The Garuda Purana

This is a translation of an abridged version of the Garuda Purana. The Garuda Purana is one of the Vishnu Puranas. It is in the form of a dialog between Vishnu and Garuda, the King of Birds. The second section of this Purana (given here) deals with issues connected with death, particularly funeral rites and the metaphysics of reincarnation. Portions of the Garuda Purana are used by some Hindus as funeral liturgy. Indeed, some consider it unlucky to read this text except during funerals. Of interest are the intermediate states between birth and rebirth, which roughly correspond to the western concepts of Hell and Heaven. Since this was written during the medieval era, it is possible that the writer of this text had contact with Christianity. Earlier Hindu texts do not elaborate about 'hell' and 'heaven,' at least not to this extent, and the subject is completely absent in the oldest texts. Here, the torments of Hell are described in terms that would not be out of place in a Baptist revival tent (or Dante, for that matter). In addition, the four-square city of Yama, the God of Death, is reminiscent of the heavenly city in Revelation. However, these are way stations between incarnations (or, as termed in the Tibetan Book of the Dead, Bardos), not a permanent destination. The Garuda Purana starts with the details of the afterlife. Following this is an account of funeral procedures, including rituals, the astrological timing of the post-death observances, and ritual gifts. Balancing the extended vision of Hell in the earlier part of the document is a shorter account of the City of Yama. After that is an enumeration of correspondences between the macrocosmos and the human body. The final part of this text is an appeal to self-knowledge as the key to liberation, going beyond austerities and study of the texts. "The fool, not knowing that the truth is seated in himself, is bewildered by the Shastras,--a foolish goatherd, with the young goat under his arm, peers into the well."

THE

GARUDA PURÂṆA
(SÂRODDHÂRA)
WITH ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY

ERNEST WOOD & S.V. SUBRAHMANYAM
AND AN INTRODUCTION FROM SRIS CHANDRA VASU

Allahabad: Pâṇiṇi Office [1911] E-book as PDF by Ganesh Rama Kumar
NOTICE OF ATTRIBUTION. Scanned at sacred-texts.com, June 2006. Proofed and formatted by John Bruno Hare. This text is in the public domain in the United States because it was published prior to January 1st, 1923. These files may be used for any non-commercial purpose, provided this notice of attribution is left intact in all copies.

CONTENTS
No. Chapter Name PAGE 1. The Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other 1 2. The Way of Yama 10 3. The Torments of Yama 21 4. The Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell 30 5. The Signs of Sins 38 6. The Miseries of Birth of the Sinful 46 7. Babhruvâhana's Sacrament for the Departed One 52 8. The Gifts for the Dying 61 9. The Rites for the Dying 76 10. The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire 83 11. The Ten-Days' Ceremonies 97 12. The Eleventh-Day Rite 103 13. The Ceremony for all the Ancestors 114 14. The City of the King of Justice 130 15 The Coming to Birth of People who have done Good 141 16. The Law for Liberation 154

