A Minor Project Report on
“TIME TABLE MANAGEMENT” Bachelor of Engineering Minor Project
Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of Bachelor of Engineering in Computer Science & Engineering
RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL (M.P.)
Mukesh Kumar Sanodiya
Enroll. No. 0191CS081044 .
Under the Supervision of
Mss. Pratishtha Singh Rajesh Boghey
(Asst. Proffesor) TIT Excellence HOD Department of C. S. E.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
TECHNOCRATS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (EXCELLENCE), BHOPAL
To Whom It May Concern
This is to certify that the work embodied in this Project entitled “ Time Table Management“has been satisfactorily completed by Mr. Mukesh Kumar Sanodiya. It is a bonafied piece of work, carried out under my supervision and guidance in the Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Technocrates Institute of Technology(Excellence), Bhopal, for partial fulfillment of the degree Bachelor of Engineering in Computer Science & Engineering during the academic year 2010-2011. We wish them every success in life Guided by:
Miss.Pratishtha Singh Rajesh Boghey
(Asst. Proffesor) Department of C. S. E.
Head of Department of C. S. E.
Dr. C.K. Teckchandani
TECHNOCRATS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (EXCELLENCE), BHOPAL
TECHNOCRATS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (EXCELLENCE) BHOPAL
We, Mukesh Kumar Sanodiya student of Bachelor of Engineering, Computer science Branch, Technocrats Institute of technology (Excellence), Bhopal hereby declare that the work presented in this Minor project entitled “Time Table Management” is outcome of our own work, is bonafide, correct to the best of my knowledge and this work has been carried out taking care of Engineering Ethics. The work presented does not infringe any patented work and has not been submitted to any University for the award of any degree or professional diploma.
Name Mukesh Kumar Sanodiya
Enroll. No. 0191cs081044
Place: Bhopal Date: June 04, 2011
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
The foregoing project is hereby approved as a creditable study of an engineering subject carried out and presented in a manner satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as a prerequisite to the degree for which it has been submitted. It is understood that by this approval the undersigned do not necessarily endorse or approve any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn therein , but approve the project only for the purpose for which it has been submitted.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thanks GOD for giving me knowledge and ability to complete this work in this final form. The satisfaction that accompanies the success in completion of any task would be incomplete without mentioning the people who made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crowned our effort with success. I feel pleasure in conveying my profound thanks to my Thesis guide, Miss. Pratishtha Singh (Asst. Proffesor) TIT Excellence, for his constant Support, valuable Guidance and Encouragement. During the entire course of this project he reviewed with greatest care and his innovative ideas led to the successful completion of this work. His continuous strong and encouragement had some very profound effect on me that went beyond scientific supervision. I have been able to successfully complete this Project because of excellent guidance and infinite help given to me by my HOD Prof. Rajesh Boghey Head Department of CSE. It is difficult to acknowledge adequately the help and encouragement I received from them but I take this opportunity to thanks them profusely. I wish to thank Dr. C.K. Teckchandani, Director Technocrates Institute of Technology (Excellence),, Bhopal for his constant support and encouragement. I am thankful to all other faculty members and all computer centre staff in Department of CSE for their cooperation extended during the project work. I am also thankful to my colleagues and classmates who helped me directly or indirectly throughout my project work.
In the course of this project.Timetable creation for each semester has always been an error-prone task.tute of Computer Science was the tracking of exams for all courses o ered by 9. nor2.into the CMS used on the Institute's website to automatically get exam dates 11. A further problem at the Insti8.Mukesh Kumar Sanodiya
Enrollment No: 0191cs081044 B. also require an adap4. This project aims to alleviate the 5.tation of the previously created timetables. of period and details about the lab assistance. no.the Institute. The main requirement of the application is to provide the details about the branch.
.pain of this process by automatically generating timetables for selected courses 6. subjects. a small script was written to hook 10. total no. 1.desired by teaching sta . E.from the University's course database.mally resulting in multiple iterations of creation and proof-reading. (CSE) Technocrats Institute of Technology (Excellence)
Time Table Management system is an automated system which genets time table according to the data given by the user. of labs.can themselves generate personal timetables.from the UIBK course database. A side-e ect of this is of course that students 7. Changes 3. changes of course locations etc. Then the application generates the time table according to your need.
....24 Scope………………………………………………………........ ………………………..21
4.1 Technical Feasibility……………………………………...1 4.
Table of contents :
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3
Chapter 5. Report………………………….. teachers etc..15
Flowchart……………………………………………………15 Data Flow Diagram…………………………………………16 Entity Relationship Diagram…….33 Benefits…………………………………………………….2 Economical Feasibility………………………………. Labs....3 Legal Feasibility…………………………………………36 7
.3 4...4 4.10 System Documentation………………………….35 5..2 4.2 3..23 Terminology used …………………….35
Product Perspective……………………………………….....23 Objective…………………………………………………. The basic project is to create a Time Table Management System.
To create Databases of different entities involved in this process. subjects.. Maintaining database-containing information about the various semesters....1 3..35 5.
1. holidays.36 5.. Time table management module organizes the campus week.1 6. Chapter 11. and the Purpose of Manage Timetable of the College is.. for any College Teacher timetable scheduling is a very arduous and time-consuming task.3
System Design and Development………...5... This module also allows you to generate temporary timetables.1 Code
Testing…………………………………………….38 Screenshots ………………………………….2 Specification Testing……………………………………. Chapter 9 Chapter 10.……. 8
System Implemention……………………46 Discussion……………………………….48 Bibliography……………………………….45
The Problem is to Manage the Time Table of the all class of the college according to teacher. class teachers and students. Chapter 12. breaks in between classes and subject teacher. Timetable Management module automatically creates your Campus Timetable for classes.4 Operational Feasibility…………………………………. College Timetable management module helps you to generate class time table as well campus and teacher time table.5 Schudle Feasibility………………………………………36
6.47 Lmitation…………………………………48 Future Work……………………………….37
Design Pattern……………………………………………37 Requirements………………………………………….
All students in the same class take exactly the same/different set of courses. ease of learning. It focuses on the capabilities and facilities provided by a Time table of Class. The purpose of this document is to analyze and elaborate on the high-level needs and features of the Timetable Management System. greater accuracy with the least time consumption and the last but not the least i.e. better accuracy. teachers and classes are busy most of the day. The details of what all are the needs of the Timetable Management System and if it fulfils these needs are detailed in the use-case and supplementary specifications.
Technology makes lifestyle easier by providing better support to different systems. etc. better security options. easier maintenance. ease of maintenance with cost effectiveness.Class-Teacher Timetabling . So as a part of these ongoing evolutionary approach traditional systems are being computerized to make them more fruitful than ever. and the problem is to find times when each teacher can meet with his/her required classes with no conflicts We have decided to investigate the use of a Timetable Management System. Typically.This problem is normally associated with Engineering College where the students are scheduled as a “class”. Day by day computers are being more and more popular because of its features like ease of work. This system would be used by members who may be students or professors/Teacher’s of that College to check and update the Timetable of the Classes of College. Now a day’s technology eventually means “computers” which is the greatest achievements of last century.
The document also describes the nonfunctional requirements such as the user interfaces. It also describes the design constraints that are to be 10
.2. Specification performance. quality
assurance requirements of the Timetable Management System. Requirements interfaces. defines and and operations. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
Purpose The purpose of Software Requirements Specification (SRS) document is to describe the external behavior of the Timetable Management describes the System.
or a portion of the system. objectives. Dependencies are outside of the scope and control of the project and must remain true for the project to succeed.
Identify each type of user of the software by function. that if changed may affect the outcome of the project.Within the description identify the software product. Describe the characteristics and interactions of the users that will interact with the software during the phases of the software life cycle. Include any description of the benefits. Requirements described in this document are derived from the Vision Document prepared for Timetable Management System.considered when the system is to be designed. Assumptions are factors that are believe to be true during the life cycle of the project. Scope Describe the scope of the software application to be produced. Specify the number of users in each group and the nature of their use of the system. and applications of the software. and type of device. and goals of the software. System State/Assumptions. and other factors necessary to provide a complete and comprehensive description of the requirements for the software. location. Dependencies and Constraints
Describe assumptions made that can affect the requirements of the SRS. describe its functionality.
Describe each dependency that can affect the requirements specified in the SRS. The Software Requirements Specification (SRS) captures the complete software requirements for the system.
So to enhance the ease of working we go for this package.
. The least but most important it saves time. Objectives of the package Create a Time Table Management System to be used by any College.
12. the system so in some way or other it will going to create problem at some stage of execution (like report generation).
