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En Humility in Prayer

En Humility in Prayer

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THE SAYING 0-' ALLAH

,

"It is the believers who are successful: those who are humble in
..,

(23): 1-2.]

__ ,LITY-'_ HU-"Mi"I __ ,

' ill p' ·"RA-"'·',. '"YE'" _, _,.",--,IR"__ ___

v .•-,

APPEDrx

I-T1]

Ibn al~Qayyim on KiJIISDU'rt Ibn ·al~Qayyim on Hypocritical Khtahil

Ibn Taym.i:yyah on The Ruling of KhIlJhiic in Pr:ayer

Tamslated&om

the origmal Arabic by Abiil Rumaysah

DAAR US.SIIJJ-:,AH PUB·USHERS BIR~H' _ HAM

~

UTH,R Ahu'I ..farajibn Rajab f· PTER N'"

13

Khllshi'
Th, .'leaning 'of Khll1iJ'I-'t

Hypocritieal Iumility
The Source of Kh'N!h,tt The first thing r be lost is N.hUS/;lr Beneficial 1<111, wl edge The True -·la\resof AJlih

15'-· ~8 .23
..

-.

24
.2 29

37

The Prayer
,Kh.ushti'in Praye_r Actions of prayer Iconoud, e to, Khll/hi?

40

40
43

Being .Ame:rucive in Prayer
CHAPTER THREE
-

st

--

-

---

Suppllicati

Loving me humble and poor Arro;gaRce

,:0

53
5,7

59

APPENDIX ONE

71

Ibn Taymiyyah on The Ruling of
J(hullJilin Prayer

fo' D'

0 ,.'V'ERS,65

85
86 88, 90-96

I D,EXOf' Af:[ADfTH 1,0 sx OP SECTS [".0' OPARAB'IC'\~ORDS

He' died on a Monda.laydUmi and a~iru I-DiD ibn 31.. ibn an-Naqlb. which was me nickname ofhis grandfather who was b rn in that month.u'l~Din. In Damascus" he studied WIde.[usruem be heard.Sadru'l-D]Il Abu. andHafi~" Khahbiz. 12 . fron:'!. DiiwU __ Ibrihim al-cA~.~ 131. he heard. Je.t al.asan ibn Muhammad mbnAbuI-Batakat Mas'ud al-Sulami al-Hanball al-Dimasbqt. He was born in Bag'bdad in ' 36H a.'and his nickname was Ibn Ra.'J-Patl.Ibn 'Qayyim aJ~Jawziyyahi Zaynll't-Din al-"hilqi. In Mallib~ he heard ftumal-Fakhr I rll'min ibn Yflsuf al-N uwayn. ( bdur-Ra_]:~. fr. (Abdu.nd was raised by a knowledgeable and pious family. In Egypt.man ibn Ahmad ibn chdir-RailJrninibnal.TI-IE TH! R Zaya.jab.~I-Hadj" al-Hanbali.·uhik. He leaeaedaed to k kno\Jedge :&OQ1 the greatest sell lars f hi'Stime. ibn Qap ai-Jabal acdAJ:tmad ibn ibn. His agnomen was _b6t'l~Faraj. Mu~mmad ibn fsmjjiil al- He is the Imam..om al- I:Hifi~ al.y night" the fourth of Rruna. In.4-iD~ _ 95H in al-Humariyyah Damascus.

'~IL11.l~F_ad. 13 . p. and giving legal rulings. writing. 195.-'al. -. ('l_ij--I:. He engrossed himself with the issues of the madhhab until he.-I Q' . 'He is the Shaykh. said.lamam. 3.. i · Ibn Hajr said of him.l_Abmad fun Nasr ibn A1.)) Many scholars praised him for his vast knowledge. their biographies.j. Diwud ibn Sulayman al-Mawsilf. Abu.time researching._j. vol. asceticism and expertise in the Hanbali school of thought. the gmeat scholar.e read and became proficient in the various fields of science. authoring.. of him.·H.aID B 'at£:as _ _.rnad. teaching.. their paths of narration and awareness of their meanings. defects and meanings of the hadith . ibn QiaqI Shuhbah said of him.tadlth in terms of the names of re'porters.JIDrm . '.lfdfiz Abii'I-Far_aj ibn Rajab al-J:Janbali Amongst the most famous of his studentswere: Ahu'[-{Abbas AQrnad ibn Abu Bakr iblll '{AlIai-Hanball. __ '-. aJ.rn ai. the Shaykb of theHaaball madhhab and heauthoredmany beneficial works. He devoted himself to the occupation of knowledge of the texts. the f:la:~" the ascetic. I Ibn QiQral_··Sbuhbah. mastered it.l1 'Al'-.a.1: . Z -1__ hi .. "Hewas highly proficient in the science -of l.'2 Ibn Mullih. Tirikb. -'j Ibn Rajab devoted himself to' knowledge and spent the vast majurity of his. an d Ah' rnaad Ibn$ayfU'i-Din al-I. Abu Dharr 31ib _I a .'L' ha w-. 'Abdu'lRahman ibn Ahmad ibn Mu}ztanunadal-Mll-q!i'. Zaynu'l-Dln ~Abdu']-Rabman ibn SuJaymin ibn Abii'i~Karam.

Nur al-IqtibasftSharlJ WO:mah aI-Nobill' ibtl ~bba.e:: Sharp' 7/81al-l11"tfJld/:. i-BNkhal'i.biograpmes his wotbmdillde the monumental Dh'!Y' 'alii Ta..lja.Tale.r. p. Btirf ShQr~' $a:~t1.ftikb"Jjft Af.a ftl'cFuri' about which it was said. some of tbem outstanding such as (l1-Q(Z1J)i/idaj~](Pb. 14 .l4n:eibilah.many valuable monogtaphse:xplairung various ah-aditb such as: Sham. Moreover be has . Ikh:tfJir aJ.urbah.··J" 1.fIIl.. Fatb. mdude.rala Tabl'l.baqiiti'I-l."uta.k4m al-Khartij.indud. 38. • In exhortation his works 111.1if aJ../j. ai-Ikbld..t ibn Rajah. Tqfiir SUFah al-Fatil}ah.a'~ a 't!UJiiTIJtva't-ijikam.:Ma'~anJ and ~ibn 'Abdu'I-HiidJ.HUMILITY[N PRAYER He wrote many beneficial works.rhab fi W'tz1fo ijriJi Abli~l-Gh.h11lif min aI-Ntir.Mo· DhnJtmi. Haul/hl..Awlil Jhar!Jl!aJith lkhtifam . and Ja. about whom ibn Hajr said. 'H'e was the wonder of hils age'. "Itis one of the wonders Oif this age.. II tJ'~ • In exegesis his works.UrsiJii ~ . and . -aian .i. and ai-:Qd1V:(tid al:FiqhbIJah. Tilfsir Su:rah a1~Najr"and al-lstighna" bi~I~ QuratJ.. Dh'!'j.KashftlI-KM.4 His commentary to ar-Tirmidhi is said to be the most extensive and best ever writocn so much so that al-'Itiqi. jlGhan'flflI. include: Tajsfr Sural.(lJ~Mal(Jj A ~/ti.. would ask for his help when compiling his own commentary to the same book. • • 10. In fiqh his works include: a/~l. • In l:ru:adIthhis works.

'II~ has no partners and there is.]'I The I:Iah? and cAlWn.CHAPTER CNE Khusn» h "'-f With the Name of Alldh} tbeAiJ~M(JrcifIJ4 the Most Merciful It is His aid th:atwe ~e. IltiI.~. by His . . This is 3! treatise we have wrirtencoecerning AU praise is due to A1JIih~ mender of hearts which have broken lit' His sake and.ibn al-Shaykh Abii'l-(Abbas Al. orgiver of the sins of the penitent. the right to be worshipped save Alllah Alone. f 1 _city tbat none has. Zayn al-Din. 15 .AJ[Jjhfill his life with blessings.9!d! His servant and Messenger.qui"'rude as a lif'sultof its love andawe of Allih.grace. nothing like Him. subservience.~:ndthe hearts meekness and breaking (inkisor)' before the Lord.mad ibn Rajahtmay .ah.ekand "allpraise is due to AUtih.. Lordrf the WO'rJds. I testify that ~u:Qarnm.Mos:t Higb. He sera hlm with is I The term 'broken heart' refers. to a hean: tbat is :6Ied with hmnility. said: humility (lehlishil) .

iJilty and! exc ellenee' of this station. a1wJapl~tJJ#3081oJ-ImiiJ #861.ily.. his fa01. -akbiwl. thereby alluding 1.. alJi¥i(la1~l:fa!t11Idh #.J. b Peace' and blessings be upon. d.0 the n .Glrioll1S and Most J£gb..]): 9 :! ~Tit:midW #235>2 onthe authority of Anas ·and he said invasghadb. (.~ 66 .!lenger \'!.:3.·IS ~.. [J.S-' ' i'IllWlm d 'I~!:·· -ds..261.~2He gave him.ruL l.. ibn Mljab. _I _1" • ~lIL "b .k.I)-. He.is.a1. Sa~j/J.... lIM~iJl/J(4'J: 28 and nJ.alld Aillbwi..HU:M. his Companions. He C' In His B .J.ty .fidl guidance and the RelJgj!oll or Tru'th to exalt it GYem' every other r-digioclc:\rc:n thugh me :polyilici'sm detest i'L'..n.0 i\ll.L. says.attn'l wil!b DhahabJ agrecirtg.':L.ih. make me )il'e as one lo. him. a/-jilll" 01~ hir#. #41 . i\ll. as lUlah says.up. choice of being a ProphetKing ora Iessenger-Servanr 'and he chose the SU.ih.. .L....260ft the ~u:dm:ci. 145 i. hasc irnmended those who are meek (11JIlkhhii) before Him. make me die as one low~yand humble and resurrect me amongst the 'ranks of the ] wi. ai~Dlli n dle·fiul:hority· of o ! b-cl.umori[y of Abu Salle! by J:IlfUrim #7911 wb said ~'lwas .aJ:/tiJlli' #1. and humble n4. and those 'Who have broken in tlhef'a.oweverLlUc '1.ce of His gt'a. and those who hold tightly r his rope after him.cl 'Tabin'iru.l . itwas also mled '.. rendered submissive (khddi' and humble (kbisbi) in its presc:nCre'. . '''1'[ is He who bas sent His Mes.de:u:r.3llllt.llQ by Smyiip.awUI It was also recorded em the :GI..' me would say.ly and humble (miskif.1[ .of Aba Sa'Idl~i!l'rn. Most High.:1. 'b nai..:h ea W:1.Towboh (9):.33] d.{fujJ(6...cion of servitude coupled with messengership.1LI·TY IN lI?Rr\YER guidance and the Religion of Truth that it mary reign supreme overall religions.

I'They outdid each other in .o have . their prayet~....:a..Ii He' describe' the believers as those wb.' rewar d'.'e humble in.gO' ......en and wo:mle. d actioDs~ c:aUing ou:t: eo Us III yeal'oing and awe. :m.k. and ihumbling tb'cmselwes to Us.- .' "...•Js. men and women 'wb.aced :forgi_y.. and perform dj]jgcocly..enes for them ~ . '' an d an imm .menand womee wbo are humble.'.en hll) remember AUih much: Alin bas prep.o gU9I. ue stllcces:sliul: those whe .:S ".".lmsbti' in the l~ st action of worship 'they perform.n! who give in chruity"men and women who fast. "" '-.. men and wom.."1 17 .·..fd their' private parts.ICIt is the' believers wbo...

Lordis truly fu. the whole' b dy will he corrupt.H M1LITY IN PRAYER He describes those wh have been granted knowledge as people havin : kJi"u/). humrlility. The Messenger of AJJ:ah (ji)1 said.Md " Bukhn.on their faces in prosn:attiou. even speech. and it increases them in.. Muslim. is wIly 'the Prophet (ji) would say in his b -wing II tll-hni'(P): 107-109 . #1599 18 . still.ry be 10 our Lord! The :promlFJe of our . indeed allthe limbs and their actions are humbled.' f a suresythere is a. and yearnlng. the whole body will.eo knowledg. m rsel of flesh in the: body"if it is sound. seeing" head. they faU to thegf'Ouod iln prnstration. This.it when the hear His 'words rehearsed to them. its being g. broker». saying" "Glo. It is the h eart. and face.n . 0·"1')' \"Qh.enthe heart IS humble. those who wer. '1ICe-rtaicJ.e fa. so t is the hearing.rl #52-20.entlle..Ifilfed!' Weeping.51.y.nsi The bask meaning of k_h'luhii' is the softness of the heart. when it is recltedlto them.cgiv. be sound but if it is corrupt. submissive'.

.uihoriiry of ~ Ai and it was declared .11.irak.' This. fd~Zuhd'#328.1- S~yt1'!1.urftJl-Atit11.es. .'id ibn al-Musayyib 13 and It is also reported from the Prophet .-I. that you do not III .. ""'H ..·#I1\J7. ne f the SalaJ saw a man fidgeting in his prayer and remarked." Mas'jjdJ r.. "aIL h . ibn a].i9 by ibn 11 1Vhlrwazi#151 and ibn al. 10' anomer narranon h co d wnatevermy loot carnes .0. I\~mad I II #9'6' on roe 3. that you soften yOUl' shoulder for a Muslim (pr. is reported from f.fuslim '# ·1 011 rheaurhorirv of l.aying next toyou).' U.a.t\l.1.(rukti\ "My hearing.fudhayfah (racji _·ItJhll ~a1.nd marrow are humbled t) '" . pg 557 records thar ibn mn:r said itl C( m- = 19 . and.. sight.nl. 10. ''It refers to the humility of the heart. " but is not authentic..~ifisnad.as.ltbli.1btly2 and :. so too would hi'S limbs be.[ub. lll-Zubd #4 t '9 'with a ~a. .. nkt.!if isniid. In ~.·!vluba:mk..~}mlah #607 ~al. . C'.!J.ep eta on the authority of a person who narrated to 'rum that ~AJiibn Ab] Tub (rat/!J!Allabllf (a1thl'l) said 0 nceming His. aying.. ~If the heart of this person was humble.. al·Zuhd#t 148 widl a cJa. bon..

·1'· '.wel:ed. the heart and quietude in prayer. 'J(hus. said. the feat of his Lord 'would prevent hun :from turning left and right. IH 'f:lhari.. 'Humility bad takenroot in their hearts so their gaze's were lowered and their limbs. and they kne\\r 1f113. vol.10 6- Ibn Shawdhab narrated that al-Hasan. became subse:rv1en. pg." 211 'A. standif1l~ 10 devout obedience (qlfflJcll) 1'1 20 .c. 'Those who are fearful and still. "The foundation is in.their pe to the place ofpmstrntiofl. reported that Mujihid said. ~en th~~ stood for prayer.' f khtlSoti' Layth: narrated that Mujahld said. When me Muslim would stand for prayer.I! . 3. tlle:y faced forward in their p~):lyer~[hey io.' Abu Talhah narrated thatibn liAbbas said in commentsrv J to the abov verse."? IAJj ] bn .HUMILTTV INPRA'f' R look here and there in your prayer.tl8 Man~ur..VOl. b I a· arl.' = to the humility of the meneary to tbe verse. 8 i. I~ .17 pg. 'Parr of it'!'! is that the limbs be subservient and the gaze be lowered.t.~j al-Khurasanl said."U' lJ\~a)ibn aJl-Sii)~b'reported on theauthoritv of a.person that 'rAJ] (rat/iJv1 /lilbR(tmhti) said. ba' 'C mercy uponhim. may Alliih.t 1\!I'all hsd romed '[Q them and so they did not look left or right.hrt refers ro the h umili ty of the heart and thar you do not look left and right. ]'. 'Khllihil refers heart and the subservience of the limbs.

