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KILO SUBMARINE

Non-nuclear submarine of KILO class (636 project)

Th
e submarine of 636 project is a striking example of implementation and development of one of the most successful series
of submarines in non-nuclear submarine shipbuilding – project 877 EKM of KILO class.

Entered service 1982


Crew 52 men
Diving depth (maximum) 300 m
Sea endurance 45 days
Range 7.500 n miles snorkelling at 7 knots with diesel overload – 400 submerged at 3 knots
Dimensions and displacement
Length 73.8 m
Beam 9.9 m
Draught 6.6 m
Surfaced displacement 2 325 tons
Submerged displacement 3200 tons
Propulsion and speed
Surfaced speed 10 knots
Submerged speed 21 knots
Diesel engines 2 x 3 650 hp
Electric motors 1 x 5 900 hp
Armament
Missiles 8 x SA-N-8 'Gremlin' or SA-N-10 'Gimlet' SAM missiles
Torpedoes 6 x 533-mm torpedo tubes for 18 torpedoes and anti-ship missiles
Other or 24 mines

The most important features of these submarines are:

• low noise;

• reasonable degree of automation of control procedures of propulsion facilities, ship's systems and weapon
application;
• powerful missile-torpedo and mine armament;

• good conditions of habitability for personnel; easy maintenance.

Since 1986 submarines of KILO class have been exported. At the same time since the middle of the nineties construction
was started of 636 project submarines of the same class but with more powerful propulsion plant, the submarine has less
noise and is equipped with control system for multi-purpose electric remote-controlled torpedoes.

The joint work for modernization of submarines of 877 EKM project, in which CDB ME ”Rubin”, RPA “AVRORA”, FSUE RI
“ELECTROPRIBOR”, DB “NOVATOR” and RPA “AGAT” took an active part, began in 1998. The result of this work was a
successful solution of the task of creation and testing in ship's conditions a new anti-ship missile-torpedo complex “CLUB-
S” with a new computerized information system for control of armament and a new inertial navigation system. After
successful completion of the trials in 2000 the submarines were handed over to the Customer.

During the period of up to 2002 FSUE “Admiralty Shipyards” constructed and delivered to the Customer 13 submarines of
projects 877 EKM and 636. This is more than a half of the total quantity of submarines of this class constructed in our
country. During the same period 4 submarines were refitted in the course of medium repair.

Adding of anti-ship cruise missile complex to submarine's arsenal considerably extended combat resources of submarines
of KILO class and raised their competitiveness on the world market of ХХI century.
Great experience, gained by the shipyard's specialists and involved enterprises, has been profitably employed during
construction of new submarines of this class and submarines of the forth generation.
At present construction of submarine series of KILO class of project 636 equipped with the above-named complexes is in
progress. Besides, submarines of this series are fitted out with a new storage battery with increased service life and a new
system of reception of radio-information from coast in underwater condition.

Kilo class
Patrol submarine

The Kilo class diesel-electric patrol submarine has achieved respectable export sales
Entered service 1982
Crew 52 men The Project 877 or Vashavyanka diesel-electric submarine, better
Diving depth (maximum) 300 m known in the West as the Kilo class, was designed in the early 1970s
Sea endurance 45 days for the anti-submarine and anti-ship defence of Soviet naval bases,
Dimensions and displacement coastal installations and sea lanes, and also for the patrol and
Length 73.8 m surveillance tasks. First delivered from the shipyard at Komsomolsk in
Beam 9.9 m
eastern Siberia, but then built in the western USSR at Nizhny Novgorod
Draught 6.6 m
Surfaced displacement 2 325 tons ant the Admiralty Yard in Leningrad (now St Petersburg), the boat is of
Submerged displacement 3 076 tons the medium-endurance type and the first example was launched in
Propulsion and speed 1979 for completion in 1982.
Surfaced speed 10 knots
Submerged speed 17 knots
Diesel engines 2 x 3 650 hp
Electric motors 1 x 5 900 hp Some 24 Kilos were built for the Soviet navy, and by the
Armament first part of the 21st century the Russian navy had deleted
8 x SA-N-8 'Gremlin' or 15 of these, leaving it with nine boats with the Northern and
Missiles SA-N-10 'Gimlet' SAM
missiles
Pacific Fleets (three and four respectively), and single boats
6 x 533-mm torpedo with the Baltic and Black Sea Fleets,the latter's boat having
Torpedoes
tubes for 18 torpedoes been modified with pumpjet propulsion.
Other or 24 mines

In design the Kilo class is a development of the Tango class with an improved hull form. Even so, the boat can be
considered only basic by comparison with contemporary Western submarines.
The Soviets procured the submarine in four variants: the Project 877 baseline model, Project 877K with improved fire-
control, Project 877M with provision for wire-guided torpedoes from two tubes, and the slightly longer Project 4B with
uprated diesels, an electric motor turning more slowly for less noise, and an automated data system to provide fire-
control data for two simultaneous interceptions. Boats have been exported to Algeria (two), China (12), India (10), Iran
(three), Poland (one) and Romania (one), some of them Type 636 submarines with improved propulsion and fire-control
systems.

SSK Improved Kilo Class (Type 636) Attack Submarine, Russia

The Russian Kilo Class submarine first entered service in the early 1980s. It was designed by the Rubin Central Maritime
Design Bureau, St Petersburg. Subsequent developments have led to the current production versions, the Type 877EKM
and the Type 636. A successor, the Lada (Project 677) was launched in November 2004. Rubin is developing an air-
independent propulsion (AIP) system which could be available for retrofit to the other versions. The Kilo submarine was
originally built at the Komsomolsk shipyard but is now constructed at the Admiralty Shipyard in St Petersburg. China has
two Type 636 submarines, the second of which joined the Chinese fleet in January 1999. Type 636 is designed for anti-
submarine (ASW) and anti-surface ship (ASuW) warfare and also for general reconnaissance and patrol missions. The Type
636 submarine is considered to be to be one of the quietest diesel submarines in the world. It is said to be capable of
detecting an enemy submarine at a range three to four times greater than it can be detected itself.

DESIGN
The submarine consists of six watertight compartments separated by transverse bulkheads in a pressurised double-hull.
This design and the submarine's good reserve buoyancy lead to increased survivability if the submarine is holed, even with
one compartment and two adjacent ballast tanks flooded. The foreplanes are positioned on the upper hull in front of the fin
or sail. The design is a development of the 877EKM Kilo class, with extended hull. The power of the diesel generators has
been increased and the main propulsion shaft speed has been reduced to provide a substantial reduction in the acoustic
signature of the submarine. Maximum diving depth is 300m. Speed is 11 knots when surfaced and more than 20 knots
when submerged. Range is 7,500 miles when snorkelling at 7 knots and 400 miles when submerged at 3 knots.
COMMAND SYSTEM

The submarine is equipped with a multi-purpose combat and command system which provides information for effective
submarine control and torpedo firing. The system's high-speed computer can process information from the surveillance
equipment and display it on the screen; determine submerged and surface target data and calculate firing parameters;
provide automatic fire control; and provide information and recommendations on manoeuvres and deployment of weapons.

MISSILES
The submarine has a launcher for eight Strela-3 or Igla surface-to-air missiles. These missiles are manufactured by the
Fakel Design Bureau, Kaliningrad. Strela- 3 (NATO Designation SA-N-8 Gremlin) has a cooled infrared seeker and 2kg
warhead. Maximum range is 6km. Igla (NATO designation SA-N-10 Gimlet) is also infrared-guided but heavier, with a
maximum range of 5km and speed of Mach 1.65. The vessels can be fitted with the Novator Club-S (SS-N-27) cruise
missile system which fires the 3M-54E1 anti-ship missile. Range is 220km with 450kg high explosive warhead.

TORPEDOES
The submarine is equipped with six 533mm forward torpedo tubes situated in the nose of the submarine and carries 18
torpedoes with six in the torpedo tubes and twelve stored on the racks. Alternatively the torpedo tubes can deploy 24
mines. Two torpedo tubes are designed for firing remote-controlled torpedoes with a very high accuracy. The computer-
controlled torpedo system is provided with a quick-loading device. The first salvo is fired within two minutes and the
second within five minutes.

SENSORS

Type 636 is fitted with the MGK-400EM digital sonar. This provides: detection of submarine and surface ship targets in
sonar listening mode; echo-ranging in a ±30° sector of the target relative bearing; telephone and telegraph
communication in both long and short range modes; detection of underwater sound signals and determination of the signal
bearing. The submarine’s radar works in periscope and surface modes and provides information on the underwater and air
situation, radar identification, and navigational safety.

COUNTERMEASURES

Countermeasures include electronic support measures (ESM), radar warning receiver and direction-finder.

PROPULSION

The submarine's propulsion system consists of two diesel generators, a main propulsion motor, a fuel-economic motor and
a single shaft driving a seven-blade fixed-pitch propeller. There are two additional stand-by motors for running in shallow
waters, at mooring and in cases of emergency. Two 120-cell storage batteries are installed in the first and third
compartments of the submarine. The main machinery is equipped with an automatic control system.
Club S Naval Cruise Missile

Novator experimental machine design bureau (Russia)

Club S submarine launched cruise missile family, includes the 3M-54E1 anti-ship missile and 3M-14E
land attack versions, capable of striking land and naval targets from a range of 275km. The missile can
be launched from standard torpedo tubes, from depth of 35 – 40 m' (130 feet), cruise autonomously
along a selected flight trajectory and, at a speed of 240 m/sec, at an altitude of 20 meters (70 feet),
and when approaching the target, drops to a sea skimming level of 5 – 10 meters (20 - 30 feet). The
missile is equipped with a 400kg (880 pound) warhead. One of the key elements in the effectiveness of
the new Club S is its active radar seeker, the Args 14e designed by Radar MMS of St. Petersburg. This
40 kg system radar system is employed in the terminal phase, less than 20km ahead of the target, to
provide target detection, selection and guidance. The seeker is designed for high resistance to ECM, and
is designed to operate as a single missile or in salvos firing. Russia is promoting the Amur-950 (Lada
class) diesel electric submarine, armed with the Club-S cruise missile system capable of hitting
underwater, surface and land targets.

Pump Jet Propulsors


The Russians appreciate the design advantages of pump jet propulsors. The same math and
physics work in both the former east as well as the west. Pump jets are indeed heavier, but
so much quieter. The big advantage pump jets offer is providing the submarine with a higher
tactical 'silent speed'. A conventional propeller submarine may have a silent speed of 7 to 9
knots, the pump jet submarine much higher - speculating in the 'teen' speeds or more. On the
new American Seawolf,the British Trafalgar and Swifture SSN's - the reactor power plant cooling
circulation pumps, a potential source of radiated noise can be switched off. Water sea suction intakes in
the leading edges of the horizontal sternplanes on the SSN's then can provide cooling circulation by the
forward motion of the vessel through the water.Pump jets are very impractical on diesel powered
submarines. The added weight and cost is worthless if the batteries (or even present day fuel
cells) of a conventional powered submarine cannot sustain those higher silent speeds a pump
jet could exploit for very long. Nuclear power you can sustain those speeds for literally years. This is
why you see pump jets only on nuclear powered combatants,and if ever on diesel submarines at all,it is
for experimental tests of short duration runs only. Hence the Kilo test boat - 877V project design. All
pump jet submarines also have little reversing backing power astern too. Usually tugs for docking are
manditory. But the operational advantages of the lamp shade on the stern seem to out weigh this. The
new generation Russian ballistic missile submarines of the Borei class (officially designated Project 935).
Builders Models of these submarines show a Russian pump jet design. These new submarines have been
named: Yury Dolgoruky,Alexander Nevsky,and Vladimir Monomakh. The Russian planned contingent is
for 10 strategic submarines expected to be commissioned within the next decade (5 will be project 935,
and 5 will be a more advanced project 955 in service by 2015.
Export Behavior

The Soviet and later Russian nuclear submarine program involved a variety of
industrial enterprises. It encompassed an expansive network of research, design,
and production centers, including the world's largest shipbuilding complex, known
today as the Russian State Center for Atomic Shipbuilding (GRTsAS) in Severodvinsk,
made up of two shipyards: the Northern Machine-Building Enterprise (more
commonly referred to as Sevmash) and the Zvezdochka State Machine-Building
Enterprise. The Severodvinsk shipyards are involved in the design, construction,
testing, repair, and decommissioning of nuclear-powered ships. Two nuclear-
powered submarines remain under construction at the Amurskiy Zavod shipyard in
Komsomolsk-na-Amure, in the Russian Far East, as well, while additional yards are
involved in nuclear submarine dismantlement (for more information on nuclear-
powered submarine dismantlement, please see Russia: Naval Nuclear Reactors, in
the NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, created by the Center for Nonproliferation
Studies.) To date, neither Russia nor the Soviet Union before it have sold nuclear
submarines to foreign parties. However, technology transfer from the Soviet Union
assisted the Chinese in the construction of their first nuclear boat in 1966, which
copied but was not identical to Soviet Project 629 (NATO name Golf) class
submarines. In addition, from 1988 to 1991 the Soviet Union leased a Project 670
Skat (NATO name Charlie I) class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine, the K-
43 (renamed Chakra while in Indian service), although the reactors were operated by
a Soviet crew and the vessel was returned to the Soviet Union.[1] Since the late
1990s, there have been reports that Russia and India have been discussing the
possible lease of a Project 971 Shchuka B (NATO name Akula II) submarine, most
likely one of the vessels currently under construction at the Amurskiy shipyard.[2] In Varshavyanka-(Kilo)class
February 2005, Russia's newspaper Voyenno-promyshlennyy kuryer (Military- submarine for the Indian
Industrial Courier) reported that Boris Aleshin, head of Russia's Federal Industry Navy,Zvezdochka Shipyard,
Agency, told Amurskiy Zavod to resume work on the boats for the Indian Navy.[3] Severodvinsk.
Source: Zvezdochka Website,
http://www.star.ru
Yet another indication of Russian plans is the scheduled September 2005 opening of a training center in Sosnovyy Bor,
slated to train about 300 Indian naval officers. Sosnovyy Bor, in the Leningrad region, is the location of the Russian Navy
Training Center, which has working nuclear submarine reactors; the new training center building is adjacent to the Russian
Navy training center, and likely has simulators, not reactors, inside.[4] The Russian Navy's Shchuka B submarines are
equipped with 28 cruise missiles, each armed with nuclear or conventional warheads with a striking range of 3,000 km.
However, the Indian version is expected to be armed with the 300-km Klub missiles already installed on the Project 1135
(NATO name Krivak) class frigates and Project 877 Varshavyanka (NATO name Kilo) class diesel submarines Russia has
built for India. Russia, like the Soviet Union before it, has a large diesel submarine production program and actively
exports these boats. The height of Soviet submarine exports came between 1960 and 1980, when some 90 diesel boats
were exported around the world. The most-exported submarine was the Project 613 (NATO name Whiskey) class boat: 61
submarines of this class were exported to eight countries. In the early 1970s, the Soviets also exported large numbers of
Project 633 (Romeo) class submarines, which became the mainstay of the Chinese fleet. By the mid-1970s, the Soviet
Union had begun exporting Project 641 (Foxtrot) class submarines. Finally, in the mid-1980s, it started selling the Project
877 Varshavyanka (NATO name Kilo) and its later variant Project 636 class submarines, which are the mainstay of its
current export program. Contracts for 27 Varshavyankas have been concluded to date, including three to Iran in the early
1990s, as well as boats sold to India, China, Poland, Romania, and Algeria. China has emerged as a critical importer of
Russian-made naval equipment. China has already purchased four Varshavyankas from Russia, including two improved
Project 636 models. There have also been suggestions that Russians have continued to have a role in assisting China in its
construction of nuclear-powered submarines. Further, it is possible that Russia might decide to export nuclear submarines
to China in the future, although no such negotiations appear to have begun. In addition to China, India is a key export
market for Russian submarines. Besides the possible lease of a nuclear-powered submarine (mentioned above), India has
imported eight Varshavyankas. Further, Russia is reportedly part of a joint bid with Germany's HDW for a sale of
submarines and submarine construction technology to India (for more information, see the discussion under the French
Exports file). The Russian participation likely focuses on the submarines' weapon systems (Russia has been jointly
developing the BrahMos missile with India. For more information on BrahMos, please see Russia: Missile Exports To India
Developments, in the NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, created by the Center for Nonproliferation Studies.) The chief
promoter of Russian submarine exports is the Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering in St. Petersburg, which
designed three generations of Russian nuclear- and diesel-powered submarines, including all of Russia's diesel submarines
for export. Rubin showcases these vessels at international defense exhibitions. The boats are constructed at the
Admiralteyskiye Verfi (Admiralty Shipyards) in St. Petersburg, the Krasnoye Sormovo Shipyard in Nizhniy Novgorod, and
Amurskiy Shipyard. The Malakhit (or Malachite) Central Marine-Engineering Design Bureau, in St. Petersburg, has also
been a major designer of submarines, submarine power plants (both nuclear and diesel), and submarine-launched
weaponry since its formation in 1948. More recently, it has turned to the design and production of mini-submarines, for
military and civilian uses.[5]

Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering

Since the Rubin design bureau was founded in 1901, it has designed more than 20 submarine classes, totaling
approximately 950 submarines, of which 138 were nuclear.[6,7] With the waning demand and resources for nuclear
submarine production, the state-controlled Rubin design bureau has focused its efforts on establishing commercial exports
of fourth generation Project 667 Amur-class and Varshavyanka-class diesel submarines.[8] Diesel submarines built from
Rubin designs serve in 14 navies around the world. The first exports of Project 877E (Varshavyanka) class submarines
were delivered to the Polish and Indian navies in April 1986.

Project 877EKM is a modification of 877E, including new cruise missile, inertial navigation, and automated information and
control systems. Sindhushastra, the lead boat of Project 877EKM and outfitted with the Klub-S cruise missile (NATO name
SS-NX-27 Alfa) complex, was built at Admiralty Shipyards and handed over to India in 2000. Russia is also refitting earlier
Project 877E boats with the Klub S missile system; India, for instance, has had some five Varshavyankas refit with the
Klub-S system.[9] The Amur class is the export version of the Project 667 (Lada) class submarine. An extremely quiet
boat, the Amur can be outfitted with air-independent propulsion (AIP) systems. The Amur is smaller than the
Varshavyanka, designed for operation in the littoral; it is expected to cost significantly less than the Varshavyanka boats.
[10] The first of class, Sankt Peterburg, a Project 667 boat for the Russian Navy, was launched by Admiralty Shipyards in
October 2004. A second boat, an Amur 1650 for export, is awaiting funds for its completion at the Admiralty Shipyards.
[11] No buyer has yet been identified for this vessel. Although the Chinese Navy has expressed its interest in AIP boats, no
AIP-equipped submarines have yet been exported by Russia.[12]
Malakhit Central Marine-Engineering
Design Bureau

The Malakhit design bureau was


founded in 1948, and takes credit
for designing the Soviet Union's first
nuclear-powered submarine (the
Project 627, NATO name November,
class SSN), which was constructed
at Sevmash. Malakhit worked in
close cooperation with the
Kurchatov Institute, and designers
at Malakhit were the first Russians
to find a way to outfit nuclear
submarines with ballistic missiles.
[6] Malakhit also designed the
world's first nuclear submarine
equipped with heavy metal-cooled
reactors, the Project 645 (also
November class), and participated
in the creation of the world's first
titanium-hulled nuclear submarine,
the Project 661 Anchar (NATO name
Papa) SSGN.[7] Most recently,
Malakhit has been developing new,
unified torpedo-missile armament
systems to accommodate the latest
types of cruise missiles, torpedoes,
rocket-assisted torpedoes, and
mines, and remains the leader in
designing naval hardware for the
Russian Navy.[6] In the export
sphere, Malakhit's main push has
been the export of mini-submarines,
small submarines, and equipment
for the oil and gas market. The
Triton-class mini-submarine is even
being promoted to commercial
customers for tourism. For foreign
navies, Malakhit is promoting the
Project 865 Piranya (NATO name
Losos) class mini-submarine to
Southeast Asia, South Asia, and the Kilo-class submarine.
Near East, which appeared at Source: Rubin Website, http://www.ckb-rubin.ru
expositions in Indonesia (February
2005) and Singapore (May 2005).[13,14] The
Piranya was originally designed for the Soviet
Navy; the first of class was laid down in July
1984. While the Russian Navy no longer uses
Piranyas (only two were ever built), Malakhit
believes that the vessel, which is quick and
relatively inexpensive to build, is well-suited to
navies that must operate in shallow waters.
There have also been negotiations with France
over joint construction and sale of Piranyas to
third countries. According to Russian sources,
these offers, initiated at the November 2004
EuroNavale expo in Paris, await French
government approval.[15] In addition, the
Malakhit design bureau designed the Project 971
Shchuka-B or Bars (NATO name Akula) class
nuclear-powered submarine. Two of these boats
are currently under construction at Amurskiy
Shipyard, in the Russian Far East. As noted
above, there have been reports for nearly a
decade that India might purchase or lease one of
these boats.

Northern Machine-Building Enterprise (Sevmash)


Project 877 (Varshavyanka) submarine.
Source: Rubin Website, http://www.ckb-rubin.ru
The largest of the two shipyards of the Russian State Center for Atomic Shipbuilding (GRTsAS) in Severodvinsk, the
Northern Machine-Building Enterprise (more commonly referred to as Sevmash) began building nuclear-powered
submarines in 1952. By 1995, Sevmash had constructed 125 submarines and had produced all the Northern Fleet's
SSBNs.[16,17] Currently, the shipyard is constructing fourth-generation submarines for the Russian Navy (the Borey-class
SSBN and Yasen-class SSGN) and overhauling Russian Navy submarines—repairs were completed on one Bars-class (NATO
name Akula) SSN and one Akula-class (Typhoon) SSBN in the past three years, and one Akula is still in the drydock at the
yard. Sevmash also defuels and dismantlies Russian SSBNs (four are at Sevmash for scrapping as of 2005).[18] Most
recently, Sevmash has begun to construct submarines for export for the first time. On July 27, 2005, Sevmash launched
the second of two diesel-electric Kilo-class submarines the yard is building for export under contract to Rosoboroneksport.
The first was launched in May. Both boats are awaiting trials. The two submarines were the first diesel boats constructed at
Sevmash in 40 years.[19]

Zvezdochka State Machine-Building Enterprise

The smaller of the two shipyards of the Russian State Center for Atomic Shipbuilding (GRTsAS) in Severodvinsk,
Zvezdochka, was commissioned in 1954. Since its establishment, the yard has repaired and modernized over 100 first-,
second-, and third-generation submarines.[20] More recently, Zvezdochka has been involved with dismantling SSBNs
under START I. Zvezdochka also constructs submarines for export and repairs submarines previously exported. For
instance, it has overhauled and modernized several of India's Project 877EKM Varshavyanka (Kilo) class submarines.[21]
In February 2005, it signed its most recent such contract, for the modernization of the Sindhudhvaj. [22]

Admiralteyskiye Verfi (Admiralty Shipyards)

Also known as Admiralty-Sudomekh, United Admiralty, and Leningradskoye Admiralteyskoye Obedineniye, Admiralteyskiye
Verfi is a former nuclear submarine production facility and consists of two side-by-side shipyards in St. Petersburg.
[16,23,24] Unlike Sevmash and Zvezdochka, both state-owned entities, Admiralteyskiye Verfi is a joint stock company.

The shipyard is building a new Project 667 Lada-


class submarine for the Russian Navy, and has laid
down an Amur 1650 (the export variant of the
Lada), but has yet to find a buyer. It had promoted
the boat to India, but in 2001 India decided to
purchase French Scorpènes instead.[25] In addition,
Admiralty Shipyards has built a line of Varshavyanka
submarines for the Indian and Chinese navies. As of
July 2005, Admiralty was completing work on two
Varshavyankas for China.[26] The shipyard is
building five of the eight SSKs ordered by Beijing,
and is hoping to expand production of submarines
for export still further: in late 2005 or early 2006 it
is expected to decide conclusively whether to invest
some $80 million in a new production line for diesel
submarines, as is currently planned.[26] The
shipyard also has contracts to modernize Indian and
Chinese Project 877EKM Kilos (outfitting them as
Project 636 vessels); each such contract is worth
Project 636 (Improved Kilo) submarine, Admiralty. about $1 million. Rosoboroneksport, Russia's
Source: Admiralty Website, http://www.admship.ru weapons export agency, has also recently begun
negotiating the refit of the three Varshavyankas sold
to Iran with the Klub S system. Both Zvezdochka and Admiralty shipyards will vie for the Iranian contract.

Kilo class submarine

An Iranian Kilo class submarine, the Yunes


Class overview
Builders: Central Design Bureau for Marine
Engineering “Rubin”
Shipyard 199 "Krasnoe
Sormovo", Nizhniy Novgorod
(Gorkiy)

Shipyard 112,"imeni
Leninskogo Komsomola",
Komsoloľsk na Amure

Shipyard "Leningradskoe
Admiralteyskoe Obedinenie"
(Admiralteyskie Verfi), Saint
Petersburg (Leningrad)

Shipyard "Severnoe
Mašinostroiteľnoe Predprijatie",
Severodvinsk
Operators: Soviet Navy
Russian Navy
Indian Navy
Islamic Republic of Iran Navy
Indonesian Navy
Polish Navy
Romanian Naval Forces
Algerian National Navy
People's Liberation Army Navy
Vietnamese People's Navy
Preceded by: Tango class submarine
Succeeded by: Lada class submarine
In April 1982
commission:
Building: 9
Completed: 49
Active: 42
Laid up: 5
Retired: 2

General characteristics
Displacement: Surfaced: 2,300-2,350 tons
Submerged:3,000-4,000 tons full
load
Length: 70.0-74.0 meters
Draft: 6.5 m
Depth of hold: Operational: 240 meters
Maximum: 300 meters
Installed Diesel-electric
power:
Propulsion: Diesel-electric propulsion
2 x 1000 kW Diesel generators
1 x 5,500-6,800 shp Propulsion
motor
1 x fixed-pitch Propeller
Speed: Surfaced: 10-12 knots
Submerged: 17-25 knots
Range: With snorkel: 6,000-7,500 miles at
7 knots
Submerged: 400 miles at 3 knots
Full run: 12.7 miles at 21 knots
Endurance: 45 days
Test depth: 300 m
Complement: 52
Armament: 6/553 mm torpedo tubes
18 torpedoes
24 mines
8 SA-N-8 Gremlin or 8 SA-N-10
Gimlet Surface-to-air missiles
(export submarines may not be
equipped with air defense weapons)

The Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a military diesel-electric submarine that is made in Russia. The original
version of the vessels were designated Project 877 Paltus (Turbot) in Russia. There is also a more advanced version,
designated as Improved Kilo in the west, and Project 636 Varshavyanka in Russia. The Kilo will be succeeded by the
Lada class submarine, which began sea trials in 2005. The boats are mainly intended for anti-shipping and anti-submarine
operations in relatively shallow waters. Original Project 877 boats are equipped with Rubikon MGK-400 sonar system (with
NATO reporting name Shark Gill), which includes a mine detection and avoidance sonar MG-519 Arfa (with NATO reporting
name Mouse Roar). Newer Project 636 boats are equipped with improved MGK-400EM, with MG-519 Afra also upgraded to
MG-519EM. The improved sonar systems have reduced the number of operators needed by sharing the same console via
automation. Anechoic tiles are fitted on casings and fins to absorb the sonar sound waves of active sonar, which results in
a reduction and distortion of the return signal. [1] These tiles also help attenuate sounds that are emitted from the
submarine, thus reducing the range by which the sub may be detected by passive sonar.[2]

Contents

• 1 Operators
• 2 Possible operators
o 2.1 Project 877 units
o 2.2 Project 636 units
• 3 Specifications
• 4 Gallery
• 5 See also

• 6 References

Operators

The first submarine entered service in the Soviet Navy in 1980, and the class remains in use with the Russian navy. 17
vessels are believed to still be in active service with the Russian Navy, while 7 vessels are thought to be in reserve. [3] So
far, 33 vessels have been exported to several countries:

• Algeria - 2 Original Kilo, 2 Improved Kilo to be commissioned between 2009-2010.[4]


• People's Republic of China - 2 Original Kilo, 10 Improved Kilo.[5][6][7]
• India - designated as the Sindhughosh class; 10 active.[8][9]
• Poland - 1 Kilo ORP Orzeł.[10]
• Iran - 3 Kilo.[11]
• Romania - 1 Kilo - (Delfinul II).[12]
• Russia - 17 Kilo in active service (B-445; B-459 Vladikavkaz; B-464 Ust'-Kamchatsk; B-471
Magnitogorsk; B-494 Ust'-Bolsheretsk; B-800 Kaluga; B-871 Alrosa; B-808 Yaroslavl'; B-177
Lipetsk; B-806; B-340; B-190; B-227; B-260 Chita; B-345; B-394; B-402 Vologda).[13]; 3 Improved
Kilo ordered
• Vietnam - 6 Improved Kilo on order, contract signed in 2010, production of one per year. [14]

[edit] Possible operators

• India - tender for 6 new diesel subs ongoing


• Iran - Tehran likely to buy more submarines
• Venezuela - likely to buy 6 new Russian built subs
• Egypt - likely to buy 4 Project 636 Kilo diesel subs for about $1.2 bln
• Libya - considering purchase of 1-2 Russian built subs
• Indonesia - tender for 2 new diesel subs ongoing[15]

