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ndrfScsrfSa&S awGmif;w&sm;a&S obm0taomift&ifS oGrf.oOfa&S xmSxD.xmSao vGdKif.uGKefSa&S

vdwfapmif.
aeif. 1373 Am. vm'JOf&kwfS May 2011 Vol: 1 No:2 twG,fS (1) trJkif (2)

uwl.pJOf.

vdwfrJhig

owifS
• a[mfSxGm;c&m. ref;crf;ukd owifS&Grf&Jrf 2

tm.&k%f.wom tkHxGdKif.csuf
• tm.&k%f.wom aig0f;w,f.tGOf • &kyfw,GdK@ • zpf[GKefvdwfrl 4 9 10 6

pGdK;cGdKStwm. tusKdSuxGmtD'g.e0fS

vdwfrJhig = 8

obm0 taomift&ifS
• a[m0faorwfawmifSwvDSa-umif;pifa&S tausmifS

pGdK;cGdKSa&S
• pGdK;cGdKSvGKrf;AOfSa&S ,HurGHSwJkifvGOfaem0fS • pepfuJkiftrGD. t0f.tH.eD,m. t0f.qsm.eDoGD. 3 5

a[m0faorwfawmifSwvDSa-umif;pifa&S tausmifS
vdwfrJhig = 6

xmSxD.wGrf. xmS,l.
• crf;uauefSAm. yGdK;yg.ygSrJkifS 10

ynm.a&SwGrf. vGdKif.uGKefSa&S
• pGdK;cGdKStwm. tusdKSuxGmtD'g.e0fS 8

crf;uauefSAm. yGdK;yg.ygSrJkifS

vdwfrJhig = 10

A[kokw &Grf&Jrf
• aig0f;a0g[m& 10

pepfuJkiftrGD. t0f.tH.eD,m. t0f.qsm.eDoGD. tuGdK@S(1)

vdwfrJhig = 5

vdwfrJhig = 2

a[mfSxGm;c&m. ref;crf;ukd owifS&Grf&Jrf

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Am.0if S od r f S ajcif x k d S t[H . ,m.EJ k i f ; ,k d v J h 2011 Am. arvm 17 eD S e0f S 'if . yomavG S vd w f w m. uul . a0GSoD;erf;uk,.f wJi.f tD.avGS'if.e,fvSdk wefz.kH wAGKef.vGw0f; t0f;irf;w&sKd ;vG d nD.pGJurf;vGOfSukdaz.'g. yk*~dKvf.om;wGrf. _cHaAG.om;zHk. armhScGJtHkuGrfavGSwGrf. cGKrftm.%m.om; cGe;f 'd.k qGrSf usSrkSawGmSh vGOuawm tul.tnD.tpGturf; f DG J vkSd aemifcrf;&ifSom;qJi.f &mS0ef.wef OD;0if;jrifwi/f 0ef.wef OD;0if;jrifvhJ yGKd if;0GKd @ auAG m ygwD p G d K SxsSEJ k i f ; ,k d t usmif S aovG O f S Am.oG L ? uG y f y G d K ;e0f S rSwJ i f h J h wGr.f udp,tavmif; pp&mS&mStqif.az.uajy.vGOe0fS rJa0GSerf;uk,.f wJi.f auAG m ygwD v J h orf ; xG m crf ; om;vk d S xrf S omSoD ; erf ; wJ O f S tae.vJ h P dk f h d armhScGa'gSh &Dwr.f [lyif[w,faAG.om; tausmifS az.*wdaoScgS EJi;f e0fSoGL? wJrf;vdwf'gif.avGSAm.tpkd.&awGmhS xGOf.tpkd.& tGOf.qGdK;xkdS ukr`%D.vHk;oGm. J G dk k atmifxmSrmSEJkif;,kdtausmifS aoxGSAm. e0fSoGL? [lyif[kdw,faAG.e0fS xGmc,f.vkdSrsdKSawGmhS a0GS,kdt0f.aAmhSoSoGKyfoef.wGrf. etzpJSh tpd.k &tweftu,f.zH.k oGL? [lyif[w,f,dk t0f.'sm.aemiftif;vif; “tpdk.&womvJh t0f.xGm;vGdK'sm.vkdSrsdKSay.tcGifSta&Saeae” kd acgifwkdif vGKrfwum.w0f; a0ifSanmif.&GD.ukdvJh t0f;tausmifS aovGOfSAm. pGKrf.eDSut0f.oGKrfSuJixSdk 'g. ref;crf;ukd vkSd rsKd Say.crf;&ifSom;zH.k tcGiSf ta&SzH.k kf oGL? e0fS uxif.wom'g.tpkd.&pGdKSoD; wusdKSpmS aqmif.&Guf wum.uG,f. az.w0f;tausmifS urBm.ukvor*~ utGOf.pGSvGOf'g. ref;crf;qJif.&mSvkdSt _cH a AG . om;zH k . uoG K rf S ajcif x k d S 'g. a0G S oD ; _cH , m.EJ k i f ; ,k d e 0f S &G O f a ,m. cGifSta&Serf;wJOfS Tomas Ojea Quintana a'ghSavGSEJkif;e0fSoGL? wAD.w&ufSigvJh wvSw0f;e0fSoGL? uGyf0ifSodrfSajcifxkdS a0GSoD;ut0f.tHk. uGL.tm.uGdKS'g. _cH,m.EJkif;,kdwJif pDSyGmSa&SwGrf. ttH.ttGS tuGOftuS vk d S rsd K Say.crf ; &if S om;zH k . e0f S a0G S oD ; uyJ i f . qJ i f . 'g.[H . e,f . wG r f . b0txGdKif.a&StwGuf armhusKH.vGOfAm.arG; t,yfStcJkif.zHk.e0fSoGL? e0fSrS a0G S oD ; vk d S rsd K Stavmif ; ,k d az.ae;uvScsm erf ; yJ i f . tk y f c sKyf c G i f S wm. u'if.avGSAm.vdwf tif;rkd;csufe0fS t"du az.uvScGKefScsm,if;a0GSoD; ae;wG r f . e,f S trsd K Srsd K SwJ i f tH k x G d K if . uG D a vG S a0G S oD ; tcG i f S ta&S tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.