.~.. 'ibn al-Mundhir.l)_ narrated that 'fuiaf:iid :mar Allah hav rn rc ..I j:ihid I (I 'i. said C Deeming the words f Allah Most High. I.3 and M. a/·I 'Rr1':. .P . gltih #141 '11.v l 17.. '1t is th quietude of the servant in hi pray'et. and humbling themselves to US.Tb lleQnil1g of KhtlJhii' Zubri said. . d.. it [ ibn hi Sha:ybab. ~L ha\ ing khl:uhlY in '((Arnong his Signs. is that you see the earth laid I.vol. atadah said. 369 and he referenc r. n him. r~.9 on the sum rity I .arwazi" lll:tiNl QnJr at. i". me is recorded by ibn -Mubmk.hii _uj3:~.olZllbd#169-11:4. Mos High" ha" described the earth II' i 'W rds. Illl~m. The kb'{'l/)li' th gaze in prayer.'22 '21 r the heart refers t fear and lowerin - Ibn . • pg.by J::lirim.~r _ d 21 . I u".. and ibn..Ull AlJih.

.· ~~t . 43" and al-Mlltirti (70~."'"-... All.even the voice.evegetarion grows.ITY I PRAYER bare and! then when We send downwatet on.: 4.hi MIl. and lordliness. ~ '':'Ie~~~-r.per' will be heard. 242 and he n:fcrcf1.u..khusbtt" its base desires and thoughts arising from the following' of carnal lusts are Iaid to rest.' '. "".. This then shows that the khUlhii'that it had was stillness.Iatlm.in His words. it . Alia:h.aI-Mu:ndhir and.ill has described the' facesand sight of the J" 78. hal's stated that voices have khtuhil. recordedbySlJyii~ IJI-Dm7'~voL10ipg. ~ ~ 1/ :. Mighty and Magnificent.. '..• .(lI~Qamar(54}:: 7. and it breaks and submits to Allah. and lack of growth. .J~.'-:: !. the limbs" organs.f/1i (20): toa "as sl3!ted by ibn 'Abbis and. ~'Voices wiD be' humbled before the AI .J.ces iit to ibn . 'When it settles in the heart.quivers and swells.. "lUi Themeaning of its quivering and swelling is: that its bareness and stillness (Ieh:ushiij has been removed and in its plac. .11'~. '". ibn Abi l.. .~ The humility ofvoices after being clamorous" refers to their being stilled! and quieted" Ina similar vein.' .. ~~·f.Most High.. .are stilled. It..J . al-Qa/4tn' (68). The same applies to the heart: when it has ...~~.. Khushi? replaces the beans remoteness. and motions . and nothing but a whis. lowness..Ji~#I-.I.. It. arrogance.Mercifu). haughtiness.:1 22 . fll-Clulsb!J'(lh (88): 2. . .

pg.31 . Ji en. heartis guilty of hypocrisy on It.JJushit nifaq) and this is what the Sahf would seek refuge from.?" 'Ilmar (rat}~l1tihu'anhll) saw a pe.r head for kl:JUsiJut does not . 142 and ibn ru-Mubamk.kbushi/~29 Hypocritical Humility When a person affects khushi/. Shl1/ab #.2B This then proves that all of these limbs can have . A"cfer to Appendix 1 for a further discussion on the meaning and import: of 4Imshlrl.' haqi.' Whoeve. 'Two.JUshit than is present in. P of hypocdsy. II.rson with his head lowered nd said. displaying it on his limbs while his heart is devoid of it.r outwardly displays more kl..6968 Referto Appendu records a similar statement from Sufym. be replied. a"l-Zuhd #143 on the authority of Abu al-Darda'. his. he has fallen prey to hypocritical khllshii' (k. 'Take refuge with Allah from hypocritical lehllsb. ne of themwould say. That you see the -ody bumble and submissive while the heart is not.ii'~' When asked what it was.Hyporri#cal HutniiztJ disbelievers with khushtt on the Day of Risiog. to such-and-suchraise you.'xtend beyond what is in the heart. fora discussion on hypocritical kblisbii~ 23 . A.I:unad"al-Zuhd.

the more kJJushi/ he has. which leads to fearin.g He.HUi\·[~L[TY 1 PRAYER The Source of Khushil The source of the kbuJhir mat 'lakes place in the heart is the gnosis.0 the authorityof Aba Hurayrah that the Messenger of Alli\h (it) said: i'When my one of you standseo praY1 he is conversing withhis :1. . The hearts vary in their kbtlSlJil inaccordance to the gUOStS they have of the. magnificence. He. !I() let him pay 3it~e.andl His grandeur which leads to being in awe of Him. The more gnosis a person has of A.sing the Attributes that lead to khtlshu~. andmagnifyingHim. and in accordance to the hearts' witnes. Some hearts are humbled through perceiving theenormity of His seizure) vengeance) and punishment Him.greein& and Albaru. Some hearts are humbled through their perceiving the magnificence of Allah" Hils greatness. and perfection. comes close to hearts that are filled 'With humility to Him in the same way that He Gomes close tf~ one who is standing in prayer.1)I.l1tiQn bow he speaks to Him. of Allah's greatness.Some hearts are humbled by the strength of their perceiving His closeness to His servants and His seeing their innermost secrets which leads to being shy of Him. is the mender of hearts that have broken for His sake. Glorious is He. Glorious is He. and constantly being aware of Him in every state of motion or stillness. It was ruled ~at.ruh:l to by I_Ifilum wi til Dhahabl a.lJih. privately discoursingwuhHimr'? in the same way that He carnies dose to one who rubs his face in records 0. Most High. One they have humbled to.a~fh aiJJmr #] 538 !~ H iii kim #861 24 . Some hearts are humbled through perceivingHis perfection 'and beauty which leads to drowning in the love of Him and the desire to meet and see Him.d. \r..

Blessed and Exalted is He." e 1:1 Muslim. The Prophet (II) ~id.The Sourte oj Khushtt the dust when prostratingr'" in the same way that He draws near to the throngs of people visicing His House standing in abject humility at IArafah..Allah?". .l'bienarrator said. our Lord. saying.raid.'r-l.sto the lowest heaven and boasts of the people 011 earth to the . ask of Him.' So there y I'll no other day than the day of'Arafab when more people are released from the . ame number of days pf:fightlng forthe sake s [" Allah.authority of A. He comes dose and tben boasts to the ange. when the II: I I'bifJclof the :night remains.'b there anyone who invokes Me that I may respond? h Ihere anyone asking of Me that] may giv. exposed to the sun.essengerl Are these days better at M s.re'quests. "Nc other days are better wMahthan the fust ten days ofDhil. covered wi. is pro~sttating.AhG. "The closest -a servanr is to his Lord is wh.ys..ah"s. and seek His forgiveness in the early hours of the morning.ti ~scend.th dust..in. III I. some detail. Ibn Hibban #3853 records on the authority of]abir tb~l[ the Pr_ophet (iI) Rid. and He answers their supplications and grants their ." in the same way that He comes close to His servants when they invoke Him. #7 56/1772~ 1778 record on theanrhoriry hl. descends to . "Everynight. by ·the author in the fourth I.im#134S records on the authority of f\'i shah that the Prophet(M:) said) "There is no day on which Allah releases: more servants from [be Fire than the I uy Ilf"Arafah.n '.?'" h '11. Imptl"l" ~ his nt!:1tlitrn~y d· MAlldh (Published by Daar as-Surmah Publishers) 25 .e It to hira? Is there anyone who I.c:i~'l'llJerelated to this ate covered in. to perform Hajj.35 #482 reco-rds on the.hu Hilla y-rah that the Prophet (~ ."Thesedays are better than a. ~Aman asked~ HO AlI. drawing dose and bo~sting about them to the angels. No other day is better with Allah than the dav of 'Arafah when He ~ ~ .:Iijljah.imilar number of days QfEighcing in the way of .lssaying. Musl. Hurayrahthatthe MesscQger of . They have come by every distant I'nad hopin:g for lv1 mercy though they have not seen My punishment.bab~tants 'f heaven. What do Ihhry want?'" I ~"'IJukhiri #1145-6321":7494 :and Muslim. 'Look at My servants who have come with gtowo hair.en b.k n~' My forgiveness that.lwc~t heaven and sa.iii .AJllih (fi said.I may fO~gWv:e im.

1\fight and Magnificent. and were it not for this. mayAUah it not for this. have broken for My sake. with his. records in his book.bbaht with his isnad to Ja(far ibn Sulayman who said. "Musa Caia.r rv IN PRAYER There is nothing that tends to the brokenness of the' servant more than closeness and response. al-Zubd.Jhis-.a'. where should I seek You?" He replied. will say on the Day of Rising. where should I seek You?' Allah" Mighty and Magnificent" revealed to him.ercy on him.a u srr r..saltim) asked" !:My God.roves that Allah is dose to the heart that is broken by His tribulation. Every day I come close to them by one arm-span and were Imam Ahmad. they would surely perish. ~y Lord.Zuhd. "What does broken beans mean?" He replied. Al}rJUld. records in his book. a:l-Mal. 'Musa" seek Me with those whose hearts have broken for My sake for I draw closer to them by an arm-span every day. '~Allah.n(16 Ibrahim ibn al-junaid. said that he had asked this same question to those that have broken for the love of Allah. 'Did you not: know that If. UMy Lord. I was ill yet you did not visit Me" He will say. isnad to 'Imran ibn al-Qusayr who said.?" to (Abdullah ibn al-Salamwho replied~~rokel1! hearts refers The authentic Sunnah p..a/.. ibn DInar. '0 son of Adam.?' I asked Malik. have m. Muslim records on the' authority ofAbii Hurayrah that the Prophet (M) said. "Seek Me with those whose hearts. may Allah have mercy on him. how could I visit You while You are the Lord of the worlds!' He will reply.. patient at His decree. "I asked this.pg. question to onewho rehearsed the scriptures and he. 'I heard Malik ibn DInar saying. 'Musa ibn 'Imran said. and content. 1YI1ghty and Magnificent. 75 26 . rather than the love of anything else. they would surely perish.

.<.. ~'I thought that you were the most intelligent of M. "B ecause none '.HifyalJ..' li _.H'lS The first thing to be lost is khushi/ This modesty and humility of his was none other than khushit.1e as you were. and the hearts have preserved it?' He replied. one day. 6. ubayr) said." A man from the An~ar called Ziyad ibn Labid aid. 'So I met Shaddad ibn Aws and narrated this hadlth to him and he said. Most High.. . vol.e" d "Nc my.win be raised. '" Lord 'e speecr . the Messenger of . was as modest and humble before 1\. 'Messenger of Allah. from all people. I chose yOU! for My message and h?" . pg. were you to have visited him. a/-. should I not tell you the first part of knowledge to be 11 Muslim #2569 Allel Nu'aym. "(Awf bas spoken a truthfully. 0.ndlnab's people!" He then went on to mention the misguidance of the Jews and Christians despite their having the Book of Allah. r . '~30 "Ill 27 .. "This is the vessel to-which knowledge .Thefirst thing to be'lost is khushi/ such-and-such a servant of mine was ill yet you did not visit him? Did you not know that.Mighty and Magnificent. Nasa'i records the hadlth of Jubayr ibn Nu£ayr (rat}fy/Ultihu fanhu) on the authority of ':Awf ibn Malik (ra't!tyAllahu Canhu) that...' H rep lie d .nd that is beneficial knowledge. revealed to Miisa Calayhis~Jaldm)). you would have found Me with him?m37 Abu Nu'ayrn records via the route of'Damrah that ibn Shawdhab said. A1Hih (:I) looked at the sky and said.'Allah. "Do you know why. and that is the first thing to be raised of knowledge. how is it that knowledge will be raised flOW that it has become firm.' H'e rep.

and it was ruled ~a1:ill:l. 164-165 both with 4a'if isnads. ~~if.HlJMLlITY IN PRAYER I. Tabaclrd.a~ is the stronger version.al-Darda' had narrated to me. aljomi'dl-$aghir#2821 and !J1al:lili.e raised?" I replied. on the authority of al-Hasan. on the authority of Shaddad ibn Aws that me Prophet (. He said.adItb was. 3~ Nas!. I will narrate to you about the first knowledge to be raised from the people: .Ilh have mercy on him.rghib #773_ 4. ja!ii.I) said. by -tIakim #338 'With Dhahahlegreeing. however the l. 'Will you not hear something from me that I heard from your brother. al-Ta. If you wish.! (1/~Kabir.voL 7."'39 A similar hadith is also recorded by Tirmidhl via Jub9yr ibn Nufayr on the authority of Abu al-Darda' from the Prophet (:11). The end of this hadlth has.ou.""'40 It is said that the version of Nas."41 t1/~J<jlbr~ vol. ruled hasan by Suyu~.J by The l:mdith is also recorded by A}. may AI.I. the rime will come that y. = 28 . Tirmidhl #2653 and he said it was '~asan ghan1J. 3.h ai-jdmi' #2576 b is also authenth:afly reported as a statement of Shad dad ibnAws as stated by Mundhili.imad # 1747'3 from Ziyi'd ibn LabId himself and it is munqari'.. by A1bani. will not see :8 single person having it. al-Tabaqtit.khushit.. what AbU. pg. voL3~ pp.v'Of course!' He said. Sa'ld ibn BashIr narrated on the authority of Qatadah. 456 a.iJl. Soon will come a time when you will enter Q large Masjid and not see a single person having it. . HSO I met 'Ubadah ibn al~Smutand I said to him.Abu al-Darda'P' I narrated to him. Khushii~ until. "The first knowledge to be raised from the people will be khushiP. J ubayr said. "Abu.ndAQmad #23990 and it was ruled ibn Jjibban #4572 and JjakUn #337 with Dhah91bl ~eeing.pg. >ill 295 #7183 andAbfil el-Shaykh. ru-Dardj" has spo'kenttuthfilUy.

d the isnad was basanas did Haytharnl.:'l. were irto I!:lch the heart and take root therein. §. instead. vol.31 single person from it having h.pg. 395 .H. #542 I~ dim al-Mubarak #72 and AQmad. "44 ~bfl aJ~Mubara~.I ! bn Ahi Shaybah. and the rope of Islam: will be loosened knot by mll. 13. IIJ. iJ I' ~ MllHlirn #822 29 . it becomes the proof of Allah ·.36. not 111\. Jll'!ftjjtl a.mething spoken on the tongue.ed hasan.you will lose of your religion will he khlJ'shu and the las t dUng you will lose if" lour religion will be rue pra:yet. and the hadith.rh£/ until you will not see . d was nLi. 2.~2 A similar . If knowledge does.a1)ib by Albiru.. recite the ulan yet it does not descend beyond their throats. of ALlih (fil said" "The first thing to be raised from this nation will be . 381 andHakim #8448 with thewords.pg. tat'ement Is also reported as the words 'Of B:udhayfah.4J Beneficial Knowledge Beneficial Knowledge is that which impresses itself on the heart leading to its quietude and humility.n said it was ~:lJ:u1:t and. lil-ZulJd#175 also recosds this 3!' 31 statement of Abu. pg~1.p'ress Ulpon the he-an in this way and. Ibn Mas'fid said. The 11111.~ZfJmd'id. 'There are people who. $aplp al-Ta~hil. which will be established against him I ndothers.Iakir. "The first Ih n. is merely -.al~Zllbd." Mundhiri #773 . .pnst the son of Adam. Yazfd al~ldani ''''''lbaranT) al·KtJbir.Dhababi agreed. its being meek and shy before I\Jlih. it is then that it would 11 enef t.vol. records on the authority ofAhu al-Dards' that the Messen.Thefirst thing to btl last is khusllit This was also recorded hy Ahll Hairr ihn Abu Maryam 011 the uthoriry of Darnrah ibn Habib as a rnursal l:Iadith. and its breaking for His sake.