Scopes and boundaries of the package As it is a computer-based package so maintenance and working As it is not possible to associate each and every requirement of
is somewhat difficult from manual mode of approach.NEED As we discussed earlier that manual maintenance of a Time Table Management System is a tedious job. Class. Manual maintenance of databases of items. To perform the basic requirements of the firm. time table processing is a time taking process and somehow erroneous. Maintaining databases of subject. rather going manual modification we involve computer for accuracy.Constraints
Describe factors that limit the scope and functionality of the software. To give more accuracy to the system i. semester’s details.e. Constraints are requirements that are imposed on the software solution.
which describe and document the steps in a business process. In the functional requirement subsections. Functional requirements should include specific requirements for business rules. Business requirements are the parts of the fully defined business process that will be automated by the software.
Non Functional Requirements
The Non functional requirements sections should be customized to contain the information necessary to define the fundamental actions that must take place within the software to process and generate its result.
Logical Data Requirements
Describe the logical data requirements for the system.
Describe all requirements from a business perspective. Non Functional requirements should include specific requirements for business rules.
As a computer based System it is easier to fetch data from the
database for unsocial activities. which describe and document the steps in a business process.
Functional Requirements The functional requirements sections should be customized to contain the information necessary to define the fundamental actions that must take place within the software to process inputs and to process and generate outputs. Also easier to destroy the existing ones. specify all software requirements to a level of detail sufficient to enable the developer to build the software application. Each functional requirement documented in the requirements sections must have a unique identifier for requirements traceability and should be ranked for importance and/or stability.
these should capture the intended behavior of the human interface of the application.
1. Subject in which classroom 8. Subjects distributed evenly for entire week
In few minutes. the program generates a complete timetable that fulfills all your requirements. easy…) 11. Periods per week per subject 10.
Selection for Number of working days of the week (ex. Type of subject ( Hard. Can be made 4 periods on Saturday etc.User Requirements
Describe the user requirements. Single or double duration consecutively 9.
Zero (attendance) period insertion Periods per day selection . Subjects could be entered considering 6. The program follows all psycho hygienic and organizational requirements such as:
5. Saturday off)
3. 4.This selection is day wise ex. Hard subjects in first 4 or 5 periods 7.
3. System Document
2 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
The data flow diagrams help in the analysis of the flow of data through a system and thus help in identifying the system requirements. It is strictly for identification purposes. The number assigned to a specific process does not correspond to the sequence of processes. which
. A DFD may consist of a number of levels.from inputs to outputs through processing. Logical Data Flow Diagrams The Logical Data Flow Diagrams represent the transformation of the data from input to output through processing logically and independently of the physical components that may be associated with the system. a number of data-flows coming out from the source and going into the destination. Process names are further numbered that will be used for identification purposes. These are of two types – Logical Data Flow Diagrams and Physical Data Flow Diagrams. A DFD concentrates on the data moving through the system and not on the devices or equipments. Each component of a DFD is labeled with a descriptive name. It is the starting point of system design that decomposes the requirements specifications down to the lowest level of detail. and workstations. A data flow diagram allows parallel activities i. The top-level diagram is called the Context Diagram. The Data Flow Diagram (DFD) clarifies system requirements and identifies major transformations that will become programs in system design.e. departments. Physical Data Flow Diagrams The Physical Dataflow Diagrams show the actual implementation and movement of data between people.Data Flow Diagram is a diagrammatic representation of data movement through a system –manual or automated .
programs. but are outside its boundary. It gives the most general and broadest view of the system. It represents a packet of data. organizations or other entities interacting with the system. NOTATIONS:
Data-Flows show the movement of data in a specific direction from the
source to the destination. Move over it gives the pictorial representation of the scope boundaries of the system under study. which transform it
from input to output.
Sources and Destinations of data are the external sources and destinations of
data.consists of a single process and plays a very important role in studying the system.
Data Stores are places where data are stored such as files and tables. Feasibility Study
Below is the top level DFD showing how the User’s request processed by the server with database interaction and sends the response back to the user. which may be people.
Processes show the operations performed on the data.
Very important information contained in the feasibility study is that it takes care of the cost benefit analysis. reliability and maintainability end products. The system provides a very guidance for every step to follow while using. The analyst evaluates the technical merits of the system. The system is very user friendly and only common terms are used in the application and so it will not be difficult for the end-user in handling the system.All projects are feasible when given unlimited resources and infinite time! But the development of computer-based system is likely to be played by scarcity of resources and difficulty in completion dates. Technology is not a constraint to system development.