vdwfrJhig = 3
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vdwfrJhig = 4

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Ak'<om.oem.,dk t0f.AdGKefyDvdk@'sm. vdk@0ifSzHk. e0fSoGL? wJrf;&Grf _zJKifSe,fom;vJht0f./ ae;wGrf.xmS,l. pJGxdk;cOf.wvJhwzJhSawGmhS aig0;f iGgta'gSh tajzm0f.,kd vdKG wJiaig0;f xDtxGL.tzDe0fS wcdKG SvGKrf;vGKrf; t0f. pk&GrfwJrf;_zJKifSe,fom;vJht0f. e0fSoGL? rOf.cdGKif;0dGK@ vGOfoGL pdGK;cdGKSavGmif. f G Al.a&S&m. qJif.&mSxmSrmSazGgifSudk,kd tGOf.txsS'if.ig&D; yk*~dKvf.wjzmSwygS aoem.ajzmifcsmigvdk@'sm. vkd@0gifSzHk.e0fSoGL? uG,f.wJifawGmhS ytdk0f.orJifSwzlSajcmifS wudGK@Savmif;,dk ytdk0f. tusKd S w&mS awG m h S / rOf . tG O f . uJ k i f c smxk d S awm pd G K ;cd G K Sa&SxmSrmSe0f S cdGKSrsKdStzl.tAl.ukd uayg.xef.vGOf'g. ynm.'g.yk*~dKvf.wefytdk0f.zHk.e0fS cdGKSoGKyfwom vdkSay.qJkifScsmom;zHk.twm. xGmvGOftD'g. xmSxGL.oSc&m. pdKG ;cdKG StusKSd wm. acwftavGmufS tGOv@dk 0ifSw,f.xGi.f qifwomorf;,if; zHk.e0fSoGL? f e0fSrSwJif ytdk0f.wdGKifSpGKrf.jzmSzHk. rOf.cGKrfwOf.oJOfSajcif;oGL vd w f r l z H k . e0f S oG L ? ytd k 0 f . pd G K ;cd G K Swcd G K SvG K rf ; twG u f w m. uayg.vG O f ' g. vdwfrltmrsKdStmpdGK;zHk.,dk ,Haz.uxGm wAm.csif;aem0fS crf;wdGK@Scrf;uGOf. “ytdk0f.” u&dkS'g. rOfS,dkw_zHK.awGmhS rOf.a'ghSvGOfoGL pdGK;cdGKSa&S/ rOf.cGKrfpH.oGL k crf;'Grfcrf;aumif ut0f.'g. ytdk0f.crf;om; erf;wJOfSoD;zHk. vGOfjcGOf;pkxGL cif. pdGK;cdGKSxmSrmSe0fS erf;yk*~dKvf.a&StusKdSwm.,d pGOfSxdkS&Jkif;Am./ pdGK;cdGKSavGmif. vrf;waxGmif;ukd tHkvifSwdGKif.yif.vkd@0ifS tmvJif.tmYcufvJOf;&dkSpGOf.vJh Al.tm. ,HuwefwvmvGOfe0fS ae;wGrf.te,fSrJOf.rJOf.wJif usdKSpmSw,f. atmif.rsi.f rkStaAGwAm. wvSw0f;e0fSrS “crf;aumifvwr/l crf;'Grvwr” qkd@S xdGK@SAl.'g.Am./ pdGK;cdGKSxmSrmS,HpGOf.pdGK@S trm.tw&dGK@SzHk.,kd zsifpdGK@S'g. d f f d f l t0f.xdkSAm. 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tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif. aig0f;w,f.tGOf

vdwfapmif.xef.aEGmifSa&StpGdKS
cGefAefcsm cGefrsdK;xkd cGefqefuD cGefaomrwfpf
tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.

rGOf;zsifpJpfaqSvdwfrl vdwfapmif.'DZkdif; pk&Grfvdwfrl ajz@SvDvdwfapmif.

oGKyfoG,f. = pa.oh.newdawn@gmail.com http://pa-oh-newdawn.blogspot.com http://www.paohyouth.org