INTRODUCTION.
This Garuḍa Purâṇa Sârodhhâra (Extracted essence of the Garuḍa Purâṇa) was compiled or written by one Navanidhirâma, son of Śrî Hari Nârâyaṇa, who lived in the city of Jhunjhuṇû, which was ruled by a King Śrî Sûkhalâlajî. It was done for the helping of those who cannot understand the difficult earlier works; but itself is not easy to understand, and required much labour, the author informs us. It is entirely originally written, he says, and comprises the results of very deep study of the sacred books, and is the extracted essence of them on the subjects with which it deals. It is used all over India at funeral ceremonies, but some are afraid to read it on other occasions, thinking it inauspicious. CHAPTERS I to VII deal with Hells. CHAPTERS VII to XIII deal with Ceremonies for the dead. CHAPTER XIV deals with Heaven. CHAPTERS XV & XVI deal with Yoga and liberation. The neo-theosophists, among the great good they have done to the world, have revived the idea that Hell is a living reality, and not a superstitious fiction, created by a designing priestcraft, to keep Humanity on its good behavior. Among the educated, with the vanishing of the belief in an after-life, has vanished also the belief in Hell. But owing to the labors of the Psychical Research Society and similar other bodies, there are few educated persons now, who deny the existence of the afterlife, as they used to do some thirty years back. But though the belief in after-life has revived, yet the cognate belief in Heaven and Hell is still very vague. Our Hindu Puranas, however, among the great mass of rubbish that they contain, have always been very clear on this question of Heaven and Hell. Serious writers of law books also like Yâjñavalkya and Viṣṇu have described asseriously the existences of various Hells, as they have done the various joys of Heaven. No doubt, the subject of Hell is not a very savoury one, and nervous persons have always fought shy of studying this unpleasant department of existence. But, pleasant or unpleasant, the science does not take into account the human feelings. No one is forced to study the subject, unless he feels strong enough to do so, as no one is bound to study Medicine, unless he is prepared to face the scenes of the dissecting room. The question then is, do these hells really exist? If so, where? This is a question of fact, and must be decided like all questions of fact, on the evidence of reliable witnesses who have, from personal experience, described this region. To a Hindu there is needed no greater testimony than that of Yogi Yâjñavalkya who, in the Prâyaśchitta Adhyâya of his law book, mentions 21 hells. The author of Viṣṇu Smṛiti also has followed in his footsteps. Hell, then, according to Hindu seers, is a particular locality walled off from the surrounding regions of space by the messengers of Yama, the ruler of Hell. Within this particular space so specially guarded, no joy can enter. It is a region of pain--sharp. intense and severe. Sinners clothed in their painful bodies (jâtana deha)--replica of their

there is again a fall for that soul. but making one feel the torture of hell. * But if the soul so favourably placed. Lohachâraka). so Hell is a place of punishment and pain only to the sinners and not to those who go there on similar missions. make better use of its faculties. But the permanent educative effect remains in that part of the sold--called the conscience. and as the Svarga is on the physical plane also. As a prison house is a prison only to the criminal. It is Reformatory and Educative. the soul is re-born with keener conscience and under circumstances where it can. and the great sage Râmkṛiṣna Paramahaṃsa. The hell punishment is not remembered by the soul when it is re-born. The natural fear. where the great ṛiṣis like Vyâsa. in the furnace of hell-fire. so there are physical hells also. Thus the fact of concrete existence of hell cannot be doubted. . suffer the punishments deserved by their sins. (See Sacred Books of the East. though made of subtler matter. But there is one distinguishing mark between the Hindu idea of Hell and that of votaries of Semitic creeds. † Is there any physical Hell also. Mârkaṇdeya and others are said to be still living in their physical bodies. no more than it remembers the joys of heaven. Viṣṇu Smṛiti. and leaves its senses unrestrained. Leaving the testimony of Hindu seers aside. or is it in the astral plane only? As Heaven is both physical and astral. and some say that Gautama did not believe. which certain souls feel at the sight of temptation to sin. Aśvathâman. omits to do good action or commits evil deeds again. 140-141. as is mentioned in the next verse. in fact Gautama in his law book definitely calls this stage hell. This is the permanent gain which the soul has acquired. if it so chooses. The twenty-two hells are described in the Viṣṇu Smṛiti. After being thus purified by Hell-fire. but not to the visitor. and learning from its Ruler the secret of cosmic evolution. verse 22. is the result of the finer development of conscience. and which it will never lose through ages to come. as the Heaven is situate in the astral region of the physical North Pole. miscalled the secret of death. by passing through the bitterness of the valley of Yama--the merciful ruler of Hell. in another form of hell. who goes there on his mission of mercy and charity. of a refined artist and poet like Dante. The punishment in Hell is not eternal. Where is then this Hell situated? According to Hindu belief. though not known as Hells. in modern times we have the evidence of a hard-headed man of science like Swedenborg. Says Yâjñavalkya in verse 218 of the Third Adhyâya that the lords of mercy place such souls in very favourable circumstances afterwards. What are these prison houses in every well-governed community but physical hells? What is this outcasting by the society.physical bodies. its locality is in the astral region of the physical South Pole. The readers of the Hindu Sacred literature will no doubt remember the beautiful episode of Nachiketas going to Hell. pp.

