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TEST (a): RESISTOR COLOR CODE

Introduction:

Resistance values are indicated by a standard color code. This code uses color band on
the body of resistor.
Two types of variable resistors are rheostat and potentiometer. A rheostat is essentially a
two-terminal device while a potentiometer is a three-terminal device.

Objective:

○ To determine the value of resistors according to the Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
color code and through measurement.
○ To investigate the properties of potentiometer.

Apparatus:

• Digital Multimeter – FLUKE 73 III MULTIMETER (Current range: 200mA)


• Resistors: R1=150 Ω, R2=20k Ω, R3=5.1MΩ
• Linear 10kΩ potentiometer

Method:

Resistor Color Code:

1. Five different values of resistors were taken to be determined using color code table.
Each resistors nominal value and tolerance was defined and recorded in Table 1a-2.
2. The maximum and minimum values for each resistor were calculated. Results
were recorded in Table 1a-2 accordingly.
3. By using digital multimeter, actual value of resistors were measured and recorded in
Table 1a-2. The values were checked whether or not fall between the calculated
ranges in step 2.

Variable Resistor:
1. The end terminals and wiper terminal for the potentiometer were determined. The
terminals were labeled and numbered 1,2 and 3 being the wiper respectively.
2. The ohmmeter was positioned across terminals 1-2, 2-3 and 1-3 and the measured
values were recorded in Table 1a-3.
3. The values under 1-2 and 2-3 were added and the result was compared to the 1-3
value (theoretical value).
4. The shaft of the potentiometer was reposition and the procedures for steps 2 and 3
were repeated for another 4 trials. The results was recorded in Table 1a-3.

TABLES OF RESULTS

Test (a): Resistor Color Code

Resistors R1 R2 R3

Nominal Value (Ω) 150.0 20.0k 5.10M


Tolerance (%) 5 5 5
Maximum 149.5 19.67k 5.08M
Value(Ω)
Minimum 149.2 19.66k 5.05M
Value(Ω)
Measured 149.3 19.67k 5.07M
Value(Ω)
Table 1a-2

1st Trial 2nd Trial 3rd Trial


R1-2(Ω) 2.598k 0.665k 1.525k
R2-3(Ω) 6.57k 8.46k 7.64k
R1-3(Ω) 9.02k 9.03k 9.02k
R1-2 + R2-3(Ω) 9.168k 9.125k 9.165k
Table 1a-3

Calculations:
A .Resistor Color Code:

i ) Maximum and minimum value:

1. 0.05 × 150 Ω = 7.5 Ω


Maximum value = 157.5 Ω
Minimum value = 142.5 Ω

2. 0.05 × 20k Ω = 1k Ω
Maximum value = 21k Ω
Minimum value = 19k Ω

3. 0.05 × 5.1M kΩ = 255 kΩ


Maximum value = 5.36 MΩ
Minimum value = 4.85MΩ

ii ) The percentage of relative error:

% of relative error = (theoretical value – experimental value ) × 100 %


theoretical value

1. │ ( 150 Ω - 147.3 Ω ) │ × 100 % = 1.8 %


150Ω

2. │ ( 20k Ω - 19.74k Ω ) │ ×100 % = 1.3 %


20kΩ

3. │ ( 5.1MΩ - 5.28MΩ ) │ × 100 % = 3.53 %


5.1 MΩ

B. Variable Resistor:

The percentage of relative error:

1. │( 9.168k Ω - 9.02k Ω ) │× 100 % = 1.61 %


9.168kΩ

2. │ ( 9.125k Ω - 9.03k Ω ) │× 100 % = 1.04 %


9.125kΩ

3. │ ( 9.165k Ω - 9.02k Ω ) │× 100 % = 1.58 %


9.165kΩ
TEST (b): VOLTAGE & CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

Introduction:
In voltage measurements, a voltmeter must always be connected with probes across the
component under test.
In current measurement, the ammeter must always be inserted within the circuit.
I
Objective:

○ To measure voltage and current in DC circuit.

Apparatus:

• 2 Digital Multimeter – FLUKE 73 III MULTIMETER (Current range: 200mA)


• DC voltage supply
• 2 kΩ resistor

Method:

1. The power supply was switch on and was adjusted for the minimum output.
2. The digital multimeter was set to measure voltage.
3. The voltmeter was connected directly to the power supply terminals.
4. The effect of turning the output voltage control was observed.
5. The voltage was adjusted to 2 volts.
6. The meter was remove and the 2 kΩ resistor was connected across the terminals of
the power supply as shown in Figure 1b-1.Then, the meter was connected as shown.
7. The circuit was broken as shown in Figure 1b-2 and the other meter set was inserted
on mA current range.
8. The current flowing in the circuit was recorded in Table 1b-1.
9. The voltage was increased in 2 volt steps, and for each value of the voltage, the
current was recorded.