it is ~¢Ih. 391 references. from the Prophet (ii) as a mursaittadIth. and bumbles itself in awe.235 and. Ibn 'Abdu'l-Barr. glorification...I:." ~5 DarimJ #376 and ibn AbJ Shayhah. submits to Him. Le. 41 p:g. the heart fears Allah. vol. missing. and knowledge that takes root in the heart tis and th atts b ene £1. p.. vol. they did not benefit from any of it since the primary go·aJ behind this knowledge 'was.. this . it to turn away from the world and all ~I! 30 .1. rap:u" J_ T-: -I..in turn leads.c_ial'. ~H MunaVJi. its reaching their hearts such that they could experience the sweetness of faith and realise' its benefit of achieving fear and penitence. fear. not authentic as a.~S therein. -~1l.1'''·5' .rldly provisions and. mary Allah have mercy on him. ·17". anKJ. instead it remained superficial utterance on their tongues which served only 11:0 establish the proof against them. love. 'Knowledgeis of two types': knowledge that is superficial utterance upon the tongue. kn owe dge. f'o. 3c"fV AIr.I) 1 4 ) pg. is also reported by al. pg. hadith of his (Ii)· Hence the Prophet (Ii) informed us that despite the knowl- edge: that the People of the Book were given being' readily available to them. 190 VO. "When knowledge is beneficial and takes rootic the heart...46 He also reportS it from Jabir (ra't/!JAlJahu anhu)47 and Anas (nJt:jfyAlliihu "anhll)4S to C the Prophet (a1)" but it is...iaml Referro the authors Farl1 Illtll al-S(J~f(publ!ished by Daar us-Sunnah Publishers) in which hediscusses the issue of beneficial knowledge at length. ~{i -ajJdmP~vol. it to Abu Nu'aym and Da}. When this happens the som is content with the humblest oflawful W( .HUMLLIT PRAYER al-Hasan said.' '·1 This. 1.II.. .. Ff!YtI ai-Qadir. 13.Hasan. He st~I£. that is Allah~s proof against the children of Adam. and veneration.l.

w "Wh. liS 11(.till find Him close.alone in belief and worship.at of him who spends the night IU::nlts in prayer.. in His Book.?:lificial Knowicd..ender a gnosis of his Lord.51 temporal effects". you will have . dose and answer his supplications . takes comfort in Him. those: who know and those who do not knoW?".105£ everything... hoping' for the mercy of his Lord..Whe.ge It is for this reason that.'" 50 Fd_tir(35): 28 aJ-ZplJ.Be. when you find Me you will find everything.lar (39): 9 5) . However if you don't find Me.n this comes to fruition he v. "So beneficial knowledge is thae which engenders a goosis between the servant and his Lord and leads to this such that he comes [0 know his Lordi singJ. He will bring him. "The fundamental matter here is that the servant uses knowledge to eng..miodful of the Hereafter. When this happens..is mentionedin an judeo-Chris rian narratio11.es him OUt . develops a sense of shyness (pqya' of Him.y lear . 'Son of Adam! Seek me and you will find Me. and worsbipsHUn as if he sees Him".? Say: 'Are they the same . prostrating and standing up. I ammore beloved to yOll than anything else.l:'LI!lan. Glorious describes the scholars as those having tear (khas}!:Jla). It. Allah. "It is only the learned amongst His servants who ~ " n.L ' trul . "..

a Book consis~ent in.. The skins of those who fear it'heir Lord 12 .quent repeti. attain khr. its fre.2 This verse eulogises those who. dons.tshil in their hearts" Allah" Most High" says. those who were given knowledge before i."J:. Allih has sent down the Supreme Discourse.tion sayin.g'" 'Glory be to out Lordl' Wieeping. when they hear the Book of AUab. when it is recited to them. in: prostra. ''Woe to those whose heartsarebatdencd against the eemembrance of'Allah! Such people are clearly mi'sguided.t fall on their :faces.tbey fallte the grottndin prostra"rlon" and it increases them in humili:ty.~ "Certainly.HUMlLfTV IN PRAYER He describes the scholars of the People of the Book before us as having khNJbi/.

so they ate Dot like those who we're given (he' Book before fOr whom. down..-. ~"Hasthe time :not arrived fot the hearts of those who have faith to yireldto the remembrance of Allih and 'to thetruth He has.becamehaId?' Many of them ate d.ladid 33 .oftly to the 'remembrance ofADah.57 It was also recorded by others " at-Zu11Jar 510 (39): 22-23 One manuscript has: censured manuscript has: speech (51): 16 55 One 511 . 'The time between our accepting Islfun and being rebuked by tills verse was four yean.BenejicialKnowledge tremble at it and then their skins and hearts yield s."SJ The softening of the heart refers to the removal of its hardness due to the onset ofkhll$hi/ and gentlenesstherein.ilahu' ~anhll) said. . the time seemed over long so that their heads .A. AlliJh has denounced'" those whose hearts are not humbled when they hear His Book55 and ponder it.eviators.al-I. sent....56 Ibn Mascijd (rar:Jf:.~ This was recorded by Muslim.

'II II 11 Majah #4192 1111 .. and others repented and abandoned whatever they were previously doing. says" "If we has sent down. (J. this Qur'an.~ Y/'-'/pJ:I.(59):."58 Ibn Majah records thehadith ofibn al-Zubayr (r:aif!J!A1ltihu '~fJbu) who said.g: to pieces out. There: were only four years between their accepting Islam and the revelation of this verse by which Allah rebuked them. crusbin. 'By Allah. our Lord bas directed such things to us in the Qur'sn. .YER with additional words" 'So the Muslims began to rebuke each other. you would have seen it hUIDbl.were He to have directed to ~~"N t.HUMILITY IN PRA. which..a/-U(I 0.'S9 me Many of the righteous would be gravely affected when this verse was recited to them. We have mentioned their narratives in (our) book" al. MGS t High. onto a mountam. Some would! die because their hearts burst at hearing it.R nil.21 34 . ass -I<- {.n"~ Abu 'Imran al-jawnl said. l Allah. of feat of Allah.stighnti/ btl-Qur:an.ed.

have a greater duty to yic! I . may Allah have mercy on him. Havie you not heard his saying" "'If we had sent down this Qur':an nntoa mountain. We make such examples for people so that hopefully they win reflec.. remind yourself of wb.at AUah has burdened! you with of His Book 'which. may Allah have mercy on him" said. ft) aJ-J:f(Jshr(59):~1 35 .vol.'62 It is reported that al-Hasan.. or your soul desires to commit it. 'would recite this verse and say. crushing to pieces out of fear of Allih. 14" pg.6] " Allah has only propounded and Magnificent. MiV. tJl~DYn".h I'Y You. f1! SuyuP. to commit a sin.'" ' . son of Adam. parables that you ponder them. and to what He: has burdened -V()lI 61 .Adam. 'Son of .Bemjici.. and re. were a mountain to bear it" it would have been humbled! and broken.in one manuscript: to prostrate . "I swear to you" no servant believes In this Qur'an except that itcanses his heart to burst. ca rc- fuJly consider them.t. YOD would have seen it humbled. when Shaytanwhispers to you" enticing you.aJ KnOlll/edge the mountains would have humbled and obliterated them. to the remembrance of AUih.Malik ibn DInar. 396 references this ibn al-Mundhir.fraln from disobeying AJIall. .

S Thishadith is reported via many different routes. his voice is not heard. 14. 396 I'\r-_fl. "({sa"the deeds of a heart that has no fear are of no benefit. the mountains) 64 since you will be judgedand then find your final abode in Paradise or Hell.hi!'i verse. "'Allih'! I take refuge with You from knowledge that does not benefit. ni-DII". cf. The Prophet (ill would seek refuge with Allah from a heart 'that does not have . and from an invocation (da(wah) that is not responded to.-_Qak in c:ommema!ty m #2722 on the authority ofZayd ibn Arqam."6.usl!i:m rl~ The pah.. from a soul! that is never content.khulhil as recorded by Muslim with the words." author bas redacted this from the words of I. SuyiiP.HUMILITY IN PRAYER with of His Book and giv1en you of His laws (than.-A1}bar said" 'It is written in the Iojfl. and his supplication is not raised. 3-6 . vol. pg. It is reported that Ka'b aI. from a heart that bas no fear.

1!ohd· . ... ha:Wf1. <"" . Isay~'When W( Hlh I this call from Allah reached the believers. with decency a. Ill' j 37 . they believed it and so. and modestly. limbs. said.. pg.a~: ubarak ibn Fa"Jal:111 M narrated taus that al-Hasan..) -~ .. saying" ."'.MercifW are those who walk . their hearts..•• .) :\1 . dry. "" " . in the Arabic language means walking with tranquillity and clignity. Wilen a command carne to them. - "The slaves of the All.. pg. ""i ~". by Allah...' tb:··. were you to have seen them. D~~~ .' Recorded by Tabarf and ibn. you would have seen a people who truly 'exemplified (these verses). may Allah have mercy on him. lUlah.. vol.· eall..Allah described them in the best of ways. They did not display what was not i11 their hearts. ·~I'.Allah.'" '" al. 2H2(.. By . 71 Ibn IAbbis said thatltmlEans" 'In obedieneero.-he ~. certainty quickly settled in their hearts) and. yon _e .. J/lli~l1b~/l~htltm#H'~""II and Abdu'l-Razziiq.. 'Vol. and sightwete bumbled. .'1 1 !"'. -.~~l~_'I.. from. in the Qur'an. 8.Bagan.lIl~. Walking lli.'67 Then he commented on.The Trne Sltive! of Ai/db The True Slaves of Allah Asad ibn Miisa said in his book" al~wa... . 2.Allah. by Mujalud:as recorded by Bayhaqr. This was also stated.~ ' l/o&-.S. as :1 'result..gbdy..JI'.' .. . .nll :11.~ •••"66 . they were not given 'to argumenta:don or falsehood . Abiijitlrn.0 of.i':l·ll~'vY.... they h(· lleved in it. They found no source of tranquillity except the Book of AJ1ah."' . ~ ." / •••.

ping Him and by a. may Allah have mac)' on him. they forbore.•those wDusay.. singJe command .coompany the servants of AHah in the way mentioned.. 2721 M) made by Qatidah as recorded by ibn.!i. They were forbearing and did not 'behave ignorandy) and when 'they were' treated foolishly. the puni8hme:D:t of HeD.. . vol.lJarstatementwas 8) pg. . itsi ponishmeD.. said.: J. 11 iaJ-Futqan (25): 64 38 ..''''Il. 'Then He: says." and then He mentioned that their nights were the best of nights with his words.." - al. AhiJ:iatim. ~".:. ing before their Lord." 11 They would stand before Allah on their feet. they spent their days in humility to Him. avert nom us. their tears flowing down their cheeks in fear of Him..." By day they would a... ~~""'t /.tiB inescapable pain. By a.~JUMlllTY IN PRAYER by saying.those who pass the nigbt p.. '...!!... to their Lord..'!J -:« ..~\. ~.# ".Z A sirni.J.Our Lord.:.i" .Hasan.single command of Allah they sp ent the night worslUp.. and lie their faces on the ground in prostration..osttating and s't:and.' .. . .~.. ~ ~{" J''''-''' ~~ 1~~!:.

. vel. 7.tumayd. 1']. Suyii!l. 06-208: and he references it toAbd ibn 2 39 . beware of these idle hopes for Afiih does not grant any good to a. l. the heavens and the earth endure. if only the hearts were: alive and thereby preserved idt74 the exhortation be gave before starting his commentary to these verses as the fuH narration shows. ghor:am refers to something that never leaves for as long. pp.' He would say~~at an. mayAllah have mercy on you. aI-Duff aI-Man.. '7J Le. They were truthful! By Allih besides whom there is none wo.Everything that afflicts a person and then leaves is not ghartim. excellent exhortation ie3 is. so.thilr.rthy of worship" they worked deeds and did not rely on vain hopes. servant in this world or the next merely for idle hopes.

those whoare humble and meek in their prayer.i6 and neither looking here or there due to their humility 'before Allah."'5. ~1~W..e. has legislated different types of worship that would allow khNshii'to develop 011 the bodies" which in turn arises from thekhushil 'Of the heart. " . 2. pg. 41 40 . i. Khushi/ in Prayer The greatest action of worship whichmanifests the kiJushil of the hody to Allah is the prayer (~alah).~(d·MII'jfilimin (23): 2 '[. Allah has praised those who have ...khushil...'IS Rtated by al-Hakam and recorded by ibn Abr Shaybah~ vel.CHAPTER TWO The Prayer' Allah. Mmghty and .those whoare bumble :in their prayer:.. its meekness and brokenness...Most High.Ill the prayer with his words. not knowing who is standing on their left or rlght.

Ibn al-Mubarak said.. Most High. 41 . on the authority of Abu Ja1faf. and Magnificent.~ Ibn AbI J.b.' Tabari records that ibn 7.e. J~}llllb#31 t. said concerning the saying of Allah. The one who is .' iQ Man~.a~(I saul. here means to stand calmly with . and Bsyhaqi. His Messenger. ibn Abi I. " .e.Magnificen t.khtU/.-L an.jhar his gaze would not swerve. or do a:I1Y frivo~ous action" or tallk.iitim #2378 records that ibn MaluQ said.qtinit is OGf: who does not speak in prayer" 78 j 19 Ibid.Ursaid that . he would [lot play with stones.'B He also said. #2381.i. obedience.Khushit" in P'1ger . Mighty and Magnificent.l? I'I} lower the gaz.and still the limbs from the awe of Allah. he would n()oI' look here andthere.Iiitim.Mujahid) may Allah have mercy on him. '\'1Qhenany of the scholars sn Hid for p'[ayer~ he 'would be in such awe of the All-Merdfu]~ Mjghl' .n''' 'Quniit. The one who is '(fllM/I" one who obeysA:JJiili. 011 authority of Layth that Mujshid said concerning the saying Illl" III All.•and stand in obedience to ADi. to himself ~ aboutanything related to the world! unless out of forgetfulness.. and.qarah (2): 238 Sa'tdibn Mansur #406. 7i al-Bo.

Whoever does not do this. (Jl~Ztlhd # 174..' ~(' "'81 . it will be defective. not commit a maior sin. "83 Muslim records on the authority of rUthmiin (ra. 81 'Then you shouldraise your hands (in supplication) and say.29 Sri Ibn N asr. prostration .vol. 'My Lord.~g4 al-Fdl/J (48):.r 'be:in a state of quietude or: ~. jl1 ~. 212. 16. Mukhto. Imam AJ::unad. "The trace does not show on the face. my Lord' three times.btI in prayer~'. You should be in a state of humility.r:aiher it refers to khushiJ(..' Ibn al-Muba.pg. pg.Ibn Nasr.~ Al:Imad '# 1799-17523-17525" Nasal. H was ruled qa'[f by ALbinI in his notes on Ibn Khuzaymah #1212 and by A rna Ii]'~i Tabqlq MUSiJad ~~MUll lim #228 .r:ak. al~K1IImi. and Tirmidhi #385. with the tashabhud being performed after every two ra/e"cahs..4!yAilahu f'anhu) that the Prophet (M) said.ar Qjytim (J1"~"I.ff(. and TirmidhI record the hadith of alPadl ibn 'Abbas (ra4iJAlliibu' Can. hum ble entreaty. and Tabars also record that he said that verse refers to khliSbiir and modes. 1. "There is no Muslim who reaches the time of an obligatory pcayer and performs its ablution. and! display your dire need.HUM1L]TV IN PRAYER.. ..litl) that the Prophet (M) said. kb1~shil.6and TibaIi with the words. 'The prayer is (performed) two by two.so '1 means Lh US. . and bowing well except that it will 'act as an expiation for his previous sins so long as he does. Nasal. my Lord. pg.t .ty. 1. And this applies for all times. 450.

43 .n him. . [tis more likely to prevent~ fidgeting and is mOre: cOldlllclv. said.. him. the preacher. may AJlan have mercy o.' _ ead 86 C He also records with his isnad to Abu S.224" said.. 'For (o.ay Allah have mercy on him" said.£' e A L.eto kbJlslJlt.!]j::gh-. 543.. The scholars said: the significance F ofthJ:sposrure m 'ch. 1.. m. records with his isnid to AJ'u Hurayrah (r:cuji_jAlldhN anDu) that he said) 'NIanldnd will be:gathered on the Day of Rising in accordance totheir performance of tilt pr2yer. .rty years have 1 wished [0 place one hand on the other mn the prayer and d..3.85 met '(AJJibnMubammad al-Mi?1'l. pg..All] Shaybah..ea . may iUlih have mercy IOn. IDelure th".hI . vol 2" P&. (I have not heard anything better of knowledge than this. and inclining his h.al-ManvazI.r~. may Aruih have mercy on him.' Mu~ammad ibn Nasr ..i(~ tlllJlll·Bl1n~.' It is reported 'that B. vol.a[it is that tsJen by the humble petitioner... "People will be resurrected Um I:i:a.-e only thing that prevented me from doing so was that Lwouldlave then shown a kbllslJit greater' than that in my hem.ilibal-Sammio./"'UI.' one of the narrators depicted this by grasping' his lefr kand with his tight. 'that he said. and beokennessin the prayer is to place one hand IOnthe o when standing It is reported 'that lmim Al)mad was asked about this action and be replied "It is to be subservient Ii.Kh._ __'~." !IS 8to Ibn. subservience..ra~~afl.rhu in l PmyeF' f Actions of prayer conducive to Khushu Amongst the actions that are conducive to ha'Vil1gkhll!bl.ish.

A Dhu'l-Nun..ay A1Hih have mercy on him .?" 87 Abu Dawild #425 records that tht Messenger of A]]lih (II! said. This is of two types: the firstis his heart not turning away from the One he IS discoursing .. may Allih haVe mercy on him.he 'Would be completely taken aback aoo. 'Xboevefperforms the ablution well for them.. Amongst the actions is theservants' fa.my other. is very sanity would be shaken.' h TWs was recorded by Abu ~u(aym.'1f only you could see one of them when they stood for pfllyer. :magnifyingHim as is befitting. fr 1 N PRAYER. on the Day of Rising like ths'and he placed one of his. and his not turning away to . praising and enlogising All1il. Muslim records 0[1the aud10rityoeArnr ibncA basah (rar!lyAilabu ~nhu) that the Prophet (ai) mentioned the excellence and reward of ablution and then said. to be :judged.and Magnificent . "SO' if he then stanch: and p:r. would s:ay when describing the servants (of AlJah). Muslim #832 44 .\~tb.Mighry. "Five prayers which All:ah hasmade obligatory. standing in their place of pfayer~ it would cross his mind thatplace was the place in which AlJjh would raise man to stand befQ!e the Lord of the W{)Ii'Ids. Mighty and Magnificent.H L1MILl.tn. he will finish the prayer in a 'state like the day no which his mother ga ve birth to him. and devoting his heart to AIHih.ays. Understanding this meaning leads the one praying to remember the time when he will stand bclo:re llilh~Most High.and its being totally devoted to the Lord.cing forwards to Allah. hands on the other.

W.. with Dhahabi.and his gaze lower·ed. 81 45 .Ir.88 This is one of the ncces:-'. instead resrric 1111111'. looking ~i the ground. pg.·1 (31) eateeedthe Ka1bah.~I Inmi'.tinn unl'illl hi. bur wboever does not do this has no such promise: if Allah wishes..3prOmls'e from AI:lJih that.~~ was ruled ~. records on the aumodtyoCA. outcomes of the .lii'1 jaMb" pg. ''''Ieis the be:Ue. H!t'wilJf6~v'e him" and j:fHe wishes.~.1. vo]." eame out agmn. he remarked. 89' . andhas perfecc kbIlJbi.em ~ikim.2. It 0111.person fidgeting in the prayer.er of .The second is his not looking left and right.•"8'9 So the Messenger of. hrs limbs wou1d dSlo show khll.'ishah mat ~meMesseng.gnificent. when one of 'the Salsf saw a. performsthe bowingpropefI:. r This has been rnenrioned p'revio u:sly. This is wihy. 'dle' authority of!A'isbah that ''When the Pnlpllc.khuJ'hiir in the heart 'and its [lot turning 3'W~:I!Y. 'Ifthe heart of this person had khttshtf'..shir.it is .he wil:] be forgivea.All:ih (It) bumbled himself and would no time.h1dm #17161 records on..~.~ by Albarn.vers who arc :8uccessful:: tb. pray-sth.ose who are bumble in tbelr prayclt:. Tabariinl records the Q.adith of ibn Slrin 0. Hewii~ punish him . his eyes never ~eft theplace of his pI>o." ij'llkim said litwas ~~ with Dhahabi apeeing as did AlbblY" _..srra. his gaze to the place of prostratio n .. 73. Mighty and Ma.:agreleing~ as-did 1\llllliini.Ulah (c used to :pmy with his bead tileed forward .0 the authority of Abu HuraY:Iah (Fa'r/gAllihu fan'hu) 'who said" 'The Prophet (til 'would look left and . $a/!rh al-}tiflli #3. .. revealed..right in prayer and then Allah]. .." f:iikim said it was ~.242 .

.. aW3}r that Sha. Bake (became t he' leader). the time ofthe Prophet (ai). ""91 fr I I . Then .erva:nt in his prayer for as ]ongas he 46 .may AIl'ih have m.ercy on.""I asked the Prophet 'M) abolllt J(Jukin~ (lu::re and . as a mursal [eport" and this is more authentic. (Affan (rat!fyAllahu 'anhll) became the leader and the tribulation happened and people began looking left and rigll t... Then the' Messenger of Allah (.. thl ..."':· 'J" l Bukhirl records on the authority of .reolrdi the t):adith of Abu Dharr (rat/tjAlltihll ~(JlJlJu) that the Prophet ( said.m ~.. the mother of the believers. when thepeople stood for prayer.Abu Bakr (ra4iyAiJahNr:a.zewould 11'( H go beyond the place of their foseheads fon the ground)." Ibn Mijar. nAllih will lfemainture:ing to the s.I~". records the QadiIth of Umm Sal amah (rarJbrA:llti:bu ran'hi). and Nisil . Others have recorded this from ibn Sirin. rheir . prayer:.there) in. me people stood for: prayer.ho said. 'Durj1ntl. him. their gaze 'would not go beyond the place of his feet. 1~·Al!.H _ MILl'[)r' L FRf\YER longer look ~e&01" right. When.~.e -e "".s ·r.nlxu) passed away and 'Umar (rflt/lvUlablt f{'ltJhll) (became the leader).gaze wouJd not go beyond the place of the QibllJo.y~al1 st-eal!s Imam ~mad" Abu Da:wud. "It is a snatching II I _o. and Abu.I) psssedaway.cA'i..r"j (r·atlbv UlOhll ~d"hi) who said.shal. pmyet' and he said. their _ga. When the people stood 6()l" pra) er. w... Theil lthmin ibn.:!.

ruled '~al.rayerpr:ovided he does nul :-.eeing and hasan by AJbam..41 Ibn Abi Shaybah.. ibn Hibban #6233. He-will turn away.$aPi. may Allan have mercy on him. to whom. . A:Qm.l Abi Shaybah. do you Look away to? I am better for you than the one you look aw·ay to. \)4 j i.~'!)) There are manyhadiths (A~I' of this meaning..· ." one of them. that he act by them and en luiu the Children of Israel to act b.iI.f::I:alcim#862 with Dhah ahl agr. So when you pt·uy. I' 47 .?' 'A rat. 95 AQm:ad # 17170-'1 7800 and Ti.h 41. pg.ari that the Prophet (M) said. His Lord is in' front of him and he is privasely talking Ii) him" so do. "When you pray.ll~ by ibn Khuzaymah #481 ~48~. .d said.'1 Imam.. vol. says. "Son of Adam. Nasa1 #1196 It was. was) "and I enjoin you to the prayer for AlJih sets His f3!c:eto the face of :lli~. 1. said.lrlkii"11 #:1534 with Dbahabi agreeing. % Abdu)]-Razzaq 1)1 look away.llah rcu n'lIll<' facmgthe eervanrfor as [ongas he is rome p. $o/J~hate Ta1£hib # 554 . 40 records that ibn Mas'jj.y them. If he looks a:way. servant for as long as he does not look away. m"I!" ~ad #21508. Abu Da:wGcil#909.does notlook away. de) not look (here and there) because he is privately talking to hi!' Lord. 2. Totghib#5S2 #3210 and ibf. vol. and Alhw. not mil (here and therej.on:idhJ #2863-2864 who said it was q~san ~mh III gh1rib. 1..by ibn Khuzaymah #1895. 2. "All.ah ordered Yahya rlrn Zakariyyah with five statements. pg. It was ruled ~a:Qii9. do not look (here and therie).adand! Tirmidlhi record the hadnh of al-Harirh Ihn al-Ash<. went on to say...p(':. ~I has reached us that the Lord" Mighty t and Magnificenr. beard Abii Hurayrah saying. 'A.

and whatever 48 . and talk to Ne with a trembling heart and a truthful tongue. outwardly. said. and the researching scholars explained the phrase they employed.alttold to bow.completed in the bowing through the hearts' submitting to AILah and its being subservient to Him .iJ-saltim).re" i.unad. Most High.yAllah have mercy on him. "Musa.H U MI LIT YIN 'P R A 'f E R Bazzar and others reo. the standing postu. GG~~ ~r~."" Submissiveness is . shows subsevienoe. may Allah have mercy on him. Abu 'Imran al-Jawru. Mighty and Magnicencrevealed to Mu. ('My bearing.~llta. Allah. 'Allah. Mighty and Magnificem This is why the Prophet (at) would say in his bowing. says. when you stand before Me.sight.sa ('alay}." Amongst these actiOlls is the bowing (rukii) for this deed.I) but it is moreauthentic as a saying of (Ara'. they-would directly go 10 prostration without bowing" this is how' Imam AI.e. censure your self for it is most deserving of censure. marrow. bones. then stand as a servant who is lowly and subservient. they do not bow. As such the servant fulfils internal and external submissiveness to Allah.oid this as 'a hadlth of the Prophet (.~(~t) "When they .. It is for this reason that the Arabs would scorn this deed and not perform it to the point that some of them tried to pledgeallegiance to the Prophet (~ that they would fall to the ground directly from.

The heart is the greatest of these organs! indeed it is the king of the organs and limbs.conducive to KhuJhii' my foot carries are humbled to )':ou.jj~~~ '''Prostrat1e and draw close"ntoo The polytheists. :Mightyaod Magnificent.}dah)~ this action comprises the greasest outward manifestation of the servants subservience to' his Lord. '0ty. rubbing itthetein. says.1l8 declared ~abrb by ibn ." as is authentically reported from."I)!:l'Here he stated that hi~ khushil in the state of bo"Wingbad encompassed all his limbs" from the heart down. Mighty and Magnificent.:Alaq (96):. iOCJ af. Prophet (~. he place:s it in. and humility to AUah. It is forthis reason that the' -recompense of the believer when he does it is that Allah will draw him closer for "The closesta servant is to his Lord is when he is prostrating.Most High. thosewho were too arrogant to WOIShjp Allah would scorn the prostration (as they did the bowing). 19 49 . so when it has khUJ/:ijj(. This conduces the breaking of the he:a:rt"its meekness. The servant places hishighest and most noble limb in the lowest position it can be in. the limbs will also havekhllJhil~ Amongst these actions is the prostration (!q.~4cti{)nj:ofprqyer .MlJslim#482 on the authority of Abu Hurayrah. the mud. . Some ()f #960 on the' acthority of (Ali: and it Khuzaymah #607 9') l '* Ahmad W:."") me Allah.

ibf]~alik arnd it is ~~~. This is why he cries whu the beli.Diwiid (~aIoyhU~/t1JiinJ)said: I rub my face in the dnst to thy Master" my Master deservesthat faces be rubbed in Ill1 ' M' UOWllfifo ... u.. subservience to his Lord~..9lncl.s ordered to prostrate' but I disobeyed (Him) for which I 'ill have the Fire..ervant complet~ his state of kbush. ARih 'CGt Ibas down because he was too arrogant ...!nstead of pro s w:ti:n. in prostration.thes. "Glory be to my Lord.:t:'W'll' ~.u..leir foreheads.it is }.eving servaut prostrates s.lwa.(0 prostrare to onev!nm Allah ordered him to prostrate to.u'f." and in his prostration "Glory be to my Lord.ayin) 'He ordered the son 6fAdam to prostrate and he did for' which he isgntnted..an.HUMll. (1 find it abhorrent to pros trare because: for my psterior~'OuJdI end up being higher thanmel' and others would take a. meekne.g.~'I02 Sometimes.Ii~. power.egisb~for the servant to say in his bowing. the Prophet (M) would S~I ~'Glory be to the One who."Lm.fl.1'!J3 It is rtported tbat oneoig~:t. '. '101 When in the posture of bowing or p.'.". P'aradise. the Mi.'n' ' . bas :all kingdo.01' ".Ill}rbroiliel'.. describing Him. suffidng with tba. . ~#Ja . . .L • . th:Great. meekness.. with the Attributes of might" grandeur" greatneS1iand bighn. ! (\wf .h~ful of pebbles and!raise it to th.ITYI P"RAYER them woM. and gtealne'ss are descriptions of YOU. are descriptions ofme whereas highness" gran de ur.rostration.'~ I 50 .l9. tligh.m. be (8) said inhis prostration. It is as if he is saying" 'Subservience and.greatne~l and grandeur .ess. say.d" N as::u #'1 ""'5'0OOU1:e au th' onry 0 f . IIIl . ~'L" on 'ftilt e aUrnOOty 0' 'fAb' H"' '.ll It is for this reason that .'uitayra h '. UI say as . I _ 4il2'~'9'00' I A"b'~'D'-' -d #873.

.. yet your heart is heedless. beware of negligence and Looking (here and there). L I. the Fire..~"106 1n4Bayhaqi.H'·~. not knowingwhat the tongue is saying. "Did I forget anything of this chapter?" They replied) 'We do not know" Ubayy ibn. 'It has reached me that the Messenger of Allah (~) prayed a prayer in which he recited loudly. this and this. SbJ)lab#3356 III{. Ka'b said" "Yes you did. Being Attentive in Pray·'er . verse. MarwazJ #157 with a qa'Ifisnad.JS race.ay AJIahhave mercy Ofll rum. ordered you. 'When you stand in prayer~ stand in due obedience as Allah has. and whatwas notl This is how the gre:atness ofAUah left the hearts of the Children of Israel: their bodies were present but their hearts were absent." The Messenger of Allah (ji) said. Wben he had finished he asked. - al-l:iasan~m. asking Allah for Paradise and taking refuge with Him from. beware that Allah be looking at you while yO'u 'are looking at something else.: - He also records with his isnad to 'Uthman ibn Abu Dahrash who said..Ue d ust J10r . ''Wbat is the matter with people! The Book of Allah is recited to then] yet they tl(~ not know what was recited. .. Allah does 111)( accept the action of a servant until his heart is present with his body.BeilJg Attentive in Prayer . r ~ '...' It was recorded by Muhammad ibnNasr al-Marwazi. 51 . said". nltJ4 . may Allah have 105 mercy on him . .c ..

I recite at a measured pace:.ayAJlah have mercy on him.ving khllshf/ La the prayer. I commence with the intention. ~I stand at the' command. I pray with sincerity to Allah. I prostrate in meekness.rhahhud. He asked.M1ghty and Magnificent. I sit and read the whole ta. passed by Hatim al-Asamm who was talking in his gathering. ?11J7 Ill" Refer to Appendix Tbree fora: discussion on the ruling ofha. carefully and with contemplation. 'How do you pray?' He replied. 1 bow with knusbii'. I perform thetakbirbearing in mind His greatness. 52 . I walk in fear.' He asked. 'I:iatim" have you made YOU! prayer good?' He replied" "tes. and yet I tear that it will not be accepted of me.IN PRAYER There are many narrations of this meaning.HUMILITY . m. however I 'will! preserve ]1: as much as I can until I die: Hesaid. 'Keep talking for you have indeed excelled in your prayer. and then I perform the Jakim in accordance to the Sunnah. 'Isam ibn YuslIlf.

This characrerisnc rv the mark of servitude and exemplifies it. the supplication (dJ/a). Am_ongst the actions of worship to IS "Call on your Lord humbly and sc. Most High.AHah_andatttiburing to Him genel:'Osmty and graoe .. Dt/ti also carries with Jt the mcaniu. pg. praising . says.L!.4said. .. to Us in yeatningand awe. Mighty and Magnificent.credy. calling out.CHAPTER THREE Supplication that are conducive subservience andkhushil' to Allah.. of w/d isthe servants asking his Lord for His help and continued suppml. Kha~bi.lib.. and humbling Sh(/11al-D~ri.expresses his inabilirv II.108: t\ll:a:h. change any matter himself or having anypoweeand abillity.' d 'ii'll! DuB: to call out. essence is thera persclfl shows his need of AJiUh and . to summon."lOi '''Tbey outdid each other in good actions.' :109 al-A'rdf (l).! 55 53 . "Themeaniru.

'·1.0 One of the deeds that displays subservience."11.892 and Haythaml. Tabar.dMusllm #895 on the authority of Anas. like a pau. and extending his hands forward like a. vol. is alsomanifested in supplication coupled with its awareness of its dire want and destitution. The need of the heart. when supplicating on many occasions. 10" pg.Mighty and Magnificent. It is in proportion to this yearning and need that the supplication is answered.answer a supplication arising from a heedless and negligent I'll Bukhalli#1031-3565-6341 3!n. 'when at lArafah. raise his hands high on the eve of 'Arafah. It is authentically reported that the: Prophet (~ raised ibis.beggar.12 One of the fearful! would sit at night (in supplication)" still. and its breaking before AJiah. This is one of the most emphatic displays of subservience and need .. "'Allah does not. head bowed. Tabararu. 'I saw the Prophet Iji)I supplicating at (Arafah and his hands were at the level of his chest. m_ay Allih have mercy on him} records the QadItb of ibn (Abbas who g.aid. the most significant of which was the supplication for rain in which he raised them till the whiteness of his armpits was visible. AQmad and TirmidhI record that the Prophet (ii) said.per begging tor food./lwsa!#2.HUMILITY IN PRAYER themselves to U S. hands. n 112 54 . 1618said that the isnad containeda cla~ff arratos.~ru"al·.'!' Similarly he would.in supplication is raising the hands.

s.. nothing of my affair is hidden from You.13 aile q..Allah have mercy on him.umaj that the Prophet (M) supplicated on the Day of 'Arafah.lbv1iltilm fanh. It was declared hassn by· Albiol. seeking succour and refuge. may. with the supplication of onewhose neck has submitted to You and whose body has humbled to YOU. Allah. 'By Your might and my subservience. (Ji~$a(. said.~t1!)i/" al-Targhib #.'One rught. Ti.ty of Abu Hurayrah and. both isnsds 1. calling IOn You and be good.e. to m.O the besr of o those who are asked. ilAU ibn Al).rmidhi said it was gharlb. said. whose nose has been rubbed in the dust.mad #665. (~OAllah. by Your self-sufficiency and my need. You can see where I am and hear my words.ibah#594.a~"jlf. kind.. and in its persistence therein. do not make me one who is disappointed when.' Tawu. and 'merciful. fearful and apprehensive.5 on the authority of'Abdullih ibn (AmI' and Tirmidbl #3479 Of! the autbori. I am wretched and poor.' Tabarani records on the authority of ibn (Abbas (rat. entreats Him. <It was said: The best supplication is the one in which one is persistent and humbl . and! whose tears are flowing copiously. 1653 5S . Awza:1. I ask You as the indigent asks.Supplication hean"m3 Subservience is also displayed through the tongue in its actual request and supplication. may Allah have mercy on him. and I humbly petition You as a lowly sinner. the best of those who givel'?" Doe of them would sayin his supplication. and one ackaowledginghis sin. I invoke You as one who is fearful and blind.

uJd be one who is humble ana poor such that you too be beloved?' He fainred on hearing this andafterwards would say. 'Are you not 'content that.' It was recorded by ibn Abi al-Dunya. "My belovedl" 56 ." So ~ memorised thesewords and I have never supplicated with them at the time of distress except that I was relieved of it. one needy of You!' I have repented from saying. 'My beloved. :mayAllah have mercy on him. my beloved)' a caller cried out.may Allah havemercy on him.vIILI'fY IN PRAYD. entered his private room and prayed" I beard him s'ay in prostration. the ~u.fi. "Your servant is at Your courtyard. 'One needy of YOU!.HUr. narrated with his isnsd that one of the servants performed eighty pilgrimages on foot. one needy of You is at Your courtyard petitioning You at Your courtyard.R al. 'While he was performing the: /awtif saying.. one in abject need of You is at Your courtyard. YDU sbo.Has an. Ibn Bakwayh.

never turn away one who is 1'001" even if you only find half a date to give him ."ishahlove the poor and keep them dose for Allah will bring you dose on the Day of Rising. and Tabararn.!m:blt mId poor Loving the humble and poor Ibn Majah records the hadith of Abu Sa'Idal-Khudri (flu/b.· r11ti1J:li 'fanhu) that the Prophet (it) said..$ap. uMe:ssenger of Allah. It was also recorded on me' authority of Abu Sa:'id by I:Jakim #7911 who said it was ~~ with Dhahabl agreeing..al-}iim/ til by Saghir#14.261.~ by ibn f:Iibban ##9 and Arnalu~ . cr.ill:!. lJl-Salii/Jeth #308.ru.54.."! 1. "0 Ailab"make melive as (me lowly and humble: (miskin).Loving the hf. (. make me rue as one lowly and humble. and Alba. 96 It was declared .!ifisnads. however the l~adlth is ~a.ip aI-jdrni'·#1. pg.lliihtl ccmh(i) asked.-Siim1r. ~(A)ishah (rcu/f. SakhaWI.M1j:'lh #4126 on theauthority of Abu Sa'ld. narrated by Mu'adh (rar!bv~UMIJtI (anhu).!" . (J1-lnvlP#861.5 Tirmidhl records a similar hadlth on the authority of Anas (rar:jiJAiltihu ~anhu) and adds. all with ~a. ~~Iask You for the performance of i i5 Tinnidh:r #2352 on the authority of Anas and he said it was ghMW! ibn .unad#2]415~. "Because they will enter Paradise fony years before the rich. vol. why do you say this?" He replied.~. irwas also ruled :~al:W! SuyCi~.the Prophet (M)I said.A. 6.16 AJ.m Abu Dharr said.I) advised me to love the poot and to keep dose' to them . and resurrect me amongst the ranks of the lowly and humble. In the storyabout the dream. MaqJ.sid'at-lfas4tlab #166 1.I.. al:_DtI~don the authority (11"Ubadah ihnal. tAli'S bah.yA. This was recorded by ' Imam Ahmad! and others. al-/(Pbra.21517 and Nasa'l. The Messenger of Allah (.

This state is frequently found amongst thosewho ate poor in terms of monetary wealth.:. the abandonment of evil._ . submissive and humble to Him._' ~'I!. .3.tmad.lCzhJ (l1-Khafo~#1809 Il~ Bukhsri #6446 and Muslim #1051 on rhe authority o[Abii Hurayeab.'11? " The word .miskin in these l-tadiths and those like them refers to one whose heart is needy of Allah. "True: poverty is the poverty of the self and true richness is the richness of the heart. IrjlUn." Arna'Gt said that the isnad was~aI)lJl:t. ibn Wahb.i.. for wealth often causes a person to transgress. and a group of the Imams stated that the poverty that the Prophet (ai) sought refuge 'from was the poverty of the self. and his after shows this.l records the hadlth of Aba Dharr (tcu#JA.al-KNbrd on the authority of Abu Dbarr. "-118 The $a1:rlh. "Tbe . U~:e _CIU!l:esS 0 f·LLUe:.l.lkihu tanhu) that the Prophet (M) said. except that its isnad is da'If N asa. ri -k_ 01.pNte1. "True richness is the richness of me heart and true poverty ]s the poverty of the heart.records that the Prophet (fi)sald. The hadlth of Anas (r__ar/jyAllahu fanhu) supportS this explanation. 58 . -" - "True richness This is why Imam Al.HUMILITY ~N PRl\YER good.Maul aI~A %1 [a forthcoming publication of Daar al-Sunnah under' tbe tide. and! is 111 Abroad #22109 and Tirmidhi #3235 and he said it was hasan ~abIb The author has a treatise in e~lanation ofthis lJ8dith entirled llehnjdrdl-AwM Sharplkhfi!ti_f1J at. ibn 'Uyaynah.Het1tmnl! Di. I.. lies.__ in ".1L. . meeting the criteria of Mus.ano the love of the poo:r.f.um...s_·'Il'·nI19 OWY. Hence the one whose heart 1sm dire need of Alllah" 'Mighty and M·agruficent. us Nas. Ibn Hibban #685 also records it on the authority of Ahu Dharr with the words.r.

Lo.tJing the humble and poor humble to Him is a .miskin, even if he be rich in monetary wCRl1 h. This is because the need of the heart must display on the limbs. VVhoever is humble outwardly and displaysneed, but his heart i~ not humble, nor is it needy, is an arrogant tyrant.

Arrogance
Nasa'i and others record that the Prophet ('Ii) walked downa street 'where there was a black woman. A man saidto her, 'Make way!' She:said, 'Ifhe wishes he can walk P:lst my right, and if he

wishes hecanwalk past my left.' The Messenger of Alllah (Ii) said, "Let her be, she is a tyrant." They said, "But Messenger of AWU],.she 15 just a pauperl' He replied, HIt is in her heart.·Il:w
al-Hasan, may .A.llah have m.e!cy on him, said, 'Some people have modesty in their clothes and arrogance in their hearts. They wear woolen garments, yet, by Allah, while wearing them, one of them has more arrogance than a person (reclining) 0:1.1 a raised couch or a person wearing embroidered silk.."

It is authentically reported that the Prophet (;I) denied that
wearing nice clothes and shoeswasarrogance and said, '"Arrogance is to reject the truthand to look down on people ."!2.j
Na$a~J al-Kubni., vol, 6; pg; .1.43 on the authority of Abu Burdah from his :fa.mel; and he stated that there was an unknown. narrator in the isnad. H.a.ythamI, vol, 1. pg. 99, also references it to Tabariim, oJ~AJllsatandAhOYa'la #3276 on the authority of An as and shows mat the isnsdhas aqa'[fnarl.'aror. He states that Baz.zar #3579 also records it and that he declaees it ell!f dllle to the
Ila

priesence of another narrator.
12:1

Muslim #91 on theauthority

of ibnMas'ud,

59

HUMILITY

IN

PRAYER

This hadith makes it clear that wearing nice clothes is not arrogance and!that arrogance is in the heart, i,e, its obdurately not submitting to the truth) looking down on people; and scorning them. "Whoeve:rthiniks highly of himself, and, asa result, scorns people and refuses to' submit to the truth, such 81 person is the one 'willais arrogant, even ifhis clothes and shoes be simple and worn out" However, whoever leaves wearing nice clothes out of true humility to .Allah for fear that be may fall prey to arrogance has done well, Ibn (Ulnar (rat/fyAJLabu tznhu) would do this and the saying of the Prophet (M) concerning the checkered shirt he wore, "It has distracted me from my prayer,,"12:2 also proves this,

The Prophet: eM) chose the station of servitude rather than kingship. On the Day of Conquest, a man stood 'before him (:I)" trembling, so he said, "Go easYJ'lam not a king,~Lam just the
$.00

of a Qurayshi woman who used to eat strips of dried

meat."I23

It is authentically reported that he (Ii) said, "Do not fhlseLy praise me as the Christians falsely praised the son of Mary, 1: am only a servant, so s;ay:servant of Allah and His Messenger,"?"
122

Bukhiirl #373-7.52-581.7 and Musilirn #556 onthe autbocity of~A'ishah

Ibn Maj:.1lh #331.2 on th.eauthodty of Abll Mas'ud, J:likim #4366 said it was ~·~with Dhehablagreeing, tlaLcim #3733 also records it 00 the authority of Jw' ibn '(Abdullah and he said it was ,a1;tiQ'With Dhahabi agt"eciog.lt was ruled .~~ by Albini, ,(JJ~JtJ!)ip(Jb#] 876
11:3.
124

Bukhw
l,

#3445-68130 on the authorityoeUrnar. said. '.~tr-tlisto go to an extreme IDpwsing. .:the under-

Ibn [;iIlajr, FOip" voL 12, pg. 181 said, 'Itni'is to praise someone falsely.. ~A1ral"
Qarl Sharh Mishktil#4897

60

nogancr

Imam. Al:tmad,Inay AJffih have mercy on him, said: Muhanuu.u! ibn Fuqaylnarnted to us; on the authority of 'Umarah; 'i )11111'1 authority of .Abu. Zur'ah who said: I am sure that it W::l~. ;\hll Hll!ayrah (ra4iYAlkihu ',miJtI) who said, 'Jibril sat with the -PT!' )'plll('1 (fiJ and looked to the sky to see an angel descending, he !tlltl. "This angel bas notdescended since the day itwas created .. '·' · \X/hell1 be bad. descended. he said, ""0' Muhammad! 'tour Lor-d has SL'IH me to you ~ should Hemake you a Prophet-King or a ervanr Messenger?" JibrI] said, "0 Muhammad! Be humble before Y(Ill!'
1

Lord,' He said,·'Xa.ther a Servant-Messenger"

'I~

Standing of [his is that pwsing him in other ways is permissible." ',\11 al·e)'III, S/)a-,.fJJhtl1CJhiJil, vol. 2. pg, 161 said about hJiswords. "I tlfll ()II/y hinfnJ(ml". ;', 'Mcar III t~', [ have 00 quaJ1ty other than liliuu of servitude and raessengership: rhls is thrrt';1

of per~ecrion that a created being can reach" so do mot say anrthi:llg ab! 11..11 me rh.u negsees thesetwoatesibutes and do nor believe that I ha.v·c::a I:fmalityother thall these ·tvJO .. , the Q:adim inclicate that ][' is pcrmJs,sible to describe him with .'Un thjng' that does notreachthe boundaries of Lordship•.mbilb!1Jlah. and >( ;.~ ,&..1i11-',

u!ibm,ah, '
A1;rmad #-71.60 and ibn 1:iibbiil #6365 :Haytban-U) AtJOjma'al-ZafJ1,tid ..vol, 9, $)g, 19· and Albaru. Taf;qiq Bitlrh'lill-l'/-. \f.rI• .,;1111 that its isnad was ~a~ mee:l:itl.gthe cdteria of Bukhirl and Muslim Ibn Ta.ymiyy:ah said, 'The Messenger-Sereanr is one who on])' docs t I.'~I.IJ.IIIl I! 1 he :Iscommanded, hence e--.re:rythin.g does Is worship of AJlab;i'lC' is a 11llu· be seevant, dispensing the order of the One who sent: rum as is. csmh:l 11',111.".( I!III Bukhiri#31.17 that he "~ said, "By Allih I do notgrantanybodr.!UlirthinJ.-l; 1111 'I prevenunybody tto.m.ll!flything. Iam.onlyadismhutor;.] pl.'\oc thi1"lg.'w!"l'r, I .uu ordered,' Mea:run~ , do nor give except where I am ordered ro gh't: am I I dl Illj II prevent except where Lamordered '[0. peevent, ,lonJy obey Allflh in this." J 'III '. j', m conerase 'to the Prophet~KiJlg who is allowed to dispense with 8( mlL' ,'I Il.ill I ... 1', he wills, MJan, SaiYS about such a. PfOpbet~King. Sulaym:iril" '''0'0080 WfS/~,bjl'dt-","I:" IIim ,Iiu mild ."rowing gentlY' by ,,~ co.mmmuJ w'he.rev.erhe dtr,~ ctrd, mul.('''/M~
lZ5
J j

the· .devils lqfjinn}' .. e,very' builder ,and diver tmd ·others ,bfJIllllJ tORt'llu'/' m slMcle&s. [We lai4}. This is Ou,.,gift~.~()·.grlllltor witlJ:I"old 1I1itll()1I1 ,f.u:m.um"