[edit] Project 877 units


Project 877 - significant dates
Operato Laid Launche Commissione Flee
# Name Shipyard Project Status
r down d d t
Komsoloľs
Russi B- 16.03.198 12.09.198
x k na 877 31.12.1980 in reserve
a 248 0 0
Amure
Komsoloľs
Russi B- 22.02.198 23.08.198 active as of
Chita k na 877 30.12.1981 PF
a 260 1 1 2010
Amure
Komsoloľs
Russi B- 23.02.198 16.09.198 active as of
Vyborg k na 877 23.02.1983 BF
a 227 2 2 2010
Amure
Komsoloľs
Russi B- 23.02.198 15.07.198
x k na 877 30.10.1983 in reserve
a 229 3 3
Amure
Komsoloľs
Russi B- 07.05.198 24.09.198
x k na 877 30.12.1983 in reserve
a 404 3 3
Amure
Russi B- Nizhniy 06.10.198 15.03.198 active as of
Novosibirsk 877 30.09.1984 NF
a 401 Novgorod 2 4 2010
Russi B- Nizhniy 24.08.198 29.09.198 active as of
Vologda 877 30.12.1984 NF
a 402 Novgorod 3 4 2010
(ex Komsoloľs decommissione
Russi B- 20.04.198 21.09.198
Tyumenskiy k na 877 30.12.1984 d and sold for
a 405 4 4
Komsomolets) Amure scrap in 2007
291
(ex
Pola Nizhniy active as of
B- Orzel 877E 1984 1985 1985
nd Novgorod 2010
351
)
581
(ex unknown (in
Rom Nizhniy
B- Delfinul II 877E 1984 1985 1985 reserve from
ania Novgorod
801 1995)
)
active as of
2010,
Saint 29.05.198 29.07.198
India S55 Sindhugosh 877EKM 25.11.1985 modernized to
Petersburg 3 5
project 08773
in 2002-2005
Russi B- x Komsoloľs 877 06.05.198 27.08.198 30.12.1985 decommissione
a 470 k na 5 5 d and sold for
Amure scrap in 2007
active as of
Russi B- Nizhniy 15.10.198 30.04.198
x 877EKM 25.09.1986 BF 2009, status in
a 806 Novgorod 4 6
2010 unknown
Saint 01.04.198 27.07.198 active as of
India S56 Sindhudhvaj 877EKM 25.11.1986
Petersburg 6 6 2010
active as of
Alge Rais Hadi Nizhniy
012 877EKM 1985 1986 29.11.1986 2007, status in
ria Mubarek Novgorod
2010 unknown
Komsoloľs
Russi B- 04.04.198 31.07.198
x k na 877 30.12.1986 in reserve
a 439 6 6
Amure
active as of
2010,
Nizhniy
India S57 Sindhuraj 877EKM 1986 1987 02.09.1987 modernized to
Novgorod
project 08773
in 1999-2001
in reserve in
Alge Rais Hadi Nizhniy
013 877EKM 1986 1987 25.11.1987 2006, status in
ria Slimane Novgorod
2010 unknown
active as of
2010,
Saint 15.05.198 13.09.198
India S58 Sindhuvir 877EKM 25.12.1987 modernized to
Petersburg 7 7
project 08773
in 1997-1999
Svyatoi Komsoloľs unknown (in
Russi B- 21.03.198 26.09.198
Nikolai k na 877 30.01.1988 PF reserve from
a 445 7 7
Chudotvorets Amure 2007 or active)
active as of
2010,
Nizhniy
India S59 Sindhuratna 877EKM 1987 1988 14.08.1988 modernized to
Novgorod
project 08773
in 2001-2003
active as of
2010,
Saint 20.04.198 16.08.198
India S60 Sindhukesari 877EKM 29.10.1988 modernized to
Petersburg 8 8
project 08773
in 1999-2001
Russi B- Nizhniy 29.09.198 30.07.198 active as of
Yaroslavl 877 27.12.1988 NF
a 808 Novgorod 6 8 2010
(ex Komsoloľs unknown (in
Russi B- 15.04.198 03.09.198
Komsomolsk k na 877 30.12.1988 PF reserve from
a 394 8 8
Tadjikistana) Amure 2007 or active)
Kaluga (ex
Russi B- Nizhniy 877LPM 05.03.198 07.05.198 active as of
Vologodskij 30.09.1989 NF
a 800 Novgorod B 7 9 2010
komsomolets)
in
modernization
Saint 05.04.198 26.08.198
India S61 Sindhukirti 877EKM 30.10.1989 to project
Petersburg 9 9
08773 from
2007
Komsoloľs
Russi B- Ust'- 26.05.198 23.09.198 in reserve from
k na 877 30.01.1990 PF
a 464 Kamchatsk 9 9 2007
Amure
unknown (in
Russi B- Nizhniy 25.02.198 29.04.199
Vledikavkaz 877 30.09.1990 NF reserve from
a 459 Novgorod 8 0
2008 or active)
active as of
2010,
Saint 06.04.199 27.07.199
India S62 Sindhuvijay 877EKM 27.10.1990 modernized to
Petersburg 0 0
project 08773
in 2005-2007
Russi B- Nizhniy 17.05.198 active as of
Alrosa 877V 09.1989 30.12.1990 BSF
a 871 Novgorod 8 2010
Russi B- Nizhniy 26.10.198 22.09.199 active as of
Magnitogorsk 877 30.12.1990 NF
a 471 Novgorod 8 0 2010
Komsoloľs unknown (in
Russi B- Ust'- 05.05.199 04.10.199
k na 877 30.12.1990 PF reserve from
a 494 Bolsheretsk 0 0
Amure 2008 or active)
unknown
(probably in
Saint 05.04.199 25.09.199 modernization
Iran 901 Tareg 877EKM 25.12.1991
Petersburg 1 1 to project
08773 from
2006)
Komsoloľs
Russi B- 07.05.199 05.10.199 in reserve from
x k na 877 30.12.1991 PF
a 187 1 1 2007
Amure
Russi B- Nizhniy 03.11.198 27.07.199 active as of
Lipetsk 877 30.12.1991 NF
a 177 Novgorod 9 1 2010
Komsoloľs
Russi B- Krasnokamens 08.05.199 25.09.199 active as of
k na 877 30.12.1992 PF
a 190 k 2 2 2010
Amure
unknown
(probably in
Saint 30.04.199 16.10.199 modernization
Iran 902 Noor 877EKM 31.12.1992
Petersburg 2 2 to project
08773 from
2006)
Komsoloľs
Russi B- 22.04.199 06.10.199 active as of
Mogocha k na 877 22.01.1994 PF
a 345 3 3 2010
Amure
Peop
le's Yuan Zhend Nizhniy active as of
364 877EKM ??? 1994 10.11.1994
Republic 64 Hao Novgorod 2007
of China
Peop
le's Yuan Zhend Nizhniy active as of
365 877EKM ??? 1995 14.08.1995
Republic 65 Hao Novgorod 2007
of China
unknown
(probably in
Saint 05.02.199 12.07.199 modernization
Iran 903 Yunes 877EKM 02.09.1996
Petersburg 2 4 to project
08773 from
2006)
India S63 Sindhurakshak Saint 877EKM 16.02.199 26.06.199 02.10.1997 in
Petersburg 5 7 modernization
to project
08773 from
09.08.2010
work is
planned for
approximately
2 years [16]
Saint 12.12.199 14.10.199 active as of
India S64 Sindhushastra 877EKM 16.05.2000
Petersburg 8 9 2010

Project 636 units


Project 636 - significant dates
Operator # Name Shipyard Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
People'
Yuan Zhend Saint active as
s Republic 366 636 16.07.1996 26.04.1997 26.08.1997
66 Hao Petersburg of 2006
of China
People'
Yuan Zhend Saint active as
s Republic 367 636 28.08.1997 18.06.1998 25.10.1998
67 Hao Petersburg of 2006
of China
People'
Yuan Zhend Saint active as
s Republic 368 636M 18.10.2002 27.05.2004 20.10.2004
68 Hao Petersburg of 2006
of China
People'
Yuan Zhend Saint active as
s Republic 369 636M 18.10.2002 19.08.2004 2005
69 Hao Petersburg of 2006
of China
People'
Yuan Zhend Saint active as
s Republic 370 636M 2004 05.2005 2005
70 Hao Petersburg of 2006
of China
People'
Yuan Zhend Saint active as
s Republic 371 636M 2004 2005 2005
71 Hao Petersburg of 2006
of China
People'
Yuan Zhend Saint active as
s Republic 372 636M 2005 2005 2006
72 Hao Petersburg of 2006
of China
People'
Yuan Zhend Nizhniy active as
s Republic 373 636M 07.1992 08.05.2004 05.08.2005
73 Hao Novgorod of 2007
of China
People'
Yuan Zhend active as
s Republic 374 Severodvinsk 636M 29.05.2003 21.05.2005 30.12.2005
74 Hao of 2006
of China
People'
Yuan Zhend active as
s Republic 375 Severodvinsk 636M 29.05.2003 14.07.2005 30.12.2005
75 Hao of 2006
of China
Saint
Algeria 022 ??? 636M 2006 20.11.2008 28.08.2009 active
Petersburg
023 Saint
Algeria ??? 636M 2007 09.04.2009 29.10.2009 active
(?) Petersburg
B- Saint 20.08.2010
Russia Novorossiysk 636.3 [17] pl.2013 BSF laid down
261 Petersburg
B-? Saint
Russia ??? 636.3 pl.2011 pl.2014 BSF ordered
?? Petersburg
B-? Saint ordered
Russia ??? 636.3 pl.2011 pl.2014 BSF [18]
?? Petersburg
Vietna ??? ??? Saint 636M 25.08.2010 pl.2013[19] ordered,
could
have been
m Petersburg
laid down
[20]

Vietna Saint
??? ??? 636M pl.2014 ordered
m Petersburg
Vietna Saint
??? ??? 636M pl.2015 ordered
m Petersburg
Vietna Saint
??? ??? 636M pl.2016 ordered
m Petersburg
Vietna Saint
??? ??? 636M pl.2017 ordered
m Petersburg
Vietna Saint
??? ??? 636M pl.2018 ordered
m Petersburg

Specifications

Schematic drawing of the Kilo class.