as the saying goes that no one feeds a docile donkey. and in this age. which can save the man from future troubles. to describe these death penances to any sinner. and possessed of wealth. But no Paṇḍit is allowed. is that according to the law. which is far from the truth. for modern Hinduism has done everything in its power to throw in 'the background that rational idea. which has gained ascendency now. but one must suffer the full consequences of his sins. the rule is different. Repentance for sin is the highest prâyaśchitta.Is there any means by which a man may save himself from the pains of hell? On this point. The result therefore. is that for the intentional mortal sins--kâma kṛitamahâpâtaka. Footnotes iii:* "Afterwards freed from all sins. however meritorious it be in its nature. and become accomplished in arts and sciences. they are born in high families. For minor sins. if a sinner asks the paṇḍit for the appropriate penance of his sin. It is not that the gifts to a deserving man washes away sins." iii:† Mandalik's Hindu Law. there is a penance. every mortal sinner must pass through the period of purificatory process of hell. where they enjoy pleasures. by the rule of the present Iron age. p. Similarly. This presupposes that a kicking Brâhmiṇ has milk to give. but a kicking cow. preying on the gullibility of its votaries. 265. except the death penance. our ancient authors held different opinions. Like the dispensations of the Popes of Rome. Thus in certain cases of incest. And here is a rich field which the Brâhmiṇ priestcraft of India. One class of thinkers held the view that sin could not be expiated by any act of man. and also a pilgrimage.--there is no penance. One who has performed such penance has exhausted the evil effects of his sins and for him there is no penance. penances can be compounded by the payment of amounts ranging from a cowrie shell to thousands of rupees to Brâhmiṇs. verse 219. . the penance for drinking spirituous liquors is death by drinking boiling liquors or butter. The after-life consequences can be warded off by appropriate penances. the only operative penance is to embrace a red-hot iron image and die in that way. Penances have become a farce in Modern India. but a gift to a Brâhmiṇ. a very salutary rule is laid down by the paṇḍits that no death penance should ever be described. For every sin. for the sake of her milk. however bad he may be. with its concomitant result in the shape of so much fee (dakṣiṇâ) to be paid to the Brâhmiṇ. The practice of Prâyaśchittas or penances is based upon a more rational basis. The later view. Several kinds of death penances are described in our law books. the infliction of bodily pains is of secondary importance. has exploited to its extreme extent.

to remove your difficulties. 1 the sages. has been told the highest goal of the devotees. and in what way they obtain the miseries of the Way of Yama. very difficult to tread. whose trunk is the Vedas. and also. Fie. Suta said: Listen then. to what condition the sinful come.--excels. 8-9. just so will I relate it. As it was declared to Vainateya 3 by the Blessed Viṣṇu. The tree Madhusûdana.. We now wish to hear about the fear-inspiring Way of Yama. 3-5. . 3 having bowed reverently. inquired:-Garuḍa said: The Path of Devotion. 6. Once. has been described to me by you. the field of the sleepless Ones. to the virtuously inclined. fie upon the wretched men who nevertheless go to hell! 12. 2 and the means of destroying its pains. performed sacrifices for thousands of years to attain the Heaven-world. Saunaka and others. whose abundant branches are the Purâṇas. having offered oblations to the sacrificial fire respectfully asked this of the revered Sûta sitting there:-The sages said: The happiness-giving path of the Shining Ones has been described by you. 2. 1 Also of the miseries of the World of Change. In Naimiṣa. along which is the travelling. when asked. it is revealed. whose flowers are sacrifices. O Lord.--whose firm root is Law. Please tell us correctly about the afflictions of this world and the other. Tell me. was sitting at ease in Vaikuṇṭḥa. of those who turn away from devotion to Thee. in the morning. when the Blessed Hari. then. The name of the Lord is easily pronounced. Now I wish to hear about the fearsome Way of Yama. misery-giving to the sinful. of many forms. happiness-giving. 7.GARUDA PURANA HOMAGE TO THE BLESSED GANEṢA CHAPTER I An Account of the Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other 1. the son of Vinatâ. and the tongue is under control. Those sages once. the Teacher. and whose fruit is liberation. 11. 10. I am willing to describe the way of Yama. O Shining One.