vdwfrJhig = 5

,uQCG%f (ol&d,crf;)
ytd0.f vdSk rsKSd ,d ta&mif.uwarm0f;Am.xmS/ ytd0.f u&dSk 'g. rOfSw_zKH . k k k ,kd &if;pGOf.tD.xdkSrm.Am.xmSaem0fS uGyfpGOf.'sm. ,mvrfpGL.Am. xmSawm. xmSavmifS pm.vSxdkS eDytdk0f.oS a'ghSAm.EJkif;aem0fSoGL? ytdk0f.z0 ut0f. aeu ya'.o&mZftkyfcsKyfrkSqSvaem0fS uGKufudufxmSawm.xmSavmifS ygwGrf.,mvrfol.&m. apmufSzm.oD; aAGmifaz.vGwfvyfarG;ig.wJif ytdk0f. crf;om;oD; xmS,l.xmSawGS wGrf.A[kokw,dk xJhzdGK.vJOf;qJkifSxkdSAm.0ifS aem0fSoGL? uGyaem0fSrSwJi aeif. 1946=47 Am.udaem0fS ytd0.f &[efSoCFm. f f k k oD;zHk. xGdK@SAl.vGOfAm.pGOf. “'kp&JpfxdkSrm.a&S” tpdGKS aem0fSoGL? atm0f.aem0fSxGLwJi “ytd0.f avGmif.Al.”/ qJiSf aem0fS ajymifSawmrOfS f k k “jynfaxmifpk ytdk0f.trsKd;om; tzJG@csKyf(ytrz)” wGrf. “ytdk0f.pdGK;cdGKSvGpf xef.a&StpdGKS(ytvz)” ayg.xef.vGOfxGLawGmhS wdGKufSvD ,m;uJkifxdkS 'k p &J p f v G K rf S wum.w0f ; Ed G K @&J k i f S wod G K ;ygpG O f . trsd K SomScrf ; xD a &SwG r f . pdGK;cdGKSa&Saem0fSoGL? aem0fSrS aeif. 1958 Am.aem0fS ya'.o&mZfcGefzHk. pG O f S xd k S Am.pG O f . tm.%m.wJ i f ytd k 0 f . &yf & m.ud k v J h ,mvrf w G r f . xmSawm.xmSavmifSzHk. tpdGK;xdkSrm;xkdSxGLawGmhS wGrf.plcGKrfSvufeuf ut0f.&JiSf wodKG ;'g. “ytvz”vJ/h wGr.f “vufeufe@J 'rua&pD vJvS,fa&;” k D kd uwl.pJO.f wJif csSvufeuf EdKG @cef;'sm. Oya'.azGmifSudk rmSavGScef; a'.ovdKG if. uGKefS xif.xdka&S aem0fSoGL? aeif. 1962 Am. AdvcsKyfae0if; uxdKG if.xl.odrSf xdSk crf;xDtm.%m. k f xGLaem0fS ,m;uJkifxdkScef;'sm. “ygwDaygifSpGKrf.ygvDref'Drkdua&pDpepf” (ygwpygvref'rua&pDpepf) aem0fSoGL? D kH D D kd aem0f S xG L wayg.nw0f ; tcd e f . wG i f S aeif. 1964 Am. vmar (15) eDSaem0fS ae0if ; tpd k . & au.nm.cef ; 'sm. &GOfap;vm. [m;cef (50) AD. wGrf. wpJG (100) AD. pJkif.vSw0f;'GKrf w&mSw0if. w0f;'GKrftausmifS EJi;f aem0fSoGL? uGypO.f k fG udpEi;f ,kwif xdcKGd ufvOpO.f ytd0.f pdKG ;cdKG S&GOyKGH .rum. uxGm'g. ytd0.f vdSk wef P kJ d J Gf G k f k jzm;AGmvSaz/ jzm;ausmpe/f AdvcseZo;D zH.k ,dvhJ ae0if;pJSh tpd.k & qGrSf aomhSvd@k f d k f f kH k pGO.f axmif.udaem0fSoGL? aeif. 1966 Am.aem0fS AdvcsKyfpoe;f tGOigxLawGmSh k k f H d f G xdGK@SAl.csm,if; “ytvz” pJhSay.vDSzHk.wJif tGOf0ifSxl.,SplcGKrfS vdGKqef awm.vef.csm,if; wygwDtm.%m.osif.pepfawGmhS &JkifSwodGK;csm,if; 'kwd,tvJif. ytdk0f.awm.vef.a&S aem0fSoGL? uG,f.awGmhS aeif. 1967 Am. vm'D Z if b mwG i f S uk d t0f . “ytvz”rd O f , d k zef a jymif S avG S awm. “&Srf;jynfe,f vlrsKd;aygif;pHk vGwfajrmufa&; tzJG@ (&vvz)” EJkif;aem0fSoGL? AdkvfcsKyfpHodef;aem0fS xGmcsm,if; “&vvz” OuUÏ &dkSpGOf.vJ aeif. 1968 Am. h vmatmufwbmaem0fS wdKG ufSyG,Sf xGmawGmSh xJoKG rfSxdSk cef;'sm. aem0fSoGL? kd h AkdvfcsKyfpHodef;xJhoGKrfSxGL qJkifScsmaem0fS “Armjynf uG e f j rLepf y gwD (Auy)” jyG L ;aomh S vG O f ytd k 0 f . [H.e,f.udk awGmhS “Auy” -oZm.tm.%m.vJh uJG.w _cdK@_cdK@vGOfpGOf. “&vvz” tavmif;aem0fSoGL? aem0fSrSwJif aeif. 1978 Am. vmrwfwGifSaem0fS ytdk0f.vdkSwefwGrf. &[efSoCFm.,[ef.aem0fS “pdKG ;cdKG Sa&S” oS"gw, ,Haz.uwOf.acGgipLpGLa&S a&.