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COIN BASED MOBILE CHARGER
With mobile phones becoming the major source of business/personal communication, the mobile phone business is currently worth billion of dollars, and supports millions of phones. The need to provide a public charging service is essential. Many critics argued that a public mobile phone charging service is not a lucrative business because most users can charge their phones at home, in their office or in their cars. STAYTALKING Coin Operated Mobile Phone Charger is a new business milestone because many are attending business conventions and forgetting their charger at home or in hotel rooms. Students and many that use the public transportation that don't know that their level of their battery is low are prospective customers for coin operated mobile phone charger service. Recommended locations include: Hotels, conference centers, exhibition halls, serviced offices, exchange halls, motels, leisure centers, health clubs, training centers, golf clubs, retail outlets, shopping malls, Internet cafes, universities, colleges, hall of residence, airports, train terminals, etc., so that the mobile phone users can reactivate a low or dead battery by simply plugging in and charging for as low as one dollar. Coin Operated Mobile Phone Charger benefits
to the users include: -To reactivate a low or dead battery -To retrieve vital text or voice mail -No need to carry around a charger -Fast micro pulse charge in 10 minutes -Make and receive calls while charging Never be without a charged phone again The key features of the STAYTALKING Charger includes: -Simple to operate, plug and charge Supports 95% of all mobile phones -Stylish design and eye catching signage -Select the charging lead for your make of phone -Allows up to 10 users to recharge their mobile phones simultaneously -Unique service to customers -Generate revenue from day one. Public Coin Operated Mobile Phone Chargers are now available. To become a provider in your area or for more information.
Introduction: The objective of this project is inserting the coin using charge for your mobile phone in public places. Scope: This project is very useful to people who are all using mobile phone without charging condition in pubic places. Explanation: In this project, who are all using mobile phones in outside of home are office without charging condition. The coin based mobile phone charger is very useful to that person for using coin to charge for that mobile. The IR (infrared) transmitter is used to transmit IR signal in the transmitter side. The IR receiver is used to receive the IR signal in the receiver side. Between the IR transmitter and receiver, insert a coin to change the polarity of pulse in SCU input. The SCU is used to converting low pulse to high pulse and that pulse is inverted in inverter. The 555 IC is act as a timer to produces high pulse for particular time period. Again the SCU is used to
converting low pulse to high pulse and this output is give to input of driver circuit. Driver circuit is used for provide the sufficient input voltage of relay. The relay will on to activate the 230v charger, we will use charger to charge for our mobile phone.
The main merits of this is
i. ii. iii. iv.
Simple and hand efficient. Less expensive. Reduced man power. Low power consumption.
The coin based mobile phone charger is very useful to public for using coin to charge for the mobile phone in any places.
BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 1.IR SENSOR
A InfraRed sensor (IR sensor) is an electronic device that measures infrared (IR) light radiating from objects in its field of view.Apparent motion is detected when an infrared source with one temperature, such as a human, passes in front of an infrared source with another temperature, such as a wall. All objects emit what is known as black body radiation. It is usually infrared radiation that is invisible to the human eye but can be detected by electronic devices designed for such a purpose. ³Infra´ meaning below our ability to detect it visually, and ³Red´ because this color represents the lowest energy level that our eyes can sense before it becomes invisible. Thus, infrared means below the energy level of the color red, and applies to many sources of invisible energy. Infrared transmitter is one type of LED which emits infrared rays generally called as IR Transmitter. Similarly IR Receiver is used to receive the IR rays transmitted by the IR transmitter. One important
point is both IR transmitter and receiver should be placed straight line to each other. The transmitted signal is given to IR transmitter whenever the signal is high, the IR transmitter LED is conducting it passes the IR rays to the receiver. When receiver receives the signal from the transmitter it resistance value is low.it resistance value become high when the signal was cut. By this sensor sense the value.
Signal conditioning unit
The signal conditioning unit accepts input signals from the analog sensors and gives a conditioned output of 0-5V DC corresponding to the entire range of each parameter. This unit also accepts the digital sensor inputs and gives outputs in 10 bit binary with a positive logic level of +5V. The calibration voltages* (0, 2.5 and 5V) and the health bits are also generated in this unit. Microcontrollers are widely used for control in power electronics. They provide real time control by processing analog signals obtained from the system. A suitable isolation interface needs to be designed for interaction between the control circuit and high voltage hardware. A signal conditioning unit which provides necessary interface between a high power grid inverter and a low voltage controller unit.
The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications. The IC was designed by Hans R. Camenzind in 1970 and brought to market in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips). The original name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as "The IC Time Machine". It has been claimed that the 555 gets its name from the three 5 k resistors used in typical early implementations, but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary. The part is still in wide use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability. As of 2003, it is estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year.
Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8). Variants available include the 556 (a 14-pin DIP combining two 555s on one chip), and the 558 (a 16pin DIP combining four slightly modified 555s with DIS & THR connected internally, and TR falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive).
Ultra-low power versions of the 555 are also available, such as the 7555 and TLC555. The 7555 requires slightly different wiring using fewer external components and less power. The 555 has three operating modes:
Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "oneshot". Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bouncefree switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) etc
Astable - free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation, etc.
Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flipflop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bouncefree latched switches, etc.
A RELAY IS AN ELECTRICALLY OPERATED SWITCH. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used. Relays find applications where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays found extensive use in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly drive an electric motor is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protection relays".
A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or (rechargeable) battery by forcing an electric current through it. The charge current depends upon the technology and capacity of the battery being charged. For example, the current that should be applied to recharge a 12 V car battery will be very different from the current for a mobile phone battery.
OVER ALL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION
1. POWER SUPPLY Block diagram The ac voltage, typically 220V rms, is connected to a transformer, which steps that ac voltage down to the level of the desired dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a full-wave rectified voltage that is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a dc voltage. This resulting dc voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage variation.
A regulator circuit removes the ripples and also remains the same dc value even if the input dc voltage varies, or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes. This voltage regulation is usually obtained using one of the popular voltage regulator IC units.
IC REGULATOR TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER FILTER LOAD
Block diagram (Power supply)
Working principle Transformer The potential transformer will step down the power supply voltage (0-230V) to (0-6V) level. Then the secondary of the potential transformer will be connected to the precision rectifier, which is constructed with the help of op amp. The advantages of using
precision rectifier are it will give peak voltage output as DC, rest of the circuits will give only RMS output.
Bridge rectifier When four diodes are connected as shown in figure, the circuit is called as bridge rectifier. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network, and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. Let us assume that the transformer is working properly and there is a positive potential, at point A and a negative potential at point B. the positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse D2. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them; D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. The path for current flow is from point B through D1, up through RL, through D3, through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. this path is indicated by the solid arrows. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3.
One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverse, forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. Current flow will now be from point A through D4, up through RL, through D2, through the secondary of T1, and back to point A. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. The current flow through RL is always in the same direction. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown waveform (5). Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage, this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. One advantage of a bridge rectifier over a conventional full-wave rectifier is that with a given transformer the bridge rectifier produces a voltage output that is nearly twice that of the conventional full-wave circuit. This may be shown by assigning values to some of the components shown in views A and B. assume that the same transformer is used in both circuits. The peak voltage developed between points X and y is 1000 volts in both circuits. In the conventional full-wave circuit shown²in view A, the peak voltage from the center tap to either X or Y is 500 volts. Since only one diode can conduct at any instant, the maximum voltage that can be rectified at any instant is 500 volts.
The maximum voltage that appears across the load resistor is nearly-but never exceeds-500 v0lts, as result of the small voltage drop across the diode. In the bridge rectifier shown in view B, the maximum voltage that can be rectified is the full secondary voltage, which is 1000 volts. Therefore, the peak output voltage across the load resistor is nearly 1000 volts. With both circuits using the same transformer, the bridge rectifier circuit produces a higher output voltage than the conventional full-wave rectifier circuit.
IC voltage regulators Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC units contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control device, and overload protection all in a single IC. IC units provide regulation of either a fixed positive voltage, a fixed negative voltage, or an adjustably set voltage. The regulators can be selected for operation with load currents from hundreds of milli amperes to tens of amperes, corresponding to power ratings from milli watts to tens of watts.
Circuit diagram (Power supply)
A fixed three-terminal voltage regulator has an unregulated dc input voltage, Vi, applied to one input terminal, a regulated dc output voltage, Vo, from a second terminal, with the third terminal connected to ground. The series 78 regulators provide fixed positive regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts. Similarly, the series 79 regulators provide fixed negative regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts.
y For ICs, microcontroller, LCD --------- 5 volts y For alarm circuit, op-amp, relay circuits ---------- 12 volts
2.IR SENSING CIRCUIT
Infrared transmitter is one type of LED which emits infrared rays generally called as IR Transmitter. Similarly IR Receiver is used to receive the IR rays transmitted by the IR transmitter. One important point is both IR transmitter and receiver should be placed straight line to each other. The transmitted signal is given to IR transmitter whenever the signal is high, the IR transmitter LED is conducting it passes the IR rays to the receiver. The IR receiver is connected with comparator. The
comparator is constructed with LM 358 operational amplifier. In the comparator circuit the reference voltage is given to inverting input terminal. The non inverting input terminal is connected IR receiver. When interrupt the IR rays between the IR transmitter and receiver, the IR receiver is not conducting. So the comparator non inverting input terminal voltage is higher then inverting input. Now the comparator output is in the range of +5V. This voltage is given to microcontroller or PC and led so led will glow. When IR transmitter passes the rays to receiver, the IR receiver is conducting due to that non inverting input voltage is lower than inverting input. Now the comparator output is GND so the output is given to microcontroller or PC. This circuit is mainly used to for counting application, intruder detector etc.
Monostable means that once the circuit is switched on it will time once and then stop. In order to start it again it must be switched on
manually a second time. In the circuit drawn opposite, the 555 timer is set to turn on the buzzer when the push switch is pressed; the buzzer sounds for approximately 8 seconds. This is a monostable circuit as it works only once. The switch must be pressed again for the buzzer to sound again.
On the diagram above if the components 'boxed in' by the dotted line are removed and the alternative components (shown on the right) are added - the 555 timer circuit can be used to energise a relay.
The timer can now be used to trigger a relay which then allows another circuit to work. In this case the timer holds the relay closed for a preset amount of time allowing the second circuit to work and then switches the relay open, which stops the secondary circuit.
Monostable multivibrator often called a one shot multivibrator is a pulse generating circuit in which the duration of this pulse is determined by the RC network connected externally to the 555 timer. In a stable or standby state, the output of the circuit is approximately zero or a logic-low level. When external trigger pulse is applied output is forced to go high (} VCC). The time for which output remains high is determined by the external RC network connected to the timer. At the end of the timing interval, the output automatically reverts back to its logic-low stable state. The output stays low until trigger pulse is again applied. Then the cycle repeats. The monostable circuit has only one stable state (output low) hence the name monostable.
The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications. The IC was designed by Hans R. Camenzind in 1970 and brought to market in 1971 by Signetics (later
acquired by Philips). The original name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as "The IC Time Machine". It has been claimed that the 555 gets its name from the three 5 k resistors used in typical early implementations, but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary. The part is still in wide use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability. As of 2003, it is estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year. Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8). Variants available include the 556 (a 14-pin DIP combining two 555s on one chip), and the 558 (a 16pin DIP combining four slightly modified 555s with DIS & THR connected internally, and TR falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive). Ultra-low power versions of the 555 are also available, such as the 7555 and TLC555. The 7555 requires slightly different wiring using fewer external components and less power. The 555 has three operating modes:
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used. Relays find applications where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays found extensive use in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly drive an electric motor is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power
circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device triggered by light to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protection relays". Basic design and operation
Small relay as used in electronics A simple electromagnetic relay, such as the one taken from a car in the first picture, is an adaptation of an electromagnet. It consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke, which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron armature, and a set, or sets, of contacts; two in the relay pictured. The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to a moving contact or contacts. It is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set is open.
Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function. The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke, which is soldered to the PCB. When an electric current is passed through the coil, the resulting magnetic field attracts the armature, and the consequent movement of the movable contact or contacts either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was De-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low voltage application, this is to reduce noise. In a high voltage or high current application, this is to reduce arcing. If the coil is energized with DC, a diode is frequently installed across the coil, to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a voltage spike
dangerous to circuit components. Some automotive relays already include a diode inside the relay case. Alternatively a contact protection network, consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series, may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to be energized with AC, a small copper ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. This "shading ring" creates a small out-of-phase current, which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle. By analogy with the functions of the original electromagnetic device, a solid-state relay is made with a thyristor or other solid-state switching device. To achieve electrical isolation an optocoupler can be used which is a light-emitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor.
A latching relay has two relaxed states (bistable). These are also called "impulse", "keep", or "stay" relays. When the current is switched off, the relay remains in its last state. This is achieved with a solenoid operating a ratchet and cam mechanism, or by having two opposing coils with an over-center spring or permanent magnet to hold the armature and contacts in position while the coil is relaxed, or with a remanent core. In the ratchet and cam example, the first pulse to the coil turns the relay on and the second pulse turns it off. In the two coil example, a pulse to one coil turns the relay on and a pulse to the
opposite coil turns the relay off. This type of relay has the advantage that it consumes power only for an instant, while it is being switched, and it retains its last setting across a power outage. A remanent core latching relay requires a current pulse of opposite polarity to make it change state. Circuit description: This circuit is designed to control the load. The load may be motor or any other load. The load is turned ON and OFF through relay. The relay ON and OFF is controlled by the pair of switching transistors (BC 547). The DPDT relay is connected in the Q2 transistor collector terminal. A Relay is nothing but electromagnetic switching device which consists of six pins. They are two set of Common, Normally close (NC) and Normally open (NO) pins. The relay common pin is connected to supply voltage. The normally open (NO) pin connected to load. When high pulse signal is given to base of the Q1 transistors, the transistor is conducting and shorts the collector and emitter terminal and zero signals is given to base of the Q2 transistor. So the relay is turned OFF state. When low pulse is given to base of transistor Q1 transistor, the transistor is turned OFF. Now 12v is given to base of T2 transistor so
the transistor is conducting and relay is energized. Hence the common terminal and NO terminal of relay are shorted. Now load gets the supply voltage through relay. Voltage Signal from Relay Microcontroller or PC Transistor Q1 Transistor Q2
1 off 0 on
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