.1
/γ γγ γ
M.fi
) = k
y.θ θθ θ
·N
Rd
·(γ γγ γ
M.1
/γ γγ γ
M.fi
) ( 1.49 )
48
where k
y.θ
is the reduction factor for yield strength of steel ate temperature θ reached at time t as
shown in Section 1.3.1.3 and N
Rd
is the design resistance of the cross-section N
pl.Rd
for normal
temperature design.

The design resistance N
fi.θ.Rd
of a tension member with a non-uniform temperature θ should be
determined from [7]:
N
fi.θ θθ θ.Rd
= Σ ΣΣ ΣA
i
·(f
y
·k
y.θ θθ θi
)/γ γγ γ
M.fi
( 1.50 )
where A
i
is an element area of the cross-section with a temperature θ
i
; k
y.θ.i
is the reduction factor
for yield strength of steel ate temperature θ
i
; and θ
i
is the temperature in the elemental area A
i
.

The design resistance N
fi.θ.Rd
of a tension member with a non-uniform temperature θ may
conservatively be taken as equal to the design resistance of a tension member with uniform
maximum temperature.

1.7.4 Moment resistance of beams

Moment resistance in fire for Class 1 or 2 sections with uniform cross-sectional temperature θ is
calculated from the normal plastic resistance moment of strength design, with the reduction factor
k
y.θ
for yield strength at elevated temperature, and with an adjustment for the relative material safety
factors in normal design and fire design [7]:
M
fi.θ θθ θ.Rd
= k
y.θ θθ θ
·M
Rd
·(γ γγ γ
M.1
/γ γγ γ
M.fi
) ( 1.51 )
For a Class 3 section the same expression can be used, but with the elastic moment of resistance
used for M
Rd
.

In the case of beams supporting concrete slabs on the top flange, the non-uniform temperature
distributions may be accounted for analytically in calculating the design moment resistance by
dividing the cross-section into uniform-temperature elements, reducing the strength of each
according to its temperature, and finding the resistance moment by summation across the section.
Alternatively it may be dealt with conservatively using two empirical adaptation factors κ
1
and κ
2
to
define the moment resistance at time t as [7]:
M
fi.t.Rd
= M
fi.θ θθ θ.Rd
/ (κ κκ κ
1
·κ κκ κ
2
) ( 1.52 )
where κ
1
is the factor for non-uniform cross-sectional temperature and κ
2
is the factor for
temperature reduction towards the supports of a statically indeterminate beam. The values of κ
1
and
κ
2
are specified in Eurocode 3, Part 1.2 as follows [7]:

o for a beam exposed on all four sides: κ
1
= 1.0;
o for a beam exposed on three sides, with a composite or concrete slab on side four: κ
1
= 0.70
o at the supports of a statically indeterminate beam: κ
2
= 0.85
o in all other cases: κ
2
= 1.0

49
Shear resistance is determined using the same general process as for bending and tension resistance,
with the same adaptation factors as those above in cases with non-uniform temperature distribution.
The general expression, covering uniform and non-uniform temperature cases, is [7]:
V
fi.t.Rd
= k
y.θ θθ θ.max
·V
Rd
·(γ γγ γ
M1
/γ γγ γ
M.fi
)·(1/(κ κκ κ
1
·κ κκ κ
2
)) ( 1.53 )

1.7.5 Lateral-torsional buckling

In cases where the compression flange is not continuously restrained, the design resistance moment
against lateral-torsional buckling is calculated for Class 1 or 2 sections using the formula from
Eurocode 3 Part 1.1, with minor amendment for the fire state [7]:
M
b.fi.t.Rd
= (χ χχ χ
LT.fi
/1.2)·W
pl.y
·k
y.θ θθ θ.com
·f
y
/γ γγ γ
M.fi
( 1.54 )
where

χ
LT.fi
= reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling in fire design situation
k
y.θ.com
= reduction factor for yield strength of steel at the maximum temperature of the
compression flange θ
com
at time t
θ
com
= conservatively can be assumed to be equal to the maximum temperature

The 1.2 is an empirical correction factor for a number of effects. The lateral-torsional buckling
reduction factor χ
LT.fi
is determined as in ambient-temperature design, except that the normalized
slenderness used is adapted to the high-temperature steel properties [7]:

com E
com y
LT com LT
k
k
. .
. .
. .
θ θθ θ
θ θθ θ
θ θθ θ
λ λλ λ λ λλ λ ( 1.55 )
where

k
E.θ.com
= elastic modulus reduction factor at the maximum compression
flange temperature at time t

Lateral-torsional buckling resistance should be considered when the non-dimensional
slenderness,
com . . LT θ
λ , greater than 0.4. For lower slenderness only the consideration of the bending
resistance is necessary.

1.7.6 Compression members with Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3 cross-section

If there is a temperature gradient over the cross-section, it is not possible to consider accurately the
variation of strength segment by segment without a computer program because of the domination of
thermal bowing and instability consideration. An approximate design method is used in Eurocode 3,
Part 1.2, i.e. it is assumed that the whole cross-section is at the maximum temperature θ
max
[7].

The design buckling resistance of columns of Class 1, 2 or 3 is calculated as follows, allowing for a
reduction in strength and an increase in normalized slenderness at high temperatures. The number
50
1.2 in this formula is an empirical correction factor for a number of effects, i.e. 17% reduction
(1/1.2) in strength to allow for other effects [7]:
N
b.fi.t.Rd
= A·k
y.θ θθ θ.max
·f
y
·(χ χχ χ
fi
/1.2)·(1/γ γγ γ
M.fi
) ( 1.56 )
The flexural buckling reduction factor χ
fi
is the lower of its values about the yy and zz axes
determined as in ambient-temperature design, except that the normalized slenderness used is adapted
to the fire situation as follows:

o Buckling curve c is always used, i.e. α = 0.49
o The buckling length l
fi
is determined as shown in Figure 1.28 [17], provided that each storey
of the building comprises a separate fire compartment, and that the fire resistance of the
compartment boundaries is not less than that of the column. Because the continuing columns
are much stiffer than the column in the fire compartment it is assumed that they cause the
end(s) of the heated column to be restrained in direction, so the effective length factor is
taken as 0,5 for intermediate storeys and 0,7 for the top storey.
o The normalized slenderness of the column for the maximum temperature is given by:

max . .
max . .
max .
θ θθ θ
θ θθ θ
θ θθ θ
λ λλ λ λ λλ λ
E
y
k
k
( 1.57 )
















o Figure 1.28 Buckling lengths of columns in fire [17]


1.8 Use of Advanced Calculation Models

Both Eurocodes 3 and 4 also permit the use of advanced calculation models, which give a realistic
analysis of the behavior of the structure in fire [17]. All computational methods are to some extent
approximate, are based on different assumptions, and are not all capable of predicting all possible
Bracing
system
l
fi
=0,7L
l
fi
=0,5L
51
types of behavior. It is therefore stipulated that the validity of any such model used in design
analysis must be agreed by the client, the designer and the competent building control authority.

Computational models may cover the thermal response of the structure to any defined fire, either
nominal or parametric, and should not only be based on the established physical principles of heat
transfer but should also on known variation of thermal material properties with temperature. The
more advanced models may consider non-uniform thermal exposure, and heat transfer to adjacent
structure. Since the influence of moisture content in protection materials is inevitably an additional
safety feature it is permitted to neglect this in analysis.

When modeling the mechanical response of structures, the analysis must be based on acknowledged
principles of structural mechanics, given the change of material properties with temperature.
Thermally induced strains and their effects due to temperature increase and differentials must be
included. Geometric non-linearity is essential when modeling in a domain of very high structural
deflections, as is material non-linearity when stress-strain curves are highly curvilinear. It is,
however, acknowledged that within the time-scale of accidental fires transient thermal creep does
not need to be explicitly included provided that the elevated-temperature stress-strain curves given
in the Code are used.

1.9 Global Fire Safety Design

The building’s response to fire is highly dependent on the prevailing state of fire: either pre- or post-
flashover conditions. In a prescriptive approach, the assessment is based on standard fire conditions
and refers to building components only. Traditionally, the only option was to carry out standard fire
tests. During last decade, however, various calculation models have been developed. The first
generation of these models to avoid significant costs, associated with standard fire testing. In a
performance-based method, more recent developments allow to analyze the structural response
under natural fire conditions, not only of building components but also of the entire building or
major subsystems thereof.

Worldwide research and development have contributed to establish the basis for realistic and
credible assumptions to be used in the fire situation for thermal actions, active measures and
structural response. Hence global fire safety design (see Figure 1.29) consists first in a realistic fire
resistance design in order [5]:

o to proceed a global structural fire analysis in the fire situation;
o to consider a realistic i.e. accidental combination rule for actions during fire exposure and
o to design according to natural fire conditions.

The global fire safety design considers the active fire safety and fire fighting measures in view of
their impact on the probable evolution of the natural fire. In this respect the danger of fire activation
has to be taken into account. This finally leads to the design of a natural fire resistance of the
structure. This design natural fire resistance shall exceed the required fire resistance period that shall
depend on both objectives to avoid any human fatalities and to reduce consequences of structural
52
failure. Fire safety should include the safety for occupants and firemen and may take into account
the protection of properties and environment.
























Figure 1.29 Global fire safety concept [5]

1.10 Design Example according to Eurocode 3

1.10.1 Introduction

A simple 4-storey frame as shown in Figure 1.30 is braced against horizontal sway deflection.
Identical frames at 6 m spacing. The 60 minutes of fire protection for structural members are
required, i.e. t
R
=60 min. Other given parameters are:








Materials
Steel grade: S275
Lightweight concrete C40 (slab)
53


















Figure 1.30 A simple framed braced against horizontal sway



























Characteristic floor loadings
Permanent: G
k
1.9
kN
m
2
⋅ : Primary variable: Q
k.1
3.8
kN
m
2
⋅ :
Dimensions of the frame
Frame spacing:
L 6 m ⋅ :
Length of beam AB: L
AB
5 m ⋅ :
Height of the storey:
L
GH
3.5 m ⋅ :
Material properties and partial safety factors
Norminal value for the yield strength f
y
275 MPa ⋅ :
Modulus of elasticity E 210000MPa ⋅ :
Poisson's ratio
ν 0.3 :
Density of steel:
ρ
a
7850
kg
m
3
⋅ :
Partial safety factor
--resistance of Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-section: γ
M0
1.1 :
--resistance of Class 4 cross-section: γ
M1
1.1 :
--resistance of member buckling: γ
M1
1.1 :
54




1.10.2 Design loads and load distribution in the frame


































1.10.3 Fire resistance and protection of a tension member BE




Load distribution on member BE and member AB
The loads at the supports of the frame can be calculated using the models shown in the following
figure. From minor beam AB,
R
A
1
2
G
d
Q
d
+
( )
⋅ L
AB
⋅ : R
A
123.975kN
R
B
R
A
: R
B
123.975kN
N
BE
R
A
R
B
+ : N
BE
247.95kN
R
D
G
d
Q
d
+
( )
2 ⋅ L
AB
⋅ N
BE
+
2
:
R
D
371.925kN
R
F
R
D
: R
F
371.925kN
Loading on column GH
R
GH
2 R
D
⋅ 2 R
B
⋅ + : R
GH
991.8kN
Design loads on beams
Partial safety factor for permanent actions under unfavorable effects
γ
G
1.35 :
Partial safety factor for leading variable actions under unfavorable effects γ
Q.1
1.5 :
Permanent actions: G
d
γ
G
G
k
⋅ L ⋅ :
Variable actions: Q
d
γ
Q.1
Q
k.1
⋅ L ⋅ :
G
d
15.39
kN
m

Q
d
34.2
kN
m

Ambient temperature design
N
Sd
247.95kN ⋅ :
Design loading
N
Sd
N
BE
:
Partial safety factor for the fire situation shall be taken as:
-- for thermal properties of steel: γ
M.fi
1.0 :
-- for mechanical properties of steel: γ
M.fi
1.0 :
55



















According to equation (1.44)














According to equation (1.49), the design resistance is:




(from Table 1.1)







Try IPE 100. The dimension of IPE 100 are as follows:
h
BE
100 mm ⋅ : b
BE
55 mm ⋅ : t
fBE
5.7 mm ⋅ : t
wBE
4.1 mm ⋅ : A
BE
1032mm
2
⋅ : R
BE
7 mm ⋅ :
According to EC 3 Part 1-1 5.4.3, design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section is defined
as N
pl.Rd
A
f
y
γ
M0

A A
BE
:
The design plastic resistance is
N
pl.Rd
A
f
y
γ
M0
⋅ :
Design "OK!!" N
pl.Rd
N
Sd
≥ if
"NOT OK!!!" otherwise
:
Design "OK!!"
Fire resistance of tension member
Design loading in fire
γ
GA
1.0 : ( Permanent loads: accidental design situations )
ψ
1.1
0.5 : ( Combination factor: variable loads, office buildings)
The reduction factor
η
fi
γ
GA
G
k
⋅ ψ
1.1
Q
k.1
⋅ +
γ
G
G
k
⋅ γ
Q.1
Q
k.1
⋅ +
: η
fi
459.7701 10
3 −
×
The design load in fire is
N
fi.d
η
fi
N
Sd
⋅ : N
fi.d
114kN
Design resistance in fire at ambient temperature
N
Rd
N
pl.Rd
: N
Rd
258kN
At ambient temperature,
θ 20 :
k
y.20
1.0 :
The design resistance at ambient tempartaure
N
fi.20.Rd
k
y.20
N
Rd

γ
M1
γ
M.fi
⋅ : N
fi.20.Rd
283.8kN
56


The degree of utilization at t = 0, i.e. θ = 20 °C is:




According to equation (1.45), the critical temperature is:







For an equivalent uniform temperature distribution in a cross-section, the increase of temperature in
an unprotected steel member during a time interval ∆t may be determined using equation (1.33). For
IPE 100:







if









In a simple calculation model, the specific heat may be considered as independence of the steel
temperature. According to section 1.3.2.1



According to Table 1.3, the convective heat transfer coefficient for standard or external fire curves
is:



When calculating net radiation heat flux per unit of surface area, the following parameters are given:
Critical temperature
µ
0
N
fi.d
N
fi.20.Rd
: µ
0
401.6913 10
3 −
×
θ
cr.t
39.19ln
1
0.9674µ
0
3.833

1 −
|
'
'
(
`
J
⋅ 482 + :
θ
cr.t
619.1392
Fire resistance time
b b
BE
: b 55mm t
f
t
fBE
: t
f
5.7mm t
w
t
wBE
: t
w
4.1mm
h h
BE
: h 100mm R R
BE
: R 7mm A A
BE
: A 1.032 10
3
× mm
2

steel_perimeter 2 b 2 t
f
⋅ + b 2 R ⋅ − t
w

( )
h
2
t
f
− R −
|
'
(
`
J
2 ⋅ + + π R ⋅ +

]
]
]
⋅ :
steel_perimeter 399.7823mm
fire_exposure "all-round" :
The perimeter of the cross section is
A
m
steel_perimeter b − fire_exposure "3-sided" if
steel_perimeter fire_exposure "all-round" if
:
A
m
399.7823mm
The section factor is V A :
A
m
V
387.3859
1
m

c
a
600
J
kg K ⋅
⋅ :
α
c
25
W
m
2
K ⋅
⋅ :
57

Stephan-Boltzmann constant

configuration factor Φ = 1.0
emissivity of member surface ε
m
= 0.625
emissivity of fire compartment ε
f
= 0.8

Using spreadsheet calculation, the time for steel to reach its critical temperature is 9 minutes 40
seconds.



For a uniform temperature distribution in a cross-section, the temperature increase of an insulated
steel member during a time interval ∆t may be calculated using equation (1.35) and equation (1.36).
Based on Table 1.7, when protection with gypsum boards:




























With thickness of d
p
= 20 mm, after 60 minutes, the temperature of steel is 613.995 °C and is less
than the critical temperature 619.139 °C. Thus, 20 mm gypsum board provides more than 60
minutes fire protection.
σ 5.67 10
8 −

W
m
2
K
4

⋅ :
Fire protection of tension member
fire_exposure "all-round" : protection_type "box" :
steel_perimeter 2 b 2 t
f
⋅ + b 2 R ⋅ − t
w

( )
h
2
t
f
− R −
|
'
(
`
J
2 ⋅ + + π R ⋅ +

]
]
]
⋅ : steel_perimeter 399.7823mm
The section factor can be calculated as:
A
p_gyp
steel_perimeter b − protection_type "contour" if
2 h ⋅ b + protection_type "box" if
fire_exposure "3-sided" if
steel_perimeter protection_type "contour" if
2 h ⋅ 2 b ⋅ + protection_type "box" if
fire_exposure "all-round" if
:
A
p
A
p_gyp
:
Appropriate area of fire protection material per unit length is A
p
310mm
Section factor: V A :
A
p
V
300.3876
1
m

Try the following gypsum boarding:
Density ρ
p
800
kg
m
3
⋅ : ,
Specific heat c
p
1700
J
kg K ⋅
⋅ : ,
Thermal conductivity λ
p
0.2
W
mK ⋅
⋅ :
58
1.10.4 Fire resistance and protection of steel beam AB













































Ambient temperature design
Applying bending moment:
M
Sd
1
8
G
d
Q
d
+
( )
⋅ L
AB
2
⋅ :
Try IPE 300. The dimensions of the cross-section of IPE 300 are as follows:
h
AB
300 mm ⋅ : b
AB
150 mm ⋅ : t
fAB
10.7 mm ⋅ : t
wAB
7.1 mm ⋅ :
R
AB
15 mm ⋅ : A
AB
5381 mm
2
⋅ : W
AB
557 10
3
⋅ mm
3
⋅ :
W
pl.AB
628 10
3
⋅ mm
3
⋅ :
Section classification
According to EC3 Part 1.1, Table 5.3.1, for rolled section, when web is subjected to bending:
sectType_web "Class 1"
d
t
w
72 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 2" 72 ε ⋅
d
t
w
< 83 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 3" 83 ε ⋅
d
t
w
< 124 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 4" otherwise
where
ε
235 MPa ⋅
f
y
:
,
d h 2 t
f
R +
( )
⋅ −
when flange is subjected to compression:
sectType_flange "Class 1"
c
t
f
10 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 2" 10 ε ⋅
c
t
f
< 11 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 3" 11 ε ⋅
c
t
f
< 15 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 4" otherwise
where c
b
2
59















































W
pl.yy
W
pl.AB
: W
yy
557 10
3
× mm
3
W
yy
W
AB
: A 5.381 10
3
× mm
2
A A
AB
:
R 15mm R R
AB
: t
w
7.1mm t
w
t
wAB
: t
f
10.7mm t
f
t
fAB
:
b 150mm b b
AB
: h 300mm h h
AB
: ε 924.4163 10
3 −
×
For beam AB
Therefore, the Class of the cross-section is
sectType_beam sectType_web sectType_web sectType_flange ≥ if
sectType_flange otherwise
:
sectType_beam "Class 1"
The Class of the web
d h 2 t
f
R +
( )
⋅ − : d 248.6mm
sectType_web "Class 1"
d
t
w
72 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 2" 72 ε ⋅
d
t
w
< 83 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 3" 83 ε ⋅
d
t
w
< 124 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 4" otherwise
:
sectType_web "Class 1"
The Class of the flange is
c
b
2
: c 75mm
sectType_flange "Class 1"
c
t
f
10 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 2" 10 ε ⋅
c
t
f
< 11 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 3" 11 ε ⋅
c
t
f
< 15 ε ⋅ ≤ if
"Class 4" otherwise
:
sectType_flange "Class 1"
Moment resistance
The concrete floor slab provides full lateral resistant to the top flange, hence no need to consider
lateral-torsional buckling.
According to EC3, Part 1.1, 5.4.5.2, bending about one axis, the design moment resistance of a
cross-section without holes for fasteners may be determined as:
M
c.Rd
W
pl.yy
f
y

γ
M0
sectType_beam "Class 1" ( ) sectType_beam "Class 2" ( ) ∨ if
W
yy
f
y

γ
M0
sectType_beam "Class 3" ( ) if
60















































Given key
1
sectType_beam "Class 1" :
key
2
sectType_beam "Class 2" :
key
3
sectType_beam "Class 3" :

Therefore
M
c.Rd
W
pl.yy
f
y

γ
M0
key
1
1 key
2
1 ∨ if
W
yy
f
y

γ
M0
key
3
1 if
: M
c.Rd
157kN m ⋅
moment_Resistance "OK!!" M
Sd
M
c.Rd
≤ if
"NOT OK!!!" otherwise
: moment_Resistance "OK!!"
Shear resistance
According to EC3, Part 1.1, 5.4.6, the design value of shear force
V
Sd
shall satisfy:
V
Sd
V
pl.Rd

where V
pl.Rd
is the design plastic shear resistance given by:

V
pl.Rd
A
v
f
y
3
|
'
(
`
J

γ
M0
where
A
v
is the shear area and may be taken as follows:

A
v
A 2 b ⋅ t
f
⋅ − t
w
2 R ⋅ +
( )
t
f
⋅ + :
Applied shear:
V
Sd
1
2
G
d
Q
d
+
( )
⋅ L
AB
⋅ :

V
Sd
123.975kN
The shear area: A
v
A 2 b ⋅ t
f
⋅ − t
w
2 R ⋅ +
( )
t
f
⋅ + : A
v
2.568 10
3
× mm
2

V
pl.Rd
370.6545kN
The design plastic shear resistance: V
pl.Rd
A
v
f
y
3
|
'
(
`
J

γ
M0
:
shear_Resistance "OK!!" V
Sd
V
pl.Rd
≤ if
"NOT OK!!!" otherwise
:
shear_Resistance "OK!!"
61






Design resistance in fire

The design resistance of Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section with a non-uniform temperature
distribution may conservatively be determined using equation (1.51). The design moment resistance
at ambient temperature of Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section with a uniform temperature may be
determined from:


































Fire resistance of minor beam
Design loading in fire
The design loading in fire: M
fi.d
η
fi
M
Sd
⋅ :
M
fi.d
71.25kN m ⋅
Critical temperature
ultilizaiton factor
µ
0
M
fi.d
M
fi.0.Rd
:
The critical temperature is
θ
cr.t
39.19ln
1
0.9674µ
0
3.833

1 −
|
'
'
(
`
J
⋅ 482 + :
θ
cr.t
669.5458
Fire resistance time
steel_perimeter 2 b 2 t
f
⋅ + b 2 R ⋅ − t
w

( )
h
2
t
f
− R −
|
'
(
`
J
J
2 ⋅ + + π R ⋅ +

]
]
]
⋅ :
steel_perimeter 1.16 10
3
× mm
fire_exposure "3-sided" :
The perimeter of the cross section is
A
m
steel_perimeter b − fire_exposure "3-sided" if
steel_perimeter fire_exposure "all-round" if
:
A
m
1.01 10
3
× mm
The section factor is
V A :
A
m
V
187.706
M
fi.20.Rd
k
y.20
M
c.Rd

γ
M1
γ
M.fi
⋅ : M
fi.20.Rd
172.7kN m ⋅
For beam supporting concrete slab: κ
1
0.7 : κ
2
1.0 :
Therefore, the fire resistance at ambinent temperature
M
fi.0.Rd
M
fi.20.Rd
κ
1
κ
2

: M
fi.0.Rd
246.7143kN m ⋅
62
Using spreadsheet calculation, the time for steel to reach its critical temperature is 15 minutes 23
seconds.




















With thickness of d
p
= 15 mm, after 60 minutes, the temperature of steel is 570.545 °C and is less
than the critical temperature 669.546 °C. Thus, 15 mm gypsum board provides more than 60
minutes fire protection.

1.11 References

1. Buchanan, A. H. (2001). Structural Design for Safety. John Wiley & Sons.

2. Drysdale, D. (1999). An Introduction to Fire Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons.

3. EN 1991-1-2 (2002). Eurocode 1: Actions and Structures, Part 1-2: General Actions-Actions on
Structures Exposed to Fire.

4. ECCS (1983). European Recommendations for the Fire Safety of Steel Structures: Calculation of
the Fire Resistance of Loading Bearing Elements and Structural Assemblies Exposed to the
Standard Fire. Elsevier.

5. ECCS (2001). Model Code on Fire Engineering, First Edition.

6. ENV-1991-1-1 (1994). Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Actions on Structures, Part 1: Basis of
design.

Fire protection of steel beam
When protection with gypsum boards:
fire_exposure "3-sided" : protection_type "box" :
steel_perimeter 2 b 2 t
f
⋅ + b 2 R ⋅ − t
w

( )
h
2
t
f
− R −
|
'
(
`
J
2 ⋅ + + π R ⋅ +

]
]
]
⋅ :
steel_perimeter 1.16 10
3
× mm
The section factor can be calculated as:
A
p_gyp
steel_perimeter b − protection_type "contour" if
2 h ⋅ b + protection_type "box" if
fire_exposure "3-sided" if
steel_perimeter protection_type "contour" if
2 h ⋅ 2 b ⋅ + protection_type "box" if
fire_exposure "all-round" if
:
A
p
A
p_gyp
:
Section factor: V A :
A
p
V
139.3793
1
m

63
7. ENV-1993-1-2 (1995). Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures, Part 1-2: General Rules-
Structural Fire Design.

8. ESDEP Working Group 4B, Protection: Fire. Teräsrakenneyhdistys

9. Kaitila, O. (2002). Finite Element Modeling of Cold-Formed Steel Members at High
Temperatures. TKK-TER-24, Laboratory of Steel Structures, Helsinki University of Finland,
Espoo, Finland.

10. Korhonen, E. (1999). Natural Fire Modeling of Large Space. Master’s Thesis.

11. Ma, Z. and Mäkeläinen, P. (1999). Temperature Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Slim
Floor Structures Exposed to Fire. TKK-TER-10, Laboratory of Steel Structures, Helsinki
University of Technology, Espoo, Finland.

12. Ma, Z. (2000). Fire Safety Design of Composite Slim Floor Structures. TKK-TER-18, Helsinki
University of Technology.

13. Newman, G. M., Robinson, J. T. and Bailey, C. G. (2000). Fire Safety Design: A New Approach
to Multi-Storey Steel-Framed Buildings. SCI publication P288.

14. Outinen, J. and Mäkeläinen, P. (1997). Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel
Polarit 725 (EN 1.4301) at Elevated Temperatures. TKK-TER-1, Laboratory of Steel Structures,
Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland.

15. Outinen, J., Kaitila, O. and Mäkeläinen, P. (2001). High-Temperature Testing of Structural Steel
and Modeling of Structures at Fire Temperatures. TKK-TER-24, Laboratory of Steel Structures,
Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland.

16. Schaumann, P. (2002). Fire Design of Steel and Composite Structures. Seminar materials,
Laboratory of Steel Structures, Helsinki University of Technology.

17. Structural Steelworks Eurocodes, Development of a Trans-National Approach.

18. Twilt, L., Van De Leur, P., Cajot, L.G., Schleich, J.B., Joyeux, D. and Kruppa, J. (1996). Input
Data for the Natural Fire Design of Building Structures. IABSE Report: Basis of Design and
Actions on Structures, Background and Application of Eurocode 1.






2 FATIGUE DESIGN

2.1 Introduction

Fatigue is a terminology to describe the damage and failure of materials under cyclic loads in
engineering applications. Fatigue failures generally take place at a stress much lower than the
ultimate strength of the material. The failure is due primarily to repeated stress from a maximum to
a minimum. Fatigue failure may occur in many different forms such as mechanical fatigue when the
components are under only fluctuating stress or strain; creep-fatigue when the components under
cyclic loading at high temperature; thermo mechanical fatigue when both mechanical loading and
temperature are cyclic; corrosion fatigue when the components under cyclic loading impose in the
presence of a chemically aggressive environment.

Fatigue is the mechanism that cracks grow in a structure under fluctuating stress. The progression of
fatigue damage can be classified into the following stages [15]:

o Substructural and microstructural changes which cause nucleation of permanent damage;
o The creation of microscopic cracks;
o The growth and coalescence of microscopic flaws to form dominant cracks, which may
eventually lead to catastrophic failure (This stage of fatigue is the mark between crack
initiation and propagation);
o Stable propagation of the dominant macrocrack;
o Structural instability or complete fracture.

Final failure generally occurs in regions of tensile stress when the reduced cross-section becomes
insufficient to carry the peak load without rupture. Fatigue damage of structures subjected to elastic
stress fluctuations occurs at regions where the localized stress exceeds the yield stress of material.
After a certain number of load fluctuations, the accumulated damage causes the initiation and
subsequent propagation of a crack or cracks, in the plastically damaged regions. This process can
cause the fracture of components. Many structures, such as building frames, do not experience
sufficient fluctuating stress to give rise to fatigue problems. Others do, such as bridges, cranes, and
offshore structures.

2.1.1 Different approaches for fatigue analysis

The total fatigue life, N
t
, is defined as the sum of the number of cycles to initiate a fatigue crack, N
i
,
and the number of cycles to propagate a fatigue crack to a critical size, N
p
, i.e.
N
t
= N
i
+ N
p
( 2.1 )
65
No simple or clear boundary between fatigue crack initiation and propagation. Furthermore, a pre-
existing crack in a structural component can reduce or eliminate the fatigue crack initiation life and,
thus, reduce the total fatigue life. According to the definition of the fatigue life, three approaches for
fatigue analysis can be classified: stress method, strain method and crack propagation method.

Stress method and strain method characterize the total fatigue life in terms of cyclic stress range or
strain range. In these methods, the number of stress or strain cycles to induce fatigue failure in
initially uncracked or smooth surfaced laboratory specimen is estimated under controlled cyclic
stress or strain. The resulting fatigue life includes the fatigue crack initiation life to initiate a
dominant crack and a propagation of this crack until catastrophic failure. Normally, the fatigue
initiation life is about 90% of total life due to the smooth surface of the specimen [15]. Under high
cycle (> 10
2
to 10
4
), low stress fatigue situation, the material deforms primarily elastically and the
failure time has traditionally been described in terms of stress range. However, stresses associated
with low cycle fatigue (< 10
2
to 10
4
) are generally high enough to cause plastic deformation prior to
failure. Under these circumstances, the fatigue life is described in terms of strain range. The low
cycle approach to fatigue design has found particularly widespread use in ground vehicle industries
[15].

The basic premise of crack propagation method is that all engineering components are inherently
flawed. The size of a pre-existing flaw is generally determined from nondestructive flaw detection
techniques, such as visual, dye-penetrant or X-ray techniques, or the ultrasonic, magnetic or acoustic
emission methods. The fatigue life is then defined as the number of cycles to propagate the initial
crack size to a critical size. The choice of critical size of cracks may be based on the fracture
toughness of the material, the limit load for the particular structural part, the allowable strain or the
permissible change in the compliance of the component. The prediction of fatigue life is mainly base
on linear elastic fracture mechanics. The crack propagation method, which is a conservative
approach to fatigue, has been widely used in fatigue critical applications where catastrophic failures
will results in the loss of human lives such as aerospace and nuclear industries [15].

2.1.2 A short history to fatigue

The history of fatigue design goes back to the middle of the nineteenth century, marked by the
beginning of industrial revolution and, in particular, the advent of railroads in central Europe. The
first known investigators concerned with fatigue phenomena were designers of axles for
locomotives. Wöhler’s experiments with axles in 1852 were the first known laboratory tests with the
objective to derive and quantitatively describe the limits of fatigue. This was followed by more
elaborate analyses of stresses and their effect on fatigue by Berber, Goodman and others.
Continuous efforts of researches in the twentieth century have given a new impetus to the
development of theories, such as the effects of plastic deformation on fatigue-resulting in the strain
method discovered by Manson and Coffin. In parallel, Pairs and Others continued the theory of
crack propagation started by Griffith. Research accomplishment of Morrow Socie and their
followers brought the state of fatigue analysis to the present day level [17]. Fatigue was incorporated
into design criteria near the end of the nineteenth century and has been studied since. However, the
most significant developments have occurred since the 1950s. At present, fatigue is part of design
specification for many engineering structures [1].

66
2.2 Fatigue Loading

Structural components are subjected to two kinds of load history in fatigue design. The simplest one
is the constant-amplitude cyclic loading fluctuation. Figure 2.1 illustrates a constant-amplitude
cyclic stress fluctuation and this kind of loading normally occurs in machinery parts such as shafts
and rods during periods of steady-state rotation.












Figure 2.1 Terminology used in constant-amplitude loading

Constant-amplitude loading can be described using the following parameters (see Figure 2.1):

o stress range, ∆σ, which is the algebraic difference between the maximum stress, σ
max
, and
the minimum stress, σ
min
, in the cycle, i.e.
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ = σ σσ σ
max
- σ σσ σ
min
( 2.2 )
o mean stress, which is the algebraic mean of σ
max
and σ
min
in the cycle, i.e.
σ σσ σ
m
= (σ σσ σ
max
+ σ σσ σ
min
) / 2 ( 2.3 )
o stress amplitude, which is half the stress range in a cycle, i.e.
σ σσ σ
a
= (σ σσ σ
max
- σ σσ σ
min
) / 2 ( 2.4 )
o stress ratio, which represents the relative magnitude of the minimum and maximum stress in
a cycle, i.e.
R = σ σσ σ
min
/ σ σσ σ
max
( 2.5 )
The values of R corresponding to various loading case are shown in Figure 2.2. The complete
reversal load is changing from a minimum compressive stress to an equal maximum tensile load (R
= -1). The stress fluctuation from a given minimum tensile load to a maximum tensile load is
characterized by a positive value between 0 and 1 (0 < R < 1).

Comparing to the constant-amplitude loadings, the variable-amplitude loadings are more complex.
In variable-amplitude loading history, the probability of the same sequence and magnitude of stress
ranges recurring during a particular time interval is very small and cannot be represented by an
analytical function (see Figure 2.3). This type of loading is experienced by many structures, such as
wind loading on aircraft, wave loading on ships and offshore platforms, and truck loading on
bridges.
67










Figure 2.2 Comparison of R-rations for various loadings [ 1]















Figure 2.3 Variable-amplitude loading history

Either constant-amplitude loadings or variable-amplitude loadings can cause unidirectional stresses
in the structural components, such as pure axial tension and compression, pure bending, or pure
torsion. For the components with complicated geometries, these loadings may cause the stresses
acting on the components simultaneously in different directions. In this course, only the
unidirectional cases are discussed. Further reading about multi-axial loading can be found in Socie
and Marquis [14].

2.3 Stress Methods

In the case of static loading, the yield strength or ultimate strength of material is obtained from the
tensile testing. The structural components are designed according to these values. Likely, under the
fluctuating stress, the significant strength is fatigue strength or fatigue limit. The fatigue strength is
defined as the intensity of the reverse stress causing the failure after a given number of cycles. The
fatigue limit (or endurance limit) is defined as the maximum value of fully reverse stress that can be
repeated an infinite number of times on a test specimen without causing a failure.

68
In stress methods, it is necessary to determine fatigue strength and/or fatigue limit (analogous to
yield strength) for the material so that cyclic stresses can be kept below that level avoiding fatigue
failure for the required number of cycles. The structural components are designed that the maximum
stress never exceeds the materials fatigue strength or fatigue limit. The stresses and strains remain in
the elastic region such that no local yielding occurs to initiate a crack.

2.3.1 Standard fatigue tests

Types of testing

The history of standard fatigue tests goes back to Wöhler who designed and built the first rotating-
beam test machine that produced fluctuating stresses of constant amplitude in test specimens. R.R
Moore later adopted this technique to a simply supported rotating beam in fully reversed, pure
bending. The scheme of Moore rotating beam fatigue test machine is shown in Figure 2.4 (a).

While the specimen rotates, the two bearings near each end of the test specimen permit the load to
be applied and two bearings outside of these provide support. The constant force is provided by the
hanging weight. This testing has the advantage of providing a constant bending moment and a zero
shear over the length of the specimen. When rotated one-half revolution, the stress below the neutral
axis are reversed from tension to compression and vice versa. Upon completing the revolution, the
stresses are again reversed. The counter registers the number of revolution. The testing stops when
the specimen breaks.

Another testing type is called axial loading testing. Figure 2.4 (b) shows a test machine operating by
hydraulic forces and controlled by electrical signals. The machine loads the specimen through
hydraulic actuator. The direction of the axial force is changed when the flow of the oil is reversed.
The servo-valve is in charge of reversing the flow direction of oil. This testing system allows the
combination of a cyclic and a steady load applied at the same time.

















Figure 2.4 Fatigue testing machines [17]
69
Besides aforementioned two testing types, there are some other fatigue testing. Similar to the
rotating beam fatigue testing, the reversed bending test is that one end of specimen is fixed and the
other end is pushed alternative up and down. These differ from the stresses caused by rotating
bending in that the maximum stress are limited to the top and bottom instead of producing the
maximum stress all round the circumference. Torsional fatigue tests are performed on a cylindrical
specimen subjected to fully reversed, torsional loading.

Test specimens

Two types of specimen are used in the fatigue test. The simplest test specimen is called unnotched
or smooth specimen. No stress raiser in the region where failure occurs. Another test specimen is
called the notched specimen and contains stress raisers in the section where failure is expected to
occur. Figure 2.5 shows some examples of flat specimens for fatigue tests.














Figure 2.5 Test specimens for standard fatigue tests (schematic)

2.3.2 S-N curves

The most common way to describe the fatigue testing data is using S-N curves that show the
relationship between the number of cycles, N, for fracture, and the maximum (or mean or amplitude
or range) value of the applied cyclic stress. Generally, the abscissa is the logarithm of N and the
ordinate may be the stress or the logarithm of stress. In stress method, the stress is designated using
S, while in other method the stress is expressed as σ. The reason for this discrepancy is due to a
tradition of the stress method throughout its long history [17].

2.3.2.1 Linear part of S-N curves

A typical standard S-N curve is shown in Figure 2.6 (a). Most of the fatigue tests are performed in
the high-cycle fatigue domain, where a linear relationship between stress range and fatigue life
exists in log-log diagram. This linear relationship can be expressed as:
N = N
R
·( σ σσ σ / σ σσ σ
R
)
-m
( 2.6 )
70
based on the stress level or
N = N
R
·( ∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ / ∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
R
)
-m
( 2.7 )
based on the stress range. In the formula, σ ( or ∆σ) is the fatigue strength at loading cycle, N; σ
R
(
or ∆σ
R
) is the characteristic value at loading cycle N
R
= 2 x 10
6
and m is the slope exponent.

There are two strategies to establish the S-N curves in the high-cycle regime [8]:

o Testing at different load levels, so that the slope exponent and the characteristic value of the
S-N curve can be determined (Figure 2.6 (b));
o Testing at one load level and assuming a fixed slope exponent of the S-N curve that is almost
the same for similar types of structures.












Figure 2.6 P-S-N curves and scatter of test results at two stress levels

In order to obtain the meaningful engineering data, a large amount of testing should be carried out.
However, even though the same specimen is used in the fatigue tests, the results show a wide range
of dispersion. This is due to the different geometrical micro irregularities of surfaces for the same
type of specimen. These different local concentrations cause different fatigue life. Therefore, it is
necessary to carry out the statistical analysis of fatigue data. This in turn brings the necessity to
consider the effect of failure probability. The curves formed by integrating the failure probability
into S-N curve are called P-S-N curves. The standard S-N curve corresponds to a 50 percent of
probability of failure (P = 0.5). The S-N curves corresponding to other failure probabilities are
shown in Figure 2.6 (a).

2.3.2.2 Fatigue limit

The main consideration of fatigue analysis is to design the structural components for an infinite life
or for a limited life. The stress values corresponding to these two lives are fatigue limit that forms a
mechanical property specific for each material, and fatigue strength at given number of cycles
(normally located in the sloping part) as shown in Figure 2.7. The objective for the infinite life
design is to ensure the working stress due to loading is under the fatigue limit. While the objective
for the limit life design is to predict number of cycles available within the fatigue life based on the
stress level, or conversely to determine the stresses based on a given number of cycles [17].

71














Figure 2.7 S-N curves (schematic): with and without fatigue limit [7]

Figure 2.7 shows that for ferrous alloys, there is a clearly defined value for fatigue limit, under
which failure does not occur. The “knee” point of fatigue limit is normally in the range of 10
5
to 10
7

cycles [7]. Many high strength steels, aluminum alloys and other materials do not generally exhibit a
“knee” point of fatigue limit. For these materials, the fatigue limit is defined at the stress level
corresponding to 10
7
cycles [15].

To determine a fatigue limit experimentally, the test results are evaluated statistically using either
the data of specimens that survived (run-outs) or of those that failed. A common procedure is
staircase method, which can be described as follows (see Figure 2.8):

o Estimate mean value, ∆σ
m
, and standard deviation, d, of the fatigue limit based on the
preliminary knowledge;
o Perform the first fatigue test at the stress level ∆σ
m
+d;
o If the specimen fails, decrease the stress level by d. If the specimen survives (run-out),
increase the stress level by d;
o Continue until 15 to 30 specimens have been tested;
o A statistical evaluation of all tests yields the mean value of ∆σ
D,50
and standard deviation of
the fatigue limit.










Figure 2.8 Determination of the fatigue limit with staircase method [8]

72
However, in a preliminary design work, it is necessary to approximate the S-N curve without
actually running a fatigue test. For steel it has been found that a good approximation of the S-N
curve can be drawn using the following rules [11]:

o Obtain the ultimate tensile strength, σ
u
, of the specimen from a simple tensile test;
o Plot the S-N curves with the following point: (a) 0.9·σ
u
at 10
3
cycles, (b) 0.5·σ
u
at 10
6
cycles.

2.3.2.3 Factors affecting S-N curves

Many factors have influences on S-N curves. Generally any change on the static mechanical
properties or microstructure is likely to affect the S-N curve. Other factors to be considered are
chemical environment, cyclic frequency, temperature, residual stresses and surface effects.

Factors affecting fatigue limit

The specimens in the aforementioned testing are free of stress concentrations and residual stresses.
In order to use the fatigue limit of standard specimen in the rotating bending test in the design of the
real structural components, the standard fatigue limit should be multiplied by the following factors:
loading mode factor, size effect factor, surface roughness factor and reliability factor [17].

Figure 2.9 indicates the effects of the loading mode on the value of fatigue limit. Figure 2.9 (a)
shows that S-N curves obtained from axial loading test are lower than those from rotating bending
test. A principal difference between axial and the rotate bending test is that the entire section is
uniformly stressed in axial loading rather than linear stress distribution, i.e. maximum at far end and
zero at center as in rotating bending testing (see Figure 2.9 (b)).

When the same specimen subjected to torsional loading, the equivalent stress can be calculated
using von Mises criterion, i.e.
σ σσ σ
eq
= ( 0 + 3τ ττ τ
2
)
0.5
( 2.8 )
Then the fatigue limit for torsion, τ
f
, can be calculated assuming that σ
eq
is equal to the standard
fatigue limit, σ
f


τ ττ τ
f
= ( 1 / √ √√ √3 )· σ σσ σ
f
′ ′′ ′
( 2.9 )











Figure 2.9 Effects of loading modes
73
The surface roughness or the local irregularities are the high stress concentration points where a
fatigue failure generally originates. The fatigue limit for a polished specimen has a higher value than
those with rough surfaces. There is an inverse relationship between the fatigue limit and the
magnitude of the irregularity [17].

The size of the specimen must be considered when determining the fatigue limit. Experiments show
that from rotating beam tests and from torsion tests, the values of the fatigue limit change inversely
to diameters of specimens, while from axial loading tests the size has no influences on the fatigue
limit [17].

The values of fatigue limit from standard rotating bending tests are based on 50 percent probability
of reliability. Thus, a reliability factor must be multiplied to the standard fatigue limit so as to
consider the probability of the fatigue test data. In addition, for steel, there is an empirical relation
between the rotating beam fatigue limit and tensile strength, i.e. the fatigue limit from standard test
is about a half of the tensile strength. Therefore, the fatigue limit for steel can be defined as:
σ σσ σ
f
= k
l
·k
s
· k
d
· k
r
· σ σσ σ
f
′ ′′ ′
= k
l
·k
s
· k
d
· k
r
· ( σ σσ σ
u
/ 2 ) ( 2.10 )
where k
l
is the loading factor; k
s
is the surface roughness factor; k
d
is the size factor; k
r
is the
reliability factor; and σ
u
is the tensile strength of steel. The values of aforementioned factors are
empirical factors based on testing.

Stress concentration caused by notches and holes

Stress raisers such as notches, holes or sharp corners can cause large rise in stress above the nominal
stress. Under static loading and beyond elastic limit of ductile material, plastic deformation can
cause stress redistribution, i.e. the high peak stress caused by the stress raisers is redistributed to an
almost uniform stress across the cross-section. However, the stress raiser will reduce the fatigue life
of the structural component. Figure 2.10 illustrates the fatigue limit of notched specimen comparing
to un-notched specimen.

The stress increase related to the normal stress is described by the stress concentration factor, K
t
, i.e.
K
t
= σ σσ σ
max
/ σ σσ σ
n
( 2.11 )
where σ
max
is the maximum stress at notches that can be determined using either experimental stress
analysis or numerical methods such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA). σ
n
is the nominal stress that
can be calculated, for instance, for tension member shown in Figure 2.11, as N / A, in which N is the
tension loading and A is the cross-section area without notch. The value of K
t
can be checked from
manuals. Figure 2.12 provides some examples of values of K
t
.

Stress concentration factor K
t
aforementioned is based on elasticity theory. A discrepancy found
between the theoretical and experimental data demands using a fatigue notch factor instead of this
stress concentration factor. The fatigue notch factor is defined as:
K
f
= fatigue limit of smooth specimen / fatigue limit of notched specimen ( 2.12 )
A notch sensitivity factor, which relates the fatigue notch factor and the stress concentration factor,
is defined as the ratio of effective stress increase in fatigue due to the notch to the theoretical stress
increase given by the elastic stress concentration factor. The notch sensitivity factor can be
expressed as:
74











Figure 2.10 Illustration of S-N curves for
notched and un-notched fatigue tests












Figure 2.11 Definition of stress-concentration
factor
















( a ) SCFs for cut-outs in infinite, uni-axially stressed plates












(b) SCF for a rounded transition between two shaft diameters
Figure 2.12 Examples of values of stress concentration factors [8]

75
q = (K
f
– 1) / (K
t
-1) ( 2.13 )
In addition, two relations have been developed to relate notch root radius and material behavior to
the notch sensitivity factor, q. One is based on Peterson, i.e.
q = 1 / ( 1 + √ √√ √(a / r) ) ( 2.14 )
in which r is the notch radius and a is the material property constant. The other is based on Neuber,
i.e.
K
f
= 1 + (K
t
– 1) / (1 + √ √√ √(ρ ρρ ρ / r )) ( 2.15 )
in which ρ is material constant related to grain size. Therefore, the notch sensitivity factor can be
expressed as:
q = 1 / ( 1 + √ √√ √(ρ ρρ ρ / r) ) ( 2.16 )

Generally, K
f
<< K
t
for ductile materials and sharp notches but K
f
≅ K
t
for brittle materials. The
fatigue limit of the notched specimen can be related to that of un-notched specimen by:
σ σσ σ
f-notched
= σ σσ σ
f-unnotched
/ K
f
( 2.17 )

Mean stresses

As mentioned above, the S-N curves are generated with fully reverse load (R = -1) and zero mean
stresses. However, non-zero mean stresses can also play an important role in resulting fatigue data.
The effects of mean stresses on the fatigue limit corresponding to the infinite fatigue life are
illustrated in the limit stress diagram that is severed as a practical design tool as shown in Figure
2.13.

The abscissa in the limit stress diagram is the mean stress of applied loading and the ordinate is the
allowed stress amplitude. The line in the diagram is fatigue limit corresponding to the infinite life.
These two lines are based on Goodman rule and Söderberg rule, whose mathematical expressions
are given in the figure. Note that when mean stress is σ
m
= 0, the allowed stress amplitude, σ
a
, is the
fatigue limit measured from fully reversed loading. If σ
a
= 0, the allowable mean stress in either
yield or ultimate strength from a monotonic test since the stress is not fluctuating when the stress
amplitude is zero.












Figure 2.13 Effects of mean stress on allowable stress amplitude [Mek]
76
2.3.3 One dimensional analysis for fatigue assessment

Two approaches are described in this section to perform the fatigue assessment for the structural
components: nominal stress method and notch stress method.

2.3.3.1 Nominal stress method

The nominal stress can be determined from the applied loading such as forces and moments, and the
cross-sectional properties of a component or structure in accordance with the basic theory of
strength of materials. For instance, the nominal stress for beam-like components is composed of the
normal stress σ
n
in the longitudinal direction and the mean shear stress,τ
n
, in the web, which can be
calculated as:
σ σσ σ
n
= N/A + (M/I)·z, τ ττ τ
n
= Q/A
s
( 2.18 )
where, N, Q and M are axial force, shear force and bending moment, respectively; A, A
s
and I are
cross-sectional area, effective shear area and moment of inertia; z is the distance from the neutral
axis as shown in Figure 2.14.










Figure 2.14 Nominal stress in a beam-like component [8]

Any stress increase resulting from discontinuities is considered by S-N curve, i.e. an S-N curve is
generally valid only for a specific geometric in addition to material type, surface and manufacturing
condition [8]. It should be kept in mind that the results cannot be transferred to other geometries or
component sizes.

2.3.3.2 Notch stress method

In the notch stress method, the local maximum stress due to stress risers can simply be calculated
using the notch factor and nominal stress, i.e.
σ σσ σ
max
= K
f
·σ σσ σ
n
( 2.19 )
In addition to methods mentioned above, the notch factor might be determined using other methods,
for instance, Siebel and Stieler, Sonsino, and Taylor and Wang [8]. The advantage of notch stress
method is that the local geometric is taken into account and the disadvantage of this approach is that
it can only be used if the stress concentration factor is known. Besides, as mentioned before, the
local maximum stress can be directly calculated using method such as FEM.
77
The examples of using nominal stress method and notch stress method for performing fatigue
analyses are provided in Section 2.7 Fatigue analysis of welded components.

2.4 Strain Methods

From a design point of view, the easy answer to fatigue is to use low stress so as to keep both static
and cyclic analysis in elastic range. However, the stress raisers such as notches create stress
concentrations and elevate the stress into plastic range. The solution to this phenomenon is strain
method. A strain method is used to predict the fatigue life of the structural component based on the
fluctuating strain. This method is also known as low cycle fatigue where the cyclic stresses are high
enough to cause yielding, thus, leading to the life span ranging from 1 to 10,000 cycles. Since the
crack initiation involves local yielding and therefore strain life method gives a reasonable estimation
about the crack-initiation stage.

2.4.1 Cyclic material law

The material law may differ from static loading and cyclic loading. The stress-strain curve for high
carbon steel under monotonic (static) stress is shown in Figure 2.15. The engineering stress-strain
curve is drawn with the stress calculated using initial cross-section. This is the stress-strain curve
that we have used as the material law from testing. However, when the specimen is under tension or
compression, the cross-section is changing. The stress-strain curve that obtained with stress
calculated from real cross-section is called true stress-strain curve.

The cyclic stress-strain curve is using true stress-strain definition. Assuming a metal has
hypothetical properties that stay constant under load cycling. The load history begins from point O.
At first the deformation is elastic and is represented by straight line OA. Beyond point A, the
deformation is plastic represented by line AB. Beyond point B, it is unloading. Since it is assumed
no changes in metal properties, the subsequent reverse loading has an equal but symmetrically
opposite pattern. From O′ to A′ the deformation again elastic and from A′ to B′ it is plastic.
Unloading from B′ brings us back to point O. This procedure is shown in Figure 2.16 (a). However,
in real life, due to the Bauschinger’s effect, the yield point A′ is less than A. The cycling process
produces strain hardening thus changing the position of B, B′, B′′ and B′′′. The hysteresis loop is
drifted (see Figure 2.16 (b)). With the cyclic hardening prevails, the Bauschinger’s effect
diminishes. After a few cycles, the material exhibits a stabilized behavior, i.e. the hysteresis loop is
stabilized (see Figure 2.17).

The phenomena aforementioned can be observed using either stress-controlled tests or strain-
controlled tests. The stress-controlled tests are carried out with prescribed stress fluctuation and the
strain-controlled tests with prescribed strain fluctuation. Because of the fact that the stress control at
large load is cumbersome, the strain control tests are more convenient even though both tests give
similar results. In both tests, the material may show either cyclic hardening or cyclic softening (see
Figure 2.17). From the testing data, it is shown that low-strength steel tends to soften in the range of
smaller stress cycles and to harden for greater stress cycles, high-tensile strength steel exhibits
softening in every aspect [8].

78













Figure 2.15 Stress strain curves under static
loading [17]













Figure 2.16 Cyclic stress-strain curves [17]











Figure 2.17 Cyclic hardening and cyclic softening

The purpose of material tests is to produce the stabilized hysteresis loop as shown in Figure 2.18 (a).
However, if the hysteresis loop is changing over the whole life until crack initiation, the hysteresis
loop at the half number of cycles should be taken [8].

The stress-strain relationship in the stable state can be obtained using two methods: a multi-
specimen testing program and a multi-step testing program. In the multi-specimen program, a
number of specimens are tested, each one at a different strain amplitude (Figure 2.19 (a)) until a
corresponding stable hysteresis loop is obtained. A series of resulted hysteresis loop is plotted in a
common σ-ε diagram (Figure 2.18 (b)). Connecting the hysteresis tips, a stress-strain curve is
obtained, which represents a relation of cyclic stress and strain.

A more economic way to obtain the cyclic stress-strain curves is using multi-step testing program, in
which the periodical increasing and decreasing load cycles are applied (Figure 2.19 (c)). After
stabilization, connecting the reverse points of the corresponding loops yields the cyclic material law,
i.e. a similar cyclic stress-strain curve to that shown in Figure 2.18 (b). This cyclic material law
might differ slightly from that obtained from multi-specimen testing program. Figure 2.18 (b) also
shows that the stress-strain curve under monotonic test is different from that under cyclic loading.
Therefore, using monotonic curve for fatigue design may lead to incorrect safe limits.
79














Figure 2.18 Cyclic Stress-strain relationship












Figure 2.19 Load history for multi-specimen and multi-step testing program

The cyclic material law is usually approximated by the Ramberg-Osgood equation, separating the
total strain amplitude ε
a
into an elastic and plastic part:
ε εε ε
a
= σ σσ σ
a
/ E + (σ σσ σ
a
/ K′ ′′ ′)
1/n′ ′′ ′
( 2.20 )
where K′ and n′ are material dependant constants (cyclic hardening coefficient and cyclic hardening
exponent). Since the equation is non-linear over the entire range, a linear curve is often assumed up
to a fictitious yield point σ
y
, at which the plastic strain assumes a value that can no longer be
neglected, e.g. 0.001% [8].

2.4.2 Fatigue life

In strain-controlled constant-amplitude tests, the crack initiation behavior of the material is
investigated. The crack initiation is usually found by a drop of the stabilized stress σ
a
by 5 %, which
corresponds to a crack depth of approximately 0.5 mm in a small-scale specimen [8]. The crack
initiation life, N
f
, versus the strain amplitude, ε
a
, is called strain-life or strain S-N curve (see Figure
2.20). Two parts are included in the strain-life curve part: Elastic part based on Basquin relation:
80
ε εε ε
e
= σ σσ σ
a
/ E = σ σσ σ
f
′ ′′ ′ (2N
f
)
b
/ E ( 2.21 )
where ε
e
is the elastic strain amplitude; σ
a
is the true stress amplitude; 2N
f
is the reversals to failure (
1 reversal = 0.5 cycles); σ
f
′ is the fatigue strength coefficient and b is the fatigue strength exponent
(see Figure 2.20). Plastic part based on Coffin’s and Manson’s separately developed relations:
ε εε ε
p
= ε εε ε
f
′ ′′ ′ (2N
f
)
c
( 2.22 )
where ε
p
is the plastic strain amplitude; ε
f
′ is the fatigue ductility coefficient and c is the fatigue
ductility exponent (see Figure 2.20). Therefore, the strain-life curve can be expressed as:
ε εε ε
a
= ε εε ε
e
+ ε εε ε
p
= σ σσ σ
f
′ ′′ ′ (2N
f
)
b
/ E + ε εε ε
f
′ ′′ ′ (2N
f
)
c
( 2.23 )
For practical application for steel, the following approximation can be used for determining the
parameters in strain S-N curves [17]. The fatigue strength coefficient with the hardness less than 500
BHN can be approximated using
σ σσ σ
f
′ ′′ ′ = σ σσ σ
u
+ 50 ksi ( 2.24 )
where σ
u
is the tensile strength. The fatigue ductility coefficient can be approximated by:
ε εε ε
f
′ ′′ ′ = ε εε ε
f
= ln (100/(100-%RA)) ( 2.25 )
where ε
f
is true fracture ductility; and %RA is the percentage of reduction in cross-sectional area at
fracture, defined as:
%RA = 100 (A
0
– A
f
) / A
0
( 2.26 )
For most metals the cyclic strain hardening exponent n′ is
0.1 ≤ ≤≤ ≤ n′ ′′ ′ ≤ ≤≤ ≤ 20 ( 2.27 )
In addition, the life at which the elastic and plastic strains are equal is called transition life
represented by 2N
t
(see Figure 2.20), and can be expressed as:
2N
t
= ε εε ε
f
′ ′′ ′ (Eε εε ε
f
′ ′′ ′/σ σσ σ
f
′ ′′ ′)
1/(b-c)
( 2.28 )
Further, the cyclic hardening coefficient can be expressed in terms of σ
f
′ and ε
f

K′ ′′ ′ = σ σσ σ
f
′ ′′ ′ / (ε εε ε
f
′ ′′ ′)
n′ ′′ ′
( 2.29 )
and the cyclic hardening exponent can be expressed in term of b and c as:
n′ ′′ ′ = b / c ( 2.30 )
The strain S-N curve defined above is established according to a smooth specimen. If the specimen
is notched, the stress concentration effect must be taken into account. When all the stresses are in the
elastic range, the peak stress σ can be expressed as:
σ σσ σ = K
t
σ σσ σ
n
( 2.31 )
where K
t
is the stress concentration factor and σ
n
is the nominal stress. The maximum strain can be
expressed as:
ε εε ε = K
t
ε εε ε
n
( 2.32 )
However, when peak stress is higher than the yield strength, a local plastic deformation results a
nonlinear stress-strain relationship. Thus, the concentration factors for maximum stress and strain
are different, i.e.
σ σσ σ = K
σ σσ σ
σ σσ σ
n
( 2.33 )
where K
σ
is the stress concentration factor and
81
ε εε ε = K
ε εε ε
ε εε ε
n
( 2.34 )
where K
ε
is the strain concentration factor. These two factors are interdependent and can be related
using Neuber rule [8] as follows:
K
t
2
= K
σ σσ σ
·K
ε εε ε
( 2.35 )
The Neuber rule can be rewritten according to the stress, strain and concentration factors, i.e.
σ σσ σ·ε εε ε = (K
t
·σ σσ σ
n
)
2
/E ( 2.36 )
The maximum stress and strain should also satisfy the cyclic material law, i.e. equation 2.20. Thus,
the value of maximum strain can be determined with these two equations. This process is
schematically shown in Figure 2.21. The fatigue life of the notched specimen then can be
determined from the strain S-N curve with this maximum strain.
















Figure 2.20 Strain S-N curve and their
parameters















Figure 2.21 Determination of maximum strain
based on Neuber’s rules

It has been shown that Neuber’s rule is superior to other approximation formulae for diverse
materials and load conditions since the calculation results lie a little on the conservative side in
many cases. However, in order to account for the yielding of the entire cross-section, the equation of
2.36 must be extended by additional parameters [8].

When a specimen is subjected to a fully reversed load with superimposed steady stress, the effects of
the mean stress should be taken into account. The effect of tensile mean stress is most critical and
the compressive mean stress would somehow improve the fatigue behavior. When taking the tensile
mean stress into account, the strain S-N curve can be modified according to Manson as [17]:
ε εε ε
a
= (σ σσ σ
f
′ ′′ ′ - σ σσ σ
m
) (2N
f
)
b
/ E + ε εε ε
f
′ ′′ ′ [(σ σσ σ
f
′ ′′ ′ - σ σσ σ
m
) / σ σσ σ
f
′ ′′ ′]
1/n′ ′′ ′
(2N
f
)
c
( 2.37 )
according to Morrow as [17]:
ε εε ε
a
= (σ σσ σ
f
′ ′′ ′ - σ σσ σ
m
) (2N
f
)
b
/ E + ε εε ε
f
′ ′′ ′ (2N
f
)
c
( 2.38 )

82
2.5 Crack Propagation Methods

Fracture mechanics is firstly related to the problems of unstable fracture; however, the fracture
mechanics theory was found to be the best model of the crack propagation in fatigue. This method is
mainly applied to low cyclic fatigue and finite life problems in predicting the remaining life of
cracked components. Unlike the analysis of unstable fracture, plastic zones are relatively small so
that the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) already offers suitable solutions for crack
propagation problem. The application of fracture mechanics generally presupposes an existing
cracks, which may be a defect or a flaw, or a small crack initiated by cyclic loads. In engineering
design, crack lengths can range from 0.1 mm to several meters. Below this range is the special field
of short cracks, which behave quite differently from usual cracks [8].

2.5.1 Characteristic of fatigue surfaces

Figure 2.22 shows a macroscopic view of a typical crack surface of a round specimen. The cracks
initiate at point A. The origin of the fatigue crack may be more or less distinct. In some cases a
defect may be identified as the origin of the crack, in other cases there is no apparent reason why the
crack should start at a particular point. If the critical section is at a high stress concentration fatigue
initiation may occur at many points, in contrast to the case of un-notched parts where the crack
usually grows from a point only [7].

The crack propagates in a slow and stable mode, D, that exhibits beach marks (also called clamshell
marks). These beach marks are concentric rings that point toward the areas of the initiation. Beach
marks are formed when the crack grows intermittently and at different rates during random
variations in the loading pattern under the influence of a corrosive environment. Therefore, under
the constant load, the beach marks cannot be observed. In order to create this kind of beach mark, in
fatigue tests two levels of load are applied. In addition, on the crack surface, striations are formed
which is a clear indication for a fatigue crack (see Figure 2.23) [8]. Although somewhat similar in
appearance, striations are not beach marks as one beach mark may contain thousands of striations.














Figure 2.22 Typical fracture surface with
initiation (A), stable crack propagation (D) and final
fracture (D) [8]














Figure 2.23 Typical striations around an
inclusions [8]
83
The rough region G is the final fracture area. A large final fracture area for a given material
indicates a high maximum load, whereas a small area indicates that the load was lower at fracture
[7].

2.5.2 Fatigue mechanism

Fatigue damage is characterized by the nucleation, coalescence and stable growth of cracks leading
to ultimately to net section yielding or brittle facture. Cyclic plastic shear strains eventually cause
the nucleation of the slip band as illustrated in Figure 2.24, in which the applied tensile load is
vertical and the resulting shear stress is at 45°. The slip band will be first formed in those grains
whose crystallographic slip planes and directions are favorably oriented with respect to the applied
cyclic shear stress. Each grain will have different preferred slip plane. At low stresses and strains,
only a few grains have favorable orientations and only a few slip bands form. At high stresses and
strains, a large number of slip bands form. During repeated cyclic loading, these slip bands grow and
coalescence into a single dominant fatigue crack [14].

The nucleation process can be described using intrusion and extrusion model illustrated in Figure
2.25. This figure shows a cross-section view of a deforming grain in the material. Slip bands are
formed due to the dislocation movement within individual grains. Cyclic shear stresses cause the
dislocation to move, particularly the plastic deformation results in some slip bands coming out of the
surface of the material (extrusion) and some bands going into the surface of the material (intrusion).












Figure 2.24 Crack nucleation within grains [14]












Figure 2.25 Slip band formation [14]

The cohesion between the layers in slip band is weakened by oxidation of fresh surfaces and
hardening of the strained material. At some points in this process small cracks develop in the
intrusions. These micro cracks grow along slip planes, i.e. a shear stress driven process. Growth in a
shear mode, which is called stage I crack growth, extends over a few grains (see Figure 2.26).
During continued cycles, the micro cracks in different grains coalesce resulting in one or a few
dominating growth under the primary action of maximum principal stress and this is called stage II
growth (see Figure 2.26). The crack path is now essentially perpendicular to the tensile stress.
However, the crack advancement is still influenced by the crystallographic orientation of the grains
and the crack grows in a zigzag path along the slip planes.


84














Figure 2.26 Stage I and Stage II growth process














Figure 2.27 Crack opening modes

Once a crack has been initiated, subsequent crack propagation may occur in several ways. Three
basic modes of crack surface displacement can be classified (see Figure 2.27) [9]:

o Mode I. Opening or tensile mode, where the crack surfaces move directly apart;
o Mode II. Sliding or in-plane shear mode, where the crack surface slide over one another in a
direction perpendicular to the leading edge of the crack;
o Mode III. Tearing or out-of-plane shear mode, where the surfaces move relative to one
another and parallel to the leading edge of the crack.

In isotropic materials, brittle fracture usually occurs in Mode I. Although fractures induced by
sliding (Mode II) and tearing (Mode III) do occur, their frequency is much less than the opening
mode fracture [2].

2.5.3 Linear elastic fracture mechanics

In linear elastic fracture mechanics, the stress and displacement fields in the vicinity of crack tips
subjected to three modes of deformation are given in Figure 2.28. The symbols used in Figure 2.28
are defined as shown in Figure 2.29. In addition, K is stress intensity factor that presents a
relationship of a loading mode, geometry of the stressed part and the length of crack and is defined
as:
K = f·σ σσ σ·(π ππ π·a)
1/2
( 2.39 )
where σ represents the loading, a is the length of the initial crack and f is the compliance function
that describes the geometry of the part. Mode I covers the most common form of cracks caused by
fatigue and the compliance function corresponding to four standard specimens with a different
geometry shown in Figure 2.30 can be defined as [17]:

Center crack loaded in tension
f
I
= (sec(π ππ πa/2b))
1/2
( 2.40 )
85
Edge crack loaded in tension
f
I
= 1.12 – 0.231·a/b + 10.55 (a/b)
2
– 21.72 (a/b)
3
+ 30.39 (a/b)
4
( 2.41 )
Double edge cracks loaded in tension
f
I
= 1.12 + 0.203·a/b – 1.197 (a/b)
2
+ 1.93 (a/b)
3
( 2.42 )
Edge crack loaded in bending
f
I
= 1.122 – 1.40·a/b + 7.33 (a/b)
2
– 13.08 (a/b)
3
+ 14.0 (a/b)
4
( 2.43 )

From the formula shown in Figure 2.28, it can be seen that the stress intensity factor corresponding
to three opening mode uniquely defines the stress state. The unit of the stress intensity factor is
MPa(m)
1/2
.















Figure 2.28 Stresses and deformations in vicinity of crack tip for three modes of deformation















Figure 2.29 Coordinate system in the vicinity of
a crack














Figure 2.30 Concerning mode I: (a) center
cracked plate in tension (b) edge cracked plate in
tension (c) double-edge cracked plate in tension (d)
cracked beam in bending
86

From tests it is known that instable fracture (final fracture) occurs when the crack length reaches a
critical value a
c
or the stress intensity factor, K
I
, reaches the critical value, K
IC
, which is called
fracture toughness. The fracture toughness can be determined experimentally from tests with
predetermined crack size a. K
IC
assumes a fracture without plastic deformation. Under certain
conditions (e.g. relatively thin plates), larger plastic deformations occur and the critical intensity
factor is then defined as K
C
, which is higher than K
IC
[8].

Notched plates under loading with existing cracks at notches are shown in Figure 2.31 (a) and (b).
Since the geometry of the opening mode has changed, the expression of the stress intensity factor
must be changed [17]. This can be done through an empirical method where the stress gradients in
the vicinity of the notch are taken into account. As indicated in Figure 2.31 (c), the area in the
vicinity of the notch is divided into the areas of high stress gradients and of low stress gradients.
Within the domain of
d = 0.13 (Dr)
1/2
( 2.44 )
the stress intensity factor is computed based on a stress concentration factor, K
t
, and the stress
intensity factor is calculated as:
K = fK
t
σ σσ σ(π ππ πa)
1/2
( 2.45 )
In the remaining domain, the stress intensity factor is equal to
K = fσ σσ σ[π ππ π(D+a)]
1/2
( 2.46 )










Figure 2.31 Effect of notches on the stress intensity factor [17]

2.5.4 Crack propagation under fatigue load

Consider a fatigue load that fluctuates at constant amplitude where the stresses vary between
constant limit σ
max
and σ
min
. The range of the stress intensity factor can be expressed as:
∆ ∆∆ ∆K = K
max
– K
min
= f (σ σσ σ
max
- σ σσ σ
min
) (π ππ πa)
1/2
( 2.47 )
From the test of measuring the crack growth rate, it has been found that three regions can be divided
on the crack propagation curve (see Figure 2.32):

o Region I: crack formation
o Region II: moderate crack propagation
o Region III: accelerated crack growth and fracture
87














Figure 2.32 Three regions of crack growth rate [8]

According to Paris and Erdogan [8], the crack propagation rate da/dN (increase of crack length per
cycle) and the range of the stress intensity factor can be expressed as:
da/dN = C(∆ ∆∆ ∆K)
m
( 2.48 )
C and m are material parameters. In logarithmic scale, the crack propagation law is a straight line,
which describes the major part of the crack propagation domain (region II). Below a threshold value
∆K
th
, the crack propagation is zero due to the existing fatigue limit, while in the upper part the crack
propagation rate increases rapidly and the ∆K
c
reflects the failure point.

The number of cycles N between an initial crack length a
i
and final crack length a
f
can obtained
from integration of equation, i.e.

J
J
J
J
`
'
'
'
(
|

⋅ ⋅ − ⋅

− − 1
2
1
2 2
1 1
1
2
1
m
f
m
i
m
m
f
a a
f
m
C
N
π ππ π σ σσ σ ∆ ∆∆ ∆ ) (
( 2.49 )
The initial crack length can be computed from the equation
a = 1/π ππ π [∆ ∆∆ ∆K/(a(σ σσ σ
max
-σ σσ σ
min
))]
2
( 2.50 )
using
∆ ∆∆ ∆K
th
= K
th
- K
min
( 2.51 )
and crack at failure can be calculated using the same equation with
∆ ∆∆ ∆K
c
= K
c
- K
min
( 2.52 )
The values of both the stress intensity factor at threshold point ∆K
th
and the fracture toughness ∆K
c

are provided through testing for practical application in design for fatigue [17]. In case of a
geometry function depending on the crack length, an incremental solution is possible for step-wise
increased crack length ∆a, i.e.
88

J
J
J
J
J
`
'
'
'
'
(
|
+

⋅ ⋅ − ⋅

− − 1
2
1
2 2
1 1
1
2
1
m m m
m
a a a f
m
C
N
) ( ) ( ∆ ∆∆ ∆ π ππ π σ σσ σ ∆ ∆∆ ∆
∆ ∆∆ ∆ ( 2.53 )
The total cycles to failure can be calculated as
N
f
= Σ ΣΣ Σ (∆ ∆∆ ∆N
i
) ( 2.54 )
When the value of lower limit is less than zero, σ
min
< 0, the cracks stops growing due to
compression at lower limit since the propagation occurs only at tensile stresses. However, when σ
min

> 0, the propagation law has to be amended with stress ratio based on testing data. One relation
developed by Forman, Kearney and Engle has the form [17]
da/dN = A (∆ ∆∆ ∆K)
n
/ [(1-R)K
c
- ∆ ∆∆ ∆K] ( 2.55 )
where A and n are material properties.

2.5.5 Short crack behavior

Due to improved measurement techniques, very small cracks can be detected (smaller than grain
size). Normally they start from the material surface along the slip bands under mode II, i.e. shear
mode and can stop or propagate to larger size. At short cracks in ductile material, the plastic zone is
comparably large. The crack propagation is determined by such effects as grain boundaries, material
phases, inclusions and pores. The behavior can be non-normal: the crack propagation rate may
decrease with increasing crack length. The transition from a short crack to a long crack can occur if
the cyclic load becomes so large that the threshold value of the stress intensity factor range is
exceeded. Models for considering above-mentioned effects have been developed by Newman et al.
and Hou and Chang [8].

2.6 Fatigue Analysis Under Variable Loads

Until now we have described fatigue properties of structural component under constant amplitude.
In this section, analysis methods concerning to variable loading will be discussed.

2.6.1 Fatigue testing under variable loading

In stress method, the fatigue test under variable load can be performed in the following scenarios
[8]:

o Prototype testing under realistic conditions (cars under real life condition);
o Application of the original loading to components or structures in a laboratory;
o Application of synthetic load histories to components and structures.

The load histories can be created from load spectra either in the form of block-program loading or
random loading. Block-program loading is a simplified representation of the load process, where
load amplitudes of the same size are gathered in blocks as shown in Figure 2.33. It has been found
89
that the block sequence in Figure 2.33 (low-high-low) is a good compromise between different kinds
of variable amplitude loading. The typical random loading is shown in Figure 2.34.

The sequence of load amplitudes during a random loading history is significantly different from that
in a block-program test. The type of load history strongly affects the fatigue life. Under random
loading, the shorter fatigue life is expected. This is due to the effect of sequence of amplitude, i.e.
frequently changing amplitudes and mean stresses are more damaging than similar load cycles
following each other. In addition, due to the high costs and long testing time of variable amplitude
tests, the small amplitudes are frequently omitted. The omissions of the small amplitude have
influences on the fatigue life. Roughly it can be said amplitudes below half of the fatigue limit are
non-damaging [8].











Figure 2.33 Block-program loading [8]











Figure 2.34 Random loading [8]

2.6.2 Palmgren-Miner rule

The fatigue life of a component under variable loading can be calculated using the Palmgren-Miner
rule, which is a linear damage rule assuming that:

o The variable load that takes place irregularly can be replaced using an sequence of blocks of
uniform cycles (see Figure 2.35 (a) and (b)).
o The number of stress cycles imposed on a component, expressed as a percentage of the total
number of stress cycles of the same amplitude necessary to cause failure, gives the fraction
of damage.
o The order in which the stress blocks of different amplitudes are imposed does not affect the
fatigue life.
o Failure occurs when the linear sum of the damage from each load level reaches a critical
value.

If n
i
is the number of cycles corresponding to the stress amplitude, σ
i
, in a sequence of m blocks,
and if N
i
is the number of cycles to failure at σ
i
, then the Palmgren-Miner’s rule states that the
failure would occur when
1
N
n
m
1 i
i
i

( 2.56 )
90
and
D
i
= 1 / N
i
( 2.57 )
is called the damage of a single cycle at stress level σ
i
. The scheme of Palmgren-Miner’s rule is
shown in Figure 2.35 (c). The rule is first introduced by Palmgren in analysis of ball bearings and
adapted by Miner for aircraft structure [17].

It should be noted that, when variable amplitude loading is applied, the stresses less than the fatigue
limit still cause damage due to the fact that larger amplitude cycles may start to propagate the crack.
However, linear Palmgren-Miner’s rule assumes independence of damage accumulation. This can be
overcome in practical design using a slope line after fatigue life instead of using a horizontal line as
shown in Figure 2.35 (c).












Figure 2.35 Scheme of Palmgren-Miner’s rule

Empirically, tests have shown that differences between low-high sequences and high-low sequence.
Thus, there are two main shortcomings of the linear damage rule: assuming sequence independence
and assuming independence of damage accumulation. These two shortcomings might be overcome
by non-linear damage rules.

2.6.3 Cycle counting

When using linear Palmgren-Miner’s rule to estimate the fatigue life, the variable amplitude loading
has to be transformed into a series of constant amplitude loadings. Several methods are available to
do cycle counting, for instance, level crossing counting, peak counting, simple range counting and
rainflow counting. In this section, we only provide the details of rainflow counting.

Rainflow is a generic term to describe any cycle counting method that identifies closed hysteresis
loops in stress-strain response of material subjected to cyclic loading. Several algorithms are
available to perform the counting, however, they all require that the entire load history be known
before the counting process starts [4]. The basic rule of rainflow counting is defined as follows:

o In order to eliminate the counting of half cycles, the load history has to be drawn as starting
and ending at the greatest magnitude;
o A flow of rain has to be stopped when
91
a. The rain begins at a local maximum and falls opposite a local maximum that is greater
than that where it came from
b. The rain encounters a previous flow

Figure 2.36 illustrates the procedure of cycle counting using rainflow method. Figure 2.36 (a) is the
initial loading history. The counting is firstly started from the tension peaks. The details of counting
based on above-mentioned rule are described as follows:

o Route 1 starts from A and falls down at B. Since the value of C is less than that of A, the rain
can continually fall down to line CD. Similarly, the value of A is larger than that of E, C, I,
K, and M, it will stop at the position shown in Figure 2.36 (b). This procedure is carried out
based on rule (a);
o Route 2 starts from C and stops as shown in Figure 2.36 (b) due to it encounter the previous
rain flow (Route 1). This is the rule (b);
o Route 3 starts from E and stops due to the value of G being larger than that of E (rule (b));
o Route 4 is based on rule (b);
o Route 5 is based on rule (a);
o Route 6 is based on rule (b);
o Route 7 is based on rule (a).

Similarly, the rainflow counting from compression peaks are shown in Figure 2.36 (c). Figure 2.36
(d) shows the cycles from both tension side and compression side. This can be done as follows:























Figure 2.36 Scheme of rainflow counting

92
o Start from Route 1 of tension side and find the ending point of Route 1. Then check the route
of compression side that starts from this same point. In this case it is Route 6′. This is one
cycle of loading. Similarly, other cycles in loading history are obtained as shown in Figure
2.36 (d).

After this counting, the stress range and number of cycles corresponding to the stress range are
obtained and the damage can be estimated according to Palmgren-Miner’s rule under this variable
history. Rainflow counting is easy to do manually for relatively simple loading history, however, for
more complex loading history numerical methods are used [4].

Figure 2.37 shows the rainflow counting procedure for a strain history. The similar procedures
aforementioned for getting the stress range are applied to obtain the cycles of the strain ranges
(Figure 2.37 (b)). In addition, when combined with the stress-strain relationship of material law, the
hysteresis loops together with the mean stress effects are provided from rainflow counting (see
Figure 2.37 (c)). Using equation (2.23), the fatigue life corresponding to each strain range level can
be calculated. The total damage under this strain history can be computed using Palmgren-Miner’s
rule with each fatigue life calculated above.











Figure 2.37 Rainflow counting for a strain history

2.6.4 Crack propagation under variable loading

In previous sections we have paid our attentions to predict fatigue life under variable loading using
stress method and strain method. In this section, we will investigate the crack propagation behavior
under variable loading.

The crack propagation behavior under constant loading can differ considerably from variable
amplitude loading. Under variable amplitude loading, the crack increment, ∆a, is dependent not only
on the present crack size, but also on the load history, i.e. load interaction or load sequence effects.
A tensile overload induces compressive residual stresses, which are beneficial for the following
stress cycles.

Figure 2.38 shows that a single overload can considerably decrease crack growth rate, i.e. crack
retardation. On the other hand, a compressive overload creates tensile residual stresses, which have
acceleration effects. Besides, the crack closure behavior is very complex particularly under variable
amplitude loading [8].
93











Figure 2.38 Retardation effect of an overload on crack growth [8]

2.7 Fatigue Analysis of Welded Components

In welded steel structures, most of the fatigue cracks start to grow from welds, rather than from
other details, because [7]:

o Most welding processes leave minute metallurgical discontinuities from which cracks may
grow. As a result, the initiation period, which is normally needed to start a crack in plain
wrought material, is either very short or no existent. Cracks therefore spend most of their life
propagating, i.e. getting longer.

o Most structural welds have a rough profile. Sharp changes of direction generally occur at the
toes of butt welds, and at the toes and roots of fillet welds (see Figure 2.39). These points
cause local stress concentrations (see Figure 2.40). Small discontinuities close to these points
will therefore react as though they are in a more highly stressed member and grow faster.















Figure 2.39 Local stress concentrations at
welds














Figure 2.40 Typical stress distribution at weld
toe

94
2.7.1 Factors affecting the fatigue life

Welded components can be regarded as manufacturing-related notches that reduce the fatigue
strength. The effects of the following parameters on the fatigue behavior are investigated.

Influence of mean stress and material strength

From a large amount of test specimens, it has been found that the stress ratio R has little influence
on fatigue behaviors of welded components [8]. This is because at the critical crack initiation points
of the welded structures, tensile residual stresses up to yielding are expected. The stress cycles are
remained in tensile, irrespective of the R-values of the external load. Therefore, the influence of
stress ratio is only taken into account very cautiously or not at all in the codes or regulations.
Similarly, the influence of the material strength is not considered for welded components due to the
strong notch effects. With regard to the crack propagation behavior, crack closure does not occur if
high-tensile residual stresses are presented in the area of the crack tip.

Influence of imperfections

Imperfections can reduce the fatigue strength of the welded components considerably. These
imperfections include volumetric imperfections (blowholes and pores, and slug inclusions), planer
imperfections (cracks and lack of fusion), imperfections of the weld geometry (weld reinforcement
and undercut) and imperfections of the weld geometry (angular and axial misalignment) [8]. Some
typical imperfections are shown in Figure 2.41.










Figure 2.41 Imperfections in welded joints [1]

Normally, these imperfections can cause stress concentration that lowers the fatigue strength. These
imperfections may be caused by: (1) improper design that restricts accessibility for welding; (2)
incorrect selection of a welding process or welding parameters; (3) improper care of electrode or
flux, or both and (4) other causes including welder performance [1].

The severity of a discontinuity, which is due to the imperfections, is governed by its size, shape, and
orientation, and by the magnitude and direction of the design and fabrication stresses. Generally, the
severity of discontinuity increases as the size increases, and as the geometry becomes more planar
and the orientation more perpendicular to the direction of tensile stresses. Thus, volumetric
discontinuities are usually less injurious than planar, crack-like discontinuities. Also crack-like
discontinuities whose orientation is perpendicular to the tensile stress can be injurious than those
95
parallel to the tensile stress. Furthermore, a surface discontinuity whose plane is perpendicular to the
tensile stress is more severe than if it were embedded [1].

Influence of residual stresses

Residual stresses are those exist in a component that is free from externally applied loads. They are
caused by non-uniform plastic deformations in neighboring regions. Furthermore, residual stresses
are always balanced so that the stress field is static equilibrium. Because fatigue life is governed by
the stress range instead of stresses, tensile residual stresses usually have only a secondary effect on
fatigue behavior of components. On the other hand, excessive tensile residual stress can also initiate
unstable fracture in materials with low-fracture toughness.

In welded components, residual stresses are caused by the inability of the deposited molten weld
metal to shrink freely as it cools and solidifies. The magnitude of the residual stresses depends on
such factors as the deposited weld beads, weld sequence, total volume of deposited weld metal, weld
geometry, and strength of the deposited weld metal and of the adjoining base metal as well as other
factors. Often, the magnitude of these stresses exceeds the elastic limit of the lowest strength region
in the weldment [1].

Influence of plate thickness

The thickness of plate has an adverse effect on the fatigue strength due to the following reasons [8]:

o Stress gradient effect: the tensile region of the stress field (including residual stresses)
around the weld toe is larger in thicker plates so that an initial defect will experience a larger
stress during crack initiation and early crack propagation, thus, resulting in a shorter fatigue
life.

o Technological size effect: this effect is mainly attributed to material size and surface effects.
In particular, for welded joints, the ratio between plate thickness and weld toe radius is larger
for thicker plates, thus, resulting in a higher stress concentration and, hence, in a reduced
crack initiation period.

o Statistical size effect: the likelihood of finding a significant defect in a larger volume is
increased compared to a small one.

Influence of post-weld treatment

Using post-weld treatment of the weld, it is possible to improve the fatigue strength of welded joints
considerably, especially the fatigue limit. The improvement mainly involves an extension of the
crack initiation life and can be achieved by [8]:

o A reduction of the stress peak related to the weld shape;
o Removal of crack-like weld imperfections at the weld toe;
o Removal of detrimental tensile residual stresses, up to the formation of favorable
compressive residual stresses in the area susceptible to crack initiation.

96
Post-weld treatment is of particular interest in connection with the repair of fatigue cracks.
However, it must be guaranteed that the fatigue strength of the area, which is not subjected to post-
weld treatment, is high enough.

2.7.2 S-N methods for evaluating fatigue life

Several S-N methods are available for estimating the fatigue life of welded components: nominal
stress method, structural hot spot stress method, notch stress method, notch stress intensity method
and notch strain method [8]. Fatigue assessment according to nominal stress method uses standard
S-N curves together with detail classes of basic joints that can be found in several standards and
guidelines. Notch strain method is not widely used for welded components for two reasons. Firstly,
several materials are involved in welded components: base metal, heat affected zone and weld
metal. Reliable cycle data for different type of materials are rare and the numerical efforts to analyze
the local stress and strain are high. Secondly, the local material in the critical area is far from smooth
and homogeneous. The early crack propagation phase may form the major part of the fatigue life. In
principle, the notch stress and notch stress intensity method are closely related [8]. Thus, in this
section, the nominal stress method, the hot spot stress method and notch stress method are
discussed.

2.7.2.1 Definitions of stresses

Before calculating the fatigue life using three methods mentioned above, the concepts of nominal
stress, hot spot stress and notch stress in welded joints are defined firstly (see Figure 2.42). Nominal
stresses are those derived from simple beam models or from coarse mesh FEM models. Stress
concentrations resulting from gross shape of the structure are included in the nominal stress.
















Figure 2.42 Stress distribution at welded joints


97
Structural hot spot stresses, also called geometric stresses, include nominal stresses and stresses
from structural discontinuities. The latter are not the stresses due to the presence of welds. Instead,
they are extrapolated using various methods from the points at certain distance away from weld toe.

Notch stresses are the total stress at the weld toe and include the structural stresses and the stresses
due to presence of the weld. FEM can be used to calculate the notch stress. However, due to the
small notch radius and steep gradient, a very fine mesh is necessary.

2.7.2.2 Nominal stress method

The simplest and most common method for estimating fatigue life is nominal stress method.
Eurocode 3, Part 1.1 is mainly based on this method. In this section, after shortly introducing the
determination of nominal stress of welded joints, the design procedure based on Eurocode 3, Part
1.1 are described in details.

Calculation of nominal stress

Usually, the nominal stress is related to the section in which the crack is to be expected. This is in
most cases the section in front of weld toe, if a crack is expected to initiate from there (see Figure
2.14). If a crack is expected to propagate through weld from an unwelded root face, the relevant
nominal stress is referred to the section through the weld throat (see Figure 2.43 (b)). In case of bi-
axial stress states, the largest principal stress σ
1
is taken (see Figure 2.43 (a)).












Figure 2.43 Example of cracks at welded joints with relevant principal stress σ σσ σ
1
[8]

S-N curves in Eurocode 3, Part 1.1

The fatigue strength in Eurocode 3, Part 1.1 is defined by a series of log ∆σ - log N or log ∆τ - log N
curves (see Figure 2.44), each applying to a typical detail category. Each category is designated by a
number which represents the reference value ∆σ
C
of the fatigue strength at 2 million cycles, i.e. N
C
=
2 x 10
6
. The values are rounded values. Some common detail types and their fatigue categories are
shown in Figure 2.45 and more details types are provided in Table 9.8.1 to Table 9.8.7 in Eurocode
3, Part 1.1 [6].


98
























Figure 2.44 Family of design curves [6]
















Figure 2.45 Some common detail type and their fatigue categories [7]

In addition, two other concepts are defined in Figure 2.44 (a). One is the constant amplitude fatigue
limit, ∆σ
D
, which is the limiting stress range value above which a fatigue assessment is necessary.
The number of cycles corresponding to constant amplitude fatigue limit is 5 million cycles, i.e. N
D
=
99
5 x 10
6
. The other is cut-off limit, ∆σ
L
, which is a limit below which stress ranges of the design
spectrum do not contribute to the calculated cumulative damage. The number of cycles
corresponding to this value is 10
8
cycles, i.e. N
L
= 10
8
. The cut-off limit is put forward because
when variable amplitude loading is applied, the stresses less than the fatigue limit still cause damage
due to the fact that larger amplitude cycles may start to propagate the crack.

The fatigue strength curves for nominal stresses are defined by
log N = log a – m log ∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
R
( 2.58 )
where ∆σ
R
is the fatigue strength; N is the number of stress range cycles; m is the slope constant of
the fatigue strength curves with value of 3 and/or 5; and loga is a constant that depends on the
related part of the slope and their values are given in Table 2.1. Similar fatigue strength curves are
used for shear stresses (Figure 2.44 (b)) and only one slope value is taken, i.e. m = 5. These curves
are based on representative experimental investigations and thus include the effects of local stress
concentrations due to the weld geometry, size and shape of acceptable discontinuities, the stress
direction, residual stresses, metallurgical conditions, and in some cases, the welding process and
post-weld improvement procedures.

Table 2.1 Numerical values for fatigue strength curves [6]
Detail category log a for N < 10
8
Stress range at constant
amplitude fatigue limit
Stress range at
cut-off limit
Normal stress range
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
C

(N/mm
2
)
N ≤ ≤≤ ≤ 10
5

(m = 3 )
N > 10
5

(m = 5 )
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
D
(N/mm
2
)
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
L
(N/mm
2
)
160 12.901 17.036 117 64
140 17.751 16.786 104 57
125 12.601 16.536 93 51
112 12.451 16.286 83 45
100 12.301 16.036 74 40
90 12.151 15.786 66 36
80 12.001 15.536 59 32
71 11.851 15.286 52 29
63 11.701 15.036 46 26
56 11.551 14.786 41 23
50 11.401 14.536 37 20
45 11.251 14.286 33 18
40 11.101 14.036 29 16
36 10.951 13.786 26 14
Shear stress range
∆ ∆∆ ∆τ ττ τ
C

(N/mm
2
)
N < 10
8

(m = 5 )
------ ∆ ∆∆ ∆τ ττ τ
L
(N/mm
2
)
100 16.301 ------- 46
80 15.801 ------- 36

Fatigue analysis based on Eurocode 3, Part 1.1

No fatigue assessment is required when any of the following condition is satisfied according to
Eurocode 3, Part 1.1:

o The largest nominal stress range ∆σ satisfies:
100
γ γγ γ
Ff
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ ≤ ≤≤ ≤ 26 / γ γγ γ
Mf
N/mm
2
( 2.59 )
o The total number of stress cycles, N, satisfies:
N ≤ ≤≤ ≤ 2 x 10
6
[(36/γ γγ γ
Mf
) / (γ γγ γ
Ff
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
E.2
)]
3
( 2.60 )
o For a detail for which a constant amplitude fatigue limit ∆σ
D
is specified, the largest stress
range ∆σ satisfies:
γ γγ γ
Ff
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ ≤ ≤≤ ≤ ∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ / γ γγ γ
Mf
( 2.61 )

In these conditions, ∆σ
E.2
is the equivalent constant amplitude stress range (N/mm
2
), which is
defined as the constant amplitude stress range that would result in the same fatigue life as for the
spectrum of variable amplitude stress ranges, when the comparison is based on a Miner’s summation
[6]. γ
Ff
is the partial safety factor for fatigue loading and its value are provided in Eurocode 1 [5]. A
value of γ
Ff
= 1.0 may be applied in the design calculation. γ
Mf
is the partial safety factor for fatigue
strength and its value are provided in Table 2.2, which is Table 9.3.1 in Eurocode 3, Part 1.1 [6].

Table 2.2 Partial safety factor for fatigue strength γ γγ γ
Mf
[6]
Inspection and access “Fail-safe”
components
Non “fail-safe”
components
Periodic inspection and maintenance.
Accessible joint details.
1.00 1.25
Periodic inspection and maintenance. Poor
accessibility.
1.15 1.35

Otherwise, the fatigue assessment criterion for constant amplitude loading is:
γ γγ γ
Ff
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ = ∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
R
/ γ γγ γ
Mf
( 2.62 )
where ∆σ is the nominal stress range and ∆σ
R
is the fatigue strength for the relevant detail category
for the total number of stress cycles N during the required design life.

For variable amplitude loading, the fatigue assessment shall be based on Palgren-Miner rule of
cumulative damage. If the maximum stress range due to variable loading is higher than the constant
amplitude fatigue limit, a cumulative damage assessment may be made using:
D
d
≤ ≤≤ ≤ 1 ( 2.63 )
where
D
d
= Σ ΣΣ Σ (n
i
/ N
i
) ( 2.64 )
in which n
i
is the number of cycles of stress range ∆σ
i
during the required design life; and N
i
is the
number of cycles of stress range γ
Ff
·γ
Mf
·∆σ
i
to cause failure for the relevant detail category.
Cumulative damage calculations shall be based on one of the following:

a) a fatigue strength curve with a single slope constant m = 3;
b) a fatigue strength curve with double slope constants (m =3 and m = 5), changing at the
constant amplitude fatigue limit;
c) a fatigue strength curve with double slope constants (m =3 and m =5), and a cut-off limit at
N = 1000 million cycles;
101
d) a fatigue strength curve with a single slope constant m = 5 and a cut-off limit at N = 100
cycles.

Case (c) is most general. When using case (c) and with a constant amplitude fatigue limit ∆σ
D
at 5
million cycles, N
i
may be calculated as follows:

o if γ
Ff
∆σ
i
≥ ∆σ
D
/ γ
Mf

N
i
= 5 x 10
6
[[(∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
D
/ γ γγ γ
Mf
) / (γ γγ γ
Ff
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
i
)]
3
( 2.65 )
o if ∆σ
D
/ γ
Mf
> γ
Ff
∆σ
i
≥ ∆σ
L
/ γ
Mf

N
i
= 5 x 10
6
[[(∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
D
/ γ γγ γ
Mf
) / (γ γγ γ
Ff
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
i
)]
5
( 2.66 )
o if γ
Ff
∆σ
i
< ∆σ
L
/ γ
Mf

N
i
= ∝ ∝∝ ∝ ( 2.67 )

Nominal shear stress ranges, ∆τ, should be treated similarly to nominal normal stress ranges, but
using a single slope constant m = 5. N
i
may be calculated as:

o if γ
Ff
∆τ
i
≥ ∆τ
L
/ γ
Mf
,
N
i
= 2 x 10
6
[[(∆ ∆∆ ∆τ ττ τ
C
/ γ γγ γ
Mf
) / (γ γγ γ
Ff
∆ ∆∆ ∆τ ττ τ
i
)]
5
( 2.68 )
o if γ
Ff
∆τ
i
< ∆τ
L
/ γ
Mf
,
N
i
= ∝ ∝∝ ∝ ( 2.69 )

Fatigue assessment of hollow sections

The fatigue strength curves to be used in conjunction with the hollow details shown in Table 9.8.6 in
Eurocode 3, Part 1.1, are those shown in Figure 2.44. They have double slope constant of m = 3 and
m =5. The fatigue strength curves to be used in conjunction with the hollow section joint details for
lattice girders shown in Table 9.8.7 in Eurocode 3, Part 1.1, are given in Figure 2.46. They have a
single slope constant of m = 5. The corresponding values for numerical calculations of the fatigue
strength are given in Figure 2.3. In these calculations, the throat thickness of a fillet weld shall not
be less than the wall thickness of the hollow section member that it connects.

The member force for hollow sections according to Eurocode 3, Part 1.1 may be analyzed neglecting
the effect of eccentricities and joint stiffness, assuming hinged connections, provided that the effects
of secondary bending moments on stress range are considered. In the absence of rigorous stress
analysis and modeling of the joint, the effects of secondary bending moment may be taken into
account by multiplying the stress range due to axial member forces by appropriate coefficients as
follows:

o for joints in lattice girders made from circular hollow sections, see Table 2.4.
o for joints in lattice girders made from rectangular hollow sections, see Table 2.5.

The values in these two tables are approximate empirical values or values based on testing.

102


















Figure 2.46 Fatigue strength curves for joints
in lattice girders


Table 2.3 Numerical values for fatigue
strength curves for hollow sections
Detail
category
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
C

(N/mm
2
)
log a for
N<10
8

Stress range
at cut-off
limit (N=10
8
)
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
L

(N/mm
2
)
90 16.051 41
71 15.551 32
56 15.051 26
50 14.801 23
45 14.551 20
36 14.051 16




Table 2.4 Coefficients to account for secondary bending moments in joints of lattice girders made from
circular hollow sections [6]
Type of joint Chords Verticals Diagonals
K type 1.5 1.0 1.3 Gap joints
N type 1.5 1.8 1.4
K type 1.5 1.0 1.2 Overlap joints
N type 1.5 1.65 1.25

Table 2.5 Coefficients to account for secondary bending moments in joints of lattice girders made from
rectangular hollow sections [6]
Type of joint Chords Verticals Diagonals
K type 1.5 1.0 1.5 Gap joints
N type 1.5 2.2 1.6
K type 1.5 1.0 1.3 Overlap joints
N type 1.5 2.0 1.4

Fatigue strength modifications

For the construction details not listed in Eurocode 3, Part 1.1, all hollow section members and
tubular joints with wall thickness greater than 12.5 mm, fatigue assessment shall be carried out using
the procedure based on geometric stress ranges, i.e. hot spot stresses method whose calculation
procedure are described in next section [6]. In addition, for non-welded details or stress relieved
welded details; the effective stress to be used shall be determined by adding the tensile portion of the
stress range and 60% of the compressive portion of the stress range.
103

The influence of the thickness of the parent metal in which a potential crack may initiate and
propagate are taken into account in Eurocode 3, Part 1.1 in the following way: the variation of
fatigue strength with thickness shall be taken into account, when material thickness is greater than
25 mm, by reducing the fatigue strength using:
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
R.t
= ∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σ
R
(25 / t)
0.25
( 2.70 )
with t > 25 mm. When the material thickness of the constructional detail is less than 25 mm, the
fatigue strength shall be taken as that for a thickness of 25 mm. This reduction shall be only applied
only to structural details with welds transverse to the direction of the normal stresses. Where the
detail category in the classification tables already varies with thickness, the above correction for
thickness shall not applied.

“Safe-life” and “fail-safe” concepts of structural design

“Fail-safe” and “safe-life” are the two concepts of structural design [7]. In the “safe-life” method,
the designer starts by making an estimation of the load spectrum to which the critical structural
components are likely to be subjected in service. These components are then analyzed or tested
under that load spectrum so as to obtain its expected life. Finally a factor of safety is applied in order
to give a safe life during which the possibility of fatigue failure is considered to be sufficiently
remote. It is clear that via making the safety factor sufficient large, the designer can govern the
probability of failure associated with his design. On the other hand, if a fatigue crack does occur, it
may well be catastrophic, and safety depends on achieving a specified life without a fatigue crack
developing. With this method, the emphasis is on prevention of crack initiation [7].

With the “fail-safe” concept, the basis of design is that, even if failure of part of the main structure
does occur, there will always be sufficient strength and stiffness in the remaining part to enable the
structure to be used safely until the crack is discovered. This concept implies that periodic in-service
inspection is a necessity, and that the methods used must be such as to ensure that cracked members
will be discovered so that repairs or replacements can be made.

It is clear that with this method of design the probability of partial failure is much greater than with
the “safe-life” design. In developing a “fail-safe” structure, the “safe-life” should also be evaluated,
in order to make sure that it is of the right order of magnitude. However, the emphasis, instead of
being on the prevention of crack initiation, is on producing a structure in which a crack will
propagate slowly, and which is capable of supporting the full design load after partial failure. The
basic principle of “fail-safe” design is therefore to produce a multiple load-path structure, and
preferably a structure containing crack arresters. In addition, the structural elements must be
arranged so as to make inspections as easy as possible. In areas where that is not possible, the
elements must be oversized so that either fatigue cracking does not occur in them, or fatigue crack
growth is so slow that there is no risk of failure [7].

2.7.2.3 Hot-spot stress method

The concept of a hot spot stress is originated in the design of offshore structures. The problem of
local stresses in the vicinity of weld toes in tubular joints is one of the most difficult stress
distributions in steel structures. The nominal stresses at these connections are often impossible to
104
define. The geometrical hot spot stress was introduced with the definition of reference points for
stress evaluation and extrapolation at certain distance away from the weld [3].

Niemi [10] has listed several cases where the hot spot stress approach is more suitable than the
nominal stress weld classification approach:

o there is no clearly defined nominal stress due to complicated geometric effects;
o the structural discontinuity is not comparable with any classified details in the design rules;
o for the above-mentioned reasons, the finite element method is used;
o field testing of a prototype structure is performed using hot spot strain gauge measurements;
o offset or angular misalignments exceeds the fabrication tolerances, thus invalidating some of
the basic conditions for using nominal stress approach.

In Eurocode 3, Part 1.1, the hot spot stress is defined as the maximum principal stress in the parent
material adjacent to the weld toe taking into account only the overall geometry of the joint,
excluding local stress concentration effects due to the weld geometry and discontinuities at the weld
toe. The maximum value of geometric stress range or hot spot stress range shall be found by
investigating various locations at the weld toe around welded joint or the stress concentration area.

The hot spot stresses may be determined using stress concentration factors obtained from parametric
formulae within their domains of validity, a finite element analysis or an experimental model. Since
the local stress concentration due to weld geometry and irregularities at the weld toe cannot easily
be determined, the influence of the local weld notch stresses can be excluded by carrying out an
extrapolation procedure of the geometric stresses from outside this region. The hot spot stresses or
strains arrived at in this manner are divided by the nominal stress or strain to arrive at the stress
concentration factor (SCF) or strain concentration factor (SNCF) [16].

As an example, two extrapolation methods based on ECSC are shown in Figure 2.47, i.e. linear
extrapolation and quadratic extrapolation [16]. In linear extrapolation method, two points on the
curve determined from all data points are used for the extrapolation: the first is 0.4t from the weld
toe with a minimum of 4 mm. The second point is taken to be 0.6t further. In quadratic
extrapolation, the first point is 0.4t from the weld toe with a minimum of 4 mm. The second point on
the curve is taken 1.0t further. The quadratic extrapolation is carried out through these two points
and other points between these two points and thereby obtaining the quadratic SCF. The stresses at
interpolation points can be obtained either from a FEM calculation or from an experimental
measurement.

The determination of hot spot stress is only a step in determining the fatigue life of a specific
connection and load case. A S-N curve relates the hot spot stress range to the expected fatigue life of
a welded joint. It has been shown that for seam-welded structures the fatigue resistances are similar.
Thus, one S-N can be used to describe the fatigue behavior [8]. In Eurocode 3, Part 1.1, the fatigue
strength curves to be used for fatigue assessments based on hot spot stress range, shall be [6] (see
Figure 2.48):

a) For full penetration butt welds:
• Category 90, when both weld profile and permitted weld defects acceptance criteria
are satisfied.
• Category 71, when only permitted weld defects acceptance criteria are satisfied.
105















Figure 2.47 Method of extrapolation to the
weld toe















Figure 2.48 Fatigue strength curves for hot
spot stress method [6]


b) For load carrying partial penetration butt welds and fillet welds:
• Category 36 or alternatively a fatigue strength curve obtained from adequate fatigue
test results.

As for the hot spot stress method, the following things might be concerned [16]:

Stress or strain based definition

Although in most design recommendations, the hot spot stress and stress concentration factors are
used, in many cases these are really based on strains. This is due to the fact that the strain can be
measured easily by individual strain gauges, whereas stresses would require strain gauge rosettes to
measure various strain components. Another reason is that stresses cannot significantly exceed the
yield stress and in lower cycle fatigue, the failure mechanism is strain based rather than stress based.
The nominal stress and strain can be easily converted using σ = E ε.

Type of stress to be used

In Eurocode 3, Part 1.1, the hot spot stress are principal stresses. However, the use of stresses
perpendicular to the weld might be possible, this because:

o Principal stresses can be significantly higher than stresses perpendicular to the weld toe, yet
closer to the weld the stresses are diverted to the weld by the stiffening influence of weld and
attached wall. Therefore, the difference between principal stresses and stresses perpendicular
to the weld toe decreases closer to the weld.
o Only stress components perpendicular to the weld are enlarged by stress concentration
caused by the global weld shape and the wall of the adjacent member. This is also the reason
why the direction of crack growth is usually mainly along the toe of the weld, especially at
the initial stage of the crack.
106
o Strains perpendicular to the weld toe can be measured by simple strain gauges instead of
strain gauge rosettes.
o Extrapolation of principal strains or stresses would require extrapolation of all components,
which is rather cumbersome.
o The direction of the principal stress would be different for different load cases, prohibiting
superposition of load cases.

Factors not covered by hot spot stress method

The following factors are not covered in the hot stress method

o The stress fields around the hot spot, e.g., the stress gradient;
o Global geometry of the weld, especially the leg length;
o The condition of the weld toe, e.g., the toe radius or the influence of weld toe improvement
techniques.

Finally, one thing should mention that the hot spot stress method is not suitable for the analysis of
fatigue cracks from embedded weld defects or weld roots. In those cases fracture mechanics is often
a suitable assessment tool [10].

2.7.2.4 Notch stress method

Notch stress method requires knowledge of the stress distribution in the vicinity of the weld, which
is usually obtained by means of a FE analysis. The influence of the notch and the notch stress can be
obtained from a FE analysis of a small region in the vicinity of the weld using a fine 2D (shell) or
3D (solid) mesh. As a result, additional stress concentration factors can be established, which is to
be multiplied with the SCFs of the hot spot stress method [16].

The main advantage compared to nominal and structural hot spot stress method is that the local
geometry of the weld seam can be considered, e.g. the effect of the throat thickness, the flank angle
and the actual weld toe radius [8]. However, a number of disadvantages to the notch stress method
exist [16]:

o The determination of the effect of local stress raisers in a uniform way for inclusion in
design guidelines is still a problem;
o The weld shape, especially the leg length, affects not only the local notch stresses but also
the hot spot stress, since the weld toe is moved away from the highest stress range;
o To take full advantage of this method, the weld profile must be controlled. Usually, this is
very difficult and hence expensive, to the extent that other techniques might be preferred to
enhance the fatigue behavior.

2.7.3 Crack propagation method

The crack propagation approach has found much application in the fatigue assessment of welded
joints mainly due to the following reasons:
107

o The crack initiation phase is normally shorter than the crack propagation phase due to the
relatively sharp notches and weld imperfections;
o Unwelded root gaps and weld defects, if present, act as crack starter with a short crack
initiation phase.

The calculations of propagation are distinguished from the positions of the cracks, i.e. cracks
initiating from weld toes and cracks from unwelded root faces. The factors that affect the
propagation are considered in the stress intensity factor. The detail calculation can be found in
corresponding literatures, for instance, Radaj [12, 13].

2.8 Calculation Examples According to Eurocode 3

2.8.1 Introduction

This example is a fatigue analysis of an existing design to check the fatigue life of critical weld
details. Details of the crane are shown Figure 2.49. The crane trolley runs on rails supported by two
box girders. The box girders have diaphragms at intervals along this length, and the critical welded
details have been identified in the inset sketch and numbered 1 to 5.























Figure 2.49 Details of the crane

108
The crane travels the length of the girders 20 times/day carrying a load of 15 tons (150 kN)
including dynamic effects, the dead weight of the trolley being 1 ton (10kN). The analysis is carried
out for the case when the trolley returns empty, and then for the case when the trolley returns
carrying a load of 7 tons (70kN). The crane operates 200 days per year, i.e. the following cycles are
accumulated each year:

o 20 x 200 times a load of 150 kN
o 10 x 200 times trolley returns empty
o 10 x 200 times trolley returns with a load of 70 kN

The weld descriptions and their categorization for fatigue purpose by Eurocode 3, Part 1.1 are as
follows:

Weld EC3 Category Description
1 EC 100 Longitudinal web to bottom flange manual fillet weld, closing welds
of the box section, 4 mm throat
2 EC 80 Transverse manual fillet at bottom edge of diaphragm to web weld
3 EC 80 Transverse manual fillet at top edge of diaphragm to top flange weld
4 EC 112/EC 71 Web to top flange longitudinal manual T-butt weld under crane rail
5 EC 80 Welded stud bolt for fastening rail.

2.8.2 Given values









2.8.3 Stress calculations

2.8.3.1 Calculation of moment inertia and section modulus










b
t_flange
500 mm ⋅ : t
t_flange
10 mm ⋅ : h
web
500 mm ⋅ : t
web
10 mm ⋅ :
b
b_flange
500 mm ⋅ : t
b_flange
10 mm ⋅ :
kN 10
3
N ⋅ : W
1
150 kN ⋅ : W
2
70 kN ⋅ : W
dead
10 kN ⋅ :
L
s
15 m ⋅ :
Area of each element
A
t_f
b
t_flange
t
t_flange
⋅ : A
t_f
5 10
3
× mm
2

top flange
bottom flange
A
b_f
b
b_flange
t
b_flange
⋅ : A
b_f
5 10
3
× mm
2

web
A
w
h
web
t
web
⋅ : A
w
5 10
3
× mm
2

109









The values of the calculation are shown in the following table:







The position of neutral axis can be calculated as: y
cg
ΣAy
ΣA
, i.e.





















The section modulus can be calculated as:







Distance from centroid of each element to bottom flange
y
t_f
h
web
t
b_flange
+
t
t_flange
2
+ : y
t_f
515mm
top flange
bottom flange
y
b_f
t
b_flange
2
: y
b_f
5mm
web
y
w
h
web
2
t
b_flange
+ : y
w
260mm
Area A y* Ay Ay^2
6500 515 3347500 1723962500
5000 5 25000 125000
10000 260 2600000 676000000
21500 5972500 2400087500
* Distance from bottom flange
Element
Webs
Total
top flange
bottom flange
y
cg
5972500mm
3

21500mm
2

:
y
cg
277.791mm
The moment of inertia can be calculated as:
Total
1
ΣAy
2
Total
1
2400087500mm
4
⋅ :
I
web
1
12
500
3
⋅ 10 ⋅ mm
4
⋅ : I
web
1.042 10
8
× mm
4

I
top_f
1
12
650 ⋅ 10
3
⋅ mm
4
⋅ : I
top_f
5.417 10
4
× mm
4

I
bottom_f
1
12
500 ⋅ 10
3
⋅ mm
4
⋅ : I
bottom_f
4.167 10
4
× mm
4

Total
2
ΣA ( ) y
cg
2

Total
2
21500mm
2
⋅ y
cg
2
⋅ : Total
2
1.659 10
9
× mm
4

I Total
1
2 I
web
⋅ + I
bottom_f
+ I
top_f
+ Total
2
− :
I 9.494 10
8
× mm
4

Z
top
I
500 mm ⋅ 10 mm ⋅ + 10 mm ⋅ + y
cg

( )
:
Z
top
3.92 10
6
× mm
3

Z
bottom
I
y
cg
:
Z
bottom
3.418 10
6
× mm
3

110
2.8.3.2 Calculation of moment inertia and section modulus

Participation of the crane rail is ignored. The highest bending stresses will be at mid-span when the
trolley is also at mid-span. As the trolley passes from one end to the other end of the girders, the
bending moment due to living loading will go from zero to maximum and back to zero. The load is
assumed to be carried equally between the two girders. Maximum bending moment range per girder:









































∆M
W
1
W
dead
+
( )
L
s

2 4 ⋅
: ∆M 300kN m ⋅
The stresses can be calculated using simple bending theory, i.e.
Bending
σ
M y ⋅
I
or
σ
M
Z
This calculation leads to the following results for the stress ranges at different weld details under the
full load conditions.
∆σ y
5
( )
76.535MPa y
5
h y
cg
− :
Point 5
∆σ y
4
( )
73.375MPa y
4
h t
t_flange
− y
cg
− :
Point 4
∆σ y
3
( )
73.375MPa y
3
h t
t_flange
− y
cg
− :
Point 3
∆σ y
2
( )
53.019MPa y
2
y
cg
t
b_flange
− 100 mm ⋅ − :
Point 2
∆σ y
1
( )
78.996MPa y
1
h
web
2
:
Point 1
∆σ y ( )
∆M y ⋅
I
:
h 520mm
h h
web
t
t_flange
+ t
b_flange
+ : MPa 10
6
Pa ⋅ :
111











2.8.4 Assessment for the trolley carrying the full load of 150 kN


































According to Eurocode 3,
N
i
may be calculated as follows:
N
i
∆σ
i
( )
5 10
6

∆σ
D
γ
Mf
|
'
'
(
`
J
γ
Ff
∆σ
i

]
]
]
]
]
3
⋅ γ
Ff
∆σ
i

∆σ
D
γ
Mf
≥ if
5 10
6

∆σ
D
γ
Mf
|
'
'
(
`
J
γ
Ff
∆σ
i

]
]
]
]
]
5

∆σ
D
γ
Mf
γ
Ff
∆σ
i
⋅ >
∆σ
L
γ
Mf
≥ if
∞ γ
Ff
∆σ
i

∆σ
L
γ
Mf
< if
in which,
γ
Ff
1.0 : is the partial safety factor for fatigue loading;
γ
Mf
1.35 : is the partial safety factor for fatigue strength according to Table 9.3.1;
∆σ
D
is the stress range at constant amplitude fatigue limit;
∆σ
L
is the stress range at cut-off limit;
The bending stress ranges are summarized in the following table:
Weld Bending stress range
1
∆σ y
1
( )
78.996MPa
2
∆σ y
2
( )
53.019MPa
3
∆σ y
3
( )
73.375MPa
4
∆σ y
4
( )
73.375MPa
5
∆σ y
5
( )
76.535MPa
According to the welded details, the following categories and characteristic values for each welded
details are provided according to Eurocode 3
∆σ
C
100
80
80
112
80
|
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
MPa ⋅ : ∆σ
D
74
59
59
83
59
|
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
MPa ⋅ : ∆σ
L
40
32
32
45
32
|
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
MPa ⋅ : ∆σ
i
∆σ y
1
( )
∆σ y
2
( )
∆σ y
3
( )
∆σ y
4
( )
∆σ y
5
( )
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
:
112
















































N
i
∆σ
i
∆σ
D
, ∆σ
L
,
( )
5 10
6

∆σ
D
γ
Mf
|
'
'
(
`
J
γ
Ff
∆σ
i

]
]
]
]
]
3
⋅ γ
Ff
∆σ
i

∆σ
D
γ
Mf
≥ if
5 10
6

∆σ
D
γ
Mf
|
'
'
(
`
J
γ
Ff
∆σ
i

]
]
]
]
]
5

∆σ
D
γ
Mf
γ
Ff
∆σ
i
⋅ >
∆σ
L
γ
Mf
≥ if
∞ γ
Ff
∆σ
i

∆σ
L
γ
Mf
< if
:
∆σ
i
78.996
53.019
73.375
73.375
76.535
|
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
MPa
N
1
N
i
∆σ
i
0 0 ,
∆σ
D
0 0 ,
, ∆σ
L
0 0 ,
,
|
(
`
J
: 1.67 10
6
×
N
2
N
i
∆σ
i
1 0 ,
∆σ
D
1 0 ,
, ∆σ
L
1 0 ,
,
|
(
`
J
: 2.8 10
6
×
N
3
N
i
∆σ
i
2 0 ,
∆σ
D
2 0 ,
, ∆σ
L
2 0 ,
,
|
(
`
J
: 1.057 10
6
×
N
4
N
i
∆σ
i
3 0 ,
∆σ
D
3 0 ,
, ∆σ
L
3 0 ,
,
|
(
`
J
: 2.941 10
6
×
N
5
N
i
∆σ
i
4 0 ,
∆σ
D
4 0 ,
, ∆σ
L
4 0 ,
,
|
(
`
J
: 9.31 10
5
×
let
N
150
N
1
N
2
N
3
N
4
N
5
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
: N
150
1.67 10
6
×
2.8 10
6
×
1.057 10
6
×
2.941 10
6
×
9.31 10
5
×
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

Since the crane travels the length of girders 20 times per day and the crane operates 200 days a
year. Therefore,
n
150
20 200 ⋅
20 200 ⋅
20 200 ⋅
20 200 ⋅
20 200 ⋅
|
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
: n
150
4 10
3
×
4 10
3
×
4 10
3
×
4 10
3
×
4 10
3
×
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

113












2.8.5 Assessment for the trolley returning empty

The weight of the empty trolley is 10 kN compared to 160 kN for the fully loaded trolley. The
bending stress ranges due to the passage of the empty trolley will be 1/16 of those for the full
trolley. These ranges are all less than 10 MPa. The cut-off limits for all categories for direct stress
ranges, ∆σ
L
, have a minimum value of 14 MPa for category EC 36. Adopting this value the applied
stress ranges due to empty return trolley are all less than ∆σ
L
/ γ
Mf
and can be ignored.

2.8.6 Assessment for the trolley returning carrying load of 70 kN

In this case, each detail experiences half the number of cycles of stress ranges at a level of (80/160),
i.e. half the full stress ranges calculated above. These cycles have to be assessed separately to find
their damage sum n/N per year.




















The damage per year for each welded detail can be calculated using
n
i
N
i
, i.e.
D
150
n
150
N
150
|
'
(
`
J
→ ÷÷÷
:
D
150
2.395 10
3 −
×
1.428 10
3 −
×
3.786 10
3 −
×
1.36 10
3 −
×
4.296 10
3 −
×
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

∆σ
i
∆σ
i
2
: ∆σ
i
39.498
26.51
36.687
36.687
38.267
|
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
MPa
N
1
N
i
∆σ
i
0 0 ,
∆σ
D
0 0 ,
, ∆σ
L
0 0 ,
,
|
(
`
J
: 2.574 10
7
×
N
2
N
i
∆σ
i
1 0 ,
∆σ
D
1 0 ,
, ∆σ
L
1 0 ,
,
|
(
`
J
: 6.089 10
7
×
N
3
N
i
∆σ
i
2 0 ,
∆σ
D
2 0 ,
, ∆σ
L
2 0 ,
,
|
(
`
J
: 1.199 10
7
×
N
4
N
i
∆σ
i
3 0 ,
∆σ
D
3 0 ,
, ∆σ
L
3 0 ,
,
|
(
`
J
: 6.609 10
7
×
N
5
N
i
∆σ
i
4 0 ,
∆σ
D
4 0 ,
, ∆σ
L
4 0 ,
,
|
(
`
J
: 9.715 10
6
×
114






























2.8.7 Assemblage of the calculated damage and determination of the fatigue
life

The contributions of the damage due to the different loading cases for the same detail are added. The
sum of the n/N contributions is used in Palmgren-Miner’s Rule, and for design purpose
Σ
n
N
1
The fatigue life in years is then the reciprocal of the sum Σn/N per year.








The damage per year for each welded detail can be calculated using
n
i
N
i
, i.e.
D
70
n
70
N
70
|
'
(
`
J
→ ÷÷÷
:
D
70
7.771 10
5 −
×
3.285 10
5 −
×
1.667 10
4 −
×
3.026 10
5 −
×
2.059 10
4 −
×
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

D
150
2.395 10
3 −
×
1.428 10
3 −
×
3.786 10
3 −
×
1.36 10
3 −
×
4.296 10
3 −
×
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
D
70
7.771 10
5 −
×
3.285 10
5 −
×
1.667 10
4 −
×
3.026 10
5 −
×
2.059 10
4 −
×
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

let
N
70
N
1
N
2
N
3
N
4
N
5
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
: N
70
2.574 10
7
×
6.089 10
7
×
1.199 10
7
×
6.609 10
7
×
9.715 10
6
×
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

Since the crane travels the length of girders 10 times per day and the crane operates 200 days a
year. Therefore,
n
70
10 200 ⋅
10 200 ⋅
10 200 ⋅
10 200 ⋅
10 200 ⋅
|
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
: n
70
2 10
3
×
2 10
3
×
2 10
3
×
2 10
3
×
2 10
3
×
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

115



















2.9 References

1. Barsom, J. M. and Rolfe, S. T. (1999). Fatigue and Fracture Control in Structures: Application
of Facture Mechanics. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), U.S.A.

2. Boresi, A. P., Schmidt, R. J. and Sidebottom, O. M. (1993). Advanced Mechanics of Materials,
Fifth Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc..

3. Doerk, O., Fricke, W. and Weissenborn, C. (2003). Comparison of different calculation method
for structural stresses at welded joints. International journal of fatigue, Vol. 25, pp.359-369.

4. Downing, S. D. and Socie, D. F. (1982). Simple Rainflow Counting Algorithms. International
Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 31-40.

5. ENV-1991-1-1 (1994). Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Actions on Structures, Part 1: Basis of
design.

6. ENV 1993-1-1 (1992). Eurocode 3:Design of Steel Structures: Part 1.1, General Rules and Rules
for Buildings.

7. European Steel Design Educational Program (ESDEP). Working Group 12, Fatigue.
Teräsrakenneyhdistys.

8. Fricke, W. (2003). Fatigue of Materials and Structures. Seminar organized by Laboratory for
Mechanics of Materials. http://www.tu-harburg.de/skf/fatiguecourse/.

The total damage can be calculated as:
D D
150
D
70
+ :
D
2.472 10
3 −
×
1.461 10
3 −
×
3.953 10
3 −
×
1.39 10
3 −
×
4.502 10
3 −
×
|
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

The fatigue life for each welded detail can be calculated as:
Fatigue_life
1
D
|
'
(
`
J
→ ÷÷
:
Fatigue_life
404.496
684.364
252.992
719.358
222.108
|
'
'
'
'
'
(
`
J
J
J
J

116
9. Hertzberg, R. W. (1996). Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials, John
Wiley and Sons, Inc..

10. Marquis, G. and Kähönen, A. (1995). Fatigue Testing and Analysis using the Hot Spot Method.
VTT publications, No. 239, Espoo, Finland.

11. Mechanics of Materials Laboratory, Course Notes (2003).
http://courses.washington.edu/me354a/notes.html

12. Radaj, D. (1990). Design and Analysis of Fatigue Resistant Welded Structures. Abington
Publishing, Woodhead Publishing Ltd. in Association with The Welding Institute, Cambridge
England.

13. Radaj, D. and Sonsino, C. M. (1998). Fatigue Assessment of Welded Joints by Local
Approaches. Abington Publishing, Woodhead Publishing Ltd. in Association with The Welding
Institute, Cambridge England.

14. Socie, F. and Marquis, G. B. (2000). Multiaxial Fatigue. Society of Automotive Engineers
(SAE), Inc., Warrendale, Pa..

15. Suresh, S. (1998). Fatigue of Materials, Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.

16. Von Wingerde, A.M., Packer, J.A. and Wardenier, J. (1995). Criteria for the Fatigue Assessment
of Hollow Structural Section Connections. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 35,
No.1, pp.71-115.

17. Zahavi, E. and Torbilo, V. (1996). Fatigue Design Life Expectancy of Machine Parts. CRC
Press, A Solomon Press Book.



HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY OF STEEL STRUCTURES PUBLICATIONS
TKK-TER-15 Hara, R., Kaitila, O., Kupari, K., Outinen, J., Perttola, H.
Seminar on Steel Structures: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structures, 2000.
TKK-TER-16 Lu, W.
Neural Network Model for Distortional Buckling Behaviour of Cold-Formed Steel Compression
Members ,2000.
TKK-TER-17 Kaitila, O., Kesti, J., Mäkeläinen, P.
Rosette-Joints and Steel Trusses, Research Report and Design Recommendations, 2001.
TKK-TER-18 Ma, Z.
Fire Safety Design of Composite Slim Floor Structures, 2000.
TKK-TER-19 Kesti, J.
Local and Distortional buckling of Perforated Steel Wall Studs, 2000.
TKK-TER-20 Malaska, M.
Behaviour of a Semi-Continuous Beam-Column Connection for Composite Slim Floors, 2000.
TKK-TER-21 Tenhunen, O., Lehtinen, T., Lintula, K., Lehtovaara, J., Vuolio, A., Uuttu, S., Alinikula, T., Kesti, J.,
Viljanen, M., Söderlund, J., Halonen, L., Mäkeläinen, P.
Metalli-lasirakenteet kaksoisjulkisivuissa, Esitutkimus, 2001.
TKK-TER-22 Vuolio, A.
Kaksoisjulkisivujärjestelmien rakennetekniikka, 2001.
TKK-TER-23 Outinen, J., Kaitila, O., Mäkeläinen, P.
High-Temperature Testing of Structural Steel and Modelling of Structures at High Temperatures,
2001.
TKK-TER-24 Kaitila, O.
Finite Element Modelling of Cold-Formed Steel Members at High Temperatures, 2002.
TKK-TER-25 Lu, W.
Optimum Design of Cold-Formed Steel Purlins using Genetic Algorithms, 2003
TKK-TER-26 Mäkeläinen, P., Tenhunen, O., Vuolio, A., Lintula, K., Viljanen, M., Bergman, J.,
Hänninen, J., Alinikula, T., Palmi, P.
Kaksoisjulkisivun suunnitteluohjeet, 2003
TKK-TER-27 Vuolio, A.
Structural Behaviour of Glass Structures in Facades, 2003
TKK-TER-28 Tenhunen, O.
Metalli-lasirakenteisen kaksoisjulkisivun materiaalien soveltamiskriteerit, 2003





ISBN 951-22-6732-2
ISSN 1456-4327

Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Steel Structures Publications 29
Teknillisen korkeakoulun teräsrakennetekniikan laboratorion julkaisuja 29 Espoo 2003 TKK-TER-29

ADVANCED STEEL STRUCTURES 1. Structural Fire Design 2. Fatigue Design

Wei Lu

Pentti Mäkeläinen

Helsinki University of Technology Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Laboratory of Steel Structures Teknillinen korkeakoulu Rakennus- ja ympäristötekniikan osasto Teräsrakennetekniikan laboratorio

Distribution: Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Steel Structures P.O. Box 2100 FIN-02015 HUT Tel. +358-9-451 3701 Fax. +358-9-451 3826 E-mail: srt-sihteerit@hut.fi
 Teknillinen korkeakoulu

ISBN 951-22-6732-2 ISSN 1456-4327 Yleisjäljennös - Painopörssi Espoo 2003

PREFACE
This report is prepared in the Laboratory of Steel Structures at Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) in 2003. This work is a part of the project “Teräsrakennetekniikan opetusmateriaalin ajanmukaistaminen” (Teaching material updating for advanced steel structures). This project is financially supported by TKK/Opintotoimikunta (joint student-faculty committee in HUT), which is gratefully acknowledged. This report was developed to use as a part of teaching materials either for graduate courses Rak83.122 Advanced Steel Structures or for postgraduate studies Rak-83.J. Two topics are included in this report: structural fire design and fatigue design. The structure of each topic is basically composed of three parts: theoretical backgrounds, design rules and worked examples. The design rules that are presented in this report are based on ENV 1991-1 (1994): Eurocode 1-Basis of design and actions on structures-Part 1: Basis of design; EN 1991-1-2 (2002): Eurocode 1: Actions on structures –Part 1-2: General actions-Actions on structures exposed to fire; ENV 1993-1-1 (1992): Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures-Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings; and ENV 1993-1-2 (1995): Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures-Part 1.1: General rules-structural fire design. The materials used in the part of structural fire design are based on the books and papers that are collected, and researches that have been carried out in the Laboratory of Steel Structures. The materials used in the part of fatigue design are based on materials available in the Laboratory of Steel Structures and the materials distributed in the short course Fatigue of Materials and Structures organized by Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials at HUT. I would like to express my thanks to these authors and organizers. The authors wish to express gratitude for Lic.Sc. (Tech.) Olli Kaitila, Lic.Sc. (Tech.) Jyri Outinen, Mr. Olavi Tenhunen and D.Sc. (Tech.) Zhongcheng Ma for providing extra materials, nice discussions and useful comments. Many thanks go to secretary Mrs. Elsa Nissinen for her kind assistance.

Wei Lu, D.Sc. (Tech.) Espoo, August 2003

CONTENTS
PREFACE ........................................................................................................................................... 3 CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................................ 4 1 STRUCTURAL FIRE DESIGN................................................................................................ 6 1.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 6 1.1.1 Development of fire in buildings .................................................................................. 6 1.1.2 Fire safety..................................................................................................................... 7 1.1.3 Fire protection.............................................................................................................. 7 1.1.4 Structural fire safety design methods ........................................................................... 8 1.2 DESIGN CURVES AND FIRE MODELS ...................................................................................... 9 1.2.1 Nominal temperature-time curves ................................................................................ 9 1.2.2 Natural fire models: compartment fires or parametric fires...................................... 10 1.2.3 Natural fire models: localized fire models ................................................................. 15 1.2.4 Natural fire models: advanced fire models ................................................................ 15 1.3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE........................................ 16 1.3.1 Mechanical properties of materials ........................................................................... 16 1.3.2 Thermal properties ..................................................................................................... 23 1.4 PASSIVE PROTECTION FOR STEELWORK .............................................................................. 26 1.4.1 Fire protection systems .............................................................................................. 26 1.4.2 Thermal properties of fire protection systems............................................................ 28 1.5 HEAT TRANSFER IN STEEL................................................................................................... 29 1.5.1 Type of heat transfer................................................................................................... 29 1.5.2 Heat transfer equation for steel.................................................................................. 30 1.6 MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT .......................................................... 37 1.6.1 Required fire resistance time...................................................................................... 37 1.6.2 Mechanical actions..................................................................................................... 41 1.6.3 Design value of material temperature........................................................................ 42 1.6.4 Design value of fire resistance time ........................................................................... 43 1.6.5 Critical temperature ................................................................................................... 44 1.6.6 Load bearing capacity................................................................................................ 45 1.7 DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS EXPOSED TO FIRE .................................................................. 47 1.7.1 Design methods .......................................................................................................... 47 1.7.2 Classification of cross-sections .................................................................................. 47 1.7.3 Tension members........................................................................................................ 47 1.7.4 Moment resistance of beams ...................................................................................... 48 1.7.5 Lateral-torsional buckling.......................................................................................... 49

1.7.6 Compression members with Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3 cross-section ..................... 49 1.8 USE OF ADVANCED CALCULATION MODELS ....................................................................... 50 1.9 GLOBAL FIRE SAFETY DESIGN ............................................................................................ 51 1.10 DESIGN EXAMPLE ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 3.................................................................. 52 1.10.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 52 1.10.2 Design loads and load distribution in the frame ........................................................ 54 1.10.3 Fire resistance and protection of a tension member BE ............................................ 54 1.10.4 Fire resistance and protection of steel beam AB........................................................ 58 1.11 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 62 2 FATIGUE DESIGN.................................................................................................................. 64 2.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 64 2.1.1 Different approaches for fatigue analysis .................................................................. 64 2.1.2 A short history to fatigue ............................................................................................ 65 2.2 FATIGUE LOADING .............................................................................................................. 66 2.3 STRESS METHODS ................................................................................................................ 67 2.3.1 Standard fatigue tests ................................................................................................. 68 2.3.2 S-N curves................................................................................................................... 69 2.3.3 One dimensional analysis for fatigue assessment ...................................................... 76 2.4 STRAIN METHODS ............................................................................................................... 77 2.4.1 Cyclic material law..................................................................................................... 77 2.4.2 Fatigue life.................................................................................................................. 79 2.5 CRACK PROPAGATION METHODS ........................................................................................ 82 2.5.1 Characteristic of fatigue surfaces............................................................................... 82 2.5.2 Fatigue mechanism..................................................................................................... 83 2.5.3 Linear elastic fracture mechanics .............................................................................. 84 2.5.4 Crack propagation under fatigue load ....................................................................... 86 2.5.5 Short crack behavior .................................................................................................. 88 2.6 FATIGUE ANALYSIS UNDER VARIABLE LOADS.................................................................... 88 2.6.1 Fatigue testing under variable loading ...................................................................... 88 2.6.2 Palmgren-Miner rule.................................................................................................. 89 2.6.3 Cycle counting ............................................................................................................ 90 2.6.4 Crack propagation under variable loading................................................................ 92 2.7 FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF WELDED COMPONENTS................................................................... 93 2.7.1 Factors affecting the fatigue life................................................................................. 94 2.7.2 S-N methods for evaluating fatigue life ...................................................................... 96 2.7.3 Crack propagation method....................................................................................... 106 2.8 CALCULATION EXAMPLES ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 3................................................... 107 2.8.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 107 2.8.2 Given values ............................................................................................................. 108 2.8.3 Stress calculations .................................................................................................... 108 2.8.4 Assessment for the trolley carrying the full load of 150 kN ..................................... 111 2.8.5 Assessment for the trolley returning empty .............................................................. 113 2.8.6 Assessment for the trolley returning carrying load of 70 kN ................................... 113 2.8.7 Assemblage of the calculated damage and determination of the fatigue life ........... 114 2.9 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 115

it has not significant influence on the structures. which gives rise to the most structural damage and much of the fire spread in buildings.1. Figure 1. the room temperature is low and the fire is local in the compartment. It is worth to point out that this period is also important to the structural fire engineering because for the insulated steel structures and unprotected . This period is important for evacuation and fire fighting. the highest rate of heating and the largest flame occur during this phase. After flashover. in which the temperature of the compartment increase rapidly and the overall compartment is engulfed in fire. the fully developed or post-flashover fire and the decay period [2]. Figure 1.1 Introduction 1. The most rapid temperature rise occurs in the period following flashover. Anyone who has not escaped from a compartment before flashover is unlikely to survive. the temperature decreases gradually. The highest temperature.1 STRUCTURAL FIRE DESIGN 1. a point at which all organic materials in a compartment spontaneously combust.1 Development of fire in buildings A real fire in a building grows and decays in accordance with the mass and energy balance within the compartment in which it occurs. the fire enters into the fully developed phase. which is formally identified as a stage after the temperature falling to 80 percent of its peak value. Usually.1 illustrates that the fire in a building can be divided into three phases: the growth or pre-flashover period. In the decaying period. The energy released depends upon the quantity and type of fuel available and upon the ventilation conditions.1 Typical temperature development in a compartment [2] In the pre-flashover phase.

and control of combustible materials of construction [1]. technical and organizational fire precaution measures. the additional objective can also be implemented if the client or authorities require a particular building or a project. building fires. which allow well defined objectives agreed by the owner. Current fire safety concepts are defined as optimal packages of integrated structural. to be fulfilled [8]. The central objective of fire safety in the current Fire Codes is to confine the fire within the compartment in which it started. in which the contents can be changed with the development of fire science.3 Fire protection Structural fire protection is only one part of the package of fire safety measure used in a building. There are two broad groups of measures [1]: o Fire prevention. designed to reduce the chance of a fire occurring. Active measures [1] include detection and alarm. Fire protection measures may be passive or active. The essential requirements for the limitation of fire risks have to be fulfilled in the following ways: o o o o The load-bearing capacity of the construction can be assumed for a specific period of time. These consist of a collection of requirements. Besides. the combination of automatic sprinklers and a designed smoke-control system has been used to protect people escaping from fire in large buildings. designed to mitigate the effects of a fire should it nevertheless occur. The occupants can leave the works or can be rescued by other means The safety of rescue teams is taken into consideration. the internal temperature of cross-section will still increase significantly even though in the decaying periods [12]. .1. or in the neighborhood of. only or mostly related to the structural fire resistance of load-bearing elements and to walls and slabs necessary to guarantee the compartmentation. all of which may be operated manually or automatically.7 steel structures of low section factor. fire brigade access routes. It should be noticed that the objectives of fire safety are a historical concept. Fire prevention includes eliminating or protecting possible ignition sources in order to prevent a fire occurring.1. The generation and spread of fire and smoke within the works are limited. For instance.2 Fire safety Fire safety design is an important aspect of building design. which are used according to the phase of fire development as shown in Figure 1. o Fire protection. Passive measures include structural fire protection. fire extinction. 1. A properly designed building system greatly reduces the loss of the life and the property of finical losses in. 1.2 [5]. Normally for pre-flashover fires. the fire authority and the designer. Early detection and extinction lead to early fire fighting and decease the risk of a large fire. layout of escape routes. and smoke control.

8 passive protection includes selection of suitable materials for building contents and interior linings that do not support rapid flame spread in the growth period. The controls of fire spread include controlling fire spread within the room of origin. The structural model defines elements or parts of the structures. For instance. thus allowing the prediction of the temperature increase in the structure or in elements ensuring compartmentation.e. which have sufficient fire resistance to prevent both spread of fire and structural collapse.1. the fire safety design concept should allow for a certain between the various measures i. to adjacent room. In post-flashover fires. o Methods related to global fire safety.2 Fire evolution and fire protection [5] Often a combination of the above measures is applied. emphasis on one or two of the possible measures should lead to relaxation of the remaining one(s). 1. Figure 1. The heat model defines the evolution of air temperature. The Eurocodes are for the time being strictly limited to this category. to other storeys and to other buildings. the design methods may be classified into two classes. Ideally.4 Structural fire safety design methods Currently. To . the convective and radiative boundary conditions and the spreading of fire in a fire affected room if possible. passive protection is provided by structures and assemblies. [12] o Methods related to fire resistance only. The method related to fire resistance is governed by two basic models: a heat model and a structural model.e. The most important component of passive fire protection is fire resistance of the structure. i. a sprinkler installation would lead to reduce overall requirements for the fire resistance. of the collapse temperature or the collapse time for a given load. Such a trade off is not generally accepted at present but needs to be pursued with the appropriate authorities [5]. The first category of methods concerns the verification methods of fire resistance.

or given by an analytical formula for localized fire. Fire resistance times specified in most national building regulations relate to test performance when heated according to an internationally agreed time-temperature curve defined in ISO834 (or Eurocode 1 Part 2-2). which is used in furnace testing of components. The purpose of developing the global fire safety concept is to establish the basis for realistic and credible assumptions to be used in fire situation for thermal actions. To select the relevant fire model. the ignition stage is generally neglected. o For element located outside the facade of the building.9 date. it is assumed a fully developed fire. although this stage is generally the most critical for human life since it is during this stage that toxic gases are produced and the temperature can reach 100 °C and more. even when later on all consumable materials have been destroyed. A design fire shall be expressed as a relationship between temperature.2 Design Curves and Fire Models When dealing with fire resistance. at least two assumptions can be made. o A ‘real fire’ either specified in terms of parametric fire exposure. The second category is based on the fire risk assessment technology. using the maximum fire load which can be in the compartment. which is being developed for particular buildings. 1.2. important structures or individual projects. The ability of fire resistance of building elements can be evaluated under the same heating curve [18]. either a uniformly distributed fire load leading to a fully developed fire in the compartment or localized fires depending on the possible location of the fire load. flames coming through windows and doors will be considered.1 Nominal temperature-time curves The nominal temperature-time curves are a set of curves. time and space location. This has become the standard design curve. in which no physical parameters are taken into account. active measures and structural response. which may be [5]: o A nominal temperature-time curve uniform in the space. The main purpose of the prescription of the nominal curves was to make the fire resistance tests reproducible. Safety level in buildings referring to fully developed mainly. It is a selection of the possible worst cases as far as the location and the amount of fire load are concerned [5]. For instance: o In a small room. or obtained by computer modeling. the use of a conventional fire scenario based on the ISO standard fire curve is common practice in Europe and elsewhere. This standard temperature-time curve involves an ever-increasing air temperature inside the considered compartment. the fire scenarios need to be defined. o In a large room. which does not represent any type of natural building fire. 1. The quoted value of fire .

2 ) for hydrocarbon curve θg = 1080(1-0.167t-0. 1200 1000 Hydrocarbon Fire Standard Fire Temperature ( C ) 800 600 400 200 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 Time (min) External Fire Figure 1. Where the structure for which the fire resistance is being considered is external.5t)+20 ( 1.325e-0. the following definitions are clarified [2]: o Heat of combustion or the calorific value of material is defined as the amount of heat in calories evolved by the combustion of one-gram weight of a substance [MJ/kg]. In cases where storage of hydrocarbon materials makes fires extremely severe a “Hydrocarbon Fire” curve is also given.32t-0.8t)+20 ( 1. The formula for describing these curves are given as follows [3]: for standard temperature-time curve θg = 20+345log10(8t+1) ( 1.3 Nominal temperature-time curves 1.10 resistance time does not therefore indicate the actual time for which a component will survive in a building fire.2.3.2 Natural fire models: compartment fires or parametric fires Before get into the details of this model.675e-2.1 ) for external fire curve θg = 660(1-0.3 ) These three nominal temperature-time curves according to these formulas are shown in Figure 1.313e-3. . and the atmosphere temperatures are therefore likely to be lower at any given time (which means that the temperatures of the building materials will be closer to the corresponding fire temperatures). a similar “External Fire” curve may be used. but is a like-against-like comparison indicating the severity of a fire that the component will survive [17].687e-0.

they consist of time temperature relationships. the fire load present in the compartment. b.i Hui Ψl A is the combustible materials [kg] is the net calorific value [MJ/kg]. For instance by putting it into a cabinet. is the total amount of energy contained in material and released assuming complete combustion. is the floor area. Background Parametric fire models provide a simple means to take into account the most important physical phenomenon that may influence the development of a fire in a particular building. and the type and nature of the different walls of the compartment. the openings in the walls and/or in the roofs. namely. These models assume that the temperature is uniform in the compartment. but these relationships contain some parameters represent particular aspects of the reality. It is the source of the gas temperature rise and the driving force behind the spreading of gas and smoke.iHuiΨl]/A ( 1. which limits the application to post-flashover fires in compartment of moderated dimensions. These models require the following data: fire load density. three parameters are included in these models. rate of heat release and heat losses. Like nominal fires.4 ) where Mk. o Burning rate is the amount of fuel that is burned within the compartment in terms of airflow per unit time [kg/s]. and building contents such as furniture. The characteristic value of fire load density is provided by: qf. o Heat release rate is defined as the rate at which the heat is released [J/s] and can be measured experimentally or obtained by calculation. Rate of heat release ( RHR ) The calculation of RHR is different from ventilation controlled fire to fuel controlled fire. Fire load density Fire load density is defined as the total amount of combustion energy per unit of floor area and is the source of the fire development.k = [ΣMk. Normally. This is distinct from the mass loss rate and is dependent on the available oxygen.i Hui Mk.11 o Mass loss rate is defined as the mass of fuel that is vaporized from the solid or liquid fuel per unit time [kg/s]. The fire load is composed of the building components such as wall and ceiling linings. While for . a. is the optional factor to accessing protected fire load. The fuel controlled fire refers to the case that there is always enough oxygen to sustain combustion.

6 ) The duration of fire can be calculated as: tb = E/Qvent ( 1. In the current Eurocode[3]. this equation is formed the basis of most post-flashover fire calculation. c. For the fuel controlled fire. Researches show that if the ventilation openings were enlarged.8 ) where Heq is weighted average window heights on all walls (m) and At is total area of enclosures (walls. i. the RHR is estimated from the information about the fuel and the temperatures in the fire compartment.5) given by O = Av√Heq/At ( 1. The corresponding ventilation controlled heat released rate (MW) for steady burning is calculated as [1]: Qvent = m Hui ( 1. b = √ ρ cλ ( 1. b. a condition would be reached beyond which the burning rate would be independent on the size of the opening and would be determined instead by the surface and burning characteristics of the fuel. The RHR can be calculated as Qfuel = E / tlim ( 1.9 ) When the duration is not known. then the product is related to the velocity of gas flow through openings. 20 min for medium growth rate and 15 min for fast growth rate. of the wall material. the burning rate m [kg/s] can be calculated as [2] m = 0.7 ) where E is the energy content of fuel available for combustion (MJ). c is the heat capacity (J/kgK) and ρ is mass density (kg/m3). This equation is derived from the experiments for a room with a single opening. If this formula is multiplied by gravity g. The most popular way to model the heat losses to the compartment boundaries is through the concept of the ‘thermal inertia”. the RHR is implicitly calculated using Av√Heq. . When fire is ventilation controlled. ceiling and floor.092 Av√Hv 2 ( 1. the amount of ventilation in a fire compartment is described by the opening factor O (m0. In addition.12 the ventilation controlled fire. Despite the findings showing that the burning rate depends on the shape of the room and the width of the window proportion to the wall in which it is located. the duration of the fire can be assumed as 25 min for slow fire growth rate.e.10 ) where λ is heat conductivity (W/mK). the size of openings in the compartment enclosure is factor to control the amount of the air to enter the compartment.5 ) Where Av is the area of the openings (m ) and Hv is the height of the openings (m). Heat losses occur to the compartment boundaries by convection and radiation and by the ventilation flow [3]. according to Kawagoe (1958). m2). Heat losses Heat losses suffered by the combustion gases are important factors to the temperature development of a compartment fire.

5 Θg = Θmax –250(3-t*max) (t*-t*max·x) ( 1.d/O).21 ) * for 0.d < 75 and b < 1160.11 ) where t* is fictitious time (hours) given by t* = t·Γ ( 1.04)/0.2·10-3·qt.04/1160)2 ( 1.12 ) where t is the time (hours) and Γ = (O/b)2/(0.04]·[(qt.16 ) with Γlim = (Olim/b)2/(0.d-75)/75]·[(1160-b)/1160] ( 1.13 ) In the case of compartment with O = 0.04 and qt.7t*-0.22 ) -3 for t > 2. The temperature curves in the cooling period are given by Θg = Θmax –625 (t*-t*max·x) ( 1.5 2 0. or x = tlim·Γ / = tlim .0 if tmax > tlim .20 ) for t ≤ 0.1·10-3·qt. ventilation openings and wall lining materials. The maximum temperature occurred at t* = t*max where t*max = tmax·Γ ( 1. If tmax is given by (0. t* is the temperature formula is replaced by t* = t·Γlim ( 1.19 ) This is due to the fact that the influence of the openings is still present when the fire is fuel controlled.2·10 ·qt.13 Parametric temperature-time curves Current Eurocode[3] gives an equation for parametric temperature-time curves for any combination of fuel load.15 ) The time tmax corresponding to the maximum temperature is given by tlim in case the fire is fuel controlled. tmax = (0.324e-0.2·10-3·qt.d/O)·Γ and x = 1.204e-1.14 ) with tmax = max [(0. decreasing to 250 ºC for fires with duration greater than two hours. where t = t·Γ. the parameter curve is almost exactly the ISO curve. The equation of temperature Θg (ºC) for heating phase is provided by Θg = 1325(1-0. the fire is ventilation controlled.d/O).472e-19t*)+20 ( 1.d/tlim ( 1.17 ) where Olim = 0.04 m and b = 1160 J/m s K.5 < t* ≤ 2 Θg = Θmax –250 (t*-t*max·x) ( 1.2t*-0. * * t*max if tmax .04/1160)2 0. When tmax = tlim.18 ) If O > 0. Γlim has to be multiplied by k given by k = 1+ [(O-0. tlim] ( 1. [3] uses a reference decay rate equal to 625 ºC per hour for fires with duration less than half an hour.5 ( 1.

4 Parametric temperature-time curves considering the effects of openings Figure 1.14 Examples The effects of the fire load density and the ventilation of the fire compartment on the gas temperature are shown in Figure 1.4 and Figure 1. These calculations are based on the formula given above with the parameters given in the figures.5 Parametric temperature-time curves considering the effects of fire loads . Figure 1.5. which are based on the seminar materials [16]. These curves are suitable for using as alternatives of nominal curve of internal members of a compartment.

The thermal actions of a localized fire can be assessed using the analytical formula that takes into account the relative height of the flame to the ceilings.15 1.2. the heat and mass balance is solved. These formulas are given in [3] and [5]. Particularly. The multi zone models are used when the fire is localized. there could be a localized fire which has much less impact on the building structure than a fully developed fire. radiative flux and optical density. and estimate the life safety in function of toxic gas concentration temperature. in order to know the smoke propagation in buildings. e. 1. A two-zone model is shown in Figure 1. The fire compartment is divided into a hot zone. irradiative heat exchange between zones and mass flow through openings to adjoining compartments. However. or in a fire partially controlled by sprinklers. above a fresh air zone and a fire plume that feeds the hot zone just above the fire.3 Natural fire models: localized fire models The models mentioned above have assumed a fully developed fire occurs and the same temperature conditions throughout the fire compartment. Figure 1. possibly in a large space where there are no nearly combustibles. with a uniform temperature. in some circumstances.g. For each of the zones. the (growth of the) fire size should be taken as an input besides the parameters mentioned in the one zone model [18]. in the growth phase of a fire. The application of this model is mainly in pre-flashover conditions.2.6 Zone model [10] .4 Natural fire models: advanced fire models Two kinds of numerical models are available to model the real fires: multi zone models and field models. (Semi) empirical relations govern plume entrainment.6.

the 2% proof strength is used as the effective yield strength. material properties and boundary conditions may be defined as the function of temperatures. In Eurocode 3 [7]. but this disappears at elevated temperatures as shown in Figure 1.7. which are both varied with time. and Ranby suggested the use of the 0. solving the equations of conservation of mass. thermal strain and creep strain [1]. they experience temperature gradients and stress gradients.1 Mechanical properties of materials When structural components are exposed to fire.7 shows the stress-strain curves at various temperatures for S275 steel in Eurocode 3.16 Field models are also called Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. The fire simulation problem represents one of the most difficult areas in computational fluid dynamics: the numerical solution of re-circulating. Mechanical properties of materials for fire design purpose must be consistent with the anticipated fire exposure. the use of 0. momentum and energy for discrete points in the enclosed compartment.3. Most normal construction steel has well-defined yield strength at normal temperatures. The change can be seen at temperatures as low as 300°C. 1.1 Components of strains The deformation of steel at elevated temperature is described by assuming that the change in strain consists of three components: mechanical or stress-related strain. The complexity and the CPU time needed with field models allow few applications of such model in respect to fire resistance particularly for fully developed fire. The energy contained in large vortices cascades down to smaller and smaller vortices until it diffuses into heat. three dimensional turbulent.2% proof stress for the effective yield strength at elevated temperature.3.1. Eddies exist down to the size where the viscous forces dominate over inertial forces and energy is dissipated into heat. 1. At 800°C this has reduced to 11% and at 900°C to 6% [17].5% proof stress is suggested for members failing by buckling in . only 23% of the ambient-temperature strength remains at 700°C. Stress-related strain Figure 1. generating eddies or vortices of many sizes. In this model.3 Material Properties of Steel At Elevated Temperature 1. In fire domain the use of field model is often reduced to the application of smoke movement. Although melting does not happen until about 1500°C. These models are based on two or three dimensional heat and mass transport. A value of yield strength is required at elevated temperature. Field models will provide accurate information about temperatures from the pieces of the fire room [18]. It can be seen that the steel suffers a progressive loss of strength and stiffness at temperature increases. In the Steel Construction Institute (SCI) recommendation. Kaitila [9] summarizes the possible values for yield strength at elevated temperature from the literatures: Ala-Outinen and Myllymäki. However.

especially where members are restrained by other parts of structure since thermal strains can induce large internal forces [1]. .5% proof stress fro members failing in bending (mainly beams). If the reduction of strength with temperature is known. Thermal strain Thermal strain is the thermal expansion (∆L/L) that occurs when most materials are heated. Figure 1. the stress-related strain is the only component that needs to be considered. The stress-related strains in fire-exposed structures may be well above yield levels.7 Reduction of stress-strain properties with temperature for S275 steel (EC3 curves) [17] The modulus of elasticity is needed for buckling calculations and for elastic deflection calculation. Computer modeling of fire-exposed structures requires knowledge of stress-strain relationships not only in loading. member strength at elevated temperature can easily be calculated using simple formulae. but these are rarely attempted under fire conditions because elevated temperatures lead rapidly to plastic deformations. Thermal strains is not important for fire design of simply supported members. but must be considered for frames and complex structural systems.17 compression (mainly columns) and the 1. and Kirby and Preston recommend using 1% proof stress as the effective yield strength. especially in buildings with redundancy or restraint to thermal expansion. but also in unloading. resulting in extensive plastification. with expansion being related to the increase in temperature. as members deform and as structural members cool in real fires [1]. For the fire design of individual structural members such as simply supported beams that are free to expand during heating.

6) An alternative is that the applied load is varied throughout the test in order to maintain a constant level of strain as temperature is increased at a constant rate. The most common of these are regimes (1) and (5). from which the stress can be derived. 3) A creep test is one in which the load is kept constant and deformation over time is measured. i.18 Creep strain Creep is the term that describes long-term deformation of materials under constant load.2 Testing regimes Constant temperature tests of material can be carried out in the following four regimes [1]: 1) The most common test procedure to determine stress-strain relationship is to impose a constant rate of increase of strain and to measure the load.e. This research has been carried out in the Laboratory of Steel Structures at Helsinki University of Technology from the years 1994-2001 in order to investigate mechanical properties of several structural steels at elevated temperatures by using mainly the transient state tensile test method.1. . Creep strain is not usually included explicitly in fire engineering calculations because of the added complexity. 1. The stress-strain relationships at elevated temperature can be obtained directly from steady-state tests at certain elevated temperatures (Regime 1) or they can be derived from the results of transient tests. and the deformations are measured. it becomes very significant at temperatures over 400 or 500°C and highly depends on the stress level. Two other possible test regimes are available when the effects of changing temperature are added. then the temperature is increased at a constant rate while the load is maintained at a constant level. The regime (1) tests depend on the rate of loading because of the influence of the creep. The effects of creep are usually allowed for implicitly by using stress-strain relationships that include an allowance for the amount of creep that might be expected in a fire-exposed member [1]. The region (5) tests depend on the rate of temperature increase. leading to plastic behavior. 2) A similar regime is to control the rate of increase of load and measure the deformation. Creep is relatively insignificant in structural steel at normal temperatures. This applies to both hand and computer methods. the small-scale tensile tests of steel at high temperature [15]. 5) A transient creep test is that the specimen is subjected to initial load. This procedure can be demonstrated from the following example. However. At higher temperatures. 4) A relaxation test is one in which a constant initial deformation is imposed and the reduction in load over time is measured.3. creep is only a problem for members with very high permanent loads. Under most conditions. the creep deformations in steel can accelerate rapidly.

the specimen is under a level of constant load and a constant rise of temperature. Figure 1. The results are then converted into stress-strain relations using the scheme shown in Figure 1. in which test specimen is situated during the tests. Figure 1. the test specimen was heated up to a specific temperature. The steel temperature was measured accurately from the test specimen using temperature-detecting element that was fastened to the specimen during the heating.8. The temperature and the strain are measured. and then a normal tensile test was carried out.8 High temperature tensile testing device [15] During the transient test. The oven.9. is subtracted from the total strain. The air temperature is measured with three separate temperature-detecting elements. which has been measured separately [14].19 The testing device is illustrated in Figure 1. was heated using three separate temperature controlled resistor elements. the temperature and strain curve are recorded.9 Converting the stress-strain curves from the transient state test results [15] In the steady-state tests. The mechanical properties can be determined directly from the . Thermal elongation.

Strain range ε ≤ εp.θ)⋅(εy.(ε .fp. The mechanical properties of steel at 20 °C is taken as those given in Eurocode 3.5} 0 fy.(εy. S355) and EN 10113 (S420.5 fp.θ + c2 c = (fy.θ) Ea.θ ≤ ε ≤ εt.θ < ε < εy. S275. εt.2(fy.θ = 0.εp. εu.10 Comparison of the steady state and transient state test results of structural steel S350GD+Z at temperature 800°C [15] 1.θ) b2 = c(εy.εp.fp.θ εt.θ < ε < εu.1 for normal design.θ .θ .3. moment or shear.θ / Ea.θ .θ .ε) / {a[a2 .θ .θ + c / Ea.θ) / (εu.ε) ] b(εy.θ = 0.θ εy.10.θ .θ εp.θ .εt.15 .20 recorded stress-strain curve. S460).θ)2 / [(εy.3 Mechanical properties provided in Eurocode 3 The steel grades in Eurocode 3 [7] are based on EN 10025 (S235. The stress-strain relationship at elevated temperature is given in Figure 1.θ[1 . εy.(εy.11 and can be used to determine the resistance to tension.ε)2] 0.θ) Ea.θ = fp. This is suitable for the heating rate from 2 to 50 K/min. The comparisons of Comparison of the steady state and transient state test results of structural steel S350GD+Z at temperature 800°C are shown in Figure 1. compression.εt.θ .εp.1.εp.00 εp.θ)] .θ Parameters Functions Stress Tangent modulus ε⋅Ea.20 a2 = (εy.θ fy.θ)] 0. Figure 1.θ .θ . Part 1.θ 2 2 0.θ Ea.θ .θ ε = εu. It can be seen that the results using these two testing methods are different.θ .θ .02.c + (b / a)[a .θ = 0.

the proportional limit.θ εp.θ εy.2 1 Reduction factor 0.4 0.θ fp.12 Reduction factors for stress-strain relationship of steel at elevated temperature [17] .θ Ea. relative to the appropriate value at 20 °C. are given in Table 1.θ Figure 1.6 0. 1.12 [17].θ εt.θ εu.2 0 0 200 400 600 Effective yield strength Slope of linear elastic range Proportional limit 800 1000 1200 Temperature (C) Figure 1. the slope of the linear elastic range. the limiting strain for yield strength the ultimate strain Stress-strain relationship for steel at elevated temperature (Eurocode 3) [7] The variations of the reduction factor for effective yield strength.8 0. the strain at proportional limit the yield strain. The reduction factors.11 is is is is is is is the effective yield strength. for proportional limit and for the slope of the linear elastic range are shown in Figure 1.21 fy.1.