&G,.f xGLEJi;f aem0fSawGmSh f kd f G k tGOf0ifSzxef.xdkScef; “&vvz”awGmhS xGdK@SAl.w,f.qdk@S wom,if; “ytdk0f. pdGK;cdGKStpdGKScsKyf (PNO)” aem0fSoGL? “Auy” uxdGKif.jyGL;aomhSvSxdkS ytdk0f. [H.e,f.udk aem0fS ytdk0f.pGdK;cGdKSavGmif.Al.a&S,dk uJkifjyifSxdkSxGLrum. ytdk0f. csifScsifSzHk. rmSoDcsmigpGOf. vkd@0ifSaem0fSoGL? aem0fSrSwJif ytdk0f.[H.e,f. udkaem0fS “&vvz/ Auy/ PNO / ref;pJhS” up'g.tpGdKSzHk. wdGKufcScsmigvkd@0ifS wpdGKSwGrf.wpdGKSwJif a'.ocH. ytdk0f.crf;&ifSom;zHk.vJh/ ydkaem0fSidGK; rdGK;zmaem0fS aomifjcifSwao.Am.pGOf.xmS ,rfSvl;jcm aem0fSoGL? aumuxGm ytkd0f.crf;om;,dk vGif;vJhSAm. wdGKufSyG,fSrum./ zif. vJSh Am.ygaeu xrf.ref;pJSh w_cdKS (ay:wm) aem0fSoGL? vdSk ay.aem0fS wGr.f &dSk yJi.f k tD.xif.oGOfAm.[0f[0fvdwf tdGK.ausmifSoGOfaomhSvdwfudk/ vrf;udkigwJh tcde;f wdKG ifS tHaomhSAm.w0f; aem0fSoGL? t0f.rdKG if; vGi;f tHAOf. tHE@kd SAm.'sm.xmS k k k wjcmSudk wGr.f trdKG ;zmzH.k aem0fSoGL? aem0fSrSwJif ytd0.f cdKG SoGKyfwomvdSk ay. k zH k . (rsd K ;quf o pf u av;) ynm.a&S xJ h z G d K . vJ O f ; qJ k i f S xk d S Am.0if S tausmifSwrsKdSaeae aem0fSoGL? uG,f.awGmhS tcdef.um.vaem0fScgaem0fS 'Hom;&yfom;zH.k vGKyfSAm.[0fw0f; rmSAm.[0fw0f;raumif; tauyfStcG,Sf vJh k wayg.t0f.ig.w0f; aem0fSoGL? tauyfStcG,fSe0fS t0f.'sm.udGK@S (6) vm wywfwGrf. ausmifSuef.yapPSwpl;wpdSay.vGKrfS e0fSoGL? pJhSref;zHk. uxGdKif.rmSxGL jzwfav;jzwfaem0fS 'Hkom;zHk. tH.tGSa&SzHk.vJh ,yfScJkif. vGOf wcsvGOfpGOf.'sm.aem0fSoGL? aem0fSvGKrfSrum. ut0f.tHkcdk.'g.wjcmudk pGdK;cGdKSvGpfxef.a&Stwm. ut0f.awm.vef.'g. xmS pJSh wjcmzH.k t&GOuwl.az.uySxdSk aem0fSvJh f “jref r mh q d k & S,f v pf v rf ; pOf y gwD (rqv)” oD ; ae;pG O f . AsL[mte,f S trsKd S rsKd S awG m h S wdGKufSuJkifxdkS aem0fSoGL? aem0fSrSwJif aeif. 1985 Am. vmEdk0ifbm (3) eDSaem0fS rqv pJhStpdk.& au.nm.,if; &GOfap; ppfAD. (25) AD./ [m;cef (50) AD./ wpJG (100) AD. (awmifSaoS = ap;pJGwGrf. ap;[m;cef,dkaem0fS aeif. 1972=79 Am.udk uaxwom,if;'g. &GOfap;vm.zHk.'sm.oGL) zHk. pJkif.vSw0f;'GKrf w&mSw0if.w0f;'GKrfStausmifS EJkif;aem0fSoGL? &yfom;'Hkom; crf;om;vdkSxrfSomSzHk.aem0fS vGKyfSrmSAm. [0fw0f;vGKrfSrum. u&GrorSf a[m0f'g.&GO,m.zH.k orf;ikuuixSkd EJi;f ,dwif f d f f kJ f k k J ,de;f xJq;kH aomhSpGO.f qifS&,fSatmifuaem0fSoGL? aumuxGm'g. vdSk ay.zH.k ,dk h kd wGrf.&dkSyJkif. tD.oGOfAm. acwfynm./ tH.tGSwm.igwJh 'JOfwm. wpGKrf.vSw0f;/ uGOuSwm.vJh toGKyf tajym0f.zH.k aem0fS tmu,fSxJi;f 'sm. qJiSf ,m.Zm.wd f aem0fSoGL? ae0if; rqv pJhStpdk.& u,m;uJkifxJif;,if;'g. &GOfap;vm.zHk.,dk nxGLteDSyJiSf 'sm. aeif. 1985 Am. vmEd0ifbm (10) eDSaem0fS axwom,if; k &GOfap;vm. apwfScef[m.usyf (75) AD. aem0fSoGL? rqv uax,if;'g. &G O f a p;vm. (75) AD . ,d k a em0f S ac.tD ' sm.-wm.raumif ; / axvG O f ' sm. ae0if;touf (75) aeif.aAG aem0fSoGL? t0f.e0fSnw0f; t0f.cg.,if; (9) vm&yf aeif. 1986 Am. vm-o*kwf (1) eDSe0fS au.nm.axwom,if; twG,fS (1) trJkifS (2)