14-16.--then. attached to the wicked. at the destruction of the decayed senses and the numbing of the intelligence. yet anxiously hoping to live. as the result of his 1 actions. Self-satisfied. the messengers of Yama come near and life departs. diseased. When the breath is leaving its place. 28. . in accordance with his former earning. intoxicated with the pride of wealth. 20. Listen how the misery of this world accrues to the sinful. having the ungodly qualities. with senses unconquered. Then. In this last moment. with failing digestion. Powerful death. exhausted by coughing and difficult breathing. 19. 26. some disease arises. Having experienced the good or the bad actions. with his body deformed through old age. unbending.--all the worlds appear as one. like a house-dog. Those men who are intent upon wisdom go to the highest goal. though being spoken to he does not answer. Lying encircled by his sorrowing relatives. with mind busy with the support of his family. terrible even to hear about. nearing death. He remains. destitute of compassion and righteousness. 18. Bewildered by many thoughts. In this condition. swooning with intense pain he dies amidst his weeping relatives.--fall into a foul hell. lacking the divine attributes. eating what is ungraciously placed before him. the moment of dying seems an age.13. by which those who are sinful go in hell. unexpectedly.-and he does not attempt to say anything. With eyes turned up through loss of vitality. 27. and I will describe the Way of Yama. moving little. the sinfully-inclined go miserably to the torments of Yama. meet with torments. like a serpent. those who delight in sin. approaches him stricken with bodily and mental pain. then how they. O Lord of Birds. and pain like the stinging of hundred scorpions is experienced. Not yet tired of life. eating little. 17. being caught in the noose of death. O Târkṣya. O Târkṣya. with the death rattle in his throat. averse from the true scriptures and the company of the good. in the house. with tubes obstructed by phlegm. having passed through death. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. enveloped in the net of delusion. revelling in the enjoyments of the desire-nature. a divine vision arises. being cared for by his dependents. 21-24. 25.

Then.29. remembering his misdeeds. swiftly comes back through the air.' is dragged from the body by the servants of Yama. Now he emits foam. with grinding teeth. . along a road of burning sand. oh. after a time. almost powerless. crying out 'oh. 43.--in this way. with nails like weapons. He obtains the rice-balls given by his offspring.' he is beaten by the servants of Yama. and the gifts made during the time of his illness. struck upon the back with whips. 37-38. bitten by clogs upon the way. desiring the body but held back with a noose by the followers of Yama. you wicked man. Nevertheless. very miserably led through the darkness to the abode of Yama. without delay. Here and there falling exhausted and insensible. The man is brought there in a short time and the messengers show him the terrible torments of hell. The vital breaths of the sinful depart by the lower gateway. Having seen the fearful Yama. You shall go to the abode of Yama. O Târkṣya. 32. with the messengers. Having returned. crying loudly 'Oh.' 36. seeing whom his heart palpitates and he releases excrements. with hair erect. and recount over and over again the awful terrors of the hells. the sinful Denier does not obtain gratification.-'Hurry up. Having put round him a body of torment. oh. The man of the size of a thumb. and rising again. painfully he walks. afflicted. With failing heart and shuddering at their threats. bearing nooses and rods. the man. bound by his past tendencies. Hungry and thirsty. his mouth becomes filled with saliva. shelterless and waterless. forest-fires and hot winds. with ugly faces. 42. like the king's officers a convict. to Kumbhîpâka and the other hells. by command of Yama. While thus leading him the messengers menace him. 30-31. naked. looking the while at his own body. tortured by hunger and thirst. We will lead you now. of fierce aspect. and the weeping of his relatives. they forcibly lead him a long way. roasting in the sun. 33. 30-40. As black as crows. he weeps. two terrifying messengers of Yama are come. 34-35. 41. and bound the noose about his neck. Then hearing these words.