. which is the assessment of the economic justification for a computer based system project. The latest technologies are incorporated so as to achieve the best of these new developments on the system. The feasibility of a computer-based system can be studied in three major areas: Economic Feasibility Technical Feasibility Functional Feasibility Economic Feasibility An evaluation of development cost weighed against the ultimate income of benefit derived from the developed system. while at the same time collects additional information about performance. Technical Feasibility A study of function. performance and constraints that may affect the ability to achieve an acceptable system.
completion time and personal requirement are estimated and used to determine where to add it to an existing list. After a project request is approved. we can conclude that this system is economically. priority. Project Approval Those projects that are both feasible and desirable should be put into a schedule. further the involvement of the user in each part of the development will be helpful in increasing its success factor.The systems developed fully generalize. technically and functionally feasible. Functional Feasibility: The system will be acceptable to the users who will be helped greatly by the system. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
Context Level Diagram
Time Table Management
0. The current existing system is less interactive and not up to the mark in terms of customer support.0
. so that any future expansion will not be a problem. From all these. its cost.
Period Lab Master Master 1.1
Subject Master 1.First Level DFD Admin Admin
Master Entry 1.5
DataStore Second Level DFD Admin Admin
Branch Master 1.4 22 Period Master Lab Master
Teacher Master 1.3 1.
3 E-R Diagrams
The relation upon the system is structure through a conceptual
ER-Diagram. • The set of primary components that are identified by the ERD are
• Data object
• Relationships • Attributes • Various types of indicators
. which not only specifics the existential entities but also the standard relations through which the system exists and the cardinalities that are necessary for the system state to continue.3. • The entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) depicts the relationship
between the data objects. The ERD is the notation that is used to conduct the date modeling activity the attributes of each data object noted is the ERD can be described resign a data object descriptions.
Create a Time Table Management System to be used by any College. performance.
. safety.1 Product Perspective
The rest of this document contains the following in the mentioned order: 1. reliability. To perform the basic requirements of the firm. I want to equip myself with in-depth practical knowledge and technical skills in the field of computer science. usability.2 OBJECTIVE To utilize my knowledge and technical skills along with a dedicated desire of learning more and more. something new.
4. and to design something different. design constraints.Overall description of the project and its requirements.Specific requirements for the project including the functionality. semester’s details. security. Class. Maintaining databases of subject. to benefit my organization and attain consistent professional growth.4. PROBLEM DISCRIPTION
4. 2. and copy right and intellectual properties.
data abstraction.1 C++:This overview of C++ presents the key design. language constructs that allow the programmer to introduce and use new types of objects that match the concepts of an application. and language-technical concepts using examples to give the reader a feel for the language. object-oriented programming. and generic programming. object-oriented programming.4.3 TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION:4. C++ is a general-purpose programming language with a bias towards systems programming that supports efficient low-level computation. C++ supports styles of programming that rely on fairly direct manipulation of hardware resources to deliver a high degree of efficiency plus higher-level styles of programming that rely on user-defined types to provide a model of data and computation that is closer to a human’s view of the task being performed by a computer. These higher-level styles of programming are often called data abstraction. Thus. This paper is organized around the main programming styles directly supported by C++:
. that is. programming. it provides powerful and flexible mechanisms for abstraction. 4. and generic programming.2 Introduction and Overview
The C++ programming language provides a model of memory and computation that closely matches that of most computers.3. In addition.3.
describes the use of class hierarchies in object-oriented programming. §4 The C++ Abstraction Mechanisms introduces C++’s class concept and its use for defining new types that can be used exactly as built-in types. and presents templates in support of generic programming. f fi in nd d(). it supported traditional system programming techniques (§3) and data abstraction (§4. §5 Large-Scale Programming describes namespaces and exception handling provided to ease the composition of programs out of separate parts. v ve ec ct to or r. s so or rt t().3 The Design and Evolution of C++
C++ was designed and implemented by Bjarne Stroustrup (the author of this article) at AT&T Bell Laboratories to combine the organizational and design strengths of Simula with C’s facilities for systems programming. The initial version of C++.1980]. shows how abstract classes can be used to provide interfaces to objects of a variety of types. §6 The C++ Standard Library presents standard facilities such as I/O streams.g. a brief overview of some of the tasks that C++ has been used for and some suggestions for further reading are given. §3 The C Programming Model presents the C subset of C++ and other C++ facilities supporting traditional systems-programming styles. strings.g. containers (e.3. was first used in 1980. f fo or r_ _e ea ac ch h()) and support for numeric computation. The basic facilities for object-oriented programming (§4.1).3) were added
.§2 The Design and Evolution of C++ describes the aims of C++ and the principles that guided its evolution. To round off.