vdwfrJhig = 6
&GOfap;vm. wqDiwfS (15) AD. wGrf. orfcef[m;usyf (35) AD. aem0fSoGL? atm0f.aem0fSxGL wayg.nzsifw0f; t0f.cg.'sm. waeif.&yf aeif. 1987 Am. vmpufwifbm (22) eDSaem0fS rqv ae0if; pJhStpdk.& au.nm.zsif,if; &GOfap;vm. ap;ppf (25) AD./ oHcef[m;usyf (35)AD./ apwfScef[m;usyf (75) AD.,dk pJi.f vSw0f;'GKrf w&mS0if.w0f;'GKrftausmifS EJi;f aem0fSoGL? aem0fSrSwJif k k ref;crf;wcrf;vGKrf; crf;om;vdkSxrfSomSzHk.aem0fS t0f.qifS&,fS'kuQvGAm. oGLxmSvJh u,def;'kuQqifS&,fSorf;Am. xJif;xJif;,if;xmSe0fSrS/ cH.aEGmifS'GKrfwJif crf;om;a'g.oSar._yHK.,dk wif. ck d ; vG O f x G L awG m h S 8888 ta&;awmf y H k ayg.xef . vG O f A m.pG O f . xmS wcrf ; vG K rf ; aem0fSoGL? aeif. 1988 Am. vmpufwifbm (18)eDSaem0fS “EdkifiHawmf _idrf0yfydjym;rk wnf a qmuf a &;tzJ G @ (e0w)” pJ h S pd G K S OuUÏ=AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif xl.odrfS,if; crf;xDtm.%m.aem0fSoGL? aeif. 1990 Am. vmarwGifSaem0fS “e0w” pJhStpdk;& rmSavGSaz.,if; ygwDaygifSpGKrf. wcrf;vGKrf; vdGKufwGrfyG,fSwJif “trsKd;om; 'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (NLD)” aEGmifScef; aem0fSoGL? uG,f.awGmhS crf;xDtm.%m.aem0fS “e0w” wvG,fSaz.w0f; “tJeft,fvf'D” ygwDpGdKS ASwdGK.vGOfpGOf. [ef.eDSaem0fSoGL? aeif. 1991 Am. vm{_yD (11) eDSaem0fS PNO wGrf; “e0w” pJhStpdk.&oD; tGOf.qGdK;avGStwdGKufStcSawGmhS w,f. qkd@Scef; ndrfScsrfSa&S aem0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif aeif. 1993 Am. urmSavGS'g. wcrf;vGKrf; “trsKd;om; nDvmcH”aem0fS “PNO” pGdKSukd yk*~dKvf.,[ef.zHk. vScef;xif.avhvmcGifS wGrf.xOf.tae. aem0fSoGL? w,f.pGOf. aeif. 1966 Am. ASavGSpGOf. aeif. 1991 Am. tcg. udk aeif.aygifS (25) &yfaem0fS ytdk0f.[H.e,f.udk crf;om;vdkSxrfSomSzHk. aem0fS rdGKif;wa&@SrGefvGOfSAm.'sm. ,rfSvl;zHk./ rGdKif;vGif;vJhSAm.'sm. ref;w_cdKS xrf . / rd G K if ; zif . Am.'sm. pJ h S wd G K uf S yG , f S zH k . aem0f S oG L ? uG y f a em0f S rSwJ i f vGKyfSAm.[0fw0f; rmSAm.[0fw0f;/ ydkvDSzHk.vJh oGOfAm.[0fw0f; ynm./ aem0fSxGLrum. rqv pJhStpdk.&vJh rdGKif;rmSaoif rmSuJkif'sm. &GOfap;vm.zHk. wJif eDytkd0f.crf;om;vdkSxrfSomSzHk.aem0fS auef S waEG m if ; Am.pG O f . xmSaem0f S oG L ? uG,f.awGmhS tcdef.um.v aeif.aygifS (25) aeif.ud,aem0fS ytd0.f a'.o[H.e,f.uk,kd k kd k d ut0f.tHkuGL. tHkcdk.'g. eDytkd0f.crf;om;zHk. aem0f S &d k S uD p G O f . auef S waEG m if ; Am. xmSvJ h wtH k v G L Saysm.rG e f ; vG O f S w0f ; 'kp&JpfxmSawm.xmSavmifSzHk./ urBm. avmif ; Oya'.tvS w&mSw0if . w0f ; ,mvrf q d k @ S&J k i f a &SxmSrmS,d k v J h wvGKyfSrmSw0f;/ w&mSw0if.w0f; tauyfStcG,fSrsKdSvJh wt0f.w0f;/ rOf. rmS'sm. z&mSyG,Sf vJh wGr.f oS&ifSap.wem.AGmAGmawGmSh vl.wefS'sm./ uxGm'g. tGOigom;vJh yG,Sf z&mStavmif;,dk wxGKrf.vGOSf w0f; erf;wm.tusKSd trswf f zHk.aem0fSoGL? 