by the seventh the thigh forms. For nine days and nights the departed obtains rice-balls. 1 for ten days the son should offer rice-balls. O Best of Birds. 50. 5 Gândharva. he lives upon the fourth. Two hundred and forty-seven Yojanas each day the departed travels. Karma not experienced does not die away even in thousands of millions of ages. the third goes to the messengers of Yama. 7 Krauncha. for the sinful. through these sixteen cities on the way. Two portions give nourishment to the five elements of the body. The extent of the way of Yama measures eighty-six thousand Yojanas. 51-53. 1 without Vaitaraṇî. bound by the servants of Yama. Likewise next the knees and feet by two. the neck and shoulders by the second. the sinful man goes to the place of the King of Righteousness 2:-Saumya. and the handsful of water. and on the tenth day the being.44. 46. 58-59. a new one is formed by these offerings. do not uplift. 13 . The Śrâddha. 45. by the third the heart forms: By the fourth the back forms. going by day and night. on the tenth day hunger and thirst. by this experiences good and evil on the way. O Bird. 9 Vichitrabhavana. wander about in great misery. 3 Sauripura. 48. Every day these are divided into four portions. 47. the being who has not experienced the torment certainly does not obtain the human form. Having passed successively. 1 the gifts. 55. with fully formed body. The old body being cremated. 40. acquires strength. Although they eat the rice-ball offering. By the rice-ball of the first day the head is-formed. O Bird. and by the fifth the navel. 12 Nânâkrandapura. 54. still they are tortured with hunger. on both the eleventh and twelfth days the departed eats. O Twice-born. walks alone along the road like a captured monkey. very hungry and pained with thirst. the man. 4 Nâgendrabhavana. until the end of the age. Dwelling in the body formed by the rice-balls. On the thirteenth day the departed. 56. by the sixth the hips and secret parts. 8 Krûrapura. Those who are in the departed condition. in an uninhabited forest. 10 Bahwâpada. Hence. 11 Duḥkhada. the size of a hand (cubit). deprived of the rice-ball offering. 6 Shailâgama. 57.

2:3 A name of Garuḍa. Footnotes 1:1 I. all birds are twice-born. 8:10 A wonderful place. 8:1 A Yojana is between 8 and 9 miles. 16 Shîtâdhya. Held by the nooses of Yama. 8:5 Residence of the Lord of Serpents. 8:7 Inaccessible mountain. 8:4 Town of Saturn. The superphysical beings. 17 Bahubhîti 18:--before the city of Yama.. 2:1 Yama is the Lord of death. crying out "Oh. 8:2 Another form of Yama. in and from the egg. the abode of righteousness 60. 15 Payovarshana. oh. goes on the way to the city of Yama.e. 8:8 Name of a mountain.Sutaptabhawana. 8:6 Place of Singers. 2:2 Saṁsâra: The three worlds in which men circle through births and deaths." having left his own house. the sinful. . 14 Raudra. 8:11 Many calamities. 3:1 The ambiguity of the pronouns in this work is unavoidable. 7:1 Members of the three higher castes take a "second birth" when invested with the sacred thread. They may be interpreted only with the aid of common-sense. 6:1 Ceremony for the dead. 8:3 Calm place. Vinatâ was the mother of Garuḍa. who do not sleep. 8:9 Town of cruelty.

8:14 Very hot place. . 8:13 Town of varied cries. 8:16 Rains 8:17 Very cold.8:12 Misery-giving. 8:18 Many horrors. 8:15 Savage.