4. l li is st t. called ‘‘C with Classes’’ [Stroustrup. generic algorithms (e. and m ma ap p).2-4.
During the period of standardization the standards committee acted as an important focus for the C++ community and its draft standards acted as interim definitions of the language. and later the International Standards Organization. As the result of widespread use and the appearance of several independentlydeveloped C++. As an active member of the standards committee.1997].in 1983 and object-oriented design and programming techniques were gradually introduced into the C++ community. The language was first made commercially available in 1985 [Stroustrup.1994] [Stroustrup.1986b].2 implementations.
. Standard C++ is a better approximation to my ideals for C++ than were earlier versions. ISO.1997b].1991].1990] [Stroustrup. Facilities for generic programming (§4.1998]. I was a key participant in the further evolution of C++.1986] [Stroustrup. The design and evolution of C++ is documented in [Stroustrup.1996] and [Stroustrup. The language as it is defined at the end of the standardization process and the key design and programming techniques it directly supports are presented in [Stroustrup. leading to an international standard in 1998 [C++. formal standardization of C++ started in 1990 under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute. ANSI.4) were added to the language in the 1987-1989 time frame [Ellis.
Great care was taken that the higher-level programming techniques from Simula could be applied to the systems programming domain. the abstraction mechanisms provided by C++ were specifically designed to be applicable to programming tasks that demanded the highest degree of efficiency and flexibility. That is.’’
. C++ is a general-purpose programming language that – is a better C – supports data abstraction – supports object-oriented programming _ – supports generic programming __________________________________________________________ Support for generic programming emerged late as an explicit goal.4 C++ Design Aims
C++ was designed to deliver the flexibility and efficiency of C for systems programming together with Simula’s facilities for program organization (usually referred to as object-oriented programming). I presented generic programming styles and the language features that support them (§4.3.4. These aims can be summarized: __________________________________________________________ _ _ Aims: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ C++ makes programming more enjoyable for serious programmers.4) under the heading of ‘‘data abstraction. During most of the evolution of C++.
Provide comprehensive support for each supported style. backgrounds.3 ________________________________________________________________ _
. From the start. and problems vary too much among C++ users. _______________________________________________________ Note the emphasis on immediate utility in real-world applications and the respect for the skills and preferences of programmers implied by the last three points. Design-support rules. C++ must be useful now. Always provide a transition path. Every feature must have a reasonably obvious implementation. and Low-level programming support rules: _______________________________________________________ _ _ General rules: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ C++’s evolution must be driven by real problems. Also. not a complete system. Perfection was considered unattainable because needs. feedback from user and implementer experience is essential in the evolution of a language. Thus..4.3. C++ was aimed at programmers engaged in demanding real-world projects. notions of perfection change significantly over the lifespan of a general-purpose programming language. Language-technical rules. the design rules for C++ are listed under the headings General rules.5 Design Principles
In [Stroustrup. _ Don’t try to force people. C++ is a language.1994]. Don’t get involved in a sterile quest for perfection.
___________________________________________________________ Language-technical ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ No implicit violations of the static type system.
________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Support sound design notions. the aim was always to support a range of design and programming styles. All features must be affordable. _ Support composition of software from separately developed parts.1972] [Birtwistle. Say what you mean. Most of these techniques have their root in Simula [Dahl.1970] [Dahl.1979] and are usually discussed under the labels of object-oriented programming and object-oriented design. ________________________________________________________________ The aim of C++ was to improve the quality of programs produced by making better design and programming techniques simpler to use and affordable. Avoid order dependencies. Provide facilities for program organization. This contrasts to a view of language design that tries to channel all system building into a single heavily supported and enforced style (paradigm). Provide as good support for user-defined types as for built-in types. It is more important to allow a useful feature than to prevent every misuse. Locality is good.
uncompromising efficiency.1) and hierarchies of classes (§4. all class objects must be allocated in dynamic memory and accessed through pointers (called references in Simula). Instead. Syntax matters (often in perverse ways). Conversely. For example. pick the variant of a feature that is easiest to teach. From Simula. the desire for a high degree of C compatibility. Simula does not allow objects of userdefined types to be allocated on the stack and addressed directly. in Simula and many similar languages there are fundamental differences in the support provided for user-defined types and for built-in types. Preprocessor usage should be eliminated. and abstract beauty. §4. and cannot be referred to by pointers. a user-defined type – such as c co om mp pl le ex x (§4. the difference in style
.If in doubt. However.3). In particular. This difference in treatment of built-in types and userdefined types had serious efficiency implications. Also. ___________________________________________________________ These rules must be considered in the context created of the more general aims. builtin types can be genuinely local (stack-frame allocated). C++ borrowed the notion of user-defined types (classes. cannot be allocated in dynamic memory.1) – incurs overheads in run-time and space that were deemed unacceptable for the kind of applications for which C++ was intended. when represented as a reference to an object allocated in dynamic memory. complete generality. and immediate realworld utility counteracts desires for complete type safety. For example.
Leave no room for a lower-level language below C++ (except assembler). _______________________________________________________________ _ _ Low-level programming support rules: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Use traditional (dumb) linkers.of usage would preclude uniform treatment of semantically similar types in generic programming (§4. _______________________________________________________________ . in C++ a variable or a function cannot be used before it has been declared. the rules for class member names and the rules for overload resolution were made independent of declaration order to minimize confusion and error.1) to help localize design decisions. Some order dependencies are unavoidable in a language designed for one-pass compilation. Consequently. namespaces (§5. provide means for manual control. What you don’t use. When maintaining a large program. and access control (§4.4
. For example.2). _ If C++ was designed to be source-and-link compatible with C wherever this did not seriously interfere with in doubt.4). C++ provides classes (§4). However. a programmer must invariably make changes based of incomplete knowledge and looking at only a small part of the code. No gratuitous incompatibilities with C. you don’t pay for (zero-overhead rule).
At the time when the decision to base C++ on C was made.1978] [Kernighan. Being C-compatible ensured that C++ programmers immediately had a complete language and toolset available. It is also a problem that many programmers migrate from C to C++ without appreciating that radical improvements in code quality are only achieved by similarly radical changes to programming styles.C++’s support for strong type checking. C compatibility also leaves C++ with some syntactic and semantic quirks. However. designed during the last 20 years – have in addition tended to support directly the notion of a function call stack. Furthermore.6 The C Programming Model
A fundamental property of computers in widespread use has remained remarkably constant: Memory is a sequence of words or bytes.1988] as a subset. It was also important that high-quality educational materials were available for C. indexed by integers called addresses. For example.3. C++ has C [Kernighan.
4. and that C compatibility gave the C++ programmer direct and efficient access to a multitude of libraries. Except for minor details. C wasn’t as prominent as it later became and language popularity was a minor concern compared to the flexibility and basic efficiency offered by C. Modern machines – say. the C declarator syntax is far from elegant and the rules for implicit conversions among built-in types are chaotic. all popular machines have some important facilities – such as input-output – that do not fit well into
Either way. Broadly speaking. from a higher-level language point of view. the largest region in which the name potentially is valid. that is.4 SCOPE:Scope is the largest region of program text in which a name can potentially be used without qualification to refer to an entity.or word-oriented model of memory or computation. scope is the general context used to differentiate the meanings of entity names. Moreover.the conventional byte. pointers for using the addressing mechanisms. C provides language-level and machinearchitecture-independent notions that directly map to the key hardware notions: characters for using bytes. The rules for scope combined with those for name resolution enable the compiler to determine whether a reference to an identifier is legal at a given point in a file. but they are not necessarily the same. C is easy enough to implement that it has become almost universally available.
4. The net effect has been that C is relatively easy to learn and use in areas where some knowledge of the real machine is a benefit. the use of these facilities is messy and machine-architecture-specific. Scope is the mechanism by which it is
. functions for program abstraction. integers for using words. These facilities may require special machine instructions or access to ‘‘memory’’ locations with peculiar semantics. The scope of a declaration and the visibility of an identifier can mean the same thing. C is by far the most successful language providing the programmer with a programming model that closely matches the machine model. and an absence of constraining language features so that the programmer can manipulate the inevitable messy hardware-specific details.
5 BENEFIT:C++ is used by hundreds of thousands of programmers in essentially every application domain. many conferences. The original identifier cannot be used to access the first object until the scope of the duplicate identifier (the lifetime of the second object) has end
4. Scope exceeds visibility when a duplicate identifier is used in an inner declarative region.
. “Time Table Management System”. thereby hiding the object declared in the outer declarative region. hundreds of libraries.possible to limit the visibility of declarations in a program. manual system.
than that On implementing this package the farm will get error This package would limit the time and money factor involve in Maintenance is much easier and accurate than the existing Security features are somewhat higher of manual approach. Scope can exceed visibility.
free data to analyze. and innumerable consultants. several technical journals. Training and education at a variety of levels are widely available. but visibility cannot exceed scope. The visibility of an identifier is that region of program text from which the object associated with the identifier can be legally accessed. This use is supported by about a dozen independent implementations. hundreds of textbooks.
the concern is whether the proposal is both technically and legally feasible (assuming moderate cost). If benefits outweigh costs. which can be categorized as follows: 1.FEASIBILITY REPORT
5. Output. Technological feasibility is carried out to determine whether the company has the capability. An entrepreneur must accurately weigh the cost versus benefits before taking an action.
. hardware. and 2. Fields. When writing a feasibility report the following should be taken to consideration:
A brief description of the business The part of the business being examined The human and economic factor The possible solutions to the problems
At this level.1 Technology and system feasibility
The assessment is based on an outline design of system requirements in terms of Input. the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a candidate system and compare them with costs.
5. Processes.5. then the decision is made to design and implement the system. to handle the completion of the project.2 Economic feasibility
Economic analysis is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of a new system. Development costs. More commonly known ascost/benefit analysis. Operating costs. Programs. in order to estimate whether the new system will perform adequately or not. frequency of updating. Cost-based study: It is important to identify cost and benefit factors. This is an analysis of the costs to be incurred in the system and the benefits derivable out of the system. This can be quantified in terms of volumes of data. in terms of software. and Procedures. etc. trends. personnel and expertise.
Time-based study: This is an analysis of the time required to achieve a return on investments. In this technique. Schedule feasibility is a measure of how reasonable the project timetable is. Typically this means estimating how long the system will take to develop.
. Design: The goal of the design phase is to transform the requirements specified in the SRS document into a structure that is suitable for implementing in some programming language.g.
5. a data processing system must comply with the local Data Protection Acts. are the project deadlines reasonable? Some projects are initiated with specific deadlines. Given our technical expertise. The future value of a project is also a factor. and takes advantage of the opportunities identified during scope definition and how it satisfies the requirements identified in the requirements analysis phase of system development. In this phase we followed Object-oriented design (OOD) approach.
5. and if it can be completed in a given time period using some methods like payback period. e.3 Legal feasibility
Determines whether the proposed system conflicts with legal requirements.4 Operational feasibility
Operational feasibility is a measure of how well a proposed system solves the problems. various objects that occur in the problem domain and solution domain are first identified and then the different relationships exists among those objects are identified.5 Schedule feasibility
A project will fail if it takes too long to be completed before it is useful. You need to determine whether the deadlines are mandatory or desirable.
DATA ACCESS OBJECT
DATA SOURC E
DATA TRANSFER OBJECT
The DAO design pattern is another abstraction layer over the persistence mechanism of the application.6.SYSTEM DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT 6.1 Design Pattern Used:
DAO (Data Access Object) Model DTO (Data Transaction Object) Model
Data Access & Data Transfer Object Model:
The Data Access Object (or DAO) pattern:
resource's client Separates a data interface from its data access mechanisms Adapts a specific data resource's access API to a generic client interface
The DAO pattern allows data access mechanisms to change independently of the code that uses the data. The application deals
with Data Access Objects and Data Transfer Objects (DTO) rather than directly calling the driver. Changing the persistence method at a later date doesn't require the application code to change. The standardization provided by this new layer also makes it easier to automatically generate the Java code necessary to access the database. only adding a new set of DAOs. ME. Most Jcalls are very repetitive and time consuming. NT.2 REQUIRMENTS:Hardware configuration Main processor Hard disk capacity Software configuration Operating system Programming specification Integrated Development C & C++ graphics : Windows (2000. Using DAO in the web application allows more concentration on the data access rather than on the mechanics of how the data is stored and retrieved. XP) : C++ : Pentium IV : 40 GB
Random access memory : 256 MB
. Using a DAO Generator is a good way to eliminate that work and make the application development faster
3 SCREENSHOTS: MENU BAR
the program to be tested is executed with a set of test cases and output of the program for the test cases and output of the program for the test case is evaluated to determine if the program is performing as it is expected to. • A successful test is one yet uncovers as yet undiscovered errors. During testing. Hence • Testing is the process of executing a program with the intention of finding errors. Testing provides a good indication of software reliability and some indication of software quality as a whole. Testing performs a very critical role for quality assurance and ensuring the reliability of the software. so it is not possible to test with real time data. fulfilling the objective of our “Time Table Management System”.Testing is the one step in the software engineering process that could be viewed as destructive rather than constructive. Testing is performed according to two different strategies:
. Still then we tried our best to test each individual module and also as an integrated modules (as a whole) with sufficient data that may an organization have. • A good test case is the one that has a high probability of finding as yet undiscovered error.7. it uncovers errors in the software. Testing requires that the developer discard preconceived notions of the “correctness” of the software just developed and overcome a conflict of interest that occurs when errors are uncovered. it can only show that software defects are present. testing demonstrates that software functions appear to be working according to the specification. As a secondary benefit. Testing cannot show the absence of defects.1
. As the developed software does not fulfill all the requirements of an organization. If testing is conducted successfully.