180 0.807 0.0675 1000 0. For steel grade S355.0225 1200 0.000 1. Part 1.700 500 0.470 0.130 800 0.613 0.θ = fy. for temperature below 400 °C.22 Table 1.θ / Ea θ θ θ θ θ θ 20 1.1 Steel temperature θa Reduction factors for stress-strain relationship of steel at elevated temperatures [7] Reduction factors at temperature relative to the value at 20 °C Effective yield strength Proportional limit Slope of the linear elastic range ky. However.900 300 1.0125 0.0450 1100 0. In Figure 1.600 600 0.000 0.θ / fy kE.000 1.0250 0.13 Stress-strain relationship for S355 at elevated temperature .θ = fp.000 0.θ / fy kp.800 400 1.000 1.13 illustrates the stress-strain relationship for steel grade S 355 at elevated temperature using the values given above.000 200 1.780 0. linear interpolation may be used As an example.θ = Ea.000 1.0000 0.050 0. the alternative strain hardening option can be used according to Annex B in Eurocode 3.110 0.075 0.230 0. no strain hardening is included.360 0. Figure 1.420 0.060 0.2 [7].040 0.0375 0.310 700 0.000 100 1.000 0.020 0.13. the yield strength is 355 MPa and the elastic modulus is 210 000 MPa.0000 Note: For intermediate values of the steel temperature.000 0.090 900 0. Figure 1.

Density. ρ. is the mass of the material per unit volume in kg/m3. . so that these materials ignite more readily. % of normal value 100 Effective yield strength (at 2% strain) Rft 80 SS 60 SS 40 Rft Elastic modulus 20 0 300 600 Temperature (°C) 900 1200 Figure 1.e. surface temperature increase rapidly. given the insulation provided by the concrete if normal cover specifications are maintained. It is unlikely that reinforcing bars or mesh will reach very high temperatures in a fire. λ. deteriorates more rapidly at elevated temperatures than do the standard grades.14 EC3 Strength reduction for structural steel (SS) and cold-worked reinforcement (Rft) at high temperatures [17] 1. Thermal conductivity. Specific heat. In the following sections. but coldworked reinforcing steel. represents the rate of heat transferred through a unit thickness material per unit temperature difference with unit of W/mK.3.2 Thermal properties Such material properties as density. When materials with low thermal inertia are exposed to heating. The very low ductility of S500 steel (it is only guaranteed at 5%) may be of more significance.23 Hot-rolled reinforcing bars are treated in Eurocode 4 in similar fashion to structural steels. whose standard grade is S500. Two other derived properties which are often needed. i.14. the thermal diffusivity given by λ/ρc with unit of m2/s and thermal inertia given by α=λρc with unit of W2s/m4K2. cp. the values of some thermal properties provided in Eurocode 3 [7] are described. specific heat and thermal conductivity are needed for heat transfer calculation in solid materials. in which high strains of mesh in slabs are caused by the progressive weakening of supporting steel sections [17]. Its strength reduction factors for effective yield and elastic modulus are shown in Figure 1. is the amount of heat required to heat a unit mass of material by one degree with unit of J/kgK.

The apparent sharp rise to an "infinite" value at about 735°C is actually an indication of the latent heat input needed to allow the crystal-structure phase change to take place.2.22·10-6·θa3 ca = 666 + 13002 / (738 .3 (20°C ≤ θa < 800°C) (800°C ≤ θa ≤ 1200°C) The variation of thermal conductivity with temperature is shown in Figure 1.15 Variation of the specific heat of steel with temperature [17] 1.15.s731) ca = 650 (20°C ≤ θa < 600°C) (600°C ≤ θa < 735°C) (735°C ≤ θa < 900°C) (900°C ≤ θa ≤ 1200°C) The variation of specific heat with temperature is illustrated in Figure 1.24 1. Specific Heat (J/kg°K) 5000 4000 3000 2000 ca=600 J/kg°K (EC3 simple calculation models) 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature (°C) Figure 1. When simple calculation models are being used a single value of 600J/kgK is allowed. . which is quite accurate for most of the temperature range but does not allow for the endothermic nature of the phase change. the specific heat of steel (J/kgK) may be determined as follows: ca = 425 + 7.3.1.16.2. For simple design calculations the constant conservative value of 45W/m°C is allowed.73·10-1θa . Part 1.2 Thermal conductivity The thermal conductivity of steel may be defined as follows [7] λa = 54-3.69·10-3·θa2 .3.2 [7].1 Specific heat In Eurocode 3. The value of specific heat undergoes a very dramatic change in the range 700-800°C.θa) ca = 545 + 17820 / (θa .2.33·10-2·θa λa = 27.

The variation of thermal elongation with temperature is illustrated in Figure 1.2×10-5θa+0.3. When the exposed steel sections reach a certain temperature range within which a crystal-structure change takes place and the thermal expansion temporarily stops. the thermal elongation is defined as the function of temperature and may be determined as follows: ∆l /l = 1.4×10-8θa2-2.2. In simple calculation models.416×10-4 ∆l /l = 1.1×10-2 ∆l /l = 2×10-5θa-6.25 Thermal conductivity (W/m°K) 60 50 40 30 20 10 λa=45 W/m°K (EC3 simple calculation models) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature (°C) Figure 1. l is the length at 20°C. Part 1. In this case the elongation may be determined from ∆l /l = 14×10-6(θa-20) ( 1.16 Eurocode 3 representations of the variation of thermal conductivity of steel with temperature [17] 1.2×10-3 (20°C ≤ θa < 750°C) (750°C ≤ θa ≤ 860°C) (860°C < θa ≤ 1200°C) where.2 [7]. and θa is the steel temperature. In Eurocode 3.17. the relationship between thermal elongation and steel temperature may be considered to be constant. but for steel members which support a concrete slab on the upper flange the differential thermal expansion caused by shielding of the top flange and the heat-sink function of the concrete slab causes a “thermal bowing” towards the fire in the lower range of temperatures. ∆l is the temperature induced expansion.23 ) .3 Thermal elongation In most simple fire engineering calculations thermal expansion of materials is neglected.

4. which provide a decorative finish under normal conditions.1 Fire protection systems The traditional approach to fire resistance of steel structures has been to clad the members with insulating material.17 Thermal elongation of steel as a function of the temperature ( Eurocode 3.26 0. This is fairly easy to apply and creates an external profile that is aesthetically acceptable. and does not suffer the problems of rigid boarding around complex structural details. .014 Elongation 0. producing an insulating char layer which is up to 50 times as thick as the original paint film.016 0. spray or roller.012 0.2) [7] 1. They are applied by brush. Ceramic fiber blanket may be used as a more flexible insulating barrier in some cases. Part 1. and must achieve a specified thickness that may require several coats of paint and measurement of the film thickness. o Intumescent paints. such as beams and connections above suspended ceilings.02 0.006 0. o Sprays that build up a coating of prescribed thickness around the members.01 0.008 0.002 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature (C) Figure 1. Application on site is fairly rapid.4 Passive Protection for Steelwork 1. This may be in alternative forms [17]: o Boarding (plasterboard or more specialized systems based on mineral fiber or vermiculite) fixed around the exposed parts of the steel members. Since the finish produced tends to be unacceptable in public areas of buildings these systems tend to be used in areas that are normally hidden from view. but is inflexible in use around complex details such as connections. but which foam and swell when heated.004 0. These tend to use vermiculite or mineral fiber in a cement or gypsum binder.018 0.

However traditionally thicknesses of the protection layers have been based on manufacturers’ data aimed at the relatively simplistic criterion of limiting the steel temperature to less than 550°C at the required time of fire resistance in the ISO834 standard fire. in such systems there is clearly a need for a much higher degree than usual of resistance to impact or abrasion. The only exception to this is that some systems have recently been developed in which intumescents are applied to steelwork at the fabrication stage. This can introduce a significant delay into the construction process. again either with or without reinforcing bars. In fire this concrete acts to some extent as a heat sink. so that much of the site-work is avoided. which slows the heating process in the steel section. The most recent design codes are explicit about the fact that the structural fire resistance of a member is dependent to a large extent on its loading level in fire. Alternative fire engineering strategies are beyond the scope of this lecture. The recent innovation of “Slimflor” beams. The clear implication of this is . both in construction and maintenance. The traditional down stand beam (Figure 1. A reduction in load level by selecting steel members that are stronger individually than are needed for ambient temperature strength. integrity and loadcarrying capacity in ISO834 furnace test. which increases the cost of construction to the client. but at rather high cost. but there is an active encouragement to designers in the Eurocodes to use agreed and validated advanced calculation models for the behavior of the whole structure or sub-assemblies. leaves only the lower face of the bottom flange exposed. either reinforced or plain. and can be used as part of a fire engineering approach. This presents designers with another option that may be used alone or in combination with other measures. can enhance the fire resistance times.27 All of these methods are normally applied as a site operation after the main structural elements are erected. Fire protection materials are routinely tested for insulation. which provides a greater enhancement. This can allow unprotected or partially protected beams to be used. in which an unusually shallow beam section is used and the slab is supported on the lower flange. either by pre-welding a plate across this flange or by using an asymmetric steel section. In the case of hollow steel sections concrete may be used to fill the section. and also that loading in the fire situation has a very high probability of being considerably less than the factored loads for which strength design is performed. can contribute to the ambient-temperature strength. Material properties for design are determined from the results by semi-empirical means. Full or partial encasement of open steel sections in concrete is occasionally used as a method of fire protection. However. The effect of loading level reduction is particularly useful when combined with a reduction in exposed perimeter by making use of the shielding and heat sink effects of the supported concrete slab. In a few buildings hollow-section columns have been linked together as a system and filled with water fed from a gravity reservoir. possibly as part of a strategy of standardizing sections. supporting the slab on shelf angles welded to the beam web keeps the upper part of the beam web and the whole top flange cool. These methods can provide any required degree of protection against fire heating of steelwork. particularly for beams. particularly in the case of columns for which the strength of the concrete.18) gains some advantage over complete exposure by having its top flange upper face totally shielded by the slab. This can clearly dissipate huge amounts of heat.

15 0.12 0.18 Inherent fire protection to steel beams [17] 1. fiber silicate .28 that designs which can be shown to gain fire resistance overall by providing alternative load paths when members in a fire compartment have individually lost all effective load resistance are perfectly valid under the provisions of these codes. from ECCS (1995) [1]. In its preamble Eurocode 3 Part 12 also encourages the use of integrated fire strategies. Downstand beam Slimflor beam Shelf-angle beam Figure 1.12 0.2. Table 1.2 Materials Density ρi (kg/m3) 300 350 550 600 800 150 Thermal properties of insulation materials Thermal conductivity λi (W/mK) 0.2 Thermal properties of fire protection systems Typical values of thermal properties of insulating materials are given in Table 1. This is a major departure from the traditional approach based on the fire resistance in standard tests of each component.4.20 0. although it is acknowledged that allowances for sprinkler systems in fire resistant design are at present a matter for national Building Regulations.20 Specific heat ci (J/kgK) 1200 1200 1200 1200 1700 1200 Equilibrium moisture content % 1 15 15 3 20 2 Sprays Sprayed mineral fiber Perlite or vermiculite plaster High density perlite or vermiculite plaster Boards: Fiber-silicate or fibercalcium silicate Gypsum plaster Compressed fiber boards Mineral wool. including the use of combinations of active (sprinklers) and passive protection.12 0.

i. For given conditions. λ. the heating transfer is proportional to the temperature difference between to materials.24 ) D where h is the heat flow per unit area (W/m2). In the steady state. In the transit state.2 [7]. heat is conducted via mechanical vibrations of molecular lattice. the temperatures are changing with time. convection and radiation. which can occur separately or together depending on the circumstances.e. the heat transfer by conduction is directly proportional to the temperature gradient between two points and the thermal conductivity. and x is the distance in the direction of heat flow (m). For one dimension heat transfer by conduction with no internal heat being released.26 ) where αc is the convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K) and ∆θ is the temperature difference between the surface of the solid and the fluid (°C).5. In materials that are good conductors of heat. [1] D h =λ dθ/dx ( 1. graphical or numerical methods. the amount of heat required to change the temperature of the materials must be included. the heat is transferred by interaction involving free electrons. Conduction of heat is an important factor in the ignition of solid surfaces. i. λ is the thermal conductivity (W/mK). the coefficient of heat transfer by convection is given as follows: . θ is the temperature (°C).29 1. either gases or liquids. These equations can be solved using analytical.e.25 ) where t is time (s) and α = λ/ρc is thermal diffusivity (m /s). In Eurocode 3. In materials that are poor conductors. so that the heat flow per unit area can be calculated using [1] D h =αc ∆θ ( 1.5 Heat Transfer in Steel 1. Part 1. Convective heat transfer is an important factor in flame spread and in the upward transport of smoke and hot gases to the ceiling or out of window from a compartment fire. the governing equation is [1] δ 2θ /δ 2x=(1/α)/(δ θ/δ t) 2 ( 1. Conduction Conduction is the mechanism for heat transfer in solid materials. Convection Convection is heat transfer by the movement of fluids.1 Type of heat transfer Heat transfer involves the following three processes: conduction. and in fire resistance of barriers and structural members.

Practical difficulties are that some of thermal properties are temperature dependent as shown in 1.1).5. The heat flow per unit area can be calculated as [1]: D h =Φ ε σ [(θe + 273) 4 – (θr +273 ) 4] ( 1. Conduction. Radiation is the main mechanism for heat transfer from flames to fuel surfaces. heat is transferred from point to point only by conduction. from hot smoke to building objects and from a burning building to an adjacent building. radiation and convection are the modes by which thermal energy flows from regions of high temperature to those of low temperature. σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and its value is σ = 5. all three mechanisms are present. Inside the element. 1. On the external surfaces of the elements. 1.27 ) where Φ is the configuration factor that is a measure of how much of the emitter is ‘seen’ by the receiving surface. Calculation of heat transfer requires knowledge of the geometry of element.3 Coefficient of heat transfer by convection Exposed sides the standard temperature-time curve is used the external fire curve is used the hydrocarbon temperature-time is used the simplified fire models are used the advanced fire models are used Unexposed side of separating members the radiation effects are not included the radiation effects are included αc (W/m2K) 25 25 50 35 35 4 9 Radiation Radiation is transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves that can be travel through a vacuum or through a transparent solid or liquid.2.30 Table 1.1 General equation The general approach to study the increase of the temperature in structural elements exposed to fire is based on the integration of the Fourier-differential equation for transient conduction inside the member. This equation is given as [16]: .5. θe is the temperature of emitting surface (°C) and θr is the temperature of receiving surface (°C).2.2 Heat transfer equation for steel The rise of temperature in a structural steel member depends on the heat transfer between any two elements that are at different temperature.3.67 × 10-8 W/m2K4. ε is the resultant emissivity of two surface and can be calculated as ε=1/(1/εr + 1/εe . thermal properties of the materials and heat transfer coefficient at boundaries.

boundary conditions must be defined on every surface of the structure. internal heat generation is absent or can be neglected.c + hnet . Usually fire simulations are based on the temperature history of the fire. For instance. λ is thermal D conductivity.30 ) in which αc is the coefficient of heat transfer by convection. The solution of Fourier-differential equation can be obtained when the initial and boundary conditions are known.31 ) in which θr is the effective radiation temperature of the fire environment (°C). c is the specific heat and h is the net heat flux that is due to convection and radiation. the initial conditions consist of the temperature distribution at the beginning of the analysis (usually the room temperature before fire). and z is the Cartesian coordinates inside the structural element. Numerical methods are necessary to solve this equation.20 shows the temperature distribution of this slim floor beam under standard temperature-time curve when the fire exposure is 60 minutes. However. using other type of temperature-time curves. Ma and Mäkeläinen [11] in the Laboratory of Steel Structures at HUT has developed a computer program to perform temperature analysis of steelconcrete composite slim floor structures exposed to fire based on this heat transfer equation. .e. Figure 1. θg is the gas temperature in the vicinity of the fire exposed member (°C) and θm is the surface temperature of the member (°C). Many computer programs are available and it is possible to carry out thermal analysis for very complex structural elements.c = αc (θg . for instance. Figure 1. and three-dimensional problems can be studied as twodimensional or one dimensional idealizations. thermal conductivity. For fire. density and specific can be assumed to be independent of temperature. As an example. i. for instance the standard fire curve. In many cases.19 shows the section shape of a new slim floor beam. y.θm) ( 1. ρ is the density. the net convective heat flux can be determined by hnet .29 ) where.31 dθ δ  δθ δ  δθ δ  δθ D  λ (θ ) +  λ (θ ) +   δ z  λ (θ ) δ z  + hnet = ρ c (θ ) dt δ x δ x δ y  δ y   ( 1. The net radiative heat flux component per unit of surface area is determined by: hnet . boundaries exposed to fire and boundaries unexposed to fire.28 ) where x. hnet = hnet . any other any fire conditions can be assumed. a profiled steel deck and a concrete slab over the steel deck.r =Φ ε σ [(θr + 273) 4 – (θm +273 ) 4] ( 1. the general form of the equation can be greatly simplified. which is composed of a three-plate-welded beam.r ( 1. For instance.

32 200 60 Reinforcement Mesh fillet weld 10 Concrete Asymmetric Steel Beam Rannila 120 Steel Deck 20 fillet weld 18 400 Figure 1. Any heat supplied to the steel section is instantly distributed to give a uniform steel temperature.2. i.e. [1] 117 183 .5.19 Section shape of new slim floor beam [11] Figure 1.2 Temperature calculation for unprotected steel members Since the thermal conductivity is high enough to allow the difference of temperature in the crosssection to be neglected.20 Temperature distribution of the new slim floor beam under ISO fire (60 minutes) [11] 1. With this assumption. the energy balance can be made based on the principle that the heat entering the steel over the exposed surface area in a small time step ∆t (s) is equal to the heat required to raise temperature of the steel by ∆θ (°C). This assumption means that thermal resistance to heat flow is negligible.

ε = 0.33 ) where hnet is the heat flow per unit area (W/m2) and is given by: hnet = αc (θg .5 Time Spreadsheet calculation for temperatures of unprotected steel section [1] Fire temperature θg Fire temperature half way through time step (at ∆t / 2) Temperature change in steel ∆θa Calculating from increasemental equation with θa and θg from this row t1 = ∆t t2 = t1 + ∆t Steel temperature θa Initial steel temperature θa0 θa + ∆θa θa Temperature previous row for Fire temperature half way through time step (at t1+∆t / 2) Calculating from increasemental equation with θa and θg from this row . some upper limit must be taken for the time increasement ∆t.t 1/m °C Solving the increasemental equation step by step gives the temperature development of the steel element during the fire.6 Calculation results -------W/m2K4 °C °C Am/V ∆θa. Table 1.5. A lower value may be chosen to consider position and shadow effect can be calculated as ε=εm·εf with εm = 0.0.8 5.t = (Am/V)(1/ρa ca) hnet ∆t ( 1.2. In Eurocode 3. Table 1. In order to assure the numerical convergence of the solution.32 ) and the temperature increase of steel can be calculated as ∆ θa. Part 1.33 heat entering = heat to raise temperature hnet Am ∆t = ρa ca V ∆ θa ( 1.3.2 [7].θm) + Φ ε σ [(θr + 273) 4 – (θm +273 ) 4] ( 1.4.1 or 600 for a simple calculation model see Table 1.34 ) The meanings and the values of other symbols are given in Table 1.67 × 10-8 nominal temperature-time curve or parametric temperature-time curves θr = θg see Table 1. it suggested that the value of ∆t should not be taken as more than 5 seconds.3 Unit kg/m3 J/kgK W/m2K Meanings Density of steel Specific heat of steel Coefficient of heat transfer by convection Configuration factor Resultant emissivity of two surface Stefan-Boltzmann constant Temperature of gas Effective radiation temperature of the fire environment Section factor Temperature change of steel can be taken as 1. A spreadsheet for calculating steel temperatures is shown in Table 1.4 Symbols ρa ca αc Φ ε σ θg θr Parameter values for exterminating temperature increase Values according to Eurocode 7850 see 1.8 and εf = 1.

Am / V = 1 / t When the profile is in contact with a concrete slab. Table 1. if it is neglected. because it gives the key to deciding if the simplified solution of the thermal problem is appropriate or if it is necessary to solve the complete the heat transfer equation. amount of heat. In fact some thermal energy passes through the colder body and.5. but the surface covering of material of very low conductivity induces a considerable reduction in the heating rate of the steel section. if small.3 Temperature calculation for protected steel members For members with passive protection the basic mechanisms of heat transfer are identical to those for unprotected steelwork. the insulating layer itself has the capacity to store a certain.34 An important parameter in determining the rise of temperature of the steel section is section factor. The section factors for some of the unprotected steel members in Eurocode 3.6 Section factor for unprotected steel members [7] Open section exposed to fire Am/V: Perimeter / Section area Open section exposed to fire on three sides Am/V: Surface exposed to fire / Section area Tube exposed to fire on all sides Am / V = 1 / t Hollow section or welded box section with uniform thickness exposed to fire on all sides if t << b. This requires an assumption of an adiabatic condition at the contact surface.6. the effective exposed perimeter Am must be calculated using directed exposed part. 1. Part 1. Am/V (sometimes given as F/V or A/V or Hp/V in different countries).2. the increase of the temperature in the steel element is higher. The result is safe. It is very important to understand this point. which has a thermal conductivity greatly lower than that of steel. Also. It is acceptable to assume that the exposed insulation surface is at the fire atmosphere temperature (since the conduction away from the surface is low and very little of the incident heat is used in raising the temperature of the surface layer of .2[7] are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. the section factors represent the ratio of the effective surface exposed to fire to the volume of the element.7 Section factors of steel members insulated by fire protection materials[7] Sketch Description Section factor (Ap/V) Contour encasement of uniform thickness Steel perimeter / Steel section area Hollow encasement of uniform thickness 2(b+h) / Steel section area Contour encasement of uniform thickness to fire on three sides (Steel perimeter-b) / Steel section area Hollow encasement of uniform thickness exposed to fire on three sides (2h+b) / Steel section area Normally. the surface to be taken into account is not .t in a time increment ∆t is now concerned with balancing the heat conduction from the exposed surface with the heat stored in the insulation layer and the steel section: ∆θ a.36 ) in which Ap/V section factor for protected steel member.t but ∆θ a . where Ap is generally the inner perimeter of the protection material and the values are shown in Table 1.t = λ p / d p Ap  1   ( g.35 insulation material).t ≥ 0 θ ca ρ a V  1 + φ / 3    ( ) ( 1.35 ) in which the relative heat storage in the protection material is given by the term φ= cpρ p ca ρ a dp Ap V ( 1. The calculation of steel temperature rise ∆θa. When there is a protective coating.7.t − θ a.t )∆t − e φ / 10 − 1 ∆θ g.

The cross-section and the required parameter of the gypsum board are given in Figure 1. The incremental time-temperature relationship above does not model this effect. in the European pre-standard for fire testing. These values are given in Table 1. dp is the thickness of fire protection material.2. Fire protection materials often contain a certain percentage of moisture that evaporates at about 100°C.2.4 Example: temperature analysis for both unprotected and protected steel members The following example shows the temperature analysis of steel beam with three-side exposure to fire and box protection with gypsum board under standard fire. The value of ∆t should not be taken as more than 30 seconds. A method of calculating the dwell time is given.5.5 mm gypsum board is used and it can be seen that with this thickness.22 Temperature-time curves of unprotected and protected steel beam together with standard fire .22. λp is thermal conductivity of the fire protection material.21 Cross-section of steel beam and properties of protection material Figure 1. with considerable absorption of latent heat.21. This causes a “dwell” in the heating curve for a protected steel member at about this temperature while the water content is expelled from the protection layer. cp is the specific heat of protection material. the temperature of steel beam drops dramatically at 30 minutes.36 the external surface of the profile but the inner steel surface. Figure 1. The results of temperature-time curves for unprotected steel beam and protected beam together with the standard fire curve are shown in Figure 1. but this is at least a conservative approach. if required. The thickness of 12. ρp is the density of fire protection material. 1.

Structural Fire Safety.37 1.t.1 Required fire resistance time The required fire resistance time is usually a time of standard fire exposure specified by a building code.d.requ o Strength domain Rfi. Helsinki. is the design value of material temperature. Structural fire resistance can also be quantified using temperature or load capacity of a structural element exposed to a fire.d ≥ tfi. Verification of fire resistance should be in one of the following domain [3]: o Time domain: tfi.1.d. Required fire resistance time normally depends on factors such as: type of occupancy. Regulation. Ministry of the Environment (cited with abbreviation: RakMK E1).d are used to describe the fire resistance. and Θcr. in Finland.d tfi.t ≥ Efi. Rfi. is the required fire resistance time. Θd are the variables to describe fire severity.t Efi. Fire safety is a measure of the destructive impact of a fire.6.d where tfi.requ. or measure of the forces or temperatures that could cause collapse or other failure as a result of the fire.d. or the equivalent time of standard fire exposure calculated for a real fire in building. 1. Fire Safety in Industrial and Warehouse buildings. the required fire resistance time is prescribed in E1 National Building Code of Finland. and active measures such as vents and .6 Mechanical Analysis of Structural Element Fire resistance is a measure of the ability of building element to resist a fire. is the design value of the relevant effects of actions in the fire situation at time t.d is the design value of fire resistance.t. tfi.requ Rfi. Ministry of the Environment (cited with abbreviation: RakMK E2).d. and E2 National Building Code of Finland. Efi. tfi. effectiveness of fire brigade action.t o Temperature domain Θd ≤ Θcr. for instance.1 Standard fire exposure Required fire resistance time are specified in National Codes. Fire resistance is most often quantified as the time to which the element can meet certain criteria during an exposure to a standard fire test.d. is the design value of critical material temperature.6. is the design value of the resistance of the member in the fire situation at time t.t Θd Θcr. 1.d. Helsinki.d. height and size of the building.

o For more than 3 storey buildings. Although quite large variations exist. no up to medium requirements are needed and ISO-fire class is possibly up to R60. An overview of fire resistance requirements in various European countries as a function of above factors is given in Table 1. 1. an equivalent time of exposure to standard fire is supposed to have the same severity as a real fire in the compartment. The key difference lies in the definition of ‘severity’. Figure 1. 120.. leading to a schema of 30. 60. high requirements are needed and ISO-fire class is R90 and more. maximum temperature concept and minimum load capacity concept [1]. by which two fires are considered to have equivalent severity if the areas under each curves are equal. Intermediate values are usually given in steps of 30 minutes. . This has little theoretical significance because the product of temperature and time is not heat as expected. minutes. o For 2 to 3 storeys buildings. his work formed the starting points of current regulations of fire class [1]. Equal area concept Figure 1.8 [5].38 sprinklers [5]. medium requirements are needed and ISO-fire class is R60 to R120. above a certain temperature (150 or 300 °C).2 Equivalent time of fire exposure Equivalent time of fire exposure is a quantity which relates a non-standard or natural fire exposure to the standard fire. the required fire resistance time is not beyond 90 to 120 minutes.23 illustrates the concept first proposed by Ingberg (1928). However. the minimum values are 30 minutes (some countries have minimum requirements of 15 or 20 minutes).1.e. 90. If requirements are set. i.23 Equivalent fire severity on equal area concept [1] .. This equivalent can be determined based on equal area concept.6. o For tall buildings. no or low requirements are needed and ISO-fire class is possibly up to R30. From this table it shows that o For one storey buildings.

39 Table 1.8 Minimum Periods (minutes) for elements of structure [5] In the following building types Building type Industrial hall Commercial center and shop Dancing School According to the regulations of b x(*) 2 n 1 0 h H 10 X 20 L 100 S Y N 0 0 0 B CH 0 (1)*3 0 (1)*3 0 30 0 30*3 60 0 30*3 (1)*3 30 60*3 60 60 90 60 90*3 90 90 90(3) D 0 (1) 0 (1) (2) 90 (2) 90 (2) 90 (2) 90 (2) 90 (2) 90 90 (3) F 30*2 30*2 0H 30 V 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 120 120 120 120 I 0/60 (7) 30/90 (7) 60/90 (7) 90/120 (7) (8)(9) 60 (8) (10) 60 (8) (9) 60 (8) (11) 60 (8)(12) 120 (8) (9) 90 (8) (9) 120 0 L NL 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 60 60 60 60 60 120 120 60 90 90 90 FIN 0 0 0 30 60(4) 60(5) 60(4) 60(5) 60(4) 60(5) 60(4) 60(5) 60(4) 60(5) 120 (4) 120 (5) 120 (4) 120 (5) SP 90 90 90 90 60 60 60 60 90 90 120 120 120 120 120 120 UK 0*1 0*1 0*1 0*1 30 60 60 60 30 60 60 60 90 90 120 (3) 120 (3) 50 0-60 30 (3) 30 30 90 90 90 90 90 90 90/120 120 90 120 120 (3) 1 0 4 500 80 80 4 Y N (1) 0 0 60(6) 60(6) 60(6) 60(6) 60(6) 60(6) 120 120 120 120 120 120 2 4 5 12 9 16 1000 300 60 60 30 20 4 4 Y N Y N Small rise office building Hotel 4 10 13 50 50 30 2 Y N 6 16 20 60 50 30 2 Y N Hospital Medium rise office building High rise office building 8 11 24.5 33 28 37 60 50 70 50 30 30 2 2 Y N Y N 31 90 93 100 50 50 2 Y N .

24 [1]. and others is to define the equivalent fire severity as the time of exposure to the standard fire that would result in the same maximum temperature in a steel member as would occur in a complete burnout of the fire compartment as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. This concept is widely used and current Eurocode is based on this method.40 Maximum temperature concept Maximum temperature concept developed by Law. but the strength of the same member exposed to a natural fire increases after the fire enters the decay period and the steel temperature decreases.24 Equivalent fire severity based on maximum temperature concept [1] Minimum load capacity concept In this concept.25 [1]. the equivalent fire severity is the time of exposure to the standard fire that would result in the same load bearing capacity as the minimum which would occur in a complete burnout of the fire compartment as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. The load bearing capacity of a structural member exposed to the standard fire decreases continuously. Pettersson et al.25 Equivalent fire severity based on minimum load capacity concept [1] .

1. Indirect actions may occur as result of restrained thermal expansion and depend on the temperature development in the structural system and different in stiffness.6.35 γQ = 1.5 γGA = 1.d ·kb ·wf) kc or te. the load combination for ultimate limit state verification in Eurocode is defined as [6]: E d = γ G·G k + γ Q1·Q k1 + Σγ Qi·Q ki ( 1.2 Mechanical actions Mechanical actions include actions from normal conditions of use and indirect fire actions.1 Table 1.37 ) where qf.9 ψ 2.d = (qf.38 ) The actions during fire exposure is in accordance with the accidental design situation and the load combination is defined as [6]: E fi. The values of combination factors are given in Table 1. kb is the conversion factor.d ·kb ·wt) kc ( 1.i Table 1. wf is the ventilation factor and kc is the correction factor function of the material composing structural cross-sections. .1·Q k1 ( 1.d = (qf. the above two formulas can be simplified as: E d = γ G·G k + γ Q1·Q k1 ( 1. and E fi.41 Equivalent time of fire exposure in Eurocode The equivalent time of ISO fire exposure is defined by [3] te.d = γ GA·G k + ψ 1.1·Q k1 + Σψ 2.0 ψ1. A typical example of indirect action due to fire is temperature-induced stress due to non-uniform temperature distribution over the crosssection.d is the design fire load density.d = γ GA·G k + ψ 1.9.9 Ed E fi.40 ) in normal condition.d Gk Q k1 Q ki Ad Partial factor for permanent loads: strength design Partial factor for variable loads: strength design Partial factor for permanent loads: accidental design situations Combination factor: variable loads Combination factor: variable loads Design value of effects of actions from normal design Constant design value in fire exposure Characteristic value of permanent action Characteristic value of dominant variable action Characteristic value of other variable actions Design value of accidental action: indirect action in fire Due to the low probability that both fire and extreme severity of external actions occur at the same time and indirect actions not being considered for standard fire exposure.i·Q ki + Ad ( 1. In normal condition of use.39 ) where γG = 1.41 ) in fire situation.

d. 30 kN < vehicle weight = 160 kN Category H: roofs Snow loads on building (see EN 1991-1-3)* Finland.3 Design value of material temperature The design value of material temperature.t / E d ( 1.7 0.7 0. for sites located at altitude H > 1000 m a.6 0.6 0.43 ) in which loading in fire is taken as a proportion of ambient-temperature factored design load when simplified design of individual members is used and only the principal variable action is used together with the permanent action.t / R d ( 1.9 0.5 0.6 0. category (EN 1991-1-1) Category A: domestic.d.44 ) 1.7 0 0.42 Table 1.6 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.3 0 0.5 0 0.3 0. This temperature can be determined using heat transfer analysis.l H = 1000 m a. is the maximum temperature reached in fire or temperature at the time specified by code.42 ) in which the loading in fire is taken as a proportion of ambient-temperature design resistance when global structural analysis is used. vehicle weight = 30 kN Category G: traffic area. This may be expressed in terms of the characteristic loads and their factors as η fi = γ GA G k + ψ 1. or [3] η fi = E fi.s.6 0.1Q k .7 1.2 0.7 0.5 0.9 Values of combination factor [6] ψ0 ψ1 ψ2 Actions Imposed loads in buildings.5 0.7 0. Θd.6.7 0. Iceland.2 0.0 0.5 0.s.2 0. see relevant local conditions 0.1 γ G G k + γ Q. residential areas Category B: office areas Category C: congregation areas Category D: shopping areas Category E: storage areas Category F: traffic area. Sweden Remainder of CEN member States.2 0 0 0 The reduction factor can be defined either as [3] η fi = E fi.3 0. Wind loads on buildings (see EN 1991-1-4) Temperature (non-fire) in building (see EN 1991-1-5) Note: value of ψ may be set by national annex * for countries not mentioned above.1 ( 1.5 0.7 0.8 0. Norway. .1Q k .7 0.

proprietary ratings. The most common apparatus for full-scale fire resistance testing is the vertical wall furnace. or fire resistance level. . code authorities or manufacturers and can be classified into three categories. Fire resistance rating is normally assigned starting with 15 and 30 minutes. columns and doors etc. 1987) [1]. These ratings are listed in various documents maintained by testing authorities. Full-scale testing is the most common method of obtaining fire resistance ratings [1]. generic ratings. for instances. 30/60/90 minutes. such as walls. To meet the stability criteria.6. The integrity and insulation criteria are intended to test the ability of a barrier to contain a fire.0 m2 (ISO 834 or ASTM E119). which are linked to particular manufacturers. the material. Furnace testing using the standard time-temperature atmosphere curve is the traditional means of assessing the behavior of frame elements in fire. The minimum size specified by most testing standards is 3. most often fuelled with gas but sometimes with fuel oil.4 Design value of fire resistance time Fire resistance time can be described using fire resistance class (grade). and approved calculation methods. Fire resistance tests are carried out on representative specimens of building elements. To meet the insulation criterion. the test specimen must not develop any cracks or fissures that allow smoke or hot gases to pass through the assembly. usually to less than 5m. but the difficulties of conducting furnace tests of representative full-scale structural members under load are obvious. which apply to typical materials. The relevant British Standards are BS 476 Parts 20-23 (BSI. beams. The size of furnaces limits the size of the members tested. the geometry and support conditions of the element.e. restraint from the surrounding structure and the applied loads at the time of the fire. i.43 1. For example.. calculation or expert opinions. For fire resistance testing. a structural element must perform its loading bearing function and carry the applied loads for the duration of the test without structural collapse. usually an average increase of 140 °C and a maximum increase of 180 °C at a single point. Fire resistance of building elements. The test is mainly carried out in a furnace that is composed of a large steel box lined with firebricks or ceramic fiber blanket. To meet the integrity criterion. integrity and insulation [1]. if a representative sample of a floor system has been exposed to the standard fire for at least two hours while meeting the specified failure criteria. most European countries have standards similar to ISO 834 and in the United States. or fire resistance rating. Some furnaces are 4. to prevent fire spreading from the room of origin. depends on many factors including the severity of the fire test. The furnace will have a number of burners. Canada and some other countries is ASTM E119.0×3. the temperature of the cold side of the test specimen must not exceed a specified limit. There exist an exhaust chimney.0 m tall [1]. a similar assembly can be assigned a two hour fire resistance rating for use in a real building. and if a range of load levels is required then a separate specimen is required for each of these. several thermocouples for measuring gas temperatures and usually a small observation. Three failure criteria for fire resistance testing are stability. Fire resistance rating can be obtained using full-scale fire resistance test. Tests on small members may be unrepresentative of the behavior of larger members. and continuing in whole numbers of hours or parts of hours.

45 ) This is used for all except the very slender Class 4 sections. because at ambient temperatures structural deflections are so small that axial restraint is very rarely an issue of significance. 833  0 .9674 µ0    ( 1. µ0. the critical temperature is the temperature on the unexposed surface allowed fire to spread to other room. Only recently has any significant number of fire tests been performed on fire compartments within whole structures [13]. plotted in Figure 1.44 A further serious problem with the use of furnace tests in relation to the behavior of similar elements in structural frames is that the only reliable support condition for a member in a furnace test is simply supported. the critical temperature Θcr. In fact a beam furnace test is always terminated at a deflection of not more than span/20 for exactly this reason. and those that exist will have the major function of being used to validate numerical models on which future developments of design rules will be based. but in the later stages when the weakening of the material is very high the restraint may begin to support the member by resisting pull-in.6.19 ln  3 . defines the critical temperature [7]:   1 − 1 + 482 θcr = 39.26. of the member in the fire design situation. for which a single conservative critical temperature of 350°C is specified. where the latter is calculated at ambient temperature (or at time t = 0) using the material partial safety factors that apply in fire design rather than in normal strength design [17]: . This is a problem that is unique to the fire state. When a member forms part of a fire compartment surrounded by adjacent structure which is unaffected by the fire its thermal expansion is resisted by restraint from this surrounding structure. This can be determined for all types of member when using Eurocode 3 from the degree of utilization. Axial restraint can in fact work in different ways at different stages of a fire. This temperature can be calculated from knowledge of loads. Eurocodes 3 and 4 allow for the use of advanced calculation models. with the member free to expand axially. At present. in the later stages a complete collapse would be observed unless a safety cut-off criterion is applied. In fact full-scale testing is so expensive that there will probably never be a large volume of documented results from such tests. in the early stages the restrained thermal expansion dominates. in particular. is a proportion of the design loading in fire to the design resistance.5 Critical temperature For a separating member. µ0. For a load bearing member. and very high compressive stresses are generated. but their basic design procedures for use in routine fire engineering design are still in terms of isolated members and fire resistance is considered mainly in terms of a real or simulated furnace test [1]. Some years may pass before these full-scale tests are seen to have a real impact on design codes. 1. The following equation.d of a member is the temperature at which a member is calculated to fail under its given loading. The degree of utilization. Furnace tests that allow axial movement cannot reproduce these restraint conditions at all. load capacity at normal temperature and effects of elevated temperature on materials.

the output from a heat transfer model can be used directly to assess whether the time to critical temperature rise on the unexposed face is acceptable.6 Load bearing capacity The process of calculating structural behavior is shown in Figure 1.2.46 ) A simple conservative version.d R fi. For more complicated structural elements or assemblies.26 Critical temperature.27 and consists of three essential component models: a fire model. .47 ) in which the reduction factor ηfi may already be conservative. related to degree of utilization [17] 1.5. For simple structural elements with a single limiting temperature. is [17] γ µ 0 = η fi  M.0 µ0 = ( 1. the output from the heat transfer model is essential input to a structural model for calculating load-bearing capacity.6. it becomes very important to know the thermal gradients during the fire because these affect the temperature of the reinforcing steel [1]. For instance. a heat transfer model and a structural model.45 E fi.d. which can be used for tension members and restrained beams. for materials with low thermal conductivities like concrete.fi γ  M1     ( 1. For non-load bearing elements designed to contain fires. parametric temperature curves or a real fire as discussed in Section 1. where lateral-torsional buckling is not a possibility. The heat transfer model has been discussed in Section 1. the output from a heat transfer model can be used directly to assess whether the critical temperature is exceeded. The fire model can be nominal temperature curves. Figure 1.

The method for determining the load-bearing capacity can be a testing method.46 Figure 1.10 [8] shows the possible method can be used for various model. In Section 1. Table 1. a sub-system and a total structure. a simple calculation method or a complicated computer model. Part 1. Table 1.2 [7] are described. field models Testing and calculations Calculation Calculation A reasonable interaction between neighboring elements is considered For research only For research only All interaction of the global structure system are considered Calculation No interaction between neighboring elements is considered Assessment of methods .10 Design combination for calculating structural behavior in fire [8] Isolated member Testing and calculations Testing and calculations Calculation Structural models Sub-system Total structure Fire exposure models Standard fire Parametric fire Natural fire Nominal temperaturetime curves Equivalent fire exposure Homogenous temperature distribution Zone.27 Flow chart for calculating the load capacity of a structure exposed to fire [1] The structural model can be divided into an isolated element.7. the simple calculation method for isolated method based on Eurocode 3.

1.48 ) where Efi.6.2. Fire resistance is calculated using simple calculation models that are simplified design methods for individual members.θ.t ( 1. Design for fire resistance is mainly concerned to prevention of collapse.θ·NRd·(γM.47 1.fi = (A·fy/γ M. The effects of restraint caused by thermal deformation are not included.θ)/γ M.Rd of a tension member with a uniform temperature θ should be determined from [7]: Nfi.d.θ.2 Classification of cross-sections In a fire design situation. which are based on conservative assumptions.1 Design methods The load-bearing capacity of a steel member shall be assumed to be maintained after a time t in a given fire if Efi.7.1)·ky. Large deformations are expected under severe fire exposure.d. except that there are reduced loads for the fire condition and reduced values of modulus of elasticity and yield strength of steel at elevated temperature. Applied loads have been described in Section 1. As an alternative.d.2.5.3 Tension members The design resistance Nfi. so they are not normally calculated unless they are going to affect structural performance.1/γ M.49 ) . 1. insulated by fire protection materials or protected by heat screens.t ≤ Rfi. bending moment or shear force individually or in the combinations. The design resistance of the steel member may be axial force. the classification of cross-section should be made as for normal temperature design without any change [7]. the verification may be carried out in the temperature domain for the member with uniform temperature distribution as shown in Section 1. 1.7.7 Design of Steel Members Exposed to Fire This section gives the rules for steelwork that can be unprotected.1/γ M. by modifying the design resistance for normal temperature design to take into account of the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures.7.d.θ·(γM. Structural design at normal temperature requires prevention of collapse (the strength limit state) and preventing excessive deformation (serviceability limit state).fi) = ky.t is the design effect of actions for fire design situation and Rfi.fi) θ θ θ θ ( 1.t is the corresponding design resistance of the steel member for fire design situation at time t.t at time t shall be determined in the hypothesis of a uniform temperature in the cross-section. The design resistance Rfi.Rd = A·(fy·ky.d. This simplified method follows the ultimate strength design method as for normal temperature.

3.Rd for normal temperature design. Part 1.θi)/γ M.1/γM.fi) θ θ ( 1. but with the elastic moment of resistance used for MRd.85 in all other cases: κ2 = 1.52 ) where κ1 is the factor for non-uniform cross-sectional temperature and κ2 is the factor for temperature reduction towards the supports of a statically indeterminate beam.Rd = Mfi. In the case of beams supporting concrete slabs on the top flange.θ.Rd = ΣAi·(fy·ky.i is the reduction factor for yield strength of steel ate temperature θi.θ·MRd·(γM.t.2 as follows [7]: o o o o for a beam exposed on all four sides: κ1 = 1.7.0. reducing the strength of each according to its temperature. The design resistance Nfi. and finding the resistance moment by summation across the section.θ. and with an adjustment for the relative material safety factors in normal design and fire design [7]: Mfi. ky.Rd = ky.Rd of a tension member with a non-uniform temperature θ may conservatively be taken as equal to the design resistance of a tension member with uniform maximum temperature. with the reduction factor ky. The design resistance Nfi. The values of κ1 and κ2 are specified in Eurocode 3.Rd / (κ1·κ2) θ ( 1.1.3 and NRd is the design resistance of the cross-section Npl.Rd of a tension member with a non-uniform temperature θ should be determined from [7]: Nfi. the non-uniform temperature distributions may be accounted for analytically in calculating the design moment resistance by dividing the cross-section into uniform-temperature elements.θ is the reduction factor for yield strength of steel ate temperature θ reached at time t as shown in Section 1.0 . and θi is the temperature in the elemental area Ai.θ.θ. with a composite or concrete slab on side four: κ1 = 0.θ for yield strength at elevated temperature.48 where ky.θ.50 ) where Ai is an element area of the cross-section with a temperature θi. Alternatively it may be dealt with conservatively using two empirical adaptation factors κ1 and κ2 to define the moment resistance at time t as [7]: Mfi.70 at the supports of a statically indeterminate beam: κ2 = 0. for a beam exposed on three sides.51 ) For a Class 3 section the same expression can be used.4 Moment resistance of beams Moment resistance in fire for Class 1 or 2 sections with uniform cross-sectional temperature θ is calculated from the normal plastic resistance moment of strength design.θ. 1.fi θ θ ( 1.

The number .com . An approximate design method is used in Eurocode 3.y·ky.Rd = ky. the design resistance moment against lateral-torsional buckling is calculated for Class 1 or 2 sections using the formula from Eurocode 3 Part 1.49 Shear resistance is determined using the same general process as for bending and tension resistance.t. i.55 ) where kE.θ.θ. greater than 0.θ.θ. λLT .fi/1.Rd = (χLT. it is assumed that the whole cross-section is at the maximum temperature θmax [7]. Part 1. 1. it is not possible to consider accurately the variation of strength segment by segment without a computer program because of the domination of thermal bowing and instability consideration.fi = reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling in fire design situation ky. The general expression. The design buckling resistance of columns of Class 1. For lower slenderness only the consideration of the bending resistance is necessary. allowing for a reduction in strength and an increase in normalized slenderness at high temperatures.53 ) 1.com = elastic modulus reduction factor at the maximum compression flange temperature at time t Lateral-torsional buckling resistance should be considered when the non-dimensional slenderness. is [7]: Vfi.e.θ. with the same adaptation factors as those above in cases with non-uniform temperature distribution.6 Compression members with Class 1. except that the normalized slenderness used is adapted to the high-temperature steel properties [7]: λ LT.7.θ. covering uniform and non-uniform temperature cases.com = reduction factor for yield strength of steel at the maximum temperature of the compression flange θcom at time t θcom = conservatively can be assumed to be equal to the maximum temperature The 1. with minor amendment for the fire state [7]: Mb.fi)·(1/(κ1·κ2)) θ ( 1. Class 2 or Class 3 cross-section If there is a temperature gradient over the cross-section.54 ) where χLT.com ( 1.2 is an empirical correction factor for a number of effects.2. 2 or 3 is calculated as follows.2)·Wpl.θ .θ.4.fi is determined as in ambient-temperature design.5 Lateral-torsional buckling In cases where the compression flange is not continuously restrained.fi θ ( 1.com = λ LT k y.7.t.com·fy/γM.max·VRd·(γM1/γM.1.fi.com k E. The lateral-torsional buckling reduction factor χLT.

50 1.2 in this formula is an empirical correction factor for a number of effects, i.e. 17% reduction (1/1.2) in strength to allow for other effects [7]:
Nb.fi.t.Rd = A·ky.θ.max·fy·(χfi/1.2)·(1/γM.fi) θ ( 1.56 )

The flexural buckling reduction factor χfi is the lower of its values about the yy and zz axes determined as in ambient-temperature design, except that the normalized slenderness used is adapted to the fire situation as follows: o Buckling curve c is always used, i.e. α = 0.49 o The buckling length lfi is determined as shown in Figure 1.28 [17], provided that each storey of the building comprises a separate fire compartment, and that the fire resistance of the compartment boundaries is not less than that of the column. Because the continuing columns are much stiffer than the column in the fire compartment it is assumed that they cause the end(s) of the heated column to be restrained in direction, so the effective length factor is taken as 0,5 for intermediate storeys and 0,7 for the top storey. o The normalized slenderness of the column for the maximum temperature is given by:
λ θ. max = λ k y.θ. max k E.θ. max
( 1.57 )

l fi=0,7L

Bracing system

l fi=0,5L

o

Figure 1.28

Buckling lengths of columns in fire [17]

1.8

Use of Advanced Calculation Models

Both Eurocodes 3 and 4 also permit the use of advanced calculation models, which give a realistic analysis of the behavior of the structure in fire [17]. All computational methods are to some extent approximate, are based on different assumptions, and are not all capable of predicting all possible

51 types of behavior. It is therefore stipulated that the validity of any such model used in design analysis must be agreed by the client, the designer and the competent building control authority. Computational models may cover the thermal response of the structure to any defined fire, either nominal or parametric, and should not only be based on the established physical principles of heat transfer but should also on known variation of thermal material properties with temperature. The more advanced models may consider non-uniform thermal exposure, and heat transfer to adjacent structure. Since the influence of moisture content in protection materials is inevitably an additional safety feature it is permitted to neglect this in analysis. When modeling the mechanical response of structures, the analysis must be based on acknowledged principles of structural mechanics, given the change of material properties with temperature. Thermally induced strains and their effects due to temperature increase and differentials must be included. Geometric non-linearity is essential when modeling in a domain of very high structural deflections, as is material non-linearity when stress-strain curves are highly curvilinear. It is, however, acknowledged that within the time-scale of accidental fires transient thermal creep does not need to be explicitly included provided that the elevated-temperature stress-strain curves given in the Code are used.

1.9

Global Fire Safety Design

The building’s response to fire is highly dependent on the prevailing state of fire: either pre- or postflashover conditions. In a prescriptive approach, the assessment is based on standard fire conditions and refers to building components only. Traditionally, the only option was to carry out standard fire tests. During last decade, however, various calculation models have been developed. The first generation of these models to avoid significant costs, associated with standard fire testing. In a performance-based method, more recent developments allow to analyze the structural response under natural fire conditions, not only of building components but also of the entire building or major subsystems thereof. Worldwide research and development have contributed to establish the basis for realistic and credible assumptions to be used in the fire situation for thermal actions, active measures and structural response. Hence global fire safety design (see Figure 1.29) consists first in a realistic fire resistance design in order [5]: o to proceed a global structural fire analysis in the fire situation; o to consider a realistic i.e. accidental combination rule for actions during fire exposure and o to design according to natural fire conditions. The global fire safety design considers the active fire safety and fire fighting measures in view of their impact on the probable evolution of the natural fire. In this respect the danger of fire activation has to be taken into account. This finally leads to the design of a natural fire resistance of the structure. This design natural fire resistance shall exceed the required fire resistance period that shall depend on both objectives to avoid any human fatalities and to reduce consequences of structural

52 failure. Fire safety should include the safety for occupants and firemen and may take into account the protection of properties and environment.

Figure 1.29

Global fire safety concept [5]

1.10 Design Example according to Eurocode 3
1.10.1 Introduction
A simple 4-storey frame as shown in Figure 1.30 is braced against horizontal sway deflection. Identical frames at 6 m spacing. The 60 minutes of fire protection for structural members are required, i.e. tR=60 min. Other given parameters are:
Materials
Steel grade: Lightweight concrete S275 C40 (slab)

30 A simple framed braced against horizontal sway Characteristic floor loadings Permanent: kN Gk := 1.8⋅ 2 m Dimensions of the frame Frame spacing: Length of beam AB: Height of the storey: L := 6⋅ m LAB := 5⋅ m LGH := 3.9⋅ 2 m Primary variable: kN Qk. 2 or 3 cross-section: --resistance of Class 4 cross-section: --resistance of member buckling: fy := 275⋅ MPa E := 210000MPa ⋅ ν := 0.1 := 3.53 Figure 1.3 ρ a := 7850⋅ kg m 3 γ M0 := 1.1 γ M1 := 1.1 γ M1 := 1.5⋅ m Material properties and partial safety factors Norminal value for the yield strength Modulus of elasticity Poisson's ratio Density of steel: Partial safety factor --resistance of Class 1.1 .

fi := 1.925kN RF := RD RF = 371.975kN NBE = 247.1⋅ Qk.10.1 := 1.for thermal properties of steel: -.0 γ M.fi := 1.10.3 Fire resistance and protection of a tension member BE Ambient temperature design Design loading NSd := NBE NSd := 247.54 Partial safety factor for the fire situation shall be taken as: -.35 γ Q. 1 RA := ⋅ Gd + Qd ⋅ LAB 2 ( ) RA = 123.39 m kN Qd = 34.1⋅ L kN Gd = 15.975kN RB = 123.2 Design loads and load distribution in the frame Design loads on beams Partial safety factor for permanent actions under unfavorable effects Partial safety factor for leading variable actions under unfavorable effects Permanent actions: Variable actions: Gd := γ G⋅ Gk⋅ L Qd := γ Q.5 Load distribution on member BE and member AB The loads at the supports of the frame can be calculated using the models shown in the following figure.for mechanical properties of steel: γ M.95kN RB := RA NBE := RA + RB RD := (Gd + Qd)⋅ 2⋅ LAB + NBE 2 RD = 371.95⋅ kN .925kN Loading on column GH RGH := 2⋅ RD + 2⋅ RB RGH = 991.2 m γ G := 1. From minor beam AB.8kN 1.0 1.

1) The design resistance at ambient tempartaure Nfi.0 θ := 20 NRd = 258kN (from Table 1.Rd A ⋅ γ M0 A := A BE The design plastic resistance is Npl.0 ( Permanent loads: accidental design situations ) ψ 1.Rd := A ⋅ fy γ M0 Design = "OK!!" Design := "OK!!" if Npl.20.55 Try IPE 100. the design resistance is: NRd := Npl.1 η fi = 459.1 γ G⋅ Gk + γ Q.20⋅ NRd⋅ γ M1 γ M.Rd := ky.1⋅ mm A BE := 1032⋅ mm 2 RBE := 7⋅ mm According to EC 3 Part 1-1 5.4.49).7701× 10 −3 The design load in fire is Nfi.d := η fi⋅ NSd Nfi.44) γ GA := 1.3.8kN .7⋅ mm t wBE := 4.5 ( Combination factor: variable loads.Rd = 283.1 := 0.fi Nfi. ky. office buildings) The reduction factor η fi := γ GA⋅ Gk + ψ 1.Rd ≥ NSd "NOT OK!!!" otherwise Fire resistance of tension member Design loading in fire According to equation (1.20. The dimension of IPE 100 are as follows: h BE := 100⋅ mm b BE := 55⋅ mm t fBE := 5.1⋅ Qk.20 := 1.d = 114kN Design resistance in fire at ambient temperature According to equation (1.1⋅ Qk.Rd At ambient temperature. design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section is defined fy as Npl.

the increase of temperature in an unprotected steel member during a time interval ∆t may be determined using equation (1.7823mm "all-round" = 387.t = 619.1 c a := 600⋅ J kg⋅ K According to Table 1.032 × 10 mm 3 2 steel_perimeter := 2⋅ b + 2⋅ t f + b − 2⋅ R − t w +   ( )  h − t − R  ⋅ 2 + π⋅ R   f 2   steel_perimeter = 399.7mm R = 7 mm t w := t wBE A := A BE t w = 4. According to section 1.t := 39.d Nfi. the following parameters are given: .45).19⋅ ln  1 3.3.833  0. i.Rd µ 0 = 401. θ = 20 °C is: µ 0 := Nfi. the convective heat transfer coefficient for standard or external fire curves is: α c := 25⋅ W m ⋅K 2 When calculating net radiation heat flux per unit of surface area.2. For IPE 100: b := b BE h := h BE b = 55mm h = 100mm t f := t fBE R := RBE tf = 5.3859 1 m In a simple calculation model. the critical temperature is: θ cr.20.9674µ 0 ⋅  − 1  + 482  θ cr.e.7823mm if fire_exposure := "all-round" The perimeter of the cross section is A m := steel_perimeter − b if fire_exposure steel_perimeter if fire_exposure The section factor is V := A Am V "3-sided" A m = 399.1392 Fire resistance time For an equivalent uniform temperature distribution in a cross-section. the specific heat may be considered as independence of the steel temperature.6913× 10 −3 According to equation (1.56 Critical temperature The degree of utilization at t = 0.3.33).1mm A = 1.

7.35) and equation (1.139 °C.995 °C and is less than the critical temperature 619.36). Thermal conductivity W λp := 0.0 εm = 0. the time for steel to reach its critical temperature is 9 minutes 40 seconds.3876 1 m Try the following gypsum boarding: Density ρ p := 800⋅ kg m 3 .57 Stephan-Boltzmann constant configuration factor emissivity of member surface emissivity of fire compartment σ := 5.7823mm The section factor can be calculated as: A p_gyp := if fire_exposure "3-sided" "contour" "box" "contour" steel_perimeter − b if protection_type 2⋅ h + b if protection_type if fire_exposure "all-round" "box" steel_perimeter if protection_type 2⋅ h + 2⋅ b if protection_type A p := A p_gyp A p = 310mm Appropriate area of fire protection material per unit length is Section factor: V := A Ap V = 300. when protection with gypsum boards: fire_exposure := "all-round" protection_type := "box" steel_perimeter := 2⋅ b + 2⋅ tf + b − 2⋅ R − tw +   ( )  h − t − R  ⋅ 2 + π⋅ R   2 f   steel_perimeter = 399.67⋅ 10 −8 ⋅ W m ⋅K 2 4 Φ = 1. the temperature increase of an insulated steel member during a time interval ∆t may be calculated using equation (1. Based on Table 1. Fire protection of tension member For a uniform temperature distribution in a cross-section. 20 mm gypsum board provides more than 60 minutes fire protection.2⋅ m⋅ K With thickness of dp = 20 mm. after 60 minutes.625 εf = 0. the temperature of steel is 613.8 Using spreadsheet calculation. Specific heat cp := 1700⋅ J kg⋅ K . Thus. .

3. fy when flange is subjected to compression: sectType_flange "Class 1" if c tf ≤ 10⋅ ε c tf c tf 235⋅ MPa d h − 2⋅ t f + R ( ) where c ≤ 11⋅ ε ≤ 15⋅ ε b 2 "Class 2" if 10⋅ ε < "Class 3" if 11⋅ ε < "Class 4" otherwise .7⋅ mm W AB := 557⋅ 10 ⋅ mm 3 3 twAB := 7.AB := 628⋅ 10 ⋅ mm 3 3 Section classification According to EC3 Part 1. when web is subjected to bending: sectType_web "Class 1" if d tw ≤ 72⋅ ε d tw d tw ≤ 83⋅ ε ≤ 124⋅ ε "Class 2" if 72⋅ ε < "Class 3" if 83⋅ ε < "Class 4" otherwise where ε := .4 Fire resistance and protection of steel beam AB Ambient temperature design Applying bending moment: M Sd := 1 8 ⋅ Gd + Qd ⋅ LAB ( ) 2 Try IPE 300. The dimensions of the cross-section of IPE 300 are as follows: h AB := 300⋅ mm RAB := 15⋅ mm b AB := 150⋅ mm A AB := 5381⋅ mm 2 tfAB := 10.1. for rolled section.58 1. Table 5.1.10.1⋅ mm W pl.

1mm b := b AB R := RAB 3 3 b = 150mm R = 15mm W pl.5.7mm 3 −3 For beam AB t f := t fAB A := A AB h := h AB h = 300mm t w = 7.yy := W pl. According to EC3. the design moment resistance of a cross-section without holes for fasteners may be determined as: M c.4.381 × 10 mm W yy := W AB W yy = 557 × 10 mm The Class of the web sectType_web := d := h − 2⋅ tf + R "Class 1" if d tw ( ) d = 248. 5. the Class of the cross-section is sectType_beam := sectType_web if sectType_web ≥ sectType_flange sectType_flange otherwise sectType_beam = "Class 1" Moment resistance The concrete floor slab provides full lateral resistant to the top flange.1.yy ⋅ fy γ M0 W yy ⋅ fy γ M0 if ( sectType_beam "Class 1" ) ∨ ( sectType_beam "Class 2" ) if ( sectType_beam "Class 3" ) .Rd W pl.2. bending about one axis. Part 1.6mm ≤ 72⋅ ε d tw d tw ≤ 83⋅ ε ≤ 124⋅ ε sectType_web = "Class 1" "Class 2" if 72⋅ ε < "Class 3" if 83⋅ ε < "Class 4" otherwise The Class of the flange is sectType_flange := c := b 2 c tf c = 75mm ≤ 10⋅ ε c tf c tf ≤ 11⋅ ε ≤ 15⋅ ε sectType_flange = "Class 1" "Class 1" if "Class 2" if 10⋅ ε < "Class 3" if 11⋅ ε < "Class 4" otherwise Therefore.AB t w := t wAB 2 A = 5. hence no need to consider lateral-torsional buckling.4163× 10 tf = 10.59 ε = 924.

Rd "NOT OK!!!" otherwise shear_Resistance = "OK!!" .Rd "NOT OK!!!" otherwise moment_Resistance = "OK!!" Shear resistance According to EC3.yy ⋅ fy γ M0 W yy ⋅ fy γ M0 if key1 1 ∨ key2 1 M c.568 × 10 mm 3 2 Av⋅  The design plastic shear resistance:  fy   3 Vpl.60 Given key1 := sectType_beam key2 := sectType_beam key3 := sectType_beam "Class 1" "Class 2" "Class 3" Therefore M c. 5.Rd where Vpl.Rd = 157kN⋅ m if key3 1 moment_Resistance := "OK!!" if M Sd ≤ M c.6.Rd  fy   3 γ M0 where A v is the shear area and may be taken as follows: A v := A − 2⋅ b ⋅ tf + tw + 2⋅ R ⋅ tf Applied shear: The shear area: ( ) 1 VSd := ⋅ Gd + Qd ⋅ LAB 2 ( ) VSd = 123.1.Rd is the design plastic shear resistance given by: A v⋅  Vpl.6545kN Vpl. the design value of shear force VSd shall satisfy: VSd ≤ Vpl.975kN A v := A − 2⋅ b ⋅ t f + t w + 2⋅ R ⋅ t f ( ) A v = 2.4.Rd := γ M0 shear_Resistance := "OK!!" if VSd ≤ Vpl. Part 1.Rd = 370.Rd := W pl.

Rd := M fi.7143kN⋅ m Critical temperature ultilizaiton factor µ 0 := M fi.d := η fi⋅ M Sd M fi.706 3 "all-round" .20.833  0. The design moment resistance at ambient temperature of Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section with a uniform temperature may be determined from: M fi.0.5458 Fire resistance time steel_perimeter := 2⋅ b + 2⋅ t f + b − 2⋅ R − t w +   ( )  h − t − R  ⋅ 2 + π⋅ R 2 f      steel_perimeter = 1.25kN⋅ m Design resistance in fire The design resistance of Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section with a non-uniform temperature distribution may conservatively be determined using equation (1.19⋅ ln  1 3.20⋅ M c.9674µ 0 ⋅  − 1  + 482  θ cr.d M fi.Rd:= ky.51).7kN⋅ m κ 1 := 0.Rd⋅ γ M1 γ M.61 Fire resistance of minor beam Design loading in fire The design loading in fire: M fi.fi M fi.Rd The critical temperature is θ cr.20.0.t := 39.d = 71.20.Rd = 172.Rd κ 1⋅ κ 2 M fi.01 × 10 mm Am V = 187.16 × 10 mm 3 fire_exposure := "3-sided" The perimeter of the cross section is A m := steel_perimeter − b if fire_exposure steel_perimeter if fire_exposure The section factor is V := A "3-sided" A m = 1.Rd = 246.0 For beam supporting concrete slab: Therefore. the fire resistance at ambinent temperature M fi.t = 669.0.7 κ 2 := 1.

5. Part 1-2: General Actions-Actions on Structures Exposed to Fire.11 References 1. Buchanan. the temperature of steel is 570. 4. (2001). John Wiley & Sons. (1999). H. ECCS (2001). Thus. . 1. European Recommendations for the Fire Safety of Steel Structures: Calculation of the Fire Resistance of Loading Bearing Elements and Structural Assemblies Exposed to the Standard Fire. Structural Design for Safety.545 °C and is less than the critical temperature 669. the time for steel to reach its critical temperature is 15 minutes 23 seconds.3793 With thickness of dp = 15 mm. Eurocode 1: Actions and Structures. Drysdale. 15 mm gypsum board provides more than 60 minutes fire protection. D. ENV-1991-1-1 (1994). 3. John Wiley & Sons. Elsevier.16 × 103 mm    The section factor can be calculated as: A p_gyp := if fire_exposure "3-sided" "contour" "box" "contour" steel_perimeter − b if protection_type 2⋅ h + b if protection_type if fire_exposure "all-round" "box" steel_perimeter if protection_type 2⋅ h + 2⋅ b if protection_type Section factor: V := A A p := A p_gyp Ap V 1 m = 139. after 60 minutes. A. Model Code on Fire Engineering. 2. EN 1991-1-2 (2002).546 °C. First Edition. 6. Part 1: Basis of design. Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Actions on Structures.62 Using spreadsheet calculation. Fire protection of steel beam When protection with gypsum boards: fire_exposure := "3-sided" protection_type := "box" steel_perimeter := 2⋅ b + 2⋅ tf + b − 2⋅ R − tw +   ( )  h − t − R  ⋅ 2 + π⋅ R 2 f  steel_perimeter = 1. ECCS (1983). An Introduction to Fire Dynamics.

Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel Polarit 725 (EN 1. Korhonen. 14. Fire Safety Design: A New Approach to Multi-Storey Steel-Framed Buildings. O. 8. Helsinki University of Technology. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. Z. (2002). and Mäkeläinen.. M. Protection: Fire.. (2000). Ma. Finland.. TKK-TER-18. J. Structural Steelworks Eurocodes. Kaitila. (1999). G. Finland. TKK-TER-24. Espoo.G. (2002). ESDEP Working Group 4B. Helsinki University of Technology. P. Master’s Thesis. (2001). and Mäkeläinen. Robinson. Fire Design of Steel and Composite Structures. 17. Kaitila. 11. SCI publication P288. Twilt. TKK-TER-1. 15. ENV-1993-1-2 (1995).4301) at Elevated Temperatures. Joyeux. L. Cajot. Development of a Trans-National Approach. Ma. E. J. P. G. O. P. P. Helsinki University of Technology. D. Background and Application of Eurocode 1. (1997). Fire Safety Design of Composite Slim Floor Structures. (1999). Laboratory of Steel Structures. TKK-TER-24. Part 1-2: General RulesStructural Fire Design. T. and Bailey. C. 13. Finland. J. Outinen. Laboratory of Steel Structures. Helsinki University of Technology. Temperature Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Slim Floor Structures Exposed to Fire.. J. Natural Fire Modeling of Large Space. P. Finite Element Modeling of Cold-Formed Steel Members at High Temperatures. Input Data for the Natural Fire Design of Building Structures. and Kruppa. J. Z. 16. (2000).B. Helsinki University of Technology.. Helsinki University of Finland. 10. L.. Seminar materials. Espoo. TKK-TER-10. (1996). Espoo. IABSE Report: Basis of Design and Actions on Structures. and Mäkeläinen. . Finland. Teräsrakenneyhdistys 9.63 7. Laboratory of Steel Structures. High-Temperature Testing of Structural Steel and Modeling of Structures at Fire Temperatures. Schaumann. Schleich. 18. Outinen. Van De Leur. 12. Newman. Laboratory of Steel Structures. Espoo. Laboratory of Steel Structures.

Fatigue failure may occur in many different forms such as mechanical fatigue when the components are under only fluctuating stress or strain. Np. o Structural instability or complete fracture. Fatigue failures generally take place at a stress much lower than the ultimate strength of the material. such as bridges. Fatigue is the mechanism that cracks grow in a structure under fluctuating stress. The failure is due primarily to repeated stress from a maximum to a minimum. creep-fatigue when the components under cyclic loading at high temperature.1. such as building frames. This process can cause the fracture of components. o Stable propagation of the dominant macrocrack. o The creation of microscopic cracks. in the plastically damaged regions. Nt = Ni + N p ( 2. Ni. After a certain number of load fluctuations. Fatigue damage of structures subjected to elastic stress fluctuations occurs at regions where the localized stress exceeds the yield stress of material. 2.2 FATIGUE DESIGN 2. and the number of cycles to propagate a fatigue crack to a critical size. Nt. and offshore structures. Final failure generally occurs in regions of tensile stress when the reduced cross-section becomes insufficient to carry the peak load without rupture. Many structures.1 Different approaches for fatigue analysis The total fatigue life.e. do not experience sufficient fluctuating stress to give rise to fatigue problems. o The growth and coalescence of microscopic flaws to form dominant cracks.1 ) . Others do. thermo mechanical fatigue when both mechanical loading and temperature are cyclic. the accumulated damage causes the initiation and subsequent propagation of a crack or cracks. is defined as the sum of the number of cycles to initiate a fatigue crack. corrosion fatigue when the components under cyclic loading impose in the presence of a chemically aggressive environment. i. which may eventually lead to catastrophic failure (This stage of fatigue is the mark between crack initiation and propagation). cranes. The progression of fatigue damage can be classified into the following stages [15]: o Substructural and microstructural changes which cause nucleation of permanent damage.1 Introduction Fatigue is a terminology to describe the damage and failure of materials under cyclic loads in engineering applications.

strain method and crack propagation method. the fatigue initiation life is about 90% of total life due to the smooth surface of the specimen [15]. fatigue is part of design specification for many engineering structures [1]. three approaches for fatigue analysis can be classified: stress method. The choice of critical size of cracks may be based on the fracture toughness of the material. Continuous efforts of researches in the twentieth century have given a new impetus to the development of theories.1. . However. the allowable strain or the permissible change in the compliance of the component. The first known investigators concerned with fatigue phenomena were designers of axles for locomotives. The prediction of fatigue life is mainly base on linear elastic fracture mechanics. The basic premise of crack propagation method is that all engineering components are inherently flawed. In parallel.65 No simple or clear boundary between fatigue crack initiation and propagation. the advent of railroads in central Europe. Stress method and strain method characterize the total fatigue life in terms of cyclic stress range or strain range. the most significant developments have occurred since the 1950s. The size of a pre-existing flaw is generally determined from nondestructive flaw detection techniques. Under high cycle (> 102 to 104). The fatigue life is then defined as the number of cycles to propagate the initial crack size to a critical size. in particular. the number of stress or strain cycles to induce fatigue failure in initially uncracked or smooth surfaced laboratory specimen is estimated under controlled cyclic stress or strain. This was followed by more elaborate analyses of stresses and their effect on fatigue by Berber. Wöhler’s experiments with axles in 1852 were the first known laboratory tests with the objective to derive and quantitatively describe the limits of fatigue. the material deforms primarily elastically and the failure time has traditionally been described in terms of stress range. such as visual. low stress fatigue situation. magnetic or acoustic emission methods. Goodman and others. Furthermore. dye-penetrant or X-ray techniques. Research accomplishment of Morrow Socie and their followers brought the state of fatigue analysis to the present day level [17]. Fatigue was incorporated into design criteria near the end of the nineteenth century and has been studied since. such as the effects of plastic deformation on fatigue-resulting in the strain method discovered by Manson and Coffin. The resulting fatigue life includes the fatigue crack initiation life to initiate a dominant crack and a propagation of this crack until catastrophic failure. reduce the total fatigue life. has been widely used in fatigue critical applications where catastrophic failures will results in the loss of human lives such as aerospace and nuclear industries [15]. 2. or the ultrasonic. In these methods. The low cycle approach to fatigue design has found particularly widespread use in ground vehicle industries [15]. the limit load for the particular structural part. Under these circumstances. According to the definition of the fatigue life. However. Pairs and Others continued the theory of crack propagation started by Griffith.2 A short history to fatigue The history of fatigue design goes back to the middle of the nineteenth century. stresses associated with low cycle fatigue (< 102 to 104) are generally high enough to cause plastic deformation prior to failure. marked by the beginning of industrial revolution and. The crack propagation method. At present. Normally. the fatigue life is described in terms of strain range. a preexisting crack in a structural component can reduce or eliminate the fatigue crack initiation life and. which is a conservative approach to fatigue. thus.

which is half the stress range in a cycle. which represents the relative magnitude of the minimum and maximum stress in a cycle.2. ∆σ = σmax .σmin) / 2 ( 2. i. and the minimum stress. in the cycle. i. i.3 ) o stress amplitude.1): o stress range. Figure 2.5 ) The values of R corresponding to various loading case are shown in Figure 2. the probability of the same sequence and magnitude of stress ranges recurring during a particular time interval is very small and cannot be represented by an analytical function (see Figure 2. wave loading on ships and offshore platforms. The stress fluctuation from a given minimum tensile load to a maximum tensile load is characterized by a positive value between 0 and 1 (0 < R < 1). σmin. The simplest one is the constant-amplitude cyclic loading fluctuation.1 illustrates a constant-amplitude cyclic stress fluctuation and this kind of loading normally occurs in machinery parts such as shafts and rods during periods of steady-state rotation. which is the algebraic difference between the maximum stress. R = σmin / σmax ( 2.3).2 Fatigue Loading Structural components are subjected to two kinds of load history in fatigue design.2 ) o mean stress. ∆σ.σmin ( 2.1 Terminology used in constant-amplitude loading Constant-amplitude loading can be described using the following parameters (see Figure 2. and truck loading on bridges. This type of loading is experienced by many structures. σm = (σmax + σmin) / 2 ( 2. i. The complete reversal load is changing from a minimum compressive stress to an equal maximum tensile load (R = -1).e. Comparing to the constant-amplitude loadings. the variable-amplitude loadings are more complex.4 ) o stress ratio.e. σmax. such as wind loading on aircraft. Figure 2.e.66 2. In variable-amplitude loading history. σa = (σmax . . which is the algebraic mean of σmax and σmin in the cycle.e.

Further reading about multi-axial loading can be found in Socie and Marquis [14].3 Variable-amplitude loading history Either constant-amplitude loadings or variable-amplitude loadings can cause unidirectional stresses in the structural components. these loadings may cause the stresses acting on the components simultaneously in different directions. The fatigue limit (or endurance limit) is defined as the maximum value of fully reverse stress that can be repeated an infinite number of times on a test specimen without causing a failure. . Likely. 2.3 Stress Methods In the case of static loading.67 Figure 2. or pure torsion. only the unidirectional cases are discussed. The structural components are designed according to these values. the yield strength or ultimate strength of material is obtained from the tensile testing. In this course. such as pure axial tension and compression. The fatigue strength is defined as the intensity of the reverse stress causing the failure after a given number of cycles. For the components with complicated geometries. the significant strength is fatigue strength or fatigue limit.2 Comparison of R-rations for various loadings [ 1] Figure 2. under the fluctuating stress. pure bending.

This testing has the advantage of providing a constant bending moment and a zero shear over the length of the specimen. pure bending. Another testing type is called axial loading testing. The machine loads the specimen through hydraulic actuator. the stress below the neutral axis are reversed from tension to compression and vice versa.4 Fatigue testing machines [17] . it is necessary to determine fatigue strength and/or fatigue limit (analogous to yield strength) for the material so that cyclic stresses can be kept below that level avoiding fatigue failure for the required number of cycles. Upon completing the revolution. the stresses are again reversed. The testing stops when the specimen breaks. The servo-valve is in charge of reversing the flow direction of oil. This testing system allows the combination of a cyclic and a steady load applied at the same time. The counter registers the number of revolution. While the specimen rotates. the two bearings near each end of the test specimen permit the load to be applied and two bearings outside of these provide support. The stresses and strains remain in the elastic region such that no local yielding occurs to initiate a crack.4 (b) shows a test machine operating by hydraulic forces and controlled by electrical signals.4 (a). 2.R Moore later adopted this technique to a simply supported rotating beam in fully reversed. R. The constant force is provided by the hanging weight. When rotated one-half revolution. Figure 2. The direction of the axial force is changed when the flow of the oil is reversed.3.68 In stress methods. The scheme of Moore rotating beam fatigue test machine is shown in Figure 2. The structural components are designed that the maximum stress never exceeds the materials fatigue strength or fatigue limit. Figure 2.1 Standard fatigue tests Types of testing The history of standard fatigue tests goes back to Wöhler who designed and built the first rotatingbeam test machine that produced fluctuating stresses of constant amplitude in test specimens.

Test specimens Two types of specimen are used in the fatigue test. the reversed bending test is that one end of specimen is fixed and the other end is pushed alternative up and down.2 S-N curves The most common way to describe the fatigue testing data is using S-N curves that show the relationship between the number of cycles. No stress raiser in the region where failure occurs.6 ) . torsional loading. Similar to the rotating beam fatigue testing. Generally. Figure 2. there are some other fatigue testing. Most of the fatigue tests are performed in the high-cycle fatigue domain. In stress method. and the maximum (or mean or amplitude or range) value of the applied cyclic stress.5 Test specimens for standard fatigue tests (schematic) 2. the stress is designated using S. for fracture. where a linear relationship between stress range and fatigue life exists in log-log diagram. while in other method the stress is expressed as σ.6 (a). These differ from the stresses caused by rotating bending in that the maximum stress are limited to the top and bottom instead of producing the maximum stress all round the circumference.3. Figure 2.2.69 Besides aforementioned two testing types.3. N. The reason for this discrepancy is due to a tradition of the stress method throughout its long history [17]. 2. This linear relationship can be expressed as: N = NR·( σ / σR ) -m ( 2.1 Linear part of S-N curves A typical standard S-N curve is shown in Figure 2. Another test specimen is called the notched specimen and contains stress raisers in the section where failure is expected to occur. The simplest test specimen is called unnotched or smooth specimen. Torsional fatigue tests are performed on a cylindrical specimen subjected to fully reversed. the abscissa is the logarithm of N and the ordinate may be the stress or the logarithm of stress.5 shows some examples of flat specimens for fatigue tests.

so that the slope exponent and the characteristic value of the S-N curve can be determined (Figure 2.3. even though the same specimen is used in the fatigue tests.70 based on the stress level or N = NR·( ∆σ / ∆σR ) -m ( 2. it is necessary to carry out the statistical analysis of fatigue data. However.2 Fatigue limit The main consideration of fatigue analysis is to design the structural components for an infinite life or for a limited life. The objective for the infinite life design is to ensure the working stress due to loading is under the fatigue limit. While the objective for the limit life design is to predict number of cycles available within the fatigue life based on the stress level. o Testing at one load level and assuming a fixed slope exponent of the S-N curve that is almost the same for similar types of structures.7. 2.7 ) based on the stress range.6 (a). The curves formed by integrating the failure probability into S-N curve are called P-S-N curves.6 (b)).5).6 P-S-N curves and scatter of test results at two stress levels In order to obtain the meaningful engineering data. σR ( or ∆σR) is the characteristic value at loading cycle NR = 2 x 106 and m is the slope exponent. The standard S-N curve corresponds to a 50 percent of probability of failure (P = 0. Figure 2. There are two strategies to establish the S-N curves in the high-cycle regime [8]: o Testing at different load levels. and fatigue strength at given number of cycles (normally located in the sloping part) as shown in Figure 2. Therefore. the results show a wide range of dispersion. . σ ( or ∆σ) is the fatigue strength at loading cycle. or conversely to determine the stresses based on a given number of cycles [17]. These different local concentrations cause different fatigue life. a large amount of testing should be carried out. The S-N curves corresponding to other failure probabilities are shown in Figure 2. N. This in turn brings the necessity to consider the effect of failure probability. This is due to the different geometrical micro irregularities of surfaces for the same type of specimen.2. In the formula. The stress values corresponding to these two lives are fatigue limit that forms a mechanical property specific for each material.

the test results are evaluated statistically using either the data of specimens that survived (run-outs) or of those that failed. of the fatigue limit based on the preliminary knowledge. there is a clearly defined value for fatigue limit. To determine a fatigue limit experimentally. If the specimen survives (run-out). Many high strength steels. increase the stress level by d. which can be described as follows (see Figure 2. decrease the stress level by d. and standard deviation. o If the specimen fails. ∆σm. The “knee” point of fatigue limit is normally in the range of 105 to 107 cycles [7]. Figure 2. the fatigue limit is defined at the stress level corresponding to 107 cycles [15]. o Perform the first fatigue test at the stress level ∆σm+d. d. A common procedure is staircase method.8 Determination of the fatigue limit with staircase method [8] . o A statistical evaluation of all tests yields the mean value of ∆σD.7 S-N curves (schematic): with and without fatigue limit [7] Figure 2. o Continue until 15 to 30 specimens have been tested.7 shows that for ferrous alloys.8): o Estimate mean value. aluminum alloys and other materials do not generally exhibit a “knee” point of fatigue limit.71 Figure 2. For these materials. under which failure does not occur.50 and standard deviation of the fatigue limit.

5 ( 2. residual stresses and surface effects. cyclic frequency.3.e. Factors affecting fatigue limit The specimens in the aforementioned testing are free of stress concentrations and residual stresses. surface roughness factor and reliability factor [17]. (b) 0. For steel it has been found that a good approximation of the S-N curve can be drawn using the following rules [11]: o Obtain the ultimate tensile strength.3 Factors affecting S-N curves Many factors have influences on S-N curves. the equivalent stress can be calculated using von Mises criterion. in a preliminary design work. In order to use the fatigue limit of standard specimen in the rotating bending test in the design of the real structural components. 2. o Plot the S-N curves with the following point: (a) 0. σf′ τ f = ( 1 / √3 )· σf′ ( 2.72 However.9 (a) shows that S-N curves obtained from axial loading test are lower than those from rotating bending test. temperature. the standard fatigue limit should be multiplied by the following factors: loading mode factor. it is necessary to approximate the S-N curve without actually running a fatigue test. i.9 Effects of loading modes .5·σu at 106 cycles.8 ) Then the fatigue limit for torsion. Figure 2. Figure 2. A principal difference between axial and the rotate bending test is that the entire section is uniformly stressed in axial loading rather than linear stress distribution. maximum at far end and zero at center as in rotating bending testing (see Figure 2. When the same specimen subjected to torsional loading. Generally any change on the static mechanical properties or microstructure is likely to affect the S-N curve.9 indicates the effects of the loading mode on the value of fatigue limit. Other factors to be considered are chemical environment.9 (b)).e.2. size effect factor. τf. can be calculated assuming that σeq is equal to the standard fatigue limit.9 ) Figure 2.9·σu at 103 cycles. i. σu. of the specimen from a simple tensile test. σeq = ( 0 + 3τ2 )0.

e. plastic deformation can cause stress redistribution. a reliability factor must be multiplied to the standard fatigue limit so as to consider the probability of the fatigue test data. There is an inverse relationship between the fatigue limit and the magnitude of the irregularity [17]. Stress concentration caused by notches and holes Stress raisers such as notches. while from axial loading tests the size has no influences on the fatigue limit [17]. as N / A. Figure 2. the values of the fatigue limit change inversely to diameters of specimens. σn is the nominal stress that can be calculated. ks is the surface roughness factor. for steel. However. for tension member shown in Figure 2. Experiments show that from rotating beam tests and from torsion tests. the fatigue limit for steel can be defined as: σ f = kl ·ks · kd · kr · σf′ = kl ·ks · kd · kr · ( σu / 2 ) ( 2. there is an empirical relation between the rotating beam fatigue limit and tensile strength. Stress concentration factor Kt aforementioned is based on elasticity theory.10 ) where kl is the loading factor. kr is the reliability factor. and σu is the tensile strength of steel.73 The surface roughness or the local irregularities are the high stress concentration points where a fatigue failure generally originates. kd is the size factor. which relates the fatigue notch factor and the stress concentration factor.12 ) A notch sensitivity factor. holes or sharp corners can cause large rise in stress above the nominal stress. in which N is the tension loading and A is the cross-section area without notch. The values of aforementioned factors are empirical factors based on testing. the fatigue limit from standard test is about a half of the tensile strength. for instance. Thus.11 ) where σmax is the maximum stress at notches that can be determined using either experimental stress analysis or numerical methods such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA). the stress raiser will reduce the fatigue life of the structural component. i. Kt. A discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental data demands using a fatigue notch factor instead of this stress concentration factor. Under static loading and beyond elastic limit of ductile material. Kt = σmax / σn ( 2. Figure 2. i. i. Therefore. The size of the specimen must be considered when determining the fatigue limit. The fatigue notch factor is defined as: Kf = fatigue limit of smooth specimen / fatigue limit of notched specimen ( 2.10 illustrates the fatigue limit of notched specimen comparing to un-notched specimen.e.11. The fatigue limit for a polished specimen has a higher value than those with rough surfaces. The notch sensitivity factor can be expressed as: .12 provides some examples of values of Kt.e. In addition. is defined as the ratio of effective stress increase in fatigue due to the notch to the theoretical stress increase given by the elastic stress concentration factor. The stress increase related to the normal stress is described by the stress concentration factor. The value of Kt can be checked from manuals. the high peak stress caused by the stress raisers is redistributed to an almost uniform stress across the cross-section. The values of fatigue limit from standard rotating bending tests are based on 50 percent probability of reliability.

uni-axially stressed plates (b) SCF for a rounded transition between two shaft diameters Examples of values of stress concentration factors [8] Figure 2.11 Definition of stress-concentration factor (a) SCFs for cut-outs in infinite.74 Figure 2.12 .10 Illustration of S-N curves for notched and un-notched fatigue tests Figure 2.

whose mathematical expressions are given in the figure. The fatigue limit of the notched specimen can be related to that of un-notched specimen by: σf-notched = σf-unnotched / Kf ( 2. Therefore.13 Effects of mean stress on allowable stress amplitude [Mek] . q = 1 / ( 1 + √(a / r) ) ( 2. two relations have been developed to relate notch root radius and material behavior to the notch sensitivity factor.75 q = (Kf – 1) / (Kt -1) ( 2.13 ) In addition. One is based on Peterson.e. non-zero mean stresses can also play an important role in resulting fatigue data. i. Note that when mean stress is σm = 0. the notch sensitivity factor can be expressed as: q = 1 / ( 1 + √(ρ / r) ) ( 2. the S-N curves are generated with fully reverse load (R = -1) and zero mean stresses. the allowable mean stress in either yield or ultimate strength from a monotonic test since the stress is not fluctuating when the stress amplitude is zero.16 ) Generally.14 ) in which r is the notch radius and a is the material property constant. the allowed stress amplitude.17 ) Mean stresses As mentioned above. Kf = 1 + (Kt – 1) / (1 + √(ρ / r )) ( 2. The abscissa in the limit stress diagram is the mean stress of applied loading and the ordinate is the allowed stress amplitude.13. i. q. However.15 ) in which ρ is material constant related to grain size. These two lines are based on Goodman rule and Söderberg rule. The other is based on Neuber. σa. Kf << Kt for ductile materials and sharp notches but Kf ≅ Kt for brittle materials. The effects of mean stresses on the fatigue limit corresponding to the infinite fatigue life are illustrated in the limit stress diagram that is severed as a practical design tool as shown in Figure 2. If σa = 0. is the fatigue limit measured from fully reversed loading. Figure 2.e. The line in the diagram is fatigue limit corresponding to the infinite life.

the local maximum stress can be directly calculated using method such as FEM. Besides. the local maximum stress due to stress risers can simply be calculated using the notch factor and nominal stress.1 Nominal stress method The nominal stress can be determined from the applied loading such as forces and moments. z is the distance from the neutral axis as shown in Figure 2. the notch factor might be determined using other methods. For instance. shear force and bending moment. i. Q and M are axial force. which can be calculated as: σn = N/A + (M/I)·z.e.18 ) where. N. As and I are cross-sectional area.3. and Taylor and Wang [8]. 2.3 One dimensional analysis for fatigue assessment Two approaches are described in this section to perform the fatigue assessment for the structural components: nominal stress method and notch stress method.3. respectively.3.14.19 ) In addition to methods mentioned above.2 Notch stress method In the notch stress method. an S-N curve is generally valid only for a specific geometric in addition to material type. the nominal stress for beam-like components is composed of the normal stress σn in the longitudinal direction and the mean shear stress.3. σmax = Kf·σn ( 2.e. A. for instance.14 Nominal stress in a beam-like component [8] Any stress increase resulting from discontinuities is considered by S-N curve. and the cross-sectional properties of a component or structure in accordance with the basic theory of strength of materials. as mentioned before.τn. 2. i. effective shear area and moment of inertia. Sonsino.76 2. Siebel and Stieler. τn = Q/As ( 2.3. in the web. It should be kept in mind that the results cannot be transferred to other geometries or component sizes. The advantage of notch stress method is that the local geometric is taken into account and the disadvantage of this approach is that it can only be used if the stress concentration factor is known. Figure 2. . surface and manufacturing condition [8].

A strain method is used to predict the fatigue life of the structural component based on the fluctuating strain. the deformation is plastic represented by line AB.15.e. the material exhibits a stabilized behavior. Assuming a metal has hypothetical properties that stay constant under load cycling. .000 cycles. i.77 The examples of using nominal stress method and notch stress method for performing fatigue analyses are provided in Section 2. the Bauschinger’s effect diminishes. 2. due to the Bauschinger’s effect. This method is also known as low cycle fatigue where the cyclic stresses are high enough to cause yielding. the yield point A′ is less than A. the hysteresis loop is stabilized (see Figure 2. With the cyclic hardening prevails. From the testing data. Unloading from B′ brings us back to point O. The load history begins from point O. B′.17). At first the deformation is elastic and is represented by straight line OA. However. The stress-strain curve for high carbon steel under monotonic (static) stress is shown in Figure 2. Because of the fact that the stress control at large load is cumbersome. B′′ and B′′′. leading to the life span ranging from 1 to 10.4.4 Strain Methods From a design point of view. Since the crack initiation involves local yielding and therefore strain life method gives a reasonable estimation about the crack-initiation stage. After a few cycles. This procedure is shown in Figure 2. This is the stress-strain curve that we have used as the material law from testing. 2. However. The hysteresis loop is drifted (see Figure 2. the material may show either cyclic hardening or cyclic softening (see Figure 2. the easy answer to fatigue is to use low stress so as to keep both static and cyclic analysis in elastic range. From O′ to A′ the deformation again elastic and from A′ to B′ it is plastic. high-tensile strength steel exhibits softening in every aspect [8]. it is shown that low-strength steel tends to soften in the range of smaller stress cycles and to harden for greater stress cycles.16 (a). it is unloading.1 Cyclic material law The material law may differ from static loading and cyclic loading. Since it is assumed no changes in metal properties. Beyond point B.17). The cyclic stress-strain curve is using true stress-strain definition. The cycling process produces strain hardening thus changing the position of B.16 (b)). The solution to this phenomenon is strain method. The phenomena aforementioned can be observed using either stress-controlled tests or straincontrolled tests. the stress raisers such as notches create stress concentrations and elevate the stress into plastic range. the subsequent reverse loading has an equal but symmetrically opposite pattern. in real life. The stress-controlled tests are carried out with prescribed stress fluctuation and the strain-controlled tests with prescribed strain fluctuation. thus. the cross-section is changing. Beyond point A. when the specimen is under tension or compression. However. In both tests. the strain control tests are more convenient even though both tests give similar results.7 Fatigue analysis of welded components. The stress-strain curve that obtained with stress calculated from real cross-section is called true stress-strain curve. The engineering stress-strain curve is drawn with the stress calculated using initial cross-section.

17 Cyclic hardening and cyclic softening The purpose of material tests is to produce the stabilized hysteresis loop as shown in Figure 2.16 Cyclic stress-strain curves [17] Figure 2. a similar cyclic stress-strain curve to that shown in Figure 2.18 (b)). Therefore. each one at a different strain amplitude (Figure 2. a stress-strain curve is obtained.18 (a).78 Figure 2. if the hysteresis loop is changing over the whole life until crack initiation. After stabilization. A more economic way to obtain the cyclic stress-strain curves is using multi-step testing program.19 (c)). This cyclic material law might differ slightly from that obtained from multi-specimen testing program. Connecting the hysteresis tips. A series of resulted hysteresis loop is plotted in a common σ-ε diagram (Figure 2.18 (b). connecting the reverse points of the corresponding loops yields the cyclic material law.e. In the multi-specimen program. in which the periodical increasing and decreasing load cycles are applied (Figure 2. . i. Figure 2. a number of specimens are tested. the hysteresis loop at the half number of cycles should be taken [8].18 (b) also shows that the stress-strain curve under monotonic test is different from that under cyclic loading. using monotonic curve for fatigue design may lead to incorrect safe limits. The stress-strain relationship in the stable state can be obtained using two methods: a multispecimen testing program and a multi-step testing program.19 (a)) until a corresponding stable hysteresis loop is obtained. which represents a relation of cyclic stress and strain.15 Stress strain curves under static loading [17] Figure 2. However.

e.001% [8]. εa.5 mm in a small-scale specimen [8]. the crack initiation behavior of the material is investigated.2 Fatigue life In strain-controlled constant-amplitude tests. The crack initiation is usually found by a drop of the stabilized stress σa by 5 %. The crack initiation life.79 Figure 2. versus the strain amplitude. Two parts are included in the strain-life curve part: Elastic part based on Basquin relation: . Nf. which corresponds to a crack depth of approximately 0.20 ) where K′ and n′ are material dependant constants (cyclic hardening coefficient and cyclic hardening exponent).4.19 Load history for multi-specimen and multi-step testing program The cyclic material law is usually approximated by the Ramberg-Osgood equation. a linear curve is often assumed up to a fictitious yield point σy. separating the total strain amplitude εa into an elastic and plastic part: εa = σa / E + (σa / K′)1/n′′ ( 2.g. 2.20). Since the equation is non-linear over the entire range. at which the plastic strain assumes a value that can no longer be neglected.18 Cyclic Stress-strain relationship Figure 2. is called strain-life or strain S-N curve (see Figure 2. 0.

33 ) where Kσ is the stress concentration factor and . σ = Kσ σn ( 2. εf′ is the fatigue ductility coefficient and c is the fatigue ductility exponent (see Figure 2. When all the stresses are in the elastic range.25 ) where εf is true fracture ductility.21 ) where εe is the elastic strain amplitude.5 cycles).31 ) where Kt is the stress concentration factor and σn is the nominal stress.20). and %RA is the percentage of reduction in cross-sectional area at fracture.80 εe = σa / E = σf′ (2Nf)b / E ( 2. σf′ is the fatigue strength coefficient and b is the fatigue strength exponent (see Figure 2. when peak stress is higher than the yield strength. The maximum strain can be expressed as: ε = Kt ε n ( 2. the life at which the elastic and plastic strains are equal is called transition life represented by 2Nt (see Figure 2. σa is the true stress amplitude. the peak stress σ can be expressed as: σ = Kt σ n ( 2. Therefore.26 ) For most metals the cyclic strain hardening exponent n′ is 0. Thus.20). the following approximation can be used for determining the parameters in strain S-N curves [17]. the stress concentration effect must be taken into account. i.32 ) However. the cyclic hardening coefficient can be expressed in terms of σf′ and εf′ K′ = σf′ / (εf′)n′′ ( 2. defined as: %RA = 100 (A0 – Af) / A0 ( 2.1 ≤ n′ ≤ 20 ( 2.e.28 ) Further. Plastic part based on Coffin’s and Manson’s separately developed relations: εp = εf′ (2Nf)c ( 2.27 ) In addition.22 ) where εp is the plastic strain amplitude.23 ) For practical application for steel. the concentration factors for maximum stress and strain are different.24 ) where σu is the tensile strength. The fatigue ductility coefficient can be approximated by: εf′ = εf = ln (100/(100-%RA)) ( 2. If the specimen is notched. The fatigue strength coefficient with the hardness less than 500 BHN can be approximated using σf′ = σu + 50 ksi ( 2. a local plastic deformation results a nonlinear stress-strain relationship. the strain-life curve can be expressed as: εa = εe + εp = σf′ (2Nf)b / E + εf′ (2Nf)c ( 2. 2Nf is the reversals to failure ( 1 reversal = 0.29 ) and the cyclic hardening exponent can be expressed in term of b and c as: n′ = b / c ( 2. and can be expressed as: 2Nt = εf′ (Eεf′/σf′)1/(b-c) ( 2.30 ) The strain S-N curve defined above is established according to a smooth specimen.20).

σm) / σf′]1/n′′ (2Nf)c ( 2.35 ) The Neuber rule can be rewritten according to the stress.e. This process is schematically shown in Figure 2.σm) (2Nf)b / E + εf′ (2Nf)c ( 2. These two factors are interdependent and can be related using Neuber rule [8] as follows: Kt2 = Kσ·Kε ( 2. Thus.20 Strain S-N curve and their parameters Figure 2.21 Determination of maximum strain based on Neuber’s rules It has been shown that Neuber’s rule is superior to other approximation formulae for diverse materials and load conditions since the calculation results lie a little on the conservative side in many cases.34 ) where Kε is the strain concentration factor. i. When taking the tensile mean stress into account.e.σm) (2Nf)b / E + εf′ [(σf′ . the value of maximum strain can be determined with these two equations. σ·ε = (Kt·σn)2/E ( 2.38 ) . The fatigue life of the notched specimen then can be determined from the strain S-N curve with this maximum strain. The effect of tensile mean stress is most critical and the compressive mean stress would somehow improve the fatigue behavior. the equation of 2.36 must be extended by additional parameters [8]. Figure 2. equation 2. However. in order to account for the yielding of the entire cross-section.20. the strain S-N curve can be modified according to Manson as [17]: εa = (σf′ .36 ) The maximum stress and strain should also satisfy the cyclic material law. When a specimen is subjected to a fully reversed load with superimposed steady stress.81 ε = Kε ε n ( 2. the effects of the mean stress should be taken into account.37 ) according to Morrow as [17]: εa = (σf′ . i.21. strain and concentration factors.

5 Crack Propagation Methods Fracture mechanics is firstly related to the problems of unstable fracture. or a small crack initiated by cyclic loads. striations are not beach marks as one beach mark may contain thousands of striations. In engineering design.22 Typical fracture surface with initiation (A). The application of fracture mechanics generally presupposes an existing cracks. stable crack propagation (D) and final fracture (D) [8] Figure 2. This method is mainly applied to low cyclic fatigue and finite life problems in predicting the remaining life of cracked components. 2.22 shows a macroscopic view of a typical crack surface of a round specimen. In some cases a defect may be identified as the origin of the crack.23) [8]. The cracks initiate at point A. which behave quite differently from usual cracks [8]. These beach marks are concentric rings that point toward the areas of the initiation. striations are formed which is a clear indication for a fatigue crack (see Figure 2. If the critical section is at a high stress concentration fatigue initiation may occur at many points. the beach marks cannot be observed. under the constant load. Below this range is the special field of short cracks. that exhibits beach marks (also called clamshell marks).1 mm to several meters. D. Beach marks are formed when the crack grows intermittently and at different rates during random variations in the loading pattern under the influence of a corrosive environment. in contrast to the case of un-notched parts where the crack usually grows from a point only [7]. Unlike the analysis of unstable fracture. Therefore. plastic zones are relatively small so that the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) already offers suitable solutions for crack propagation problem. on the crack surface.23 Typical striations around an inclusions [8] .1 Characteristic of fatigue surfaces Figure 2. crack lengths can range from 0. In order to create this kind of beach mark. In addition. The crack propagates in a slow and stable mode. Figure 2. The origin of the fatigue crack may be more or less distinct. the fracture mechanics theory was found to be the best model of the crack propagation in fatigue. in other cases there is no apparent reason why the crack should start at a particular point. Although somewhat similar in appearance.82 2.5. which may be a defect or a flaw. however. in fatigue tests two levels of load are applied.

At high stresses and strains. which is called stage I crack growth. . The slip band will be first formed in those grains whose crystallographic slip planes and directions are favorably oriented with respect to the applied cyclic shear stress. During continued cycles. Figure 2.26). the crack advancement is still influenced by the crystallographic orientation of the grains and the crack grows in a zigzag path along the slip planes. At some points in this process small cracks develop in the intrusions.25 Slip band formation [14] The cohesion between the layers in slip band is weakened by oxidation of fresh surfaces and hardening of the strained material. During repeated cyclic loading. particularly the plastic deformation results in some slip bands coming out of the surface of the material (extrusion) and some bands going into the surface of the material (intrusion). in which the applied tensile load is vertical and the resulting shear stress is at 45°. The nucleation process can be described using intrusion and extrusion model illustrated in Figure 2. coalescence and stable growth of cracks leading to ultimately to net section yielding or brittle facture. Cyclic plastic shear strains eventually cause the nucleation of the slip band as illustrated in Figure 2. these slip bands grow and coalescence into a single dominant fatigue crack [14]. At low stresses and strains. whereas a small area indicates that the load was lower at fracture [7]. only a few grains have favorable orientations and only a few slip bands form. extends over a few grains (see Figure 2.2 Fatigue mechanism Fatigue damage is characterized by the nucleation. However. i. A large final fracture area for a given material indicates a high maximum load.83 The rough region G is the final fracture area.e. This figure shows a cross-section view of a deforming grain in the material. a shear stress driven process.5. The crack path is now essentially perpendicular to the tensile stress.24. the micro cracks in different grains coalesce resulting in one or a few dominating growth under the primary action of maximum principal stress and this is called stage II growth (see Figure 2. a large number of slip bands form.24 Crack nucleation within grains [14] Figure 2. Each grain will have different preferred slip plane. Growth in a shear mode. Slip bands are formed due to the dislocation movement within individual grains.26). Cyclic shear stresses cause the dislocation to move.25. These micro cracks grow along slip planes. 2.

their frequency is much less than the opening mode fracture [2].28 are defined as shown in Figure 2.28.40 ) . In addition.39 ) where σ represents the loading. Opening or tensile mode. 2. a is the length of the initial crack and f is the compliance function that describes the geometry of the part. The symbols used in Figure 2. o Mode II.30 can be defined as [17]: Center crack loaded in tension fI = (sec(πa/2b))1/2 ( 2. where the surfaces move relative to one another and parallel to the leading edge of the crack.29. where the crack surfaces move directly apart. where the crack surface slide over one another in a direction perpendicular to the leading edge of the crack. K is stress intensity factor that presents a relationship of a loading mode.26 Stage I and Stage II growth process Figure 2.84 Figure 2.27) [9]: o Mode I. In isotropic materials. Although fractures induced by sliding (Mode II) and tearing (Mode III) do occur. geometry of the stressed part and the length of crack and is defined as: K = f·σ·(π·a)1/2 ( 2. brittle fracture usually occurs in Mode I.3 Linear elastic fracture mechanics In linear elastic fracture mechanics. Mode I covers the most common form of cracks caused by fatigue and the compliance function corresponding to four standard specimens with a different geometry shown in Figure 2. the stress and displacement fields in the vicinity of crack tips subjected to three modes of deformation are given in Figure 2.5. Tearing or out-of-plane shear mode. Sliding or in-plane shear mode. o Mode III. Three basic modes of crack surface displacement can be classified (see Figure 2.27 Crack opening modes Once a crack has been initiated. subsequent crack propagation may occur in several ways.

Figure 2.42 ) Edge crack loaded in bending fI = 1.85 Edge crack loaded in tension fI = 1.231·a/b + 10.39 (a/b)4 ( 2.33 (a/b)2 – 13.122 – 1.08 (a/b)3 + 14.72 (a/b)3 + 30.28. it can be seen that the stress intensity factor corresponding to three opening mode uniquely defines the stress state.12 – 0.29 Coordinate system in the vicinity of a crack Figure 2.30 Concerning mode I: (a) center cracked plate in tension (b) edge cracked plate in tension (c) double-edge cracked plate in tension (d) cracked beam in bending .0 (a/b)4 ( 2.203·a/b – 1.55 (a/b)2 – 21.197 (a/b)2 + 1.93 (a/b)3 ( 2.12 + 0.28 Stresses and deformations in vicinity of crack tip for three modes of deformation Figure 2. The unit of the stress intensity factor is MPa(m)1/2.43 ) From the formula shown in Figure 2.40·a/b + 7.41 ) Double edge cracks loaded in tension fI = 1.

Kt. Within the domain of d = 0.46 ) Figure 2. Since the geometry of the opening mode has changed. As indicated in Figure 2. which is higher than KIC [8]. the stress intensity factor is equal to K = fσ[π(D+a)]1/2 ( 2. Under certain conditions (e. KIC assumes a fracture without plastic deformation. which is called fracture toughness. reaches the critical value.g.σmin) (πa)1/2 ( 2.5.4 Crack propagation under fatigue load Consider a fatigue load that fluctuates at constant amplitude where the stresses vary between constant limit σmax and σmin. larger plastic deformations occur and the critical intensity factor is then defined as KC.31 (c).31 (a) and (b). This can be done through an empirical method where the stress gradients in the vicinity of the notch are taken into account.86 From tests it is known that instable fracture (final fracture) occurs when the crack length reaches a critical value ac or the stress intensity factor. KI.44 ) the stress intensity factor is computed based on a stress concentration factor. relatively thin plates). the area in the vicinity of the notch is divided into the areas of high stress gradients and of low stress gradients.45 ) In the remaining domain. The fracture toughness can be determined experimentally from tests with predetermined crack size a.32): o Region I: crack formation o Region II: moderate crack propagation o Region III: accelerated crack growth and fracture . and the stress intensity factor is calculated as: K = fKtσ(πa)1/2 ( 2. KIC.47 ) From the test of measuring the crack growth rate. Notched plates under loading with existing cracks at notches are shown in Figure 2. the expression of the stress intensity factor must be changed [17].13 (Dr)1/2 ( 2.31 Effect of notches on the stress intensity factor [17] 2. The range of the stress intensity factor can be expressed as: ∆K = Kmax – Kmin = f (σmax . it has been found that three regions can be divided on the crack propagation curve (see Figure 2.

Below a threshold value ∆Kth.52 ) The values of both the stress intensity factor at threshold point ∆Kth and the fracture toughness ∆Kc are provided through testing for practical application in design for fatigue [17]. while in the upper part the crack propagation rate increases rapidly and the ∆Kc reflects the failure point. i.Kmin ( 2.50 ) using ∆Kth = Kth . an incremental solution is possible for step-wise increased crack length ∆a.49 ) The initial crack length can be computed from the equation a = 1/π [∆K/(a(σmax-σmin))]2 ( 2. The number of cycles N between an initial crack length ai and final crack length af can obtained from integration of equation. In case of a geometry function depending on the crack length. . In logarithmic scale.87 Figure 2.48 ) C and m are material parameters. Nf = m 1 m C ⋅ ∆σ ( − 1) ⋅ π 2 2 m   1 1  m − m −1  a f 2 −1 ⋅f  ai 2      ( 2. the crack propagation rate da/dN (increase of crack length per cycle) and the range of the stress intensity factor can be expressed as: da/dN = C(∆K)m ( 2.Kmin ( 2.e.32 Three regions of crack growth rate [8] According to Paris and Erdogan [8]. the crack propagation is zero due to the existing fatigue limit. i. which describes the major part of the crack propagation domain (region II). the crack propagation law is a straight line.e.51 ) and crack at failure can be calculated using the same equation with ∆Kc = Kc .

In this section. material phases.1 Fatigue testing under variable loading In stress method. analysis methods concerning to variable loading will be discussed. It has been found . 2. where load amplitudes of the same size are gathered in blocks as shown in Figure 2. 2. very small cracks can be detected (smaller than grain size). The transition from a short crack to a long crack can occur if the cyclic load becomes so large that the threshold value of the stress intensity factor range is exceeded. inclusions and pores.6 Fatigue Analysis Under Variable Loads Until now we have described fatigue properties of structural component under constant amplitude.54 ) When the value of lower limit is less than zero. when σmin > 0. The behavior can be non-normal: the crack propagation rate may decrease with increasing crack length.6. σmin < 0. However. Models for considering above-mentioned effects have been developed by Newman et al. the fatigue test under variable load can be performed in the following scenarios [8]: o Prototype testing under realistic conditions (cars under real life condition). The crack propagation is determined by such effects as grain boundaries. Normally they start from the material surface along the slip bands under mode II.5. and Hou and Chang [8]. One relation developed by Forman.88   1 1  − m  m −1 −1 a 2 (a + ∆a) 2 ⋅f        ∆N = 1 m C ⋅ ∆σ m ( − 1) ⋅ π 2 2 m ( 2. the propagation law has to be amended with stress ratio based on testing data. the cracks stops growing due to compression at lower limit since the propagation occurs only at tensile stresses.e. At short cracks in ductile material. The load histories can be created from load spectra either in the form of block-program loading or random loading. Kearney and Engle has the form [17] da/dN = A (∆K)n / [(1-R)Kc .5 Short crack behavior Due to improved measurement techniques.∆K] ( 2. o Application of the original loading to components or structures in a laboratory.53 ) The total cycles to failure can be calculated as Nf = Σ (∆Ni) ( 2.33. Block-program loading is a simplified representation of the load process. the plastic zone is comparably large.55 ) where A and n are material properties. shear mode and can stop or propagate to larger size. i. 2. o Application of synthetic load histories to components and structures.

The sequence of load amplitudes during a random loading history is significantly different from that in a block-program test. Under random loading. o The order in which the stress blocks of different amplitudes are imposed does not affect the fatigue life. gives the fraction of damage. In addition. which is a linear damage rule assuming that: o The variable load that takes place irregularly can be replaced using an sequence of blocks of uniform cycles (see Figure 2. and if Ni is the number of cycles to failure at σi. Roughly it can be said amplitudes below half of the fatigue limit are non-damaging [8].33 (low-high-low) is a good compromise between different kinds of variable amplitude loading.34. then the Palmgren-Miner’s rule states that the failure would occur when ∑N i =1 m ni i =1 ( 2. the small amplitudes are frequently omitted. frequently changing amplitudes and mean stresses are more damaging than similar load cycles following each other.34 Random loading [8] 2.6. The type of load history strongly affects the fatigue life. the shorter fatigue life is expected. o Failure occurs when the linear sum of the damage from each load level reaches a critical value. i.89 that the block sequence in Figure 2. o The number of stress cycles imposed on a component. Figure 2. in a sequence of m blocks.35 (a) and (b)). σi.33 Block-program loading [8] Figure 2.2 Palmgren-Miner rule The fatigue life of a component under variable loading can be calculated using the Palmgren-Miner rule. The omissions of the small amplitude have influences on the fatigue life. If ni is the number of cycles corresponding to the stress amplitude.e. The typical random loading is shown in Figure 2. due to the high costs and long testing time of variable amplitude tests. expressed as a percentage of the total number of stress cycles of the same amplitude necessary to cause failure. This is due to the effect of sequence of amplitude.56 ) .

The basic rule of rainflow counting is defined as follows: o In order to eliminate the counting of half cycles. Several algorithms are available to perform the counting. In this section.90 and Di = 1 / Ni ( 2. the stresses less than the fatigue limit still cause damage due to the fact that larger amplitude cycles may start to propagate the crack. These two shortcomings might be overcome by non-linear damage rules. peak counting.35 Scheme of Palmgren-Miner’s rule Empirically.35 (c). 2. they all require that the entire load history be known before the counting process starts [4]. when variable amplitude loading is applied. Rainflow is a generic term to describe any cycle counting method that identifies closed hysteresis loops in stress-strain response of material subjected to cyclic loading. This can be overcome in practical design using a slope line after fatigue life instead of using a horizontal line as shown in Figure 2. we only provide the details of rainflow counting. however. However. Several methods are available to do cycle counting. there are two main shortcomings of the linear damage rule: assuming sequence independence and assuming independence of damage accumulation. o A flow of rain has to be stopped when . It should be noted that. Figure 2.35 (c). for instance.57 ) is called the damage of a single cycle at stress level σi.6. Thus. The scheme of Palmgren-Miner’s rule is shown in Figure 2. tests have shown that differences between low-high sequences and high-low sequence. simple range counting and rainflow counting. the load history has to be drawn as starting and ending at the greatest magnitude. level crossing counting.3 Cycle counting When using linear Palmgren-Miner’s rule to estimate the fatigue life. the variable amplitude loading has to be transformed into a series of constant amplitude loadings. The rule is first introduced by Palmgren in analysis of ball bearings and adapted by Miner for aircraft structure [17]. linear Palmgren-Miner’s rule assumes independence of damage accumulation.

36 Scheme of rainflow counting .36 illustrates the procedure of cycle counting using rainflow method. C. Figure 2.36 (b) due to it encounter the previous rain flow (Route 1). This is the rule (b).36 (c). the rainflow counting from compression peaks are shown in Figure 2. Similarly. The details of counting based on above-mentioned rule are described as follows: o Route 1 starts from A and falls down at B. Figure 2.91 a.36 (d) shows the cycles from both tension side and compression side. it will stop at the position shown in Figure 2. K.36 (a) is the initial loading history. Since the value of C is less than that of A. The rain encounters a previous flow Figure 2. o Route 2 starts from C and stops as shown in Figure 2. Similarly. I. and M. o Route 6 is based on rule (b). o Route 5 is based on rule (a). o Route 7 is based on rule (a). the rain can continually fall down to line CD. o Route 3 starts from E and stops due to the value of G being larger than that of E (rule (b)). This procedure is carried out based on rule (a). The counting is firstly started from the tension peaks. the value of A is larger than that of E.36 (b). This can be done as follows: Figure 2. The rain begins at a local maximum and falls opposite a local maximum that is greater than that where it came from b. o Route 4 is based on rule (b).

The similar procedures aforementioned for getting the stress range are applied to obtain the cycles of the strain ranges (Figure 2. Then check the route of compression side that starts from this same point. In this case it is Route 6′. when combined with the stress-strain relationship of material law. the crack increment. the fatigue life corresponding to each strain range level can be calculated. load interaction or load sequence effects.e.37 Rainflow counting for a strain history 2. Under variable amplitude loading. The total damage under this strain history can be computed using Palmgren-Miner’s rule with each fatigue life calculated above.36 (d). A tensile overload induces compressive residual stresses. In this section. Figure 2. After this counting. On the other hand. the hysteresis loops together with the mean stress effects are provided from rainflow counting (see Figure 2. the crack closure behavior is very complex particularly under variable amplitude loading [8]. i. crack retardation. which have acceleration effects.92 o Start from Route 1 of tension side and find the ending point of Route 1.4 Crack propagation under variable loading In previous sections we have paid our attentions to predict fatigue life under variable loading using stress method and strain method. however. which are beneficial for the following stress cycles. a compressive overload creates tensile residual stresses. Figure 2. other cycles in loading history are obtained as shown in Figure 2. Rainflow counting is easy to do manually for relatively simple loading history.38 shows that a single overload can considerably decrease crack growth rate. This is one cycle of loading. we will investigate the crack propagation behavior under variable loading. Besides. In addition.37 (c)). . Figure 2. The crack propagation behavior under constant loading can differ considerably from variable amplitude loading. but also on the load history.e. Using equation (2. i. for more complex loading history numerical methods are used [4].6. is dependent not only on the present crack size. ∆a. the stress range and number of cycles corresponding to the stress range are obtained and the damage can be estimated according to Palmgren-Miner’s rule under this variable history.37 shows the rainflow counting procedure for a strain history.37 (b)). Similarly.23).

38 Retardation effect of an overload on crack growth [8] 2. Sharp changes of direction generally occur at the toes of butt welds.39 Local stress concentrations at welds Figure 2.7 Fatigue Analysis of Welded Components In welded steel structures. is either very short or no existent.93 Figure 2.39). which is normally needed to start a crack in plain wrought material. i. and at the toes and roots of fillet welds (see Figure 2. Figure 2. These points cause local stress concentrations (see Figure 2. o Most structural welds have a rough profile. As a result. rather than from other details. most of the fatigue cracks start to grow from welds. Small discontinuities close to these points will therefore react as though they are in a more highly stressed member and grow faster. because [7]: o Most welding processes leave minute metallurgical discontinuities from which cracks may grow.e. Cracks therefore spend most of their life propagating.40).40 Typical stress distribution at weld toe . getting longer. the initiation period.

Therefore. With regard to the crack propagation behavior. Thus. (3) improper care of electrode or flux. planer imperfections (cracks and lack of fusion). tensile residual stresses up to yielding are expected.94 2. Some typical imperfections are shown in Figure 2. These imperfections may be caused by: (1) improper design that restricts accessibility for welding.41 Imperfections in welded joints [1] Normally. these imperfections can cause stress concentration that lowers the fatigue strength. volumetric discontinuities are usually less injurious than planar. Influence of mean stress and material strength From a large amount of test specimens. The effects of the following parameters on the fatigue behavior are investigated. imperfections of the weld geometry (weld reinforcement and undercut) and imperfections of the weld geometry (angular and axial misalignment) [8]. and orientation. irrespective of the R-values of the external load. shape. is governed by its size. (2) incorrect selection of a welding process or welding parameters.41. These imperfections include volumetric imperfections (blowholes and pores. crack closure does not occur if high-tensile residual stresses are presented in the area of the crack tip. Also crack-like discontinuities whose orientation is perpendicular to the tensile stress can be injurious than those . the influence of the material strength is not considered for welded components due to the strong notch effects. the influence of stress ratio is only taken into account very cautiously or not at all in the codes or regulations. Figure 2. Generally. This is because at the critical crack initiation points of the welded structures.7. which is due to the imperfections. and slug inclusions). the severity of discontinuity increases as the size increases. and as the geometry becomes more planar and the orientation more perpendicular to the direction of tensile stresses. it has been found that the stress ratio R has little influence on fatigue behaviors of welded components [8]. or both and (4) other causes including welder performance [1]. Influence of imperfections Imperfections can reduce the fatigue strength of the welded components considerably. crack-like discontinuities.1 Factors affecting the fatigue life Welded components can be regarded as manufacturing-related notches that reduce the fatigue strength. The severity of a discontinuity. The stress cycles are remained in tensile. Similarly. and by the magnitude and direction of the design and fabrication stresses.

Influence of residual stresses Residual stresses are those exist in a component that is free from externally applied loads. in a reduced crack initiation period. thus. residual stresses are always balanced so that the stress field is static equilibrium. o Removal of detrimental tensile residual stresses. The improvement mainly involves an extension of the crack initiation life and can be achieved by [8]: o A reduction of the stress peak related to the weld shape. the ratio between plate thickness and weld toe radius is larger for thicker plates. thus. the magnitude of these stresses exceeds the elastic limit of the lowest strength region in the weldment [1]. residual stresses are caused by the inability of the deposited molten weld metal to shrink freely as it cools and solidifies. total volume of deposited weld metal. Furthermore. In welded components. o Technological size effect: this effect is mainly attributed to material size and surface effects. tensile residual stresses usually have only a secondary effect on fatigue behavior of components. weld geometry. o Removal of crack-like weld imperfections at the weld toe. o Statistical size effect: the likelihood of finding a significant defect in a larger volume is increased compared to a small one. The magnitude of the residual stresses depends on such factors as the deposited weld beads. Often. weld sequence. hence. for welded joints. On the other hand. Furthermore. They are caused by non-uniform plastic deformations in neighboring regions. excessive tensile residual stress can also initiate unstable fracture in materials with low-fracture toughness. In particular. resulting in a shorter fatigue life.95 parallel to the tensile stress. up to the formation of favorable compressive residual stresses in the area susceptible to crack initiation. Influence of post-weld treatment Using post-weld treatment of the weld. resulting in a higher stress concentration and. a surface discontinuity whose plane is perpendicular to the tensile stress is more severe than if it were embedded [1]. . Influence of plate thickness The thickness of plate has an adverse effect on the fatigue strength due to the following reasons [8]: o Stress gradient effect: the tensile region of the stress field (including residual stresses) around the weld toe is larger in thicker plates so that an initial defect will experience a larger stress during crack initiation and early crack propagation. it is possible to improve the fatigue strength of welded joints considerably. and strength of the deposited weld metal and of the adjoining base metal as well as other factors. Because fatigue life is governed by the stress range instead of stresses. especially the fatigue limit.

it must be guaranteed that the fatigue strength of the area.42 Stress distribution at welded joints . the local material in the critical area is far from smooth and homogeneous. notch stress method. several materials are involved in welded components: base metal. In principle. which is not subjected to postweld treatment. Thus. Fatigue assessment according to nominal stress method uses standard S-N curves together with detail classes of basic joints that can be found in several standards and guidelines. Notch strain method is not widely used for welded components for two reasons.1 Definitions of stresses Before calculating the fatigue life using three methods mentioned above. heat affected zone and weld metal. Stress concentrations resulting from gross shape of the structure are included in the nominal stress. Reliable cycle data for different type of materials are rare and the numerical efforts to analyze the local stress and strain are high.2. is high enough.7. in this section.42). 2. hot spot stress and notch stress in welded joints are defined firstly (see Figure 2. 2. the notch stress and notch stress intensity method are closely related [8]. the hot spot stress method and notch stress method are discussed.96 Post-weld treatment is of particular interest in connection with the repair of fatigue cracks. The early crack propagation phase may form the major part of the fatigue life.2 S-N methods for evaluating fatigue life Several S-N methods are available for estimating the fatigue life of welded components: nominal stress method. Figure 2. notch stress intensity method and notch strain method [8]. Nominal stresses are those derived from simple beam models or from coarse mesh FEM models. Firstly. the nominal stress method. Secondly. the concepts of nominal stress.7. structural hot spot stress method. However.

44).1 is mainly based on this method. Each category is designated by a number which represents the reference value ∆σC of the fatigue strength at 2 million cycles.43 (a)). they are extrapolated using various methods from the points at certain distance away from weld toe.2. The values are rounded values.log N curves (see Figure 2.14). FEM can be used to calculate the notch stress.1 is defined by a series of log ∆σ . the relevant nominal stress is referred to the section through the weld throat (see Figure 2.97 Structural hot spot stresses.8.e.7 in Eurocode 3. a very fine mesh is necessary. Part 1.45 and more details types are provided in Table 9. due to the small notch radius and steep gradient.7.8. This is in most cases the section in front of weld toe. i.log N or log ∆τ . NC = 2 x 106. The latter are not the stresses due to the presence of welds. Part 1.1 [6]. Part 1. also called geometric stresses. Part 1. Eurocode 3. . In case of biaxial stress states. Notch stresses are the total stress at the weld toe and include the structural stresses and the stresses due to presence of the weld. Some common detail types and their fatigue categories are shown in Figure 2.1 to Table 9. Part 1. Figure 2. Instead. 2.1 are described in details. the design procedure based on Eurocode 3. each applying to a typical detail category. Calculation of nominal stress Usually. after shortly introducing the determination of nominal stress of welded joints.43 Example of cracks at welded joints with relevant principal stress σ1 [8] S-N curves in Eurocode 3. if a crack is expected to initiate from there (see Figure 2.43 (b)). In this section.2 Nominal stress method The simplest and most common method for estimating fatigue life is nominal stress method.1 The fatigue strength in Eurocode 3. the nominal stress is related to the section in which the crack is to be expected. the largest principal stress σ1 is taken (see Figure 2. However. If a crack is expected to propagate through weld from an unwelded root face. include nominal stresses and stresses from structural discontinuities.

45 Some common detail type and their fatigue categories [7] In addition. which is the limiting stress range value above which a fatigue assessment is necessary. One is the constant amplitude fatigue limit. i.e.98 Figure 2. two other concepts are defined in Figure 2. The number of cycles corresponding to constant amplitude fatigue limit is 5 million cycles.44 Family of design curves [6] Figure 2. ∆σD. ND = .44 (a).

The fatigue strength curves for nominal stresses are defined by log N = log a – m log ∆σR ( 2. metallurgical conditions.58 ) where ∆σR is the fatigue strength.601 16.e. m = 5.401 14.1 Detail category Numerical values for fatigue strength curves [6] Stress range at constant amplitude fatigue limit ∆σD (N/mm2) 117 104 93 83 74 66 59 52 46 41 37 33 29 26 log a for N < 108 Stress range at cut-off limit ∆σL (N/mm2) 64 57 51 45 40 36 32 29 26 23 20 18 16 14 ∆τL (N/mm2) 46 36 Normal stress range N > 105 N ≤ 105 ∆σC 2 (m = 5 ) (N/mm ) (m = 3 ) 160 12. These curves are based on representative experimental investigations and thus include the effects of local stress concentrations due to the weld geometry. NL = 108.851 15. The other is cut-off limit.99 5 x 106. the stresses less than the fatigue limit still cause damage due to the fact that larger amplitude cycles may start to propagate the crack.301 16. residual stresses.551 14. m is the slope constant of the fatigue strength curves with value of 3 and/or 5.536 71 11.1.001 15.251 14.286 63 11.701 15.536 45 11.101 14.286 40 11.751 16. The number of cycles corresponding to this value is 108 cycles. The cut-off limit is put forward because when variable amplitude loading is applied. i.151 15. i.e.451 16.286 100 12. the stress direction. and loga is a constant that depends on the related part of the slope and their values are given in Table 2.036 140 17.786 125 12. ∆σL.036 90 12.536 112 12. and in some cases.786 50 11. Table 2.901 17. the welding process and post-weld improvement procedures. size and shape of acceptable discontinuities.786 80 12. N is the number of stress range cycles. Part 1.951 13.036 56 11. which is a limit below which stress ranges of the design spectrum do not contribute to the calculated cumulative damage.1: o The largest nominal stress range ∆σ satisfies: .786 Shear stress range N < 108 ∆τC 2 (m = 5 ) (N/mm ) 100 16.1 No fatigue assessment is required when any of the following condition is satisfied according to Eurocode 3.301 80 15.44 (b)) and only one slope value is taken.036 36 10. Part 1.801 ------------------ Fatigue analysis based on Eurocode 3. Similar fatigue strength curves are used for shear stresses (Figure 2.

64 ) in which ni is the number of cycles of stress range ∆σi during the required design life. which is defined as the constant amplitude stress range that would result in the same fatigue life as for the spectrum of variable amplitude stress ranges. c) a fatigue strength curve with double slope constants (m =3 and m =5). .63 ) where Dd = Σ (ni / Ni ) ( 2. N.00 1.2)]3 ( 2.1 [6]. which is Table 9.15 Non “fail-safe” components 1.61 ) In these conditions. ∆σE.3. Table 2. the fatigue assessment shall be based on Palgren-Miner rule of cumulative damage. and Ni is the number of cycles of stress range γFf·γMf·∆σi to cause failure for the relevant detail category.100 γFf ∆σ ≤ 26 / γMf N/mm2 ( 2. and a cut-off limit at N = 1000 million cycles.35 Otherwise. “Fail-safe” components 1. the fatigue assessment criterion for constant amplitude loading is: γFf ∆σ = ∆σR / γMf ( 2. γMf is the partial safety factor for fatigue strength and its value are provided in Table 2. Periodic inspection and maintenance. Accessible joint details. Part 1. If the maximum stress range due to variable loading is higher than the constant amplitude fatigue limit.59 ) o The total number of stress cycles. For variable amplitude loading.2.60 ) o For a detail for which a constant amplitude fatigue limit ∆σD is specified. A value of γFf = 1.25 1. the largest stress range ∆σ satisfies: γFf ∆σ ≤ ∆σ / γMf ( 2.2 Partial safety factor for fatigue strength γMf [6] Inspection and access Periodic inspection and maintenance.62 ) where ∆σ is the nominal stress range and ∆σR is the fatigue strength for the relevant detail category for the total number of stress cycles N during the required design life. satisfies: N ≤ 2 x 106 [(36/γMf) / (γFf ∆σE. Cumulative damage calculations shall be based on one of the following: a) a fatigue strength curve with a single slope constant m = 3.2 is the equivalent constant amplitude stress range (N/mm2). Poor accessibility. b) a fatigue strength curve with double slope constants (m =3 and m = 5).1 in Eurocode 3.0 may be applied in the design calculation. when the comparison is based on a Miner’s summation [6]. γFf is the partial safety factor for fatigue loading and its value are provided in Eurocode 1 [5]. changing at the constant amplitude fatigue limit. a cumulative damage assessment may be made using: Dd ≤ 1 ( 2.

but using a single slope constant m = 5. Ni may be calculated as follows: o if γFf ∆σi ≥ ∆σD / γMf Ni = 5 x 106 [[(∆σD / γMf) / (γFf ∆σi)]3 ( 2. The fatigue strength curves to be used in conjunction with the hollow section joint details for lattice girders shown in Table 9. should be treated similarly to nominal normal stress ranges. are those shown in Figure 2. are given in Figure 2.8.8. In the absence of rigorous stress analysis and modeling of the joint. The values in these two tables are approximate empirical values or values based on testing. o for joints in lattice girders made from rectangular hollow sections.3.1 may be analyzed neglecting the effect of eccentricities and joint stiffness. In these calculations. The member force for hollow sections according to Eurocode 3. the throat thickness of a fillet weld shall not be less than the wall thickness of the hollow section member that it connects. ∆τ. They have a single slope constant of m = 5. The corresponding values for numerical calculations of the fatigue strength are given in Figure 2. see Table 2.4. Ni = 2 x 106 [[(∆τC / γMf) / (γFf ∆τi)]5 ( 2.46. provided that the effects of secondary bending moments on stress range are considered.66 ) o if γFf ∆σi < ∆σL / γMf Ni = ∝ ( 2. see Table 2. Case (c) is most general. Ni may be calculated as: o if γFf ∆τi ≥ ∆τL / γMf.68 ) o if γFf ∆τi < ∆τL / γMf. Ni = ∝ ( 2. Part 1. .1. Part 1.101 d) a fatigue strength curve with a single slope constant m = 5 and a cut-off limit at N = 100 cycles.7 in Eurocode 3.6 in Eurocode 3. When using case (c) and with a constant amplitude fatigue limit ∆σD at 5 million cycles.65 ) o if ∆σD / γMf > γFf ∆σi ≥ ∆σL / γMf Ni = 5 x 106 [[(∆σD / γMf) / (γFf ∆σi)]5 ( 2. Part 1. They have double slope constant of m = 3 and m =5.69 ) Fatigue assessment of hollow sections The fatigue strength curves to be used in conjunction with the hollow details shown in Table 9.67 ) Nominal shear stress ranges.5.44. the effects of secondary bending moment may be taken into account by multiplying the stress range due to axial member forces by appropriate coefficients as follows: o for joints in lattice girders made from circular hollow sections.1. assuming hinged connections.

051 Stress range at cut-off limit (N=108) ∆σL (N/mm2) 41 32 26 23 20 16 Figure 2.46 Fatigue strength curves for joints in lattice girders Table 2. i. . fatigue assessment shall be carried out using the procedure based on geometric stress ranges.0 Diagonals 1.5 1. Part 1.4 1.3 1.5 Verticals 1.8 1.5 1.102 Table 2.801 14.2 1.1.2 1. for non-welded details or stress relieved welded details.4 For the construction details not listed in Eurocode 3.5 1.051 15.0 2.5 1. In addition.3 1.0 1. the effective stress to be used shall be determined by adding the tensile portion of the stress range and 60% of the compressive portion of the stress range.25 Coefficients to account for secondary bending moments in joints of lattice girders made from rectangular hollow sections [6] Type of joint Gap joints K type N type Overlap joints K type N type Fatigue strength modifications Chords 1.0 1.6 1.5 mm.65 Diagonals 1. hot spot stresses method whose calculation procedure are described in next section [6].0 2.551 14.e.5 1. all hollow section members and tubular joints with wall thickness greater than 12.5 Chords 1.3 Numerical values for fatigue strength curves for hollow sections Detail category ∆σC (N/mm2) 90 71 56 50 45 36 log a for N<108 16.4 Coefficients to account for secondary bending moments in joints of lattice girders made from circular hollow sections [6] Type of joint Gap joints K type N type Overlap joints K type N type Table 2.5 1.551 15.5 1.051 14.5 Verticals 1.

is on producing a structure in which a crack will propagate slowly. The nominal stresses at these connections are often impossible to . instead of being on the prevention of crack initiation. The problem of local stresses in the vicinity of weld toes in tubular joints is one of the most difficult stress distributions in steel structures. when material thickness is greater than 25 mm. The basic principle of “fail-safe” design is therefore to produce a multiple load-path structure. “Safe-life” and “fail-safe” concepts of structural design “Fail-safe” and “safe-life” are the two concepts of structural design [7]. This concept implies that periodic in-service inspection is a necessity. and that the methods used must be such as to ensure that cracked members will be discovered so that repairs or replacements can be made. Where the detail category in the classification tables already varies with thickness.t = ∆σR (25 / t)0.2. the designer can govern the probability of failure associated with his design. the “safe-life” should also be evaluated. It is clear that with this method of design the probability of partial failure is much greater than with the “safe-life” design. in order to make sure that it is of the right order of magnitude.7.1 in the following way: the variation of fatigue strength with thickness shall be taken into account. there will always be sufficient strength and stiffness in the remaining part to enable the structure to be used safely until the crack is discovered. even if failure of part of the main structure does occur. the emphasis is on prevention of crack initiation [7]. 2. In the “safe-life” method. These components are then analyzed or tested under that load spectrum so as to obtain its expected life. However. the above correction for thickness shall not applied. In addition. In developing a “fail-safe” structure. the structural elements must be arranged so as to make inspections as easy as possible.103 The influence of the thickness of the parent metal in which a potential crack may initiate and propagate are taken into account in Eurocode 3. This reduction shall be only applied only to structural details with welds transverse to the direction of the normal stresses. With the “fail-safe” concept. and preferably a structure containing crack arresters. On the other hand. if a fatigue crack does occur. it may well be catastrophic. or fatigue crack growth is so slow that there is no risk of failure [7].25 ( 2. the emphasis. by reducing the fatigue strength using: ∆σR. Part 1. When the material thickness of the constructional detail is less than 25 mm. It is clear that via making the safety factor sufficient large.70 ) with t > 25 mm. the elements must be oversized so that either fatigue cracking does not occur in them. Finally a factor of safety is applied in order to give a safe life during which the possibility of fatigue failure is considered to be sufficiently remote. the fatigue strength shall be taken as that for a thickness of 25 mm. the designer starts by making an estimation of the load spectrum to which the critical structural components are likely to be subjected in service. and which is capable of supporting the full design load after partial failure. the basis of design is that. and safety depends on achieving a specified life without a fatigue crack developing. With this method. In areas where that is not possible.3 Hot-spot stress method The concept of a hot spot stress is originated in the design of offshore structures.

thus invalidating some of the basic conditions for using nominal stress approach. A S-N curve relates the hot spot stress range to the expected fatigue life of a welded joint. excluding local stress concentration effects due to the weld geometry and discontinuities at the weld toe. In quadratic extrapolation. . two extrapolation methods based on ECSC are shown in Figure 2. linear extrapolation and quadratic extrapolation [16]. Part 1. In Eurocode 3. The determination of hot spot stress is only a step in determining the fatigue life of a specific connection and load case. two points on the curve determined from all data points are used for the extrapolation: the first is 0. The stresses at interpolation points can be obtained either from a FEM calculation or from an experimental measurement. • Category 71.6t further. The second point is taken to be 0.4t from the weld toe with a minimum of 4 mm.47. In Eurocode 3. Thus.1. Niemi [10] has listed several cases where the hot spot stress approach is more suitable than the nominal stress weld classification approach: o o o o o there is no clearly defined nominal stress due to complicated geometric effects. As an example. The hot spot stresses or strains arrived at in this manner are divided by the nominal stress or strain to arrive at the stress concentration factor (SCF) or strain concentration factor (SNCF) [16]. The quadratic extrapolation is carried out through these two points and other points between these two points and thereby obtaining the quadratic SCF. for the above-mentioned reasons. the influence of the local weld notch stresses can be excluded by carrying out an extrapolation procedure of the geometric stresses from outside this region. the first point is 0. when both weld profile and permitted weld defects acceptance criteria are satisfied.48): a) For full penetration butt welds: • Category 90.0t further. The geometrical hot spot stress was introduced with the definition of reference points for stress evaluation and extrapolation at certain distance away from the weld [3]. the structural discontinuity is not comparable with any classified details in the design rules. The second point on the curve is taken 1. the hot spot stress is defined as the maximum principal stress in the parent material adjacent to the weld toe taking into account only the overall geometry of the joint. the fatigue strength curves to be used for fatigue assessments based on hot spot stress range. i. The maximum value of geometric stress range or hot spot stress range shall be found by investigating various locations at the weld toe around welded joint or the stress concentration area. a finite element analysis or an experimental model.e. Part 1. the finite element method is used. The hot spot stresses may be determined using stress concentration factors obtained from parametric formulae within their domains of validity. one S-N can be used to describe the fatigue behavior [8]. field testing of a prototype structure is performed using hot spot strain gauge measurements. Since the local stress concentration due to weld geometry and irregularities at the weld toe cannot easily be determined. when only permitted weld defects acceptance criteria are satisfied. In linear extrapolation method.4t from the weld toe with a minimum of 4 mm. offset or angular misalignments exceeds the fabrication tolerances. It has been shown that for seam-welded structures the fatigue resistances are similar.1.104 define. shall be [6] (see Figure 2.

this because: o Principal stresses can be significantly higher than stresses perpendicular to the weld toe. the following things might be concerned [16]: Stress or strain based definition Although in most design recommendations. o Only stress components perpendicular to the weld are enlarged by stress concentration caused by the global weld shape and the wall of the adjacent member. The nominal stress and strain can be easily converted using σ = E ε. the use of stresses perpendicular to the weld might be possible. This is also the reason why the direction of crack growth is usually mainly along the toe of the weld. As for the hot spot stress method. especially at the initial stage of the crack. the hot spot stress are principal stresses. whereas stresses would require strain gauge rosettes to measure various strain components. yet closer to the weld the stresses are diverted to the weld by the stiffening influence of weld and attached wall. This is due to the fact that the strain can be measured easily by individual strain gauges. Therefore. the difference between principal stresses and stresses perpendicular to the weld toe decreases closer to the weld. Another reason is that stresses cannot significantly exceed the yield stress and in lower cycle fatigue. However.1.105 Figure 2. in many cases these are really based on strains. Part 1. the hot spot stress and stress concentration factors are used.47 Method of extrapolation to the weld toe Figure 2. Type of stress to be used In Eurocode 3. the failure mechanism is strain based rather than stress based. .48 Fatigue strength curves for hot spot stress method [6] b) For load carrying partial penetration butt welds and fillet welds: • Category 36 or alternatively a fatigue strength curve obtained from adequate fatigue test results.

the toe radius or the influence of weld toe improvement techniques. one thing should mention that the hot spot stress method is not suitable for the analysis of fatigue cracks from embedded weld defects or weld roots. 2. 2. to the extent that other techniques might be preferred to enhance the fatigue behavior. e. which is usually obtained by means of a FE analysis. In those cases fracture mechanics is often a suitable assessment tool [10]. which is to be multiplied with the SCFs of the hot spot stress method [16]. e.3 Crack propagation method The crack propagation approach has found much application in the fatigue assessment of welded joints mainly due to the following reasons: . especially the leg length. o The direction of the principal stress would be different for different load cases.g.. especially the leg length. o Extrapolation of principal strains or stresses would require extrapolation of all components. the stress gradient. Usually. additional stress concentration factors can be established. since the weld toe is moved away from the highest stress range. which is rather cumbersome. e. The main advantage compared to nominal and structural hot spot stress method is that the local geometry of the weld seam can be considered. the weld profile must be controlled. o The weld shape.4 Notch stress method Notch stress method requires knowledge of the stress distribution in the vicinity of the weld. As a result. Finally. o To take full advantage of this method.7. the flank angle and the actual weld toe radius [8].7. Factors not covered by hot spot stress method The following factors are not covered in the hot stress method o The stress fields around the hot spot. o Global geometry of the weld. prohibiting superposition of load cases. a number of disadvantages to the notch stress method exist [16]: o The determination of the effect of local stress raisers in a uniform way for inclusion in design guidelines is still a problem.2. this is very difficult and hence expensive. o The condition of the weld toe.106 o Strains perpendicular to the weld toe can be measured by simple strain gauges instead of strain gauge rosettes. However. affects not only the local notch stresses but also the hot spot stress.g. the effect of the throat thickness.g.. The influence of the notch and the notch stress can be obtained from a FE analysis of a small region in the vicinity of the weld using a fine 2D (shell) or 3D (solid) mesh.

and the critical welded details have been identified in the inset sketch and numbered 1 to 5. if present. cracks initiating from weld toes and cracks from unwelded root faces. The box girders have diaphragms at intervals along this length.107 o The crack initiation phase is normally shorter than the crack propagation phase due to the relatively sharp notches and weld imperfections. i. for instance.49. Radaj [12.1 Introduction This example is a fatigue analysis of an existing design to check the fatigue life of critical weld details.49 Details of the crane . Details of the crane are shown Figure 2.8 Calculation Examples According to Eurocode 3 2.e. 2.8. The calculations of propagation are distinguished from the positions of the cracks. The detail calculation can be found in corresponding literatures. The factors that affect the propagation are considered in the stress intensity factor. The crane trolley runs on rails supported by two box girders. act as crack starter with a short crack initiation phase. Figure 2. 13]. o Unwelded root gaps and weld defects.

8.108 The crane travels the length of the girders 20 times/day carrying a load of 15 tons (150 kN) including dynamic effects.3. 4 mm throat Transverse manual fillet at bottom edge of diaphragm to web weld Transverse manual fillet at top edge of diaphragm to top flange weld Web to top flange longitudinal manual T-butt weld under crane rail Welded stud bolt for fastening rail.e.3 Stress calculations 2.1 are as follows: Weld EC3 Category 1 EC 100 2 3 4 5 EC 80 EC 80 EC 112/EC 71 EC 80 Description Longitudinal web to bottom flange manual fillet weld. closing welds of the box section. Part 1. the dead weight of the trolley being 1 ton (10kN).8.1 Calculation of moment inertia and section modulus Area of each element top flange bottom flange web A t_f := bt_flange ⋅ tt_flange A b_f := b b_flange ⋅ t b_flange A w := h web⋅ t web A t_f = 5 × 10 mm 3 3 2 2 A b_f = 5 × 10 mm A w = 5 × 10 mm 3 2 . 2.8. i. The analysis is carried out for the case when the trolley returns empty. The crane operates 200 days per year. the following cycles are accumulated each year: o 20 x 200 times a load of 150 kN o 10 x 200 times trolley returns empty o 10 x 200 times trolley returns with a load of 70 kN The weld descriptions and their categorization for fatigue purpose by Eurocode 3.2 Given values b t_flange := 500⋅ mm b b_flange := 500⋅ mm kN := 10 ⋅ N Ls := 15⋅ m 3 tt_flange := 10⋅ mm tb_flange := 10⋅ mm W 1 := 150⋅ kN h web := 500⋅ mm t web := 10⋅ mm W 2 := 70⋅ kN W dead := 10⋅ kN 2. and then for the case when the trolley returns carrying a load of 7 tons (70kN).

417 × 10 mm 4 Ibottom_f = 4.042 × 10 mm 4 8 4 4 4 1 3 4 Iweb := ⋅ 500 ⋅ 10⋅ mm 12 1 3 4 Itop_f := ⋅ 650⋅ 10 ⋅ mm 12 1 3 4 Ibottom_f := ⋅ 500⋅ 10 ⋅ mm 12 Total 2 Itop_f = 5.659 × 10 mm 9 4 I := Total 1 + 2⋅ Iweb + Ibottom_f + Itop_f − Total 2 I = 9.92 × 10 mm 6 3 Zbottom := Zbottom = 3.494 × 10 mm 8 4 The section modulus can be calculated as: Ztop := (500⋅ mm + 10⋅ mm + 10⋅ mm − ycg ) I y cg I Ztop = 3.109 Distance from centroid of each element to bottom flange top flange bottom flange web y t_f := h web + tb_flange + y b_f := y w := tb_flange 2 + tb_flange t t_flange 2 y t_f = 515mm y b_f = 5 mm y w = 260mm hweb 2 The values of the calculation are shown in the following table: Element Area A top flange 6500 bottom flange 5000 Webs 10000 Total 21500 * Distance from bottom flange y* 515 5 260 Ay Ay^2 3347500 1723962500 25000 125000 2600000 676000000 5972500 2400087500 The position of neutral axis can be calculated as: ycg y cg := ⋅ 5972500mm 21500⋅ mm 2 3 ΣAy ΣA .167 × 10 mm 4 (ΣA )⋅ y cg 2 2 2 Total 2 := 21500⋅ mm ⋅ y cg Total 2 = 1. i.e.418 × 10 mm 6 3 .791mm The moment of inertia can be calculated as: Total 1 ΣAy 2 Total 1 := 2400087500mm ⋅ Iweb = 1. y cg = 277.

3.8. MPa := 10 ⋅ Pa ∆σ( y ) := ∆M ⋅ y I y 1 := h web 2 6 h := h web + tt_flange + tb_flange h = 520mm Point 1 ∆σ y 1 = 78. The load is assumed to be carried equally between the two girders.996MPa ∆σ y 2 = 53.535MPa ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Point 2 y 2 := y cg − tb_flange − 100⋅ mm y 3 := h − tt_flange − y cg y 4 := h − tt_flange − y cg y 5 := h − y cg Point 3 Point 4 Point 5 .110 2.2 Calculation of moment inertia and section modulus Participation of the crane rail is ignored. the bending moment due to living loading will go from zero to maximum and back to zero.019MPa ∆σ y 3 = 73. Bending σ M⋅ y I or σ M Z ∆M := (W 1 + W dead )⋅ Ls This calculation leads to the following results for the stress ranges at different weld details under the full load conditions.375MPa ∆σ y 5 = 76. Maximum bending moment range per girder: ∆M = 300kN⋅ m 2⋅ 4 The stresses can be calculated using simple bending theory.375MPa ∆σ y 4 = 73. The highest bending stresses will be at mid-span when the trolley is also at mid-span.e. As the trolley passes from one end to the other end of the girders. i.

is the stress range at cut-off limit. γ Mf := 1.375MPa ∆σ(y 4) = 73.8.35 is the partial safety factor for fatigue strength according to Table 9.535MPa ∆σ y 1 = 78. ∆σD ∆σL is the stress range at constant amplitude fatigue limit. Ni may be calculated as follows: Ni ∆σi ( )   ∆σD     γ ∆σD 6   Mf   5⋅ 10 ⋅  if γ Ff ⋅ ∆σi ≥  γ Mf  γ Ff⋅ ∆σi    ∆σD     γ ∆σD ∆σL 6   Mf   5⋅ 10 ⋅  if > γ Ff ⋅ ∆σi ≥  γ Mf γ Mf  γ Ff⋅ ∆σi  ∞ if γ Ff ⋅ ∆σi < ∆σL γ Mf 5 3 in which.375MPa ∆σ(y 5) = 76. γ Ff := 1.996MPa 2. the following categories and characteristic values for each welded details are provided according to Eurocode 3  100   80   ∆σC :=  80  ⋅ MPa  112    80   74   59   ∆σD :=  59  ⋅ MPa  83    59   40   32   ∆σL :=  32  ⋅ MPa  45    32   ∆σ(y 1)    ∆σ(y 2)    ∆σi :=  ∆σ(y 3)   ∆σ y   ( 4)   ∆σ(y ) 5   .0 is the partial safety factor for fatigue loading.4 Assessment for the trolley carrying the full load of 150 kN According to Eurocode 3. According to the welded details.3.019MPa ∆σ(y 3) = 73.111 The bending stress ranges are summarized in the following table: Weld 1 2 3 4 5 Bending stress range ( ) ∆σ(y 2) = 53.1.

375   76. 0 6           N2 := Ni ∆σi . 0 0. 0 let 5 6 6  N1    N2    N150 :=  N3  N   4  N5    1. ∆σL  = 2.8 × 10 1. 0 3. ∆σD . 0 2. 0 1.67 × 106    6   2. ∆σL  = 9. 0 4. 0 0.019   ∆σi =  73.31 × 10 4. 0 N5 := Ni ∆σi . ∆σL  = 1. 0 1. ∆σD . ∆σD .112  78.941 × 10 3.   20⋅ 200  n150 :=  20⋅ 200   20⋅ 200    20⋅ 200   20⋅ 200   4 × 103    3  4 × 10  n 150 =  4 × 103     4 × 103     4 × 103   . ∆σD . 0 6 N3 := Ni ∆σi .996  53. ∆σD .375 MPa  73. 0 N4 := Ni ∆σi .057 × 106     6  2. 0 2.8 × 10  N150 =  1.941 × 10   9. 0 4. ∆σL  = 1. 0 3.31 × 105   Since the crane travels the length of girders 20 times per day and the crane operates 200 days a year. Therefore. ∆σL  = 2. ∆σD .67 × 10 0. ∆σL) := 5⋅ 10 ⋅  if γ Ff ⋅ ∆σi ≥  γ Mf  γ Ff⋅ ∆σi    ∆σD     ∆σD ∆σL   γ Mf   6  5⋅ 10 ⋅  > γ Ff ⋅ ∆σi ≥  if γ γ Mf Mf  γ Ff⋅ ∆σi  ∞ if γ Ff ⋅ ∆σi < ∆σL γ Mf 5 3 N1 := Ni ∆σi .535   ∆σD     γ ∆σD 6   Mf   Ni(∆σi.057 × 10 2.

have a minimum value of 14 MPa for category EC 36.  39. 0 3.574 × 10 0.8.6 Assessment for the trolley returning carrying load of 70 kN In this case. 2.8. ∆σD . 0 N5 := Ni ∆σi .687   38.687 MPa  36.715 × 10 4. 0 2. 0 1.428 × 10  D150 =  3.e.609 × 10 3. ∆σL.395 × 10− 3    −3  1. i. 0 3. 0 N3 := Ni ∆σi . 0 0. ∆σD .296 × 10− 3   2. ∆σL  = 9. 0 7 7 7 6 .267 7 ∆σi := ∆σi 2 N1 := Ni ∆σi . These ranges are all less than 10 MPa.199 × 10 2. These cycles have to be assessed separately to find their damage sum n/N per year. ∆σL  = 2. i. 0 N4 := Ni ∆σi .36 × 10− 3     4. ∆σL  = 6. ∆σL  = 1. 0           N2 := Ni ∆σi .498  26. 0 0. ∆σD . each detail experiences half the number of cycles of stress ranges at a level of (80/160). half the full stress ranges calculated above. 0 1.786 × 10− 3     1. 0 2.  D150 :=    → n150  N150   2.e.113 The damage per year for each welded detail can be calculated using ni Ni .51   ∆σi =  36. Adopting this value the applied stress ranges due to empty return trolley are all less than ∆σL / γ Mf and can be ignored. The cut-off limits for all categories for direct stress ranges. ∆σD .5 Assessment for the trolley returning empty The weight of the empty trolley is 10 kN compared to 160 kN for the fully loaded trolley.089 × 10 1. 0 4. ∆σD . The bending stress ranges due to the passage of the empty trolley will be 1/16 of those for the full trolley. 0 4. ∆σL  = 6.

e.395 × 10− 3    −3  1.089 × N70 =  1.285 × D70 =  1.667 ×   3.114 let  N1    N2    N70 :=  N3  N   4  N5    2.771 ×    3.199 ×   6.  10⋅ 200   10⋅ 200   n 70 :=  10⋅ 200   10⋅ 200    10⋅ 200  2×   2× n70 =  2 ×  2×  2×  10 10 3 3  3 10  3 10  10 3  The damage per year for each welded detail can be calculated using ni Ni .667 ×   3.574 ×    6.026 ×   2.  2. i.771 ×    3.8.026 ×   2. Therefore.428 × 10  D150 =  3.36 × 10− 3     4.786 × 10− 3     1.285 × D70 =  1.715 ×  10 10 7 7  7 10  7 10  6 10  Since the crane travels the length of girders 10 times per day and the crane operates 200 days a year.  D70 :=    → n 70  N70   7.059 ×  10 10 10 10 10 −5 −5 −4 −5 −4     .059 ×  10 −5 −5 −4 −5 −4 10 10 10 10     2. The sum of the n/N contributions is used in Palmgren-Miner’s Rule.296 × 10− 3    7.7 Assemblage of the calculated damage and determination of the fatigue life The contributions of the damage due to the different loading cases for the same detail are added. and for design purpose Σ n N 1 The fatigue life in years is then the reciprocal of the sum Σn/N per year.609 ×   9.

D.115 The total damage can be calculated as: D := D150 + D70  2. (1982).A.tu-harburg. Fatigue of Materials and Structures. Fifth Edition. M.. Eurocode 3:Design of Steel Structures: Part 1.472 × 10− 3    −3  1. W.358   222. ENV 1993-1-1 (1992). http://www.de/skf/fatiguecourse/. A. Working Group 12. (2003).39 × 10− 3     4.. P.. M. S. 4. Vol. J. C. Simple Rainflow Counting Algorithms. Teräsrakenneyhdistys. 4. Inc. J. (2003). Downing. and Weissenborn. Fatigue and Fracture Control in Structures: Application of Facture Mechanics. Boresi. 31-40. 2. pp. Barsom. International Journal of Fatigue. International journal of fatigue. 3. 8. W.364   Fatigue_life =  252.1. D. and Socie. (1999). S. Seminar organized by Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials. Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Actions on Structures. John Wiley and Sons. European Steel Design Educational Program (ESDEP). 25. R.108 2. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Advanced Mechanics of Materials. O.9 References 1. Doerk.502 × 10− 3   The fatigue life for each welded detail can be calculated as:  → 1 Fatigue_life :=   D  404.496  684. and Sidebottom. and Rolfe.953 × 10− 3     1. Comparison of different calculation method for structural stresses at welded joints.S. 5. ENV-1991-1-1 (1994). Fatigue. Part 1: Basis of design. Vol. . Fricke. Fricke. O. No. 1. pp. T. 6. 7.359-369.992  719. U. (1993).461 × 10  D =  3. F. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Schmidt.

Pa. J. Mechanics of Materials Laboratory. Hertzberg. No. CRC Press. A. Fatigue Testing and Analysis using the Hot Spot Method.. Multiaxial Fatigue. and Torbilo. Fatigue Assessment of Welded Joints by Local Approaches. D. Fatigue Design Life Expectancy of Machine Parts. A Solomon Press Book. 35. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. Espoo.washington. Second Edition. John Wiley and Sons. Marquis. E. and Wardenier. Cambridge England. 10. (1998).. (2000).1. 14. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Course Notes (2003). Cambridge England. (1995). Cambridge University Press.71-115.M. and Kähönen. Criteria for the Fatigue Assessment of Hollow Structural Section Connections. S. (1996). Radaj. (1998). W. Abington Publishing. C. Socie. Von Wingerde. and Sonsino. 11. VTT publications. A.. M. R.edu/me354a/notes.A. 15. Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials. Fatigue of Materials. 239. G. in Association with The Welding Institute. Inc. Finland. 13. No.116 9. Packer. G. (1995). (1996). V. pp. Vol. F. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). D. 16. Suresh. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Radaj. B. http://courses. in Association with The Welding Institute.. Abington Publishing. and Marquis. (1990). J. Zahavi. 17. Design and Analysis of Fatigue Resistant Welded Structures.html 12. . Inc. Warrendale.

Kesti.. R. Mäkeläinen. Vuolio. P. Finite Element Modelling of Cold-Formed Steel Members at High Temperatures.. 2000. J. Perttola. Halonen. 2003 Mäkeläinen... Kaksoisjulkisivujärjestelmien rakennetekniikka. M. L. J. J. Tenhunen. Lu. O. Outinen. Lu.. A. T. J. High-Temperature Testing of Structural Steel and Modelling of Structures at High Temperatures. Kupari.. Optimum Design of Cold-Formed Steel Purlins using Genetic Algorithms. Rosette-Joints and Steel Trusses. Esitutkimus. 2001. Fire Safety Design of Composite Slim Floor Structures.. Seminar on Steel Structures: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structures. H. 2003 TKK-TER-16 TKK-TER-17 TKK-TER-18 TKK-TER-19 TKK-TER-20 TKK-TER-21 TKK-TER-22 TKK-TER-23 TKK-TER-24 TKK-TER-25 TKK-TER-26 TKK-TER-27 TKK-TER-28 ISBN 951-22-6732-2 ISSN 1456-4327 . Viljanen.. O.2000. P. Metalli-lasirakenteisen kaksoisjulkisivun materiaalien soveltamiskriteerit. K. Vuolio.. Lintula. Vuolio. S. Kaksoisjulkisivun suunnitteluohjeet. Structural Behaviour of Glass Structures in Facades. Malaska. 2000.. Kesti. A. P. J. Mäkeläinen.. Alinikula. A. A. M. J.. Alinikula. Bergman. P. J... Metalli-lasirakenteet kaksoisjulkisivuissa. Söderlund. Outinen. 2003 Tenhunen. Palmi. Z. Local and Distortional buckling of Perforated Steel Wall Studs. Lehtovaara. 2001. O. 2001... Kesti. 2002. Lehtinen.. Hänninen. O. 2000. O. 2000. Ma. K.. J. W. Behaviour of a Semi-Continuous Beam-Column Connection for Composite Slim Floors. 2003 Vuolio.. P. K. Viljanen.... Research Report and Design Recommendations. T. Kaitila.HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY OF STEEL STRUCTURES PUBLICATIONS TKK-TER-15 Hara. Neural Network Model for Distortional Buckling Behaviour of Cold-Formed Steel Compression Members . 2001. T. Tenhunen. O... J.. Lintula. Uuttu. Kaitila.. O. Kaitila. W. M. Kaitila.. Mäkeläinen.

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