61

I-.lUMIl.ITY

IN

PRAYER

One of the mursal reports of Ya1;Iya ibn Abu Kathir, may.A.llah have mercy on him, has that the Prophet ()I) said, ''1 eat what a slave eats, I sit as a slave sits" lam. merely a slave,' This was recorded bY'ibn Sa'(d" Ta/;'tlqal.'l'l.6 He also records via the route of Abu, Ma'shar, on the authority of al-Maqban, on the authority 'Of 'A'ishah (racfiyAllabu fanho) that the Prophet (M) said, "An angel came to me and said, "Your Lord extends the saiJm to you and says, "If youwish~, you may be a Prophet-King, and if youwish, you may be a Servant-Messenger."? Jibrill indicated that I should humble my self so I said, '~A ProphetServant.": \\'ishah said, 'After that, the Prophet (~ never ate while recliningandhe would say, "I eat as a slave eats and I sit as a. slave sits.m12i One of themnrsal reports ofZuhri, may Allah have mercy on him, has, 'It has reached us that an angel came to the Prophet (11) that had previously nevercome to him accompanied byJibrll. jibril was silent and (he angel said, ""'{OUI' Lord has given you the choice of being a Prophet-King or a Prophet-Servant;" The Prophet (Ii) looked at JibrIl Calqyhis-salam) as if seeking advice,

=

[Sid (38): 36 39], meaning 'give "asyOIU wish and withhold.as you wish, eitherway
r

you will not be j~.dged.,' The P.:tophet-JGng does what AUan has obligated!. upon him and leaves what MalI has prohibited, ltlld is free to act :II!S be wills with regards the worldly alilthority and wealth granted! bun withoutincurring any sin. However the Servant-Messenger does not give to anyoneor withhold from anyone,exeept by the order of his Lord ...as suchall his actions eonstirure WO,[ship of AJlab. Exalted is He.' cf Ibn Taymiyym~ al-Ff'rqdn, pg~92 [pUibliisbed by Daar tI)'S~Sunnah1Ptlbl!ishers. Urningham 2001.] B
'126 ' vo ]'.. 1 pg,.:J . ,.~ ']71

62

'he answers bv wav ~it ..''.lS ~li1!. III authentic due to supporting: witnesses and rhe second part commencing Willi "I would be full . I would turn to' You in humble entreaty and remember You. "'When Igo hungry. "My Lord oFfen.A rroga1U:e and he indicated that he should be humble 'so the Allah (M) said. "three days" is recorded by Tab:uraru.Dame or designation Iefrand he onl" . 63 ruled the :fi'r5t parl of the ryadlth Ii. AJhanI. yet some personal objective and gain remainsthat he 1 oksto. tone whocalls . I would thank You. His only name would be that attached to His" his only description.:d DO make the plain and pebbles f Mecca gold but I said. Thcw(lnlll~~ I II M.1 1 1 One of the Gnostics said..~if iidd:!I'J I 63 . .qiq Bidtiy()I1I'I·J'fi~ pg. only the objectives c fhi:-.""I28 Zuhrl said. U rnamah (ratliJAllihN 'anb:u) [that the Prophet (Ii) said. servitude. Ti:If. They would think that from that time ~l'S:'H:"r1.nad W. "cA Plophet:-Servant. and praise' You. Servitude can only truly be attached to one whose personal objectives. and when lam full. '"'o.I11Y Lordl Rather I (would prefer) to eat my fill one day IDd to go hungry another.r claims servitude.. responds.5.~ salid thu the is.'· to be munkar.35 \::i'. If he is summoned in His name." then he read tb e following couplets t28 Ibid. 'rwboeve. He ha. Iefi thisworld posture.""1.D .('1 Ilj: he. to the servitude of ills Masr '1'.' the d~n' the' Prophet (fi) never ate in a redilllng tin A1. aj·Lbfr'#78.tmad #22190 and Ti.rmlclhi #234'7 wbosaid it'Was~asan.bim. he has belied his claim. would be one ofcommunion wit h Hsn." or be said "three days or similar words. Arnalii.tmadand Titmidhi' record on the 'authority of Abu. have vanished and.aster remain in his mind.

hisfamilY.HUMILITY IN PRAYER o <Amr. 64 . Ali praise' is due to Allab. Peace al1'd blessings be on our master. and his Conpaniofls. with my Zah[ca. Call me only 'her servant. This is the end of tills treatise.' For that is the most truthful of my names.) am I bestirred Or this both listener and the seer know. Mupammad.

APPENDIX I '& II on Khush. 6S .u( on Hypocritical Khushu( Imam ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah 'may Allah have mercy upon him.

a/~:ladid (57).e1d to the remembrance of Allih and.. 'The time between our accepting Islam and.APPENDIX I Ibnal-Qayyim on Khushii( Allah.n'l30 Ibn Mas'ud (ratfoYAllavJI '~llh:u) said. became hard.? .Many of them are devia·tor.o were given the Book before for whomthe time seemed over long 80 that their kearts.' '131 Ibn (Abhas said" 'Allah granted time and leeway to the hearts of !JQ . 16 ! Muslim #-3027 D1 66 . so tbey are not like those wh. ''':Hasthe time notatrived fot the hearts IOf those who have faith to yi.s. being rebuked by this verse was four years. Most High~ says. to the 'truth He has sent down.

e '."....e. 1.3.ill.'!" Allah.~ W_)'I !. ~.er rill" revelation had started. player. Most High.) ai-Mtlimintin (23): 1-.133 Rum. khushit means who sinking..... pg.'. 10 this respect.e..oF~".... He rebuked them. . snll ness. ~1:J(~ _"'".. at the turn of the thirteenth year af1../ ""' . then.5)'~'%~I:~J il!1P~~~ ~. says. and low and not: being elevated with plant and vegetation. C'Voices \ViU be humbled beforetheAll ... 277 who references it to ibn Abi Hatim ~1I1d ilu I :Mardawayb..!I! "Among Irls Signs is tbat: you see the earth laid. All. .~ .' . and... Allah.. Linguis ti cally. wen " . i. says" "It is the believers who ate successfelrthose . Most High.. "~.DIIfT.!f. the earth has been described as havingkb'Jtshur. subservience... .. says..vol14.lih ~~~Il. Most High. 'bI ill .~..#". stilled and humbled.ab. bare and then: when We send down water 00 it" it 132 Suyiiti~a/"..... Merciful :andnothing but awhisper will be :hc ard..dry.. are 1. .2 TdHa(20): 108 134 67 .. ~ '~JJ~flt .. its being ."l34 c i.the believers.!".. bare.

·. replacing in their stead the blaze of the greatness (of . 'Khushit is the humbling ofhearts to the One who knows the unseen. "If the heart of thisperson was humble.t\llab) in the heart . It is also said that khushtt is 11:0 submit to the truth.wu D.. The Prophet (M) saw a mao playing with his. lehusbuc refers to the heart standing before the Lord in submissiveness. = 137 68 . and focusing on Him. 1:_ . the servant opposes the truth and is reminded of it. Talq ibn ~abIb said upon being asked about ltlf}lIlti.. subservience. m FUNi/at (41): 39 TaiJrW. :s . Therefore. of their smoke.. however (the truth is that) this is one of its results.:. so too would . amongst the signs of khushil:is that when.. hoping for the reward of Atlih. he accepts and willing returns to it.es of lusts inthe servants' breast and the dissipation.Taqwi137 is here..ightfrom Allah.. That you penorrn.Mlib~ fearing the punishment of Allih. to ward off evil.the obedience of Allah upon a .HUMILITY IN FRAYER (Technically). a light from . b·e '" 136 The Prophet (M) said" ". hiS . You l leave disobedience to Allah upon.' The Gnostics have agreed that the seat ofkhuJhir is the heart and that its fruits sprout on the limbs and they display it." pointing to his breast. beard while praying and remarked. It is said thatkhuJhttis the abating of the flam. Junaid said.

a4in out of fai-r11 ltnd me or His saying.rannu) saw a. al. )'13~j 'Umsr (rat/iYAlla1Ju .: _ '-.!Take n~:fugl" with Allih from bypoceitical khushi/. .and he said "thisthroe rimes. woukl say..I.l . Ibn aJ-Qayyim"ar-RiJdhlJ aJ·TaD.. Hudhayfah. not rhe '\'Isil for praise and po5iciol'l. llhd" pg.onth of Ram. "ss I.I.1 don whiehls i!. 'Fine conduct Of} the outer is . breast.k:ed what il[ \I a~~ he replied" "That you see the body humble and submissive while the heart is not.ll: o'b&lience'and I: cause to draw one closer to AUab Wltil i:1:S pomr of commence mel1tand cause' be unadulrera:tfd faithjrlot habit. . not base desires.JI t. his neck 'bowed in prayer and said "0 such-and-such raise your bead for kh. faith..'WhoeVier fasts the m.tiJtib. fOlmdacions SU'l'11 as [0 his I&) saying.person with. 27~ said..~nororhersueh things. "This is the best that has been said eoncemiag the definition of la'lllli .'. #2564 om the 'authority of Abu HUtl.~ •••• Muslim. .ath' points to me f1fs[ foundaucu which :.. this. Its objective must be the rewanl that lies \Vith AUih and Hisgood-pleasure. why we often find combined mention of these Nl'O.:t.ik!J!yaiJ..L II(j}II$oums bere) ' pOlnt111gto h'.1 dt':111 iadiearion of fine conduct on the inward.'m 42 and ibn .UB One of-the Gnostics said. '( ~ . ~Qu . nerc. being the definition ib!is.(. ne of them saw :1 person showing khushi/ OIl hisshoulders aad body and said. 69 . at"Ztlhd # t 43 on m Z hea UI 119 Ai:t01ad" huru \ of Abu ai-Darda'..al~Mubkak.yrah. -f - One' of the Companions. sueh -ana-suen.~ I. Hi. p.ssaying.' 'Whenas. 'not I .An:action can never be considered [(I ~. ''hoping for die reward of AIIih' :poMtS 'to the second fuund. This is. · 'pointing to his shoulders. 'upon a light &om Ail....h.for indeed every action mUST hIIV\' <I beginning cause ro ~tand an objoctive.usbil lies = Recorded by ibn aiI-M!Ubiirak"al-Zuhtl'l4'473 with a ~aQil:lisnarl.

y more khurh'if than was in his heart.s 70 . iii: hurt.when he spoke. 'The person 'whose heart has khushil will not go near Shaytan. 'Who are they?"Her co.~LIT'Y IN PRAYER. 1.' (_A]ishah (ratj'fyA/iahli ftmha.large Masjidand not see a single person with !ehushi/' Sahl said.. and it is well possible that there is no good in a person who. someone. he made sure they ate to their fill. "Ascetics. "It used to be disliked for a. Madarijai-Slilikin.' She said. tl. vol. person to displa. 417-4~. and soon will come a time when you shall enter a. prays.' Hudhayfah said.4O I~ Ibn al-Qayyim.llleagues replied. he was the trueasceticl' FU4ayl ibn [lya~ said. he was heard. when he struck. 'When 'Umar ibn al-Khartsb walked" he walked rapid. 'The first thing you 'will Jose of' your religion will bekhuJhii~ and the last thing you will lose of your religion will be the prayer.ly.) saw some youth trying to walk with an air of quietude" so sheasked. when he fed (the poor).pp.HLTM. not on the neck but in the heart.

0I1~ would say.' Wihen asked what it was. The heart breaks for Allah.~ blessings and one's own transgressions. ill the' breast of whom the Hames of desires have abated and . submissive while the heart is not. One of the COmpaJ1i.lII!lII!H pg. 'That you see the body hum ble and. and shynesswith the perception of AUah. on the other hand. 'I take refuge with Alllb from hypocritical k. he replied. HYPOcr:itiiCa1lehllShil. a:/-Zuhd #143 on the ". dlignjtyJ and shyness. bashfulness. love.cion) 'Sobriety.411 The one who has khushu·r for the sake of Allah is a servan L. This necessarily engen· ders khushil in the heart which is then followed by kblls!Jii' IOn the limbs. magnifica. I~l 71 . appears on the limbs: it is amere pretencejheperson affecting something that is n< ~t there since the heart: is void of khllIhllt.U. of Abu. combining dread. al-DMda".htulul'.APPENDIX II Ibnal-Qayyim on Hypocritical Khushi/ The difference between (true) khll$hu' engendered by faithand the hypo critic all khllshfjr is that the former takes place in the heart to AJJih and is conduced by veneration.I hcii Abmad~ (J/~Zlthd~ 142 and ibn al-Mubarak. 11.

_ tt. This is hypocritical khushilf: the person feigns quietude: and affects stillness of limb byway of ostentation."~JSh'Uf e-Olf'. outwardly he displays khuJhu(~ but inwardly the valley serpent and jung]e lion lurk between his shoulders. the day he meets Him. it is ttJUkbbit.' 72 . The blaze of the greatness (of Allah) has been ignited) and the lusts of the soul have died in the face of fear and sobriety which have. engulfedin the effusion of tranquillity descending from its Lord.fJ~ . stilled the limbs and . 142 142'11.e. The same applies to the heart: when.IJ'D... 3'46-347' . i. never (desiring) to raise his head till. __ The arrogant heart" on the other hand.bll. in turn. -. it bas achieved kJ:u. . it becomes like this piece of low-laying land to which water flows and settles. b . land which is low-lying to which water flows and settles. on the prey. replacing in their stead radiance. and it remembers Him. _' _. it becomes meek and humble (mukhhil). . -dered __ ya£-lith.' al. waiting to pounce.HllMIlLlTY]N PRAYER smoke has dissipated. j o·-'h·pp. The sign of such a heart is that (its owner) will prostrate before Allah out of magnification and abject humility) broken before Him._ -nb~n--. heaves and swells in its arrogance like a fast flowing river... In reality. This' is . . Q' . 'The heart which is meek is the heart which is at peace and rest for the land which is tlIukj.he u.. his soul is raging with lusts and desires. .bil is.qmetened the heart The heart is content and at peate with Allah. It is likean elevared portion of the [and at which water never settles.ayyun..-si)i/.J tlJ-nJl .

73 .APPENDIX III The Ruling of Khushu( in Prayer Shaykhu'l-Islam ibn Taymiyyah may AJ1~lh have mercy upon him.

statements indicating censure are. 74 . Mos t High. tf • ''We onlyappob1ted the direction you used to face . U: •• "but tha.t i.A..PPENDIX m Shaykhu'l-Islam ibn Taymiyyah said: Allih.ushd Similar .s a very bard thlng.'"·43 1 This signifies the: censure of those who do not have kh. except for the hwnble . says.in order to know those who foDow the: Messen ..

veryh.''''" "~hat y'no. otherwise the meaning becomes nonsensical. as such it would! mean thae it is bard for those who have lehushit in the prayer but not hard for those who have it outside of the prayerl 1~5 al-Sbura (42): 13 al-BaqartJi) (2): 45 I -. call die polytheists..ushit in His sa. to follow is very' bard :for them.ardl thing..except for those Allah has guided. "'. Mghty and Magnificent.but that is a. ". prohibition is committed. its obligation.khuJhii' in the prayer.ying. censured. those who turn round on their heels" Thongb in u:utb it is a very hard thing . Therefore if those who do not have khushu( ate. except 'for the. humble.Ibn Taymfjyah on Tbe Rsiing of KhUJhi' in Prayer g'er from.. shows that whoever finds whar Allilh loves hard to bear is hlamewotthy in ihe religion and receives Allah's displeasure. is proven. t It is known that the reference to kh.1% must incorporate . since itwould mean that faltih is hard except for one wh. 75 . n14S The Book of Allah. Censure and displeasure only come: ones way 'when an obligation is ]eft or '3.o has khushif outside of it and not in it.

.. this verse then proves that k!. but.The verse would then become pointless.Rshtlis obhgatory in the prayet. wotthless talk. m4.inf()rms us that it is these who 76 .. in whicb case they 'are not blamewortby.inherit Firdaw:s:.w those who al.. As such. . those whols:afeguard their prayer. those who turn a::way £rum.1 remaining in it time . forever. 'The obligation of having khltJhilin prayer is also proven. those who desiteanytbing more than that are people who havegone beyond 'the limits . Allah) Glorious and Most High. those who paytbe alms-'tax. such people are the inheritors who will . those who honour th. lessty.eirtrosts and their oontracts.. by His sayIng. "It is the believers who aresuccessn. those who guard the:iirprivat. except &001 their wives 'or those they own as sla:vcs..t': humble in their' prayer.e pans .

~. since Paradise can be: attained by the performance of obligaiory deeds without the recommended. so too would his limbs be.j]~l~~. "If the heart of this person was bumble. this proves the obligation of having the: qualities mentinned therein. i.Roling of Khushuf in Preyer will inherit Firdaws therebyshowing that others will not do so. ·~~~\jr. as such. In this respect is the saying: of 'Umar (rar!!YAllahli t'anhu) when he saw a.~. Most High. bones.. raises. Jt Hera. Firdawscould still be attained without them.n:!!41 laid it.i!II ~. to You have I bowed.Ibn TqymfJJah on The .". in You have I believed. this then. It is fot this reason that only obligations aremenboned in these verses. (with vegetation). says. and to You have I submitredirny :hearing) sight. ~tj.e. and marrow are 77 ." meaning they would be stilled and submissive.GDu~l. proves that its. kbushil was stillness and lowness. 'were they recommendations. This is because. Allah.0 quivers and sw'eIls.P"~ *"'ati'. t.. Ids for this reason that the Prophet (8) would say in his ibowing) "'0 Allah.I.JJ~J-a' "Among his Signs is that you see theeanh bare and thenwbenWe send down water 0.He informs us that after' having had khushii~ the' earth quivers and swells. Khllshi? is obligatory and comprises quietude' and humility. _person fidgetilng in his prayer.

as such the one who pecks on the ground like a crow when p.umility . The person who was not: cairn in his bowing ~ or his prostration has not shown khusbu in them. before going down for prostration."". has not been calm and still. bowing.151The' first was recorded by Bu.. "They must stop or their sight will be snatched awayI"ISO Jabir ibn Sarnurah .khid :and! the second by Muslim. Amongst the proofs that kbll!hu(is obligatory is that the Prophet (!I) threatened people who left it. one who does not fu1!ly return to (the standing posture) from. as in the case of a person who raises his gaze to the sky..n) is the exact same thing as tranquility (juma'nfnah). N asali.reports that 'The Messenger of Allah (~I entered! the Masjid to see people praying while looking up at the sky and said. The person who does not have. '~llBukbm #750 LS! Muslim #111' 78 .ab. Similarly.. and mba Mail.hushii'. Anas (ratjiJAlitihtl fanhu) records that the Prophet (~ said.""People must stop looking up' at the sky or their sight will not return to tbeml.):iosrrating has not displayed .':" Here: he described himself with /eh:ushil because the one bowing is still and in a po:s ture ofb. KhuJ'hit is obligatory. 14'l Muslim #7n on the :authority of 'IAli.. at odds tok.khNShil therein.HUM1LITY IN PRAYER humbled to Y:OIll. "What is the matter with people that they raise their gazes in their prayers?)' He severely reprimanded those who did it saying.Abii Dawiid. and both are recorded by ." as recorded by Muslim. this motion and this looking is. kbushli' is sinful as we have just explained.'. Calmness (sukli.

9'6 It: was ruled ~a~ by ibn Kh. thisreduces kiJJI!hu' but does [1(). "It is a.'rr III Ibn Sma said. Aba.Now. because raising ones.gate it This is wby looking around decreases (the reward) of p[aye[.I!l his sight never left theplace of his prostration. revealed. those who are humbleIn their p.'i record that CAI'jsbah (r-a4i:YAlldhll fan:ho) said. sight to the sky goes against kb1lJhH~'J the Prophet (: ) prohibited it and threatened the one who did it.~c'S.I' Dle.91 A~d #21508.:~~~. 132 al.s regards lookingaround.j i 111 79 .1 J+l!.ulS4 me There is no harm in looking around if there is a need [0 de) so..lmad.oare sueeessfal.Ib'l TQ_)I'11Jfy)'ab11 The &1£:"1. $api/J 0/· Targbib #554. :". 'The Messenger of Allih (fi) would look up :pr. a/~NiJikhwa'1-1Jlla. snatching away thail Shayt:an steals from the servants' p:r:ayeI. thebelieversi wb. i~ wil h I )i1:111..•.ah.kim #862 agrecin~ and hasan by Albini.MI/ifIJifJJin (23): 1-2 I S~ Bukhmi #7$1-32.Bukh~irw) Abu Diwud1 and N'3. . If he looks away.~JI \5~j:iTC¥:ii c~l:t18.J1 turn arway. l\1ighty and Magaificenr.fJlukh..U)1S~ Aha Dawild and N~a'Sa'l record the l:tadIth of AbG/l~Abwa~. #481 -482.' This was recorded by A[. asked the Prophet (j{l about lookin~ (here and there) in plaYler and he said. A. 0 of KlJUihii'i.h. from Abu Dharr (ratjfyAJl4hu 'afthu) 'tha. Dirid#909" Nasa'i#l ~. Abu Di\V11d records on the :autbod1t}r of SaW! ibn l:I~aJjyytl..ayer and when A1J.sa.uz3J}rmth. 'tla.tthe Prophet (iI)s'aid.~i.r:a:yef . He' 'Wi. nAHin will remain tunrlng to servant in his prayer for as long as he does not look a-way.

rity ofJibir #3926 00. #943 16~ Abij..Abil DawQd.. L ..~la'!if isn. In a 'simi]arveiin. front of one pmying."i· .. command to kill snakes and scorpions whiJ. iliemomiDg p_myier.·l5S.'The ifJOflltlh was called for prayer ..e in prnye..i.161 his command '~O push back and6ght the one who is walldng in. sever his (8). prayer. aWUJff. command for women to dap their handls. .I'62 his.r. neckwhen hetried to. IS his desoending the pulpit to teach the people prayer.. du~:authorlty of ibn Mas. a . d .kduring the 'eclipse p'Iayer.mority of Abu Qa.d -149. is his tiking~. .rayer" 1M ana otner sue h actions m p!rayer U-Hlt . and kept looking at the mountain path.tad with.id.i -4808 and Muslim #541 record :asimibI \1adi1h onmcauthorlty of Abu HuraymLt.3·9· ~ . BukhiD #46. . his daughter"Zarynab. ..' Abu Da:wGd said. DaWliid #921 163 .16~l L~· • • .·D .b'-u.. #$"]6 Abu DiwUd #91 a on rile l!it· 3Ju. monoamg ill p.A·.and the Messenger ofAliih (ji) commenced praying.e. 1>8 his stepping 'bac.md~ .l60 his. '1159 AbUI Diwfid #t 178 on the iumo..(lIS. L . .DawUd 80 . ISS .Umamah bilu Abial-rAs ibn 31Raor from...159 his holding Shaydn and squeezing his. "He had sent a horseman there to k>ee:psuardby night. Ibti ~d i~1 Abu.156 his opening the door for (A'ishah.

. A'b-u.I) had completed the prayer. Zuhayr ibn MuCawiyah said that he thought that was in the prayer .e Messenger of AJ1ih (M)loQked at us md said ~~lat is th·ematter' 'with you that you motion with your bands il' if they I6SM.the narrator.. they are done: without need. ~ also record on the authority of'UbaydWlih ibn al-Qibtiyyahfrorn Jibir ibn Sarnurshwho srud.' 'N' -.11'.'0-" aJWU.and he said. 1'1100'1. "Peace be with you.:t5a:1 ff 0"1.WhcD we would pra} behind the Messenger of Allih (ji)and performed the SdiaflJ.Ta~from Jibir ibn Samurah (rar!fyAllcihll '~t1hlJ)who said.-Ul1'9"1 .f't"'~IM Anothe:r nareation bas.Allah (.sali'1l1 to his brother on his right and ]eft?" 'I 6 The wording of Muslim bas. er . and Nasa~. If. 1M Musllm #120.are done for a need.l!m ff . er II . raising your bands as i they are the tails of headstrong horses) becalm in the prayer. Abu Dswiid #998. suffice one of you . "Does it not. ~~'hat is the matter that] self: you. ba DawGtd... when we said the Ja'iam we would motion with our hands saying. they would be regarded as mere fidgeeiag which negateskhu:rbli' and is prohibited in praye£ The obligation of khushii']s also pro'vel11 by tihel]adith 'reported by Tamim al. We prayed with the .".'D.and he pointed with his fin. #999 asil #1185 11\7 81 .or me of the·m . ~u. '.t is thematter with you that he moves. his hands as if tbeywere tails ofheadstrong horses.Messenger of Iillih (ii). '.. This was recorded bv Muslim.u1·.-d' ."a. 'When the Messeqget of .and to say the salo. he said.s Thev. it suffices you to do this ../1. 'WM. Aha D!w(ld..howe rer. on his rlUgh and say the ."Th.·ll:.]' to his brother on the right: and le. The: Messenger of Allah (M) entered in upon us and the people were raisin' rheir hands . .sll. we would wal/le our hands to the right and to the left.ro keep his hand. .

aad 'me interesred reader can refer to his kLjmlt. pra.yer. regaridle-ss of wihe::me'f actual fighting is happening or not. he was like the one who prays the prayer of fear when."I6'9' \With regards to the report in which "Umar ibn. stand mm andllemember A1Jih t. p:p.a. He proceeds '[0 mention many more proofs. 'I m_ake: lans for the :army whilst I am praying/ this was because p 'Umar wascommanded to engage jnJihid and" since be was leader of the believers he was also the' [eaderofJihid.I is.""I68 Here the Prophet (M) ordered calmness in the' pfaJ1icr. .'..ays the salciH. the enemy has been sigh~ed..respects.cpeal.Alllah"s command for khIlJhii~.eve:r is not t:canqw. let hlm face ibis neighbour and not motion with the hand.the' whole pra.were the tails of headstrong horses. al-Kha~b said. Therefore" in. 22.. some.and calmness cannot come about without tranquility. norcalm and! the command fOf' calmnessaccords to .tbope~ co "ou )'Vl'!itlJu( FrJ1iiJ'ti~ vol.y and to engage in Jfuad~ 'Sohe had to ICarty out 'both duties to the best o·f his ability. When. He was commanded 'to. Who. .edly soth. :i1W 82 . Allib says~ me who believe! When you meet a troop.S53-S64.. one of you s.}.

11~ ~ a/-AltaL (8): 45 171 al-Nisj:t(4)::103 83 .nn --.- Hence the onewho is commanded to establish prayer at times of peace is not commanded to dlo soin the same mannerat times of danger. Verily.fully you will be successful..It is known that one cannot achieve the same tranquil]: Iv if) I heart d!uringJihad as attained at times of peace and security. '. . \Vhen AUah mentioned the prayer at times 01 danger" He said. you are safe agaiin. Allah had placed the truth firmly in 'Umar's heart and on his tongue. If a person's faith is strong. but when. the prayer is prescribed for the believees at speeltled dmes. he will have the proper presence of mind when he prays.pe~rCormprayer in the normal way. Forthis reason. at the same time. people are or varying.'170 ..ill" t does. not impute the completion of a persons prayer or ohl'dl ence. and hL' was one who was inspired..levels in this regard . prayer at times of danger is Lmghter than pray"":!' at times of peace. so there is nothing strange in a petsl ')11 of his calibre making plans for the army whilst. Moreover.. even if he thinks of other matters. ~o II it happens that a person's prayer is lacking because of Jjh~hl.

n will not leave him. praying]s not the same as his thinking about some matter that is not obliga't)ory. There is no might or motion except in Allah. the Most High. 1f1 in the prayer of fear.. however. People always think. of the outward obligations ofthe prayer. what then about theinternal aspects? In conclusion. and some .72 112 . but undoubtedly when be did not have these concerns to think about" his focus on the 'prayer 'would be gteater. Itwas asked of him.of this could come from ShaYtan. at times of safety was more perfect than at times of danger.focusing on his pray. 610+ 84 . a person who is pressed. pp.Mqjtmi' . and the most pressing concern on this persons mind was where he buried his money. MalI has made allowances with regard! to some.~'1.Likewise. for time thinking about some obligatory matter whilst be is.er. no doubt the prayer of the Prophet (ji)) in terms of' outward actions. A man told one of the Salaf that he had buried! some money but he bad forgotten where he had buried it.A!mighty. just as he strives to do everything else that he: iscommanded to do well. many 'Obligations and responsibilities. Anyone could 6nd himself in .' The intelligent servant. 22. 'How did you know that would happen?' He said. and he remembered where: it was.aJ-Fat:dwa.' so he went and prayed. vol.3! similar situation in accordance to his position. the .. (I know that the Shaj1a. alone when he ptays without reminding him of what concerns rum. will strive to attain. about things during prayer that they do not think of at other times. 'Goand pray. It may be that 'IUmar could not ~ve thought to making plans for the army except at that rime because hewas the leader of the nation with. He 'was able to do this. perfect presence of mind in prayer. whilst others ate not. He told him.

.e D:wQSI90' n!l. Names._~ Falmif.mple!l lit': w~d'l: thelJf expt-an.eek phuQ8op'.mmous for m:hl!.A'Itt~b-liAte!li of Aliih. '" lleJ wat :a. .i-!S • _ 1:.itt he does.Ii. Kh~tfab'~5 .ah:lll"U!j .. fur fda.1" 'WOuld.5 1110 I. II. .i:l'l his dr.500 tu-:aa~d" Ther :liIega.!. of I kerung Hi-mool His crea~~tm.b.r 'iIi'husc lP!hiIo~()pht::r5\\11:1<1. Ao:s.~[V.e.l:t..k:lJHm©ina:IIIJJ.d!.ibn II !li' :~J-G·h~:ilzal hit-l.tot1c. trom . I' rl Ij i~ anlcmgst their. From :lWlongsi: .') preJm.ef<:i[1 '~ii1a 'pe.111" Greekil.. 0. Jnhmj»'M.ilj!us of b. A W ~lln I i:h~'ci!rii2h 0:[ ~'a...) t:.mibtll!..:!u:e dc~ed by' AlI~h !l!od.On9WC~ of :Mu~:lJimm~d K~r:t:ir..ilf:·fs was thar :tl p'nd" I who committal a major sin \V~:.Cll1iuull. " l1t~ were of the '~f 'I:rul~ d.C.~n 1[I_!.["11 tt.[ 'P:ai"!ldi:se.1l1l.~ thls term WilS 'Am~'i'l:lfi ILUbaid'll1-MI1"t~ w.ted rhe A.:'fuUm. bu i 1.. be ()on~d to Hc1. amOIl..:t.l] ~ct:i!Om.m-:'i fbn .. lbD"lJ '.I..:'l1 hl""I~ in of AIIlh to H1s creation (ttWlhiJ) " !~Jihazlk~ ·~QiUQreF.. AllPI-l.elldy ue:d by du:ifi~owro~ to n:fer 'tto AhVu: 1-5Lm.IIi~ beli.':i. .h we.\ lbn divided Into man r sllb~ eets and W1e1lP:: . .'Sof Wii~in.Jl :t£«mm..~ 1\ ter:m.n(d. fJ:cqlJ.itfyy(}b. The first t(l I(I. 2:i~1!J. __ . belit:\!~'r 'lur ~i . _~~[. (3cf j@.thci:r bd._ - ". O~~.IJI II ~ from.w[S of]ilhm ib~)~·af.1J~ ~t5" I BJiilliJyrJJ.lIAl. gave: precedence II thcir iri:te~iecr!l! OV€1:' 'the' divil.nu:lc[stood of 'thei'1!'l'i C".n :th..n betw-ee.e~.firc orever.s.e d him.io:n.tiOIl--S. neither ~."11 :Eii:s.lIbl of ~b~'m~:!'I!.t:h rbose who tlfiirmcd the At. man bas Oil) cOI. .ll' bin.Ql'tod die 'W'is~l€m1" ij!'I: 1.&J'T.lttd Qvet drem ~t all..M.: !be .iWI l:laiiJ. dliC·'5tud~nt of !Phl!4 I ..ibn . . :SC~l 0"£ the Sht-a! the' f01Jlk)'lJ.t 'Abdulll:!b.:Ur!T1:'Lh. I QprJ4'rtqdh: 'These whfJ' held the belief tn:!J. gJf SO~ boMing thc same: beJiir::f·~ the Bapnir..ie legal '~~li~re m.~h-ew.. pliJhet or a SltJtDQ.. .. Hell and 'tne ~t Day.:rfklal express.ibn 'Urn-. ~rel dflllll~!. :Resurrnc::tinn as it ]5 mc:ntlQned in the Book-end . o~ .t: mal] hll Cj anpl.l\:il.hen who did [Jot believe in Iii.bo said dli3.. I.'O'p~e w~t is ol1t\w[diI..m:s VIaS al-'Atril!"!.g'St their lattetpropooe.. ~w~.ean"jdng'iU!rrc4:'me OIlgS.1 ~~ Cliok: 3Jt'1d 'rue of the MI.:'1 i II ADD. :Im I I~'! I S:]Ila.j'a' £1. T6cJ w(.~Ii:LS·relldhe: is fooccd to do w. I" ill did they :affirm me Names and Aiuib:u'[e!l of All.:rt.Ieadees wa-s. Qpmwijtl: 1\ fullow~ in ill that he does and th'Jt AJillah Im.imr_pak .~J 1Yf:tl:nc NMUe:s tfIJ :!Iud . wJ)!!l~ of AUih. .artJ)Y1h: H:IUo"-wets the s@ec!. I 'I!~.