+ -
A
+ +
V d cV 1 V d c
R 1 2 k
R 1
V 2 k V

- -

Figure 1b-1 Figure 1b-2


Results:

Vsupply (volt) 2 4 6
Current (mA) 1.01 2.03 3.04
Theoretical 1.0 2.0 3.0
values (mA)

Table 1b-1

Graph I-V

2.5
Current,I

1.5

0.5

0
0 2 4 6 8
Voltage,V

TEST (c): OHM’S LAW

Introduction:
Ohm’s Law is the basis of many electrical circuit calculations which indicates V=IR. In
this experiment, Ohms Law has to be verified and will prove through a resistor is proportional to
the voltage across it. If the relationship is truly linear, it should yield a straight line.

Objective:

○ To verify Ohm’s Law.

Apparatus:

• Voltage DC supply
• Resistors – 5.1kΩ
• Two digital DMMs.

Method:

1. The circuit in Figure 1c-1 was connected with R=5kΩ.


2. The actual value of the resistor was measured and then the result was recorded in
Table 1c-1.
3. The voltage across R was increased in 1V steps until 9V, and for each case the
resulting current was measured and recorded in Table 1c-1.
4. The graphs of I versus V was plotted for both table of results on the same scales and
axis.
5. A right triangle was constructed on each graph, and from this. The slope was
determined again and hence the conductance G was evaluated.
6. From this information, the resistance R was evaluated. G and R for each graph were
recorded in the appropriate column in Table 1c-2.
7. This obtained value was compared experimentally with those measured values
recorded in the respective tables.

Results:

Nominal Measured Resistance


Resistance R= 5.03 kΩ
R=5.1kΩ
Voltage Vs(V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Source
Current (mA) 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Theoretical
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
Current (mA) 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
Values
Table 1c-1

Slope (G) R (1/G)


Table 1c-1
Theoretical Current Value 0.20 5

Table 1c-2

C
G
V
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
.,r
o
u
a
6
8
2
rl4
p
0
rt1
.h
a
e
0
2
3
5
7
9
1
g
n
I
1
0
9
te
-
7
6
8
9
,5
I(V
V
()
F
m
r
A
)o
m

T
a
b
l
e

1
c
-
1
)

Analysis, deductions and conclusion:

1. For Test (c), The Ohm’s Law has been verified from the graph that the voltage, V
across a resistor is directly proportional to the current, I, flowing via the resistor.

V= IR
2. The fact that supporting our decisions is the voltage measured across and the current
through known resistors for several different values. Then, the data were plotted on a
graph and yielded a straight line, proving that the relationship between voltage and
current is linear.

3. The factors that affect resistance of a material with a uniform cross-sectional area are
resistivity (ρ) and length of the resistance material.

4. Two types of common resistors are wire wound and composition type. Wire wound
resistors are normal types of resistor while composition resistors used when large
resistance is needed.

5. Not all resistors obeying Ohm’s Law, only linear resistors obey Ohm’s Law. Nonlinear
resistors such as light bulb and diode did not obey Ohm’s law because their resistance
varies with current.

TEST (d): SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS

Introduction:

A series circuit should have the same values of current in all parts of the circuit and total
resistant is equal to the individual sum of resistor.
A parallel circuit should have the same values of voltage drop across each resistor and
equivalent resistant is the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocal individual resistor.
Objective:

○ To verify that in series circuit;


i) The total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistors
ii) The voltage drops across the resistors equals to the applied voltage
iii) The value of the current is the same in all parts of the circuits.

○ To verify that in parallel circuit;


i) The equivalent resistance is the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocal of
the individual resistors.
ii) The branch current equal to the supplied current
iii) The voltage across each resistor is the same.

Apparatus:

• 15V dc supply.
• 2 digital multimeters.
• Resistors; 1.0kΩ, 1.5kΩ, 6.8kΩ.

Series Circuit Diagram:


Figure 1d-1

Method :

1. Circuit is connected as figure 2-1a and supply voltage is adjusted to 15 V.


2. The power supply is switched off and then ammeter is connected in position A.
3. The power supply is switched off. The current via resistor, R1 is read.
4. The voltmeter across R1 is connected and the voltage drop across it is measured.
5. Method 2 until 4 is repeated for the ammeter positions B, C and D and the voltmeter
positions R2 and R3.
6. The voltage for close and opened loop is recorded. The measured values in table 1d-1 is
filled up.

Tabulated Results (series circuit):


Supply voltage V1 (volts) V2 (volts) V3 (volts) voltage sum
(volt) V1+ V2+ V3
15 1.60 2.418 10.92 14.938

Supply current I1 (mA) I2 (mA) I3 (mA) Total current


(mA) (mA)
1.63 1.63 1.63 1.63 1.63

Total resistance R1 R2 R3 Resistance sum


(Ohms) (Ohms) (Ohms) (Ohms) R1+R2+R3
8.71k 0.926k 1.419k 6.26k 8.605k

Table 1d-1
Parallel Circuits Diagram:

Figure 1d-2

Method:

1. Circuit is connected as figure 2-1b and supply voltage is adjusted to 15 V.


2. The power supply is switched off and then ammeter is connected in position A, the
total current, Itotal. The supply is switched on the current through resistor, R1 and its
voltage drop across it is read.
3. Method 2 is repeated for the ammeter positions B, C and D and the voltmeter
positions across R2 and R3.
Caution: Be careful not to touch R3 during measurement as it might be hot.
Tabulated Results (parallel circuit):

Measured Value:

Supply current I1 (mA) I2 (mA) I3 (mA) ∑ Current


(Ampere)
27.1 15.1 10.06 2.24 27.4

Supply voltage V1 (Volt) V2 (Volt) V3 (Volt)


(Volt)
15 15 15 15

Equivalent R1 (kΩ) R2 (kΩ) R3 (kΩ) Equivalent


resistance(kΩ) resistance (kΩ)
0.514 0.926 1.419 6.26 0.489

Total G1 G2 G3 Conductance
conductance (Siemens) (Siemens) (Siemens) sum G1+G2+G3
(Siemens)
1.944×10-3 1.08×10-3 0.705×10-3 0.160×10-3 2.04×10-3

Table 2-2
Analysis, deductions and conclusion:

1. For Test (d), The aim of the experiment had been achieved.

2. From the experiment we can see that the current is same throughout the series circuit,
whereas in the parallel circuit the voltage is the same.

3. Error in circuit connection, error by ammeter and voltmeter and error in reading the
current and voltage may contribute to the discrepancies in the results for each point of the
aim

4. The principle of voltage division applicable to the voltage in the series circuit whiles the
principle of current division applicable to the current in the parallel circuit.

5. Formula for each condition.

a. In series circuit, the total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistors.
Mathematically;

Rtotal= R1+R2+R3.

b. In a parallel circuit, the equivalent resistance is the reciprocal of the sum of


reciprocals of individual resistors. Mathematically;

1 / Rtotal = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3

c. In series circuit, the voltage drops across resistors equals to the applied voltage.
Mathematically;

Vtotal= V1+V2+V3

d. In parallel circuit, the voltage drop across each resistor in parallel is the same.
Mathematically;

Vtotal= V1 =V2 =V3

e. In series circuit, the value of current is the same in all parts of the circuit.
Mathematically;

Itotal= I1 = I2 =I3
f. In parallel circuit, the branch current in parallel equal to the supply current.
Mathematically;

Itotal= I1 +I2 +I3

Conclusion:

1. Theoretically, the resistance value can be verified by referring to the resistor


color code while the measured resistance can be determined by using digital multimeter.
2. The voltage is measured in parallel and current in this circuit is measured in
series.
3. The experiment has satisfied to Ohm’s Law that there is direct relationship
between voltage, V, and current, I , across resistor. The verified Ohm’s Law
represents the straight linear line of a graph Voltage, V vs. current, I, while its
slope represents the resistance.
1. In the series circuit, the total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistors. The
voltage drops across the resistors equals to the applied voltage. The value of the current is
the same in all parts of the circuits.
2. In the parallel circuits, the equivalent resistance is the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocal
of the individual resistors. The branch current in parallel equal to the supply current. The
voltage drop across each resistor in parallel is the same.
3. There are few factors that affect the outcome of the results. Firstly, there might be
problems in the process of manufacturing the apparatus. Secondly, the condition of the
apparatus is poor as it has been used for a number of times and get a little bit rusty. The
voltage values could not be set exactly as the required values due to human weakness.
There is also resistance in the apparatus used such as the wires and the digital
multimeters.

4. Overall, the objectives of the experiment have been successfully achieved.