cGefqefuD (rJkif;aumif)
vdkSwGrf. owW0g.um;ut0f. oufrGeftHkxdGKif.aEGmifSa&Swm. uomwa&@S'g. wvD S zH k . ,d k e 0f S xG m 'sm. obm0vuf a qmif . e0f S rS vdkSwdGKifSpGKrf.jzmS omxmSwGrf.wvDS,dk wvdk@w0f;tidkSe0fSoGL? rOf.xGm;Am. wGrf. Ycif.oefSa&SzJhSe0fS wvDSa-umif;pifzHk.,dk rOf.omwa&@SAm.tmtme0fS erf;cE<m.ukd oGKef.wGrf. oS&m.pGefStm. twm. ,def;[0fwvmtD e0fSoGL? vdkSoD;zHk.,dk rOf.omwa&@SAm.w0f; wvDSwpuUef@wm.,dk xGmw0f;rJkifSrJkifS &dkSpGOf.vJh rOf.wa&@SAm.w0f; wrdepfe0fS armhSvGOf'g. xmS&GdK;'kuQe0fSoGL? wrdepftude0fS vdSk oD;zH.k ,dk omwa&@SAm.xmS tqif. (16) wGr.f (20) tcg. k udk e0fSoGL? urBm.[H.wefavmif; vdkSoD;zHk. uomwa&@SajcifAm.wvDS,dk uGyfwvdk@w0f;tidkSe0fSrS waoem.vGw0f; wvDStwef.zdkS,dke0fSoGL? ut0f.xef.avGS'g.wzlS xmSajcifrdk@Savmif;uD tmumoom;zHk.e0fS a0GSoD; omwa&@StDwm. atmufoD*sif (Oxygen) zHk.,dk ajzSxl.Am.ae;wGrf. tidkSum;um;awGmhS tDavGSygAm.wJif rOf.,l.'sm.e0fSudke0fS wvDS,dk twef. zdkSwefwcdGKif.rJkifSu&dkSe0fS ,l.xGm;pHS'sm.aoGmhS0ifS yigy&mSzHk.oe,f? vdkSoD; tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif. uomwa&@S'g. wvDSatmufoD*sif,dke0fS obm0az.twdGKifS [H.zGKef./ [H.wtdGK/ xDwtdGK/ wtdGKvl;zHk. t0f;a&mfSygaomhSaeaewJif yuwdvHk;0 a-umif;pifig.vJh arG;w0f;e0fSoGL? obm0twdGKifS a-umif;pifrkS taAGwAm. wtJOfx0f;wvDS,dke0fS uGyfpGOf. vdkSoD;ya,m*wJif wvDSzHk. ,def;a0G. EGrfSuJkifvGOfAm. e0fSoGL? urBm.avmif; ut0f.'g. wvDSzHk.,dke0fS w,f.Al.wGrf. Edkuf}wdK*sif (Nitrogen) (78 µ)/ atmufoD*sif (Oxygen- O2) e0fS (21 µ)/ tm*Gef (Argon)/ eD,Gef (Neon)/ umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'f (Carbon dioxide - CO2) wGrf. "gwfwtdGKtvifzHk.vJh t0f.ygaomhSnDS vkd@0ifSzHk.e0fSoGL? wvDStudk uygaomh S 'g. umAG e f ' d k i f a tmuf q d k ' f " gwf , d k t0f . ud G K @S'sm. '\r 03 rmSvvGKrfSe0fSoGL? touft0f.cdGKSrsKdSzHk. ut0f.qdGKufpyf'g.vkd@0ifS uxGm'g. aoif.rGL;/ aoif.a&mifSaoif.&m./ wd&p>mef./ vdkSoD;zHk.,dke0fS wGrf.te,fS tmrsKdStmpdGK;awGmhS t0f.pkdufSxl.qGKrf. atmufoD*sif wvDSzHk.e0fSoGL? vdkSoD;zHk.e0fS omwa&@SEGdK@xGL atmufoD*sifzHk.awGmhS omxef. csm,if; umAGe'iatmufq'f wvDSzH.k e0fSoGL? aoif.rGL;up'g. xmSrGL;rsKd SzH.k f kd f kd