1. 7-8. in what. showers of blood. 10. way the sinful go there. bees. showers of stones and thunderbolts. 5. Garuḍa said: What is the path of misery in the world of Yama like? Tell me. when you have heard it you will become agitated. In one place there is pitch darkness. showers of boiling water. There is no shade of trees there. In the midst of the way flows the terribly horrible Vaitaraṇî River. 9. 6. mosquitoes. copper. owls. 14. may drink. 2.--by whose leaves he is pierced and torn. 15-17. 12-13. In one place he stumbles in the awful black darkness and falls into water. which is recorded as two thousand yojanas in length and breadth. bestowing great misery. An Account of The Way of Yama. . and dogs. The Blessed Lord said: I will tell you about the Way of Yama. In one place are deep chasms. extremely thirsty. which when seen inspires misery. in another from a lofty mountain. vultures. showers of weapons.CHAPTER II. hawks. O Keśava. No water is to be seen anywhere that he. and with excrement.Infested with crows. 4. Although you are my devotee. Twelve suns blaze. in another stung by scorpions. And showers of caustic mud. 11. In one place is a plain of hot sand. in which a man may take rest. tigers. O Bird. in another a mound of embers. in another he treads on razor-edges and on spear-points. as though at the end of a pralaya. in another in mud abounding in leeches. in another rocks difficult to climb over. in others lakes filled with pus and blood. There the sinful soul goes along pierced by cold winds. in one place torn by thorns. of which even an account arouses fear. and having forest-fires. in another stung by very venomous serpents. 3. In one place he falls into a hidden well. in another burnt by fire. in others bills to climb and valleys to descend. and on this road there is none of the foods by which he may support life. in another in hot slime. The sinful in one place is bitten by ferocious lions. In one place there is a very terrible forest of sword-like leaves. in another a great cloud of smoke. In some places are showers of charcoal. made of smelted.

vomiting blood from the mouth. Filled with porpoises. When it sees the sinful approaching. bearing many loads of iron. 22-23. O Father!'--again and again wailing. with leeches. O Bird. 29. this river was created only that the sinful should fall into it. overspread with flames and smoke. fear-inspiring. Some go on the way neck. difficult to see into. crying and weeping and laden with misery. and with other flesh-eating water-animals.--of those who have fallen into the midst of this. seethes. infested with huge vultures and crows with adamantine beaks. . Covered with many scorpions. the sinful are led on. cry. some of them being dragged by hooks. it is said. others. 18-20. O Brother. Others are drawn along by a noose through the end of the nose. after the moment rising again. there is no rescuer whatever. 21. Thus along the Way of Yama. giving extreme misery. 25. go the sinful. with heaps of bones on the banks. this river. impassible for the sinful. obstructed with hairy moss. with mud of flesh and blood. and pierced from behind with points of weapons.--at the very sight of it the sinful swoon away. O Târkshya. feet and back bound with chains. and with black snakes. 26. 30-32. O Son. fishes and turtles. flowing with blood. with crocodiles. filled with huge crocodiles. and its opposite cannot be seen. It is difficult to cross and gives great misery. fallen into the flood. of many kinds of pain. And being beaten with hammers by the awful messengers of Yama. 28. 24. By hundreds of thousands of whirlpools the sinful descend to the lower region. They stay for a moment in the lower region. 27. like butter in the frying-pan: Covered all over with dreadful throngs of insects with piercing stings. and crowded with hundreds of dreadful birds. carrying much foam. Unfordable. That river. arms.Extending a hundred yojanas. are pecked by crows. which then they eat again. Bound by the noose. with powerful roaring. Hungry and thirsty the sinful drink the blood. by the nooses of death being dragged along. and also by nooses through the ears. Very dreadful. impassible. a flow of pus and blood. Very sinful people.