There are several variants of the Kilo class. The information below is the smallest and largest number from the available
information for all three variants of the ship.[21]

• Displacement:
o 2,300-2,350 tons surfaced
o 3,000-4,000 tons submerged
• Dimensions:
o Length: 70–74 meters
o Beam: 9.9 meters
o Draft: 6.2-6.5 meters
• Maximum speed
o 10-12 knots surfaced
o 17-25 knots submerged
• Propulsion: Diesel-electric 5,900 shp (4,400 kW)
• Maximum depth: 300 meters (240–250 meters operational)
• Endurance
o 400 nautical miles (700 km) at 3 knots (6 km/h) submerged
o 6,000 nautical miles (11,000 km) at 7 knots (13 km/h) snorkeling (7,500 miles for the
Improved Kilo class)
o 45 days sea endurance
• Armament
o Air defence: 8 SA-N-8 Gremlin or SA-N-10 Gimlet[22] Surface-to-air missiles (export
submarines may not be equipped with air defense weapons)
o Six 533 mm torpedo tubes with 18 53-65 ASuW or TEST 71/76 ASW torpedoes or VA-111
Shkval supercavitating "underwater missiles", or 24 DM-1 mines,
• Crew: 52
• Price per unit is US$200–250 million (China paid approx. US$1.5-2 billion for 8 Project 636 Kilo
class submarines)

This site is devoted to history of creation, construction and service of a submarine


"ALROSA" of the Black Sea fleet, Russian Federation. The submarine has been
created on a experimental Project 877V (a diesel-electric submarine with a pump
jet propulsion). Today this submarine is a part of 247-th Division of submarines of
the Black Sea fleet (2 SSK), and actively participates in actions and the doctrines
spent on fleet.

The Kilo Class (Project 877) submarine was designed for anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare in the
protection of naval bases, coastal installations and sea lanes, and also for general reconnaissance and patrol
missions. The Kilo is considered to be to be one of the quietest diesel submarines in the world. The
submarine consists of six watertight compartments separated by transverse bulkheads in a pressurised
double-hull. This design and the submarine's good reserve buoyancy lead to increased survivability if the
submarine is holed, even with one compartment and two adjacent ballast tanks flooded. The foreplanes are
positioned on the upper hull in front of the fin or sail. The command and control systems and fire control
systems are located in the main control room which is sealed off from the other compartments. The Russian
fleet operates three variants of the Kilo 877: the basic 877; the 877K that has an improved fire-control
system; and the 877M that has wire-guided torpedoes from two tubes. Export models, designated with an 'E'
suffix, are generally similar though with some reduced features. A total of at least 26 and perhaps as many
as 30 were built for the Russian navy, one of which was subequently exported to Iran. All the 30 Kilo-class
submarines built for service with the Russian Navy are designated Project 877, although 15 of these are the
earlier-developed 877EKM and 15 the later 636 versions.

Kilo Class Submarines History


The Kilo Class (Project 877) submarine was designed for anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare in the
protection of naval bases, coastal installations and sea lanes, and also for general reconnaissance and patrol
missions. The Kilo is considered to be to be one of the quietest diesel submarines in the world. The
submarine consists of six watertight compartments separated by transverse bulkheads in a pressurised
double-hull. This design and the submarine's good reserve buoyancy lead to increased survivability if the
submarine is holed, even with one compartment and two adjacent ballast tanks flooded. The foreplanes are
positioned on the upper hull in front of the fin or sail. The command and control systems and fire control
systems are located in the main control room which is sealed off from the other compartments.
Diesel-Electric Submarine - Project 877

The Project 636 design is a generally improved development of the Project 877EKM Kilo class that
represents an interim design between the standard 'Kilo' and the new Lada project. The Project 636 is
actively promoted for the world market by the Rosvoorouzhenie state-owned company. This submarine has
improved range, firepower, acoustic characteristics and reliability. Visually distinguished by a step on the
aft casing, the length of the hull is extended by two frame spacings (2 x 600 mm). The additional length
permitted increasing the power of diesel-generators and mounting them on improved shock-absorbing
support, and reducing twofold the main propulsion shaft speed. Owing to these improvements, the
submarine speed and sea endurance were increased, while the noise level was radically decreased. The low
noise level of the submarine has been achieved with the selection of quiet machinery, vibration and noise
isolation and a special anti-acoustic rubber coating applied on the outer hull surface. The Project 636 is
equipped with six 533 mm forward torpedo tubes situated in the nose of the submarine and carries eighteen
torpedoes with six in the torpedo tubes and twelve stored on the racks.
Alternatively the torpedo tubes can deploy mines.
The submarine can carry 24 mines with two in each of the six tubes and twelve on the racks. Two torpedo
tubes are designed for firing remote-controlled torpedoes with a very high accuracy. All torpedo tubes and
their service systems provide effective firing from periscope to operational depths. The computer-controlled
torpedo system is provided with a quick-loading device. It takes only 15 seconds to prepare stand-by
torpedo tubes for firing: The first salvo is fired within two minutes and the second within five minutes. The
Russian fleet operates three variants of the Kilo 877: the basic 877; the 877K that has an improved fire-
control system; and the 877M that has wire-guided torpedoes from two tubes. Export models, designated
with an 'E' suffix, are generally similar though with some reduced features. A total of at least 26 and
perhaps as many as 30 were built for the Russian navy, one of which was subequently exported to Iran. All
the 30 Kilo-class submarines built for service with the Russian Navy are designated Project 877, although
15 of these are the earlier-developed 877EKM and 15 the later 636 versions. As of early 2000 as many as
14 units were believed to remain active, with an additional 7 in reserve, though specific identities are not
known. As of early 1998 construction of the Project 877EKM submarines was nearly completed, with only
one submarine left under construction in St.Petersburg for the Indian Navy. Russia exported 21 Project 877
and 636 submarines, including: India - 10, and China - 4, Iran - 3, Algeria - 2, Poland - 1, Romania - 1.
On 04 August 1993, Iran took delivery of a second Russian Kilo-class diesel submarine, and the third
arrived 18 January 1996. Russia went ahead with the first two deliveries despite vigorous US protests. In
response to Administration pressure and US sanctions legislation, Russia formally pledged in June 1995 not
to enter any new arms contracts with Iran, although prior arms contracts could be implemented. India took
delivery of the first of the two additional Russian-built Kilo class submarines in January 1999. On 17
August 2000 the Sindhushastra began the two month voyage from St Petersburg to India. The 877EKM
submarine was the last in a series of 10 submarines built at Russian shipyards for Indian customers. In
August 2000 the Zvezdochka engineering enterprise at Severodvinsk started the work of servicing and
modernizing the Indian series-877EKM submarine Sinduratna, the second Indian sub to have had a refit at
Zvezdochka. In 1999 the Indian Navy took delivery of the Sinduvir, the first submarine to have been
modernized at Severodvinsk. The Sinduratna will be the second Indian submarine to be fitted with four ZM-
54E1 missiles, with a range of 300 km. The missiles are part of the latest Klab-S anti-ship missile complex
designed by the Novator bureau at Yekaterinburg. In the spring of 1997, the first Project 636 submarine was
launched, and China became the first customer for this submarine. The last of four export Kilo-class boats
for China, the second improved model Project 636 unit, was launched on 17 June 1998 and departed the
Baltic aboard a heavy-lift ship on 11 December 1998, bound for the submarine base at Ning-bo. China is
also said to be interested in purchasing several more 636 series submarines, one of which is now in an
unfinished state at the Krasnoye Sormovo yard in Nizhniy Novgorod, while others may be built at the
Admiralteyskiye Verfi [Admiralty Shipyards] in St Petersburg. In early June 2002 China was reported to be
negotiating with Russia to purchase eight more Kilo-class Project 636 submarines for $1.5 billion,
scheduled for delivery over the following five years. The contract for the building of the submarines was
under competition among the Admiralteiskiye Verfi shipbuilding enterprise (St. Petersburg), the works in
Komsomolsk-on-Amur, the Krasnoye Sormovo enterprise (Nizhny Novgorod), and the Sevmash
association (Severnaya Dvina).
Kilo Class Submarine "ALROSA"
• Displacement (tons):