vdwfrJhig = 7
e0fS pkdufSxl.qGKrf.xGL umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'fawGmhS axxef.az.csm,if; zHk. vdGKif.tmvGOfxGLawGmhS urBm.[H.wefvJh vsm;oJifSvGOfAm.pGOf. e0fSoGL? atmufoD*sif"gwfwtdkzHk. e0fSoGL? umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'f, urBm.avmif;uD wvDSudk yHGK.rJOf.ut0f.xdGKufoifS'g. umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'f"gwf yrm.%,dk dk cif.vrf;pGpfSpJpfStudk uxGm'g. ar.aumifyS (rD;awmifaygufuJGjcif;) u,def;ydk.vGOf u,def.vdGKif.tmvGOfxdkSAm.xmSe0fS uGyfpGOf.'sm. vdkSoD; ya,m*zH k . e0f S oG L ? umAG e f ' d k i f a tmuf q d k ' f uayg.tmvG O f A m.xmSe0f S uxGm'g.obm0&kyftdGK@Sar.cdk;qm.wm. umAGef"gwfaygifSuyg'g. a&eHxD/ "gwfxD/ vHk;oGm. (ausmufrD;aoG;)/ obm0"gwfwtdGK (obm0"gwfaiG@) zHk.,dk ar.uxdGKif.cdk.vsrf.awGmhS tvl;zHk.e0fS xGmvGOf umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'fzHk. e0fSoGL? odk.wGrf. ar.oGm.zHk.vJh ar.rOf.cdk;xGLcg a0GSoD;tvl;zHk.e0fS xGmvGOf umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'f"gwfzHk. aeaee0fSoGL? wGrf.ar.awGmhS rOf.AHkvJhSxdkS vHk;oGm. t,m.cOf. aygifaygifS 1000 omvmzm'dkifatmufqdk' u&kdS'g.wtGdKvl; aygifaygifS 40 wGrf. [dk'f_'dKumAGef f 10 aygif,dk -uKef.uGif.xif.aomhSavGSwvDSudk e0fSoGL? AdGKefyDEJkif;e0fSaeae ar.rOf.cdk;xdkS"gwfxD *gvefaygifS 1000 e0fS umAGefrdkaemufqdk'f u&kdS'g. wtGdKvl; aygifaygifS 3000 &yfwGrf. omvmzm'dkifatmufqdk'f"mwf 17 PYO aygif -uKef.uGif.aomhSnDS wvDSudke0fSoGL? ar.cdk;qm.wm. "gwfxDtrsKdSrJkifS w,0f; ygwGrf.vHk;oGm.zHk.,dk uef"gwfaqhSwGrf.tm ygnDSaomhSe0fSoGL? wJif uxef.vGOf'g. tvl;zHk./ ar.cdk;aoif.0g.wGrf. "gwfxDzHk.wJif uxef. uef"gwuygtmaomhS'g. vH;k oGm.zH.k ,dk ar.rOf.cd;k xdSk t,m.cOf.pJaygiSf (100) f G vGOf'g.tvl;zHk./ t0f.puf,HGK.wGrf. umSzHk.awGmhS uxef.vGOf'g. tvl;zHk. e0fS omvmzm'diatmufq'f tvl;xef.vGOf t,m.cOf. pGaygiSf (10) e0fSoGL? kf kd J e0fS xGm umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'f e0fSoGL? owW0g.ut0f.'g. xDukdwGrf. uxGm'g. tvl.wtdGK omvmzm'dkifatmufqdk'f/ umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'f/ xmSaumif S oJ i f a vmif ; zH k . vJ h axxef . vG O f umAG e f ' d k i f a tmuf q d k ' f z H k . umAGefrdkaemufqdk'fzHk. pwJif"gwfwtGdKzHk.,dke0fS vdkSoD;zHk.twGufwm. rOf. aeaee0fSoGL? umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'fzHk.,dke0fS aoif.rGL;zHk. pkdufSxl.qGKrf. omwa&@SAm.tmvJif.xGLe0fS xGmtD'g. wm.qGmS em;xD&D. a&m.*g./ oS&m. xGLrum. pGKrf;aomhSaEGmifSxdkS xDudkwJif xDork'N&m.zHk.vJh t0f.pdkufSxl.qGKrf. wGrf. oGKef.tm.aqhSa&m.*g./ uaxmifSuifoma&m*g. zHk.e0fSoGL? e0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'f oHo&m.,dk t0f.a0hwyef.Am.EJkif; urBm.avmif;,dk vdSk jzmSaygiSf uxdKG if.tmvGOwif pGKrf.eDSwGuwm. f J f aem0fSoGL? vdSk oD;uoHKG Saqmif.'g. w_cdKSwGr.f ttH.ttGSwm.zH.k vJ vd.k tmvGOpO.f EJi;f EJi;f h fG k k Ed k u f } wd K *sif " gwf w td G K zH k . ,d k e 0f S xG m az.vd k S wG r f . owW 0 g. aem0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif vdkSoD;oHGKSw_cdKSwm. ut0f.axvGOfaz.'g. puf,HGK.zHk. oD ; twG u f w m. y&d k w if ; t,m."gwf ([J h ) trd k i f E d k t uf q pf Amino vJh qd@k Sw,f.tmvGOAm.pGO.f e0fSoGL? puf,KGH .udk puf,E ,m;zH.k ,Haz.wyef. f W acids EJ k i f ; e0f S oG L ? aoif . rG L ;zH k . e0f S pk d u f S xl . qG K rf . Ed k u f } wd K *sif " gwf [ H . aEGmifStDwm. vdk.tmvGOfpGOf. ar.tm.zHk.wJif axxef.Am.tmpGOf. uxGm'g. udkawGmhS wefxdkvGOfxGLwJif vdkSwGrf.owW0g.oD;zHk.vJh xl.uOf.'JhStH.qGKrf. ar.cdk;qm. a&eH/ "gwfxD/ vHk;oGm.wGrf. *JufzHk.e0fSoGL? ar.cdk;qm.zHk.,dk ar.rOf. aoif.rGL;apmhSvm. aoif.&m.rsKdSpGKrf.zHk.wJif vdkSwGrf.owW0g.oD; erf;cE<m. cdk;xGL uxef.vGOf'g. tvl;zHk.e0fS xGmvGOfpGOf. umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'f"gwf udke0fSvJh vSvGOfAm. y&dkwif;"gwf zHk.e0fSoGL? aoif.rGL;/ vdkS/ wd&dp>mef.zHk. rOf. e0fSoGL? umAGe'iatmufq'"gwf uxdKG if.tmvGOwif urBm.avmif; Owk&m. f kd f kd f f J oD0iSf xdSk e0fS a0GSoD;erf;cE<m.udk ut0f.'g. y&dwif;"gwz.kH vJh EdKG @aomhScsm,if; oD.zHk.vJh vsm;vGOfpGOf. e0fSoGL? Owk&m.oD. rOf.vsm;oJifSvGOfe0fS vdkSoD;tH. kJ k f [H.ukdzHk. e0fSoGL? rdk@Savmif;uDolS wsm.rOf.vdwfxmSzHk.vJh [H.ukdolS vSvGOf y&dkwif;"gwfzHk.e0fSoGL? t0f.e0fSrSwJif y&dkwif;"gwfut0f.'g. [H.udkzHk. e0fSvJh aoif.rGL;zHk. pkdufSxl.qGKrf.csm,if;e0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif Edkuf}wdK*sif"gwf oHo&m.,dk t0f.wyef. csmigAm. EJkif;aem0fSoGL? atmufoD*sif"gwf/ Edkuf}wdK*sif"gwf/ umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'f"gwf oHo&m. a0hwyef.EkefSzHk.,dk yHGK.rJOf.t0f.wyef.avGS wao.ao.e0fSoGL? oH o &m.e0f S zH k . wyef . Ek e f S ,d k rOf . uJ k i f j yif S xd k S waxG m if ; axG m if ; e0f S obm0t&DG;tcdk.oD; tzl.tAl.zHk.,dkvJh uJkifvGOfStD'g. e0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif wvDSzHk.,dk rOf.a0G.0ufvGOftmxGLaem0fS wvDSqJif.&m."gwf oHo&m.wyef. rkSzHk.,dk uJkifvGOf'g. e0fSoGL? rGL; t0f.rdk@Savmif;uDawGmhS uaxmif.vifS'g. ta&mif.zHk.e0fS zswfum.&D;aeu wvDSxGLrS uGJwdGK.vifSvGOf urBm.[H.wefavmif; e0fSoGL? tGSwm. qdk@S&Jkifa&,dkvJh uJkiftmxdkSxGLawGmhS vScGOf.w0f;'GKrf e0fSoGL? t0f.urBm.[H.wefavmif;awGmhS uvScgS'g. rGL;a&mif.tvsm;"gwfzHk.,dk tH.tGSa&S,dk rOf.wvGKrf;AOf.w0f;e0fS vdSk oD;tmjcm,dk aqmhqma&m.*g.vGKd if. xG m vG O f , if ; tvsm;wtd G K zH k . awG m h S -uKef . uG i f . xif . aomh S ,if ; uGKefSvGOf/ pGefwcGefSzHk.vJh vdGKif.tmvGOf'g. e0fSoGL?  xmSajcifSavmif; wvDSudkzHk.olS e0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif wvDSudkut0f.'g. umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'fzHk.vJh pkdufSxl.qGKrf.,if; t0f.urBm.[H.wefavmif; xl.udGKS u-uKef. xif.vGO'g. tvsm;"gwz.kH e0fSoGL? rGL;a&mif.tvsm;"gwz.kH ,dk ,Haz. • prf;prf;wif jyKpkonfh “pdkajyom,m ajrurBm” 1981 wGif yxrt}udrf f f f uwdGK.vifS urBm.[H.wefavmif;e0fS zswfum.jzGOfwvDSzHk. vS'sm.&dkSpGOf. xkwfa0 vJh t0f.urBm.avmif;awGmhS u-uKef.xef. uGif.xif.vGOf'g. tvsm;"gwf • a'guwmarmifoif; jyKpkonf “jrefrmha&ê@a&; raEê;opfyif 0ef;usiobm0 f h f wtdGKzHk.,dk tD.-uKef.uGif.zswfum.jzGOfxdkS wvDSe0fS ,dkSw0f;? wvDSudk xdef;odrf;-u” 1995 wGif yxrt}udrf xkwfa0 umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'f"gwfzHk. t0f.pkdufSxl.qGKrf. e0fSoGL? uGye0fSrSwJif urBm.[H.qSuD wvDSudoSl umAGe'iatmufq'"gwf f k f kd f kd f twG,fS (1) trJkifS (2)

vdwfrJhig = 8

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tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.

vdwfrJhig = 9
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twG,fS (1) trJkifS (2)

vdwfrJhig = 10

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Government = (emrf.) (uyfzAm;rJO;f xf) tpd.k &? crf; a0if.e,f. tGKd if. 'Hk f up'g. qJif.&mStkyfcsKyfa&SxmSrmSudpPzHk. uyJif.qJif. ucGKrfrmS'g. tpGdKStAl. wGrf. yk*~dKvf.um;uatm0f./ Environment = (emrf.) (tJOAm;&rJO;f xf) obm0taomift&ifS? urBm. f wefavmif; toufom; touftJOfaxm0f;omum;uatm0f; uatm0f. tHknDSatm0f.a&m0f;vG'g.tac.tae.pepfzHk./ Development = (emrf.) ('DAJvGyfrJOf;xf) vGdKif.uGKefSxif.xkda&S? atm0f. xmSqifS&,fSauefSajcmukdawGmhS ajcGjcm;vGdKif.uGefS wkdSwufxif.xkdvGOf/

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Human Rights = (emrf . ) ([sL;rJ O f ; &d k u f o f ) vd k S tcG i f S ta&S? eDvkdSoD;oJpfwJifuvGL;zGmSvifSvGOfwJif uygvifSvGOf'g. tcGifSta&SzHk.? vGpvpwjcifjcif,KG rf;tH.ukSd uG,.f cGiSf tcGiSf ta&S? crf;xDEi.f iH.a&S ,GKrf;tH. f G f dk csuftvS vGpfvGpfwjcifjcif az:.xef. a[mfSaysmfS a'ghSajzm0f. xGdK@SAl. pkAl. cGKrfrmScGifS up'g. eDvkdSoD;tcGifSta&SzHk./ Democracy = (emrf.) ('Drkdca&oD) crf;om;vkdSxrfSomSoD; 'g&kduf rOf. arG;awm0f;wJh ae;wGrf.crf;om;erf;wJOfSwJif utkyfcsKyfyGdKif.pkdS'g. tpdk.&pepf? crf ; xD t m.%m. atm0f . 'sm.crf ; om;avmif ; vif S vG O f u&k d S 'g. 0g.'? 0g.' utac.cH.'g.awGmif;w&sm;a&S vGpfwjcifa&SwGrf. vkdStcGifSta&S? crf;om;tkyfcsKyf'g.tpdk.&pepf?

zpf[GKefvdwfrl

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aem0fSrS crf;om;vdkSxrfSomSoD;zHk. atm0f.cHwaeufS xJhaomhSqHk;Am. xmSqif&,fSatmifudk aem0fSoGL?  cGefxGef;wif

Email:

pa.oh.newdawn@gmail.com khunmyohto@gmail.com

tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.