make reparation for whatever you leave done! 38. crying 'Whence did I attain this human state?' he goes on. On the eighteenth day. I did not do my duty.--O Dweller in the Body. .--O Dweller in the Body. And the stupid. 'I did not follow the good advice of my husband. did not wait upon good men. Large numbers of the departed are in that excellent and beautiful city. Thus having lamented many times. The River Puṣhpabhadrâ is there.' repents:-'By great meritorious effort birth as a human being is gained. go on towards the mansion of Yama. full of very great misery. either for the benefit of men or for the sake of animals and binds.--also. O Târkṣya. 'I made no gifts.--O Dweller in the Body. did not even a little for the support of cows and brahmins. did not listen to the Purâṇas. ' Alas.--O Dweller in the Body. oh. 'I did not duly honour the assemblies of Brâhmiṇs. thus going on the way. 'I made no daily gifts and did not give food daily to the cow. which is a source of great misery. becoming exhausted. Having become widowed I performed no austerities. whatever have I done! 35. performed no penances. make reparation for whatever you have done!' 39. incessantly crying out. 33-34. Haying obtained that. 'Oh. remembering the past incarnation. did not perform service at a place of pilgrimage as prescribed. Owing to my bad deeds in former lives I got a woman's body. never preserved fidelity to my husband. I did not excavate tanks in waterless places. the departed reaches the City of Saumya. and a fig-tree delightful to see. never performed any benevolent acts. make reparation for whatever you have done! 40. did not worship the deities.Bewailing their own karmas these beings. calling on son and grandson. For seventeen days he goes on alone with the speed of the wind. 'I did not emaciate myself by monthly fasts by the course of the moon. nor after his death enter the fire. nor worship the wise. nor by detailed observances.' 42.-O Dweller in the Body. did not pay due respect to my worthy elders. did not visit the holy river 1.--O Dweller in the Body. make reparation for whatever you have done! 36. 'Not knowing my duty I did not serve my husband. did not value the precepts of the Vedas and the Śâstras. no offerings to the fire. make reparation for whatever you have done! 37. 44. 43. make reparation for whatever you have done! 41.

and having seen the fearful forests there he cries in misery. Thence the departed speedily goes to Nagendrabhavana. Here he eats the monthly rice-balls given by his sons and grandsons through either love or compassion. 49. then the departed belonging there and the servants say this: Where is your wealth now? Where are your children and wife now? Where are your friends and relatives now? You only suffer the result of your own karma. of this way. having arrived at the city of the Gandharvas. being again dragged with the nooses he is led onwards by the servants. given at the end of three fortnights. water and cloths given by his relatives.41. 59. you fool. 57-58. as spoken of in the Purâṇas?' 50. And in the fourth month reaches Śailâgama city. There is there a king named Jangama. along with the servants of Yama. In that city he takes rest. he is forcibly dragged by the nooses. You do not strive for provisions. Being dragged unmercifully he weeps again and again. 'Have you not heard. 53. Having seen him he is overcome with fear and decides to give up efforts. O Mortal. 55-56. his family and dependents all. In the fifth month the departed goes thence to the city of Krauncha. where there is neither buying nor selling. When he bewails his wealth. Having eaten the rice-balls of the fourth month he becomes somewhat happy. and thence goes on into Sauripura. Go on for a long time! 48. son and others. Upon the coming of the third month. Thus spoken to by the messengers and being beaten with the hammers. There stones rain down copiously upon the departed. falling down and getting up again and running. 51. Having enjoyed there the rice-balls. and there having eaten the rice-balls offered in the third month he moves on. 'You know that provisions are the strength of a traveller. At the end of two months the afflicted leaves that city. and is miserable. . 52. and then passes on from that city. In that city he eats a mixture of water and food. There he remembers the enjoyment of wife. 46-47. 54. which is familiar even to children? Have you not heard of it from the twice-born. O Traveller in the Higher World! Yet you must inevitably go on that way. who has the appearance of Death.

who is the younger brother of Yama. Having fixed a skewer through his lips. 69.60. 'It is said by the sages. having eaten it. with difficulty. threatened by the servants of Yama. Having stayed. Having eaten the rice-balls which are given in the eighth month he moves on. the messengers. to Sutaptabhavana. Remaining in the city of Krauncha. At the end of five and a half months the ceremony before the six-monthly is performed. When he sees his huge form he runs away in fear. threatened by the servants of Yama. At the approach of the seventh month he goes to the city of Bahwâpada. satisfied with the rice-balls and jars then given. and then. that Vitarana is a gift. . 71. The sinful soul who has made no gifts verily sinks in that. bringing a boat for you--who desire to cross the great Vaitaraṇî River-if your merits are sufficient.' 66-67. for a time and having left that city. otherwise not. trembling and very miserable. 75. the departed eats the rice balls given by hand in the fifth month. At the end of the ninth month he goes to the city of Nânâkranda. Having passed beