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PLMGSS Physics 5058 – Data Source Question 10.

Adapted from Ultrasonic Transducers for Chemical and Process Plant (R.C. Asher Physics Technology, vol14) Ultrasound techniques are used in the chemical engineering industry for measuring and detecting the levels of liquid in closed vessels. In one such method, the Pulse Echo method, pulses of ultrasound are passed through the liquid under test. By timing the echo of a reflected pulse it is possible to calculate the depth of liquid in the vessel. The apparatus is shown in Fig. 10.1. The source of ultrasound is a transducer. Separate pulses of ultrasound are created using a thin disc of material which is made to oscillate rapidly at a frequency of 6 MHz. Each pulse contains just a few cycles of the oscillation, with the amplitude rapidly decreasing with time. The ultrasound passes into the metal of the vessel but, at the metal/liquid boundary, only about 12% of the ultrasound passes into the liquid, the other 88% is reflected. The pulse is highly directional and does not spread out. At the boundary between the liquid and the gas in the vessel very nearly 100% of the ultrasound is reflected. The reflected signals are picked up by another transducer similar to the one that generated it; indeed it is usually convenient to use the same transducer for emitting and receiving the ultrasound. The time taken for the sound to travel through the liquid is measured and the position of the liquid surface can be calculated.

liquid

sealed vessel made of metal

transducer

Fig. 10.1

(a)

Calculate the time taken for one oscillation of the disc in the transducer.

[2]

time = ……………………………

(b)

On the axes below sketch a graph to show how the displacement of the material of the disc varies with time as one pulse is created. Add values to the x-axis to indicate the time involved. displacement [2]

time

(c)

Explain why, when each pulse is sent out into the metal, (i) a large pulse returns almost immediately,

………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………[1] (ii) then a much smaller pulse (about 1.4% of that initially passing into the metal) returns.

………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………... …………………………………………………………………………………………

(d)

………………………………………………………………………………………… …………... Calculate how long the ultrasound will take to return to the transducer given that the thickness of the metal is 1.0 cm and the depth of the liquid is 30 cm. Take the speed of ultrasound in the metal as 5600 m/s and in the liquid 1500 m/s.

time = …………………………….[3] ANSWER 10. (a) Time taken for one oscillation = 1/f = 1/6 x 10-6 = 1.67 x 10-7 seconds or 1.7 x 10-7 seconds [2] (b) displacement

[2]

time

(c)

(i) This is because the material of the vessel is thin. So, it takes a short time for the pulse to get reflected back to the transducer. [1] (ii) That is the pulse reflected by the liquid-gas boundary. When the pulse returns, 12% of the 12% of the original pulse = 1.4% of the initial pulse are left to be detected. [2]

(d)

Time = Distance/speed = (0.01 x 2)/5600 + (0.3 x 2)/1500 = 3.571 x 10-6 + 0.0004 = 4.03571 x 10-4 seconds = 4.04 x 10-4 seconds (to 3 sf)

[3]

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