- Surfaced - 2300 t.;


- Full Lload Submerged - 3950 t.

• Dimensions (m): Length - 76,2 m, Width - 9,9 m, Draft - 6,2 m.

• Speed (kts): Surfaced - 10 knots, Submerge - 17 knots.

• Diving depth (m): Periscope - 17,5 m, Operational - 240 m, Maximum - 300 m.

• Endurance: With Snorkel - 6000 miles at 7 knots, Submerged - 400 miles at 3 knots.

• Propulsion: Diesel and Electric Motors, 2 x 1000 kW Diesel Generators, 1 x 5,500 shp Propulsion Motor,
Two 120-cell Storage Batteries, 1 x 190 shp Propulsion Economic Motor, 2 x 102 shp Stand-By Reserve
Motor, 1 Pump Jet Propulsion.
• Armament: 6 x 533mm Torpedo Tubes, 18 Torpedoes or 24 Mines, 8 Igla (SA-N-10 Gimlet) Missiles.

• Crew (prs): 52 (12 officers).

Krasnoye Sormovo Shipyard

The Krasnoye Sormovo Shipyard was founded in 1849. It built the Soviet Union's second- and third-generation Project
670 Skat and Chayka (NATO name Charlie I and Charlie II) SSGNs, Project 671 Ersh, Semga, and Schuka (NATO name
Victor I, Victor II, and Victor III) SSNs, and Project 945 Barrakuda (NATO name Sierra) SSNs, in addition to Project 641
Som (NATO name Tango) and Varshavyanka diesel submarines.[24] In 1994, the shipyard was privatized.[24,27] Since
that time, the yard has constructed three Kilos for China.[28] In 2002, Krasnoye Sormovo received a contract for the
construction of yet one more Varshavyanka, an updated Project 636 version, for China.[29]

Amurskiy Zavod

The Amurskiy Sudostroitelnyy Zavod, located in Komsomolsk-na-Amure, Khabarovsk territory, in the Russian Far East,
began operations in 1957.[16] The shipyard produced a total of 56 submarines from 1960 to 1996. Because the shallow
waters of the Amur River prevented the launching of large vessels, Amurskiy Zavod built only smaller SSBNs—Project 667A
Navaga (NATO name Yankee) and Project 667B Murena (NATO name Delta I), SSNs—Project 971 Shchuka B (NATO name
Akula) and Project 671 Ersh and Shchuka (NATO name Victor I and III), as well as Varshavyanka-class diesel submarines.
[30,31] In November 1992, President Boris Yeltsin announced the termination of nuclear submarine construction at
Amurskiy Zavod and the consolidation of future nuclear submarine production at the Sevmash shipyard in Severodvinsk.
[16,30,31] An Akula SSN (the K-295 or Drakon), completed at Bolshoy Kamen's Vostok Plant (Primorskiy Kray) in 1995,
was the last nuclear submarine released from the Komsomolsk-na-Amure plant.[32] Despite the presidential order,
however, two nuclear submarines remained under construction at the facility. The two submarines are Project 971
Shchuka-B (NATO name Akula II) class submarines.[32] During President Vladimir Putin's October 1999 visit to the facility
(when Putin was still in the post of prime minister), the decision that one submarine would be completed and the other
used for spare parts in Severodvinsk was announced.[33] As of August 2005, there are no reports that the latter has been
dismantled or parts shipped to the northern yard. Meanwhile, reports continued to surface that India would lease the first
Akula II completed at Amurskiy Shipyard (discussed above). The shipyard has had less success obtaining new contracts for
the construction of Kilo-class submarines for export. In May 2002, Russia's export agency (Rosoboroneksport) signed a
contract for the sale of eight Kilos to China. Initially, Amurskiy Zavod was to build two of these vessels. However, in June
of that year the Russian Shipbuilding Agency transferred the contract to Sevmash instead, reportedly saying that strategic
exports should be made by state, not private, shipyards. However, Krasnoye Sormovo, a private yard, retained its
contract for one of the Chinese Kilos.

CURRENT RUSSIAN SUBMARINE EXPORT CLASSES: Project 877K/877M/636 Varshavyanka (NATO Name Kilo)

Piranya class midget submarine

Displacement, tons: 218, submerged


Dimensions, ft (m): 92.5 x 15.4 x 12.8 (28.2 x 4.7 x 3.9)
Main machinery: One 160 MW diesel generator; one 60 kW direct current motor
Speed, knots: 8 surfaced - 6.7 submerged
Range, miles: 1,000 at 4 knots, surfaced - 260 at 4 knots, submerged
Complement: 3 officers and group of 6 divers
Diving depth, ft (m):650 (200)
Endurance: 10 days
Weapons: Two containers for the transport of diving units and two mine units or two lattices for Latush torpedoes