Unit testing is essential for verification of code produced during the coding phase and hence its main goal is to test internal logic modules.
7.e. system testing and acceptance testing.
8. levels of testing should be followed Levels of Testing The basic levels are unit testing. This is normally performing on realistic data of the client to demonstrate for the software is working satisfactorily.2 Specification Testing:
To perform specification testing the analyst examines the specification starting what the program should do and how it should perform under various conditions. Then test cases are developed for each . Testing here focus on external behavior of the system. The goal here is to see if the modules can be indicated properly and emphasis is being on testing interfaces between modules. Basically during code testing every path through the program is tested.3 System testing: In this testing the entire software system is tested.The code testing strategy examines the logic of program i. integration testing.In order to find which strategies to follow. 7. the analyst develops test cases that results in executing every instruction in the program. The different levels of testing are as follows: 7.2 Integration Testing: In this testing tested modules are combined into subsystems which are then tested.1 Unit Testing: In this testing different modules are tested against specification produced during design of the modules.2. 7.2. System Implementation
.2. The reference document for this process is the requirements document and the goal is to see if the system meets its requirements. These different levels of testing attempt to detect different types of faults.
The first task is the implementation planning i. What the staffs have been trained.
. investigation of current system and constraints on implementation. At the same time the user department must concentrate on training user staff. However most computer-based systems are specified in a manner that dictates accommodation of certain implementation details. the major effort in the computer department is to ensure that the programs in the system are working properly. If the implementation stage is not carefully planned and controlled. the up heal and the major impact on the existing practices shift to user department. training of staff in the changeover procedures and evaluation of changeover methods.Implementation is the stage of the project when the theoretical design turned into a working system. Thus it can be considered to be the most crucial stage in achieving a new successful system and in giving the users confidence that the users confidence that the new system will work and be effective. Once the planning has been completed. At this stage the main workload. involving both the computer and clerical procedures. deciding the methods and time scale to be adopted. In some cases a physical representation is developed as the first step in software design. design of methods to achieve the changeover. it can cause chaos. The implementation view of software requirements presents the real worlds manifestation of processing functions and information structures. Implementation involves careful planning. Installing client machine.e. a full system test can be carried out. The main steps of implementation includes 1.
it may have some inherent bugs (beyond out knowledge) as it is yet to being tested with real time data. if time permits. which may change in future.
As we discussed earlier during project “time does not permit to complete the entire project. Total software along with extensive features will be submitted as Major project”. We do believe that the system will satisfy the basics and will prove to be user friendly and effective software whenever it’s being implemented in the organization. Lastly.
9. so as a part of the whole is being carried out and being submitted as the project in our curriculum. Although we have attempted to make the entire package full proof of errors.2. here is the entire Time Table Management System with extensive features fulfilling the requirements of any modern distribution farms. Installing the software on the server. Requirements keep changing with time so the implementation of this project may change with time hence implementation is an ongoing process. Training the operational staff. we will carry our effort in developing the software fulfilling the basic requirements of any distributing farm. 3. LIMITATION
we tried to make this more manageable by creating a generic tool-set.org
.. IT is not show the complete time table on a single table .wikipedia. Our Conference TimeTable Management (CTTM) system provides all the features that we believe will make conference time-tables more easy to manage for attendees as well as for organizers.com c++. BIBLIOGRAPHY:
FOR C++ PROGRAMMING www. URL: http://www. but also create some limits to the number of users that can be managed reasonably
13.IT is only faculty name check
11 . The platform requirements are rather moderate.FUTURE WORK:
It is use to future in save the more time of college /school This software use to future easy to allocate faculty and maintain is simple It simple to use
• WIKIPEDIA. Conclusions
Since conferences usually confront attendees with a large amount of information.sun.
URL: http://www.in Books:• • • •
C++ complete Reference by Balaguruswamy C++ Theory(Balaguruswamy) LET US ‘C’ Grady Booch: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design.• GOOGLE.co.