..by one e:xp.nd d'~~ . iltllmv lhe It':r. !:hOO'IJgh wor-swp {tlllt1 'i'/mJdk) .5.dr. (!f thE!' ~.~f Q~!!: i!t ~dnJ4: sees Himrwt.:.«i!uir-. md boor.iiiip:a:ai~ nr II! 'I~ifJt..<Jiis wm:ro.i.m I~ also l!1i1:~.sm. The Q:nc:'"". il.oa. consiets of i"".i:l..!.:: efllEJbilIDsbme~unt Iti1e ~Uli' re~. C"Ji.::nwm~S(:1> lib. dte mose S1IWC"Ii-C:: of whir:h ooi~gn:iR\. ~UJlJrl.a:w dos.C}C}~ '~IiIi.u:~-. (C! Mijh..l):[lIti:n. o.'1) '1fie8! 5upp..:pt :IDee and bclid of·the hi:':i.med· (Ioru'Y l'O d:rllW d.tdil'k A.Es why !:ll!.es.. oo. action .nf:s.' Hene'!.. PI'!l:J\rn .ldes me: :ll.OCi{ii b adf a:lu.1i!: a.Otl.1f~ ·p'f. 1\ b~ltriet' d).and flut: type: :lII. lJ.Qf requ-c:s.h as .i.!!It tile he~.I n~:1 I hi 90 91.:iJ]JlI" .!:st.n ~l1olllgh..!h-e: ~ad!th th:u k!Jnt:ii:h~f>' ::.>ecioo of \'lro[!ihip.. oo the m ADih.'ii m.lI!Wf .~. to one wbu.(~'St': I.it 'is trlf ~ ~ of ~.irS't· 1J'fiC of dii'ti CiU1! be.Q doo.1of lilliir" ·m¢. HtMtJfJf f?fffti'l. d ~£)fi me .rtthat ind.lU! The 'S-eccmd'type indudes In!!: ·~t 't:iP~.1. n. ~d ill lhjii 'W'Odd ~-d tll1cHem::lf.f })J)/rjj. .winH.~"M ~~'Cepti1IlCil: f~f all that ~h 11100 Hi4! Me.l ~~ ·P-i!.:.. ·in"'l)C:llDnl'!.good.iii. O-p'I'l0:5j~eof crittlfity. meoody of mc:' . word!i. mor. oofl"pl.is'or.!~ilim· lJene. me.~ ijt _mils to m«1 one: or: their n!qoi.. It ~atJltLl esnbe ~::m klJ :lI'l'Id of it8eJ.11>ef.~.1t' f.8Upp1iC!lmion. 1J.£ Llsed:t:t.ew~~.I:!~~ I) '\lIOwli.s 'the!.Se~dJWllIgD..ty.. eo refir to' a rat lImi'blJrtI!::d.the ward wi!d.'4q·.o[:5..'f~ P[ ~r h !ian'S. ha~ A.~ 11.ll>ldTd'lwhose lflltid ..'fICi:n>Cill.u:ip D.~ ·p~[tor.iight nsreseors 'bU( !Q.. l1Ji'1~!bll t the: Crot..iUit:1"Il .iS.. ch:~dlPtion:s.~U!. i'iea5n~.!OY.:.hl} ba. jt cUmp..:fiim.:rnC".Crioru: of IDche:a:rl.~·IJ 1 the ufiS:ti1~~ :p'l. t'l].lfidlily a£!ks his.ilste~~ wl'J:trn.>hm.rarsbil' All!i. Or oof:tlnm '11defeer but ~.' H ~ Hiitn.i~.t!:lllls: !Ind.n~ lh ·\. :S~.. ~Ii:~m.~y ·be cl!hrutrd .'fl:' to iilIDi~and .e. of the !r. 'l.JI.II~ IS l'I1~' stittr. siifi.·htl:rodtJ«d..e"j'e:.t (lIl\irnJ) :mJ m:e isfJin.. :lind ror His.e !M.~ the hesrr.gcr have g:.t III eteases tJb:roLJ.j.s. It:i. dti. Ol[ ili1iit mQt ~'i'>erytlhing orne do-c:s: :i.t:[ anti.to' lU!ii.<I.l.havillg a :smcf: ill mttlnjuom ~[Jyd~ftttQr ~d·-de'8lre.I!l].Jnil!..dl~1 ll. thai .<. (!tx~ iiltt_ri~tJ/~ to tile llr'oplle[ (M) dsset'ibing Rli. H.olily referral :ru.m be. fair.' ~tlfldllli M.f.d SWpphcllidonof re~~ ldll4l11:ti!~h).!t cC!mml::ooes tlf~er e:lotb.11) i~arlirclh.IlLe:5.g'h vibcdirn.f!itlliR'llst'biil ~iIj' ~C(.:'I'"'j shi~:iJ> 1l! 11¥. sd-anllJs. ·i!ih-at 'wru'Cb is .nrn:~liIil1lg ao i:rr~gul.~u.action and blilj~.3il{kn dl!:'fec~ (lIJ~). &~ .eme:iIlq.hr ba:mltf.i'ilJJ.l (JahtJ fans .A.t Ibll).p·~o"i'1ils.p.'l !h!l.. [Oogne.I'i..dii!kiue: ID .Ill.e¥idenc.l. I:mld bm'iing.one ·'i!.lli:aIiQriJ. to st. fahricwte:d" nil'..crity. iit is an 9£mn o·f wl1:l~~F '!hat roay .'l ALl:iiih :s~ch {)4'ifi.ece~:!iii:ilJresthe ·s.mI:.~.'lI bcl:'M!ei'1 deeeased HId iIh!$ I.:lI1 'r:omp1ni~l.I: ·p!um. me .lmi)-wl~~~me.Clti:of.~r· i.qn.i!.eW:illtirng b:hn fn1nli n. p1'(''3jllf!:.!!!t i rec!lt.:t: iif..econd ~.b~ ruled 110' be: so due Ifll suP1po:rtiing .l.iu .. iIi!l~:.Jah ID~:!lling ki}'!kIlJ :fI!f1. . :aCtiD. Index of Arabic Words l:J?f~ pI. 'CIt: ['1. itl. The :second type ·ofJI1j.u(i\l!!tjl linked of JlibI.Tro5'e pw.. S'lJbmj~_og to' i.!lndl:rsr od when Orle wKh::..l1oel>lk.I. beliefs of fuitb. A !. the seC'II'4fi. Heaee e .piug 'n}'I::l!~'l'ide.. I.!ld decr'~ii."!l &om.O'ITIn't3ind~dto haee flUl!) in.I. clliobedkll ii' ]t·indttd~.d.. .I.w:virntB..tU!lO'\'{!.r~mre 00 th~ LiE~ lnt.I1~ .u. to puiify O[!I:!~ ·1ii. :I.I.1! of wW'.s. 'Wld tadE tIIp.!t' }\n~b rI.h.I~' of :arnd lim'bs.ly: ~t t~ the :lCC.~ tmc: i~ (m~) 'Will be: free of ~!_ ne 1~'Ii! 'Th~ worship .lihug and a groc:nc iie.or:~sed 'flt least loo. C f.t.tfdJ~ d.rh inw:ndly Wld ouilWard.llrit:'l (~ aril'd no h. Leed of som.lIctlnrh.f:/.ethi~ 'SUch ~ '0 ~~I Grnt'i[ ac~pt ·me.rises SmreIDe.1lreiine 'Lt.ftr. tt.::l1l!l.

e.he iE the Propnl:it (jt)r m}'J:ml:."".\'Vidi:n.:2$ iii.illm).mg 11peCS[Il! from the fdld or' ].refJ::ti-IDg to dUN(cring :il. me: 'iiw.i~[ mp:iniisilrme!u 1\11~lh I!hoou.i!n.j ro beJ1e. A p::f.i.1 ol. 't.11I0t : 'bein. It ()..cl.tor" b~tOOmH)t... o b\:!i~dfyi.) ~ the Ambie lilll:b"'ll. 'Iln(tilrdy' upright (lJ}Ji/J)) :9!ll._'lIgff. :Ihe chain of :lI!i:lwo:rlucs on whi.!'i~)'[:fI.il'1ing ~n Th~ ~adl:lili. ~Ildiif]ig w-klit..di:ng.r tho.-ml 'p~e ~0:!'!9.cll a '1lal. iiCiI.l'. J4tn~. "JPtj".. I ~( !~ ~I:ttiilllg tii blltrfer oet'\\'Cil~rt t'W<.else.'b!:t bfl--W~!iii him $lTid the one who wis h.HU~fll.I)l'ariV\!:. .vl:a. hl.' tb::u Mt a. person fro~n the fpld !If Isl. nIDke.nor cOillm.!i:.tht:ni::i.MU''millifJ ~ J~/rk. ]sUnuc sb. 'rr.!:' hrnditli.:' :ilI~D~t. .!Ina reir~ecl Nam~ and A'E.w~et.F~tii.t.said rhat {_lm ttiatjd with l'lis: ~hicld:.h.~ng 3.llg Him.riing IliJ Tit-wfJitl. ~nlelIctiQn~ 1. ef iii.!.!Qnm:heistn.1:S.Ift~. hukilJg the ~ca :iU.ruled 'an iPtm.Almh.]!!:!.Iol]Shipfn:.g."ITY iN Pij.:iiihAlone t(~ WI1i)l:hc.1K~tds.f1iid 'being' COt1MUQu. f in the ab:!:ulut robe mee !he' iJ.pmll:nred aed fmt:illcxl t1i:m~ltilga.tc.¢\~ S(LiC~!\{»'S of th~ P1iQphl:!t (ji'I.f the !'m('whu hili! ilkp'a (mNl.: hibiriullSl srtd t::l!cin ~rp-I't 'VilISt.: Q~C.(ilkrb).}. of the '.iilJ.m.lr'II. . Henee flv·. th ?:iNIIfI~ .." ii' wt:.-'1I hun t:I.clc -be!itOVO"'oo him. tWfl.d:.mLiDl"" Ocr:lll mtt.:i a.uca..1-ndsflf r\mIi~ ru:u!I i1. 'InirK11: {l#'IJift The ::lerna!W~.[J.h.Cfe!1oe_'to tlhnS~'Q.5Umlncr.4.11'11. d](~n dll~ OJ1~'thst {~jllU~li~. 'cruI "be: ~_H.(iugh tbill: l]u::d~Eln.{lnd ([ .II i ii~:rvc:s to 00 !/!.1.fo.~. it OOitosl. the basic me:l!fli:llg Qf 'whkb.(:" 11t' ':L'I LI. -e :major (ce!'uO~lil1ga person from rh'c I jill... the. oDnw.' d~L'iJa.il ~m~iI1'C..IJ.CJtiIIL:y refemng to i!3l:s'belief.lod to !ilK Propht::J: (M. ~i.g!e1liit~t': .\Yl::fi:.m'll Angd Gab-del ~d the .:. None is dle ere.BllpJ'.reJaril).U'h.1ltJhiit. .u'~e e kflD'WlS fropl~:m: WiUCtJb IitJ.~t til.a~ p.. :its. successoes..ootl ttl th. ~city !b!IVt'. bend (It the.ia!-t :rod.llff:5 in person 'Of W[]['8.AJst) '1:::111.~ rh:itl {~r Irnn:.JfQ[' (remmrilJg aper:!101'li fl'O. .tt:lbm.. reJectioliL.gb his OOIJ~. pl.rIIifi. descftptic.hl!ii fonows.d_tQ:!.II::! f t!I:iii: S:abf. of bu'mJ or (nQt'l'cnIO\. b. dthl:t COlnl'l!c·a-h.s!. .tQrlQ:lil~ a:n ~a:mp.Mtt: bdi .o~4!l.\:I"ilL' .:cl'I'lll .il.km!4lJf: Sl!i.I'.V Of' '~jddeIDl d~kct.er of 1:1.11rBililhlll:'I:'g!:=ncmd.qI1iJ ( SNmuz/. 'aiCOOIlS n:iitdl.: w.i.rQ bclie"i'e rh3( $h T at .sts ofl ].. H' 10m I w.z\ :b~d'i11n 'whieh hi!!S ~ cootiDLiO'Ll!Sl':!. nhaU{ of .111'01 'ltlb< TiiN'iirt due 1:0 lb.111 \'I'liu II.ui :m.!' lsI'm) or :mj!l1ol"11111'Uft )\..~ bain:i!:!l' ~t:'\!.: ~cliti!Omii Ijlli~d~ me jlJ$tiee (W~ of filttri.I jYolImillly" lr t. TrCehitlri~fIIlly -us'l:d to rreftt' to t!h~ Ix:!.OOI! the: pr~dsion (~ of '!!he: ii'la~[Or: iv. SIlk)' P:ilL-. ThC'-fcrouit' is.:ol'l1m~n~k r1i'i' l. iiei:inm..al. JJr .'rI~'I.. uechm. The.. 92 . Hence I~j·h.til'ipl i'lH~ Li:i-toJ 1'1'" fulDowung ~c CmFilin.l::atl. ''Tlu~' best of 'Peqp~ !lift: Nfl ' ! ~I I •• tioo~ tlrein the.~.'1' I'~ Mll:!Jli-m:s. •. . as i.~ hjftlSeiJi iUld ~h(:IPWlI5bme.L' pi~u.:: PrClph'C'f (jI).ng :JJ-l. .100 1~lr aJ.c:. n. KiJa¥ ~iib: Qir (him. gil· is.cMprers eo~c.t"L':essOO'" 'llep!iI:S>e.-1/): <tnd .J in and of iwdf.ml:ih1:fold.!IIgc tfl'f. !..' SI.I. r[]' AlIih n.1..g His rruhihi n r u . II call be 'm.!rc.':t'>Ilit5!P1lI'is baud.~ defect I:rnt 50tlU b:= . r b Ii m I•• -\.'. $a/Jiili.U .l!t'iS I.U 11.ort: fne.thu' foJlt:n<\\N!O a 'PRlh m:h.r IS to believe 'thaI' A]I~h .IPiXu1:..t:ati't'ln .ern:l!:: it il> nl:cihtllrod '~I).le of whJ'._j:. oor--r. KJ.: t~l\1! !-11t: I. ~dj.rup b~~. RJp~ s:1i. Oii:' ht can i:loom. . ru:ii is 'Why i[ is .~" ml~'I'11 .ah.m1ra.lr{ds..

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