Introduction:
Resistance values are indicated by a standard color code. This code uses color band on
the body of resistor.
Two types of variable resistors are rheostat and potentiometer. A rheostat is essentially a
twoterminal device while a potentiometer is a threeterminal device.
Objective:
○ To determine the value of resistors according to the Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
color code and through measurement.
○ To investigate the properties of potentiometer.
Apparatus:
Method:
1. Five different values of resistors were taken to be determined using color code table.
Each resistors nominal value and tolerance was defined and recorded in Table 1a2.
2. The maximum and minimum values for each resistor were calculated. Results
were recorded in Table 1a2 accordingly.
3. By using digital multimeter, actual value of resistors were measured and recorded in
Table 1a2. The values were checked whether or not fall between the calculated
ranges in step 2.
Variable Resistor:
1. The end terminals and wiper terminal for the potentiometer were determined. The
terminals were labeled and numbered 1,2 and 3 being the wiper respectively.
2. The ohmmeter was positioned across terminals 12, 23 and 13 and the measured
values were recorded in Table 1a3.
3. The values under 12 and 23 were added and the result was compared to the 13
value (theoretical value).
4. The shaft of the potentiometer was reposition and the procedures for steps 2 and 3
were repeated for another 4 trials. The results was recorded in Table 1a3.
TABLES OF RESULTS
Resistors R1 R2 R3
Calculations:
A .Resistor Color Code:
2. 0.05 × 20k Ω = 1k Ω
Maximum value = 21k Ω
Minimum value = 19k Ω
B. Variable Resistor:
Introduction:
In voltage measurements, a voltmeter must always be connected with probes across the
component under test.
In current measurement, the ammeter must always be inserted within the circuit.
I
Objective:
Apparatus:
Method:
1. The power supply was switch on and was adjusted for the minimum output.
2. The digital multimeter was set to measure voltage.
3. The voltmeter was connected directly to the power supply terminals.
4. The effect of turning the output voltage control was observed.
5. The voltage was adjusted to 2 volts.
6. The meter was remove and the 2 kΩ resistor was connected across the terminals of
the power supply as shown in Figure 1b1.Then, the meter was connected as shown.
7. The circuit was broken as shown in Figure 1b2 and the other meter set was inserted
on mA current range.
8. The current flowing in the circuit was recorded in Table 1b1.
9. The voltage was increased in 2 volt steps, and for each value of the voltage, the
current was recorded.
+ 
A
+ +
V d cV 1 V d c
R 1 2 k
R 1
V 2 k V
 
Vsupply (volt) 2 4 6
Current (mA) 1.01 2.03 3.04
Theoretical 1.0 2.0 3.0
values (mA)
Table 1b1
Graph IV
2.5
Current,I
1.5
0.5
0
0 2 4 6 8
Voltage,V
Introduction:
Ohm’s Law is the basis of many electrical circuit calculations which indicates V=IR. In
this experiment, Ohms Law has to be verified and will prove through a resistor is proportional to
the voltage across it. If the relationship is truly linear, it should yield a straight line.
Objective:
Apparatus:
• Voltage DC supply
• Resistors – 5.1kΩ
• Two digital DMMs.
Method:
Results:
Table 1c2
C
G
V
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
.,r
o
u
a
6
8
2
rl4
p
0
rt1
.h
a
e
0
2
3
5
7
9
1
g
n
I
1
0
9
te

7
6
8
9
,5
I(V
V
()
F
m
r
A
)o
m
T
a
b
l
e
1
c

1
)
1. For Test (c), The Ohm’s Law has been verified from the graph that the voltage, V
across a resistor is directly proportional to the current, I, flowing via the resistor.
V= IR
2. The fact that supporting our decisions is the voltage measured across and the current
through known resistors for several different values. Then, the data were plotted on a
graph and yielded a straight line, proving that the relationship between voltage and
current is linear.
3. The factors that affect resistance of a material with a uniform crosssectional area are
resistivity (ρ) and length of the resistance material.
4. Two types of common resistors are wire wound and composition type. Wire wound
resistors are normal types of resistor while composition resistors used when large
resistance is needed.
5. Not all resistors obeying Ohm’s Law, only linear resistors obey Ohm’s Law. Nonlinear
resistors such as light bulb and diode did not obey Ohm’s law because their resistance
varies with current.
Introduction:
A series circuit should have the same values of current in all parts of the circuit and total
resistant is equal to the individual sum of resistor.
A parallel circuit should have the same values of voltage drop across each resistor and
equivalent resistant is the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocal individual resistor.
Objective:
Apparatus:
• 15V dc supply.
• 2 digital multimeters.
• Resistors; 1.0kΩ, 1.5kΩ, 6.8kΩ.
Method :
Table 1d1
Parallel Circuits Diagram:
Figure 1d2
Method:
Measured Value:
Total G1 G2 G3 Conductance
conductance (Siemens) (Siemens) (Siemens) sum G1+G2+G3
(Siemens)
1.944×103 1.08×103 0.705×103 0.160×103 2.04×103
Table 22
Analysis, deductions and conclusion:
1. For Test (d), The aim of the experiment had been achieved.
2. From the experiment we can see that the current is same throughout the series circuit,
whereas in the parallel circuit the voltage is the same.
3. Error in circuit connection, error by ammeter and voltmeter and error in reading the
current and voltage may contribute to the discrepancies in the results for each point of the
aim
4. The principle of voltage division applicable to the voltage in the series circuit whiles the
principle of current division applicable to the current in the parallel circuit.
a. In series circuit, the total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistors.
Mathematically;
Rtotal= R1+R2+R3.
1 / Rtotal = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3
c. In series circuit, the voltage drops across resistors equals to the applied voltage.
Mathematically;
Vtotal= V1+V2+V3
d. In parallel circuit, the voltage drop across each resistor in parallel is the same.
Mathematically;
e. In series circuit, the value of current is the same in all parts of the circuit.
Mathematically;
Itotal= I1 = I2 =I3
f. In parallel circuit, the branch current in parallel equal to the supply current.
Mathematically;
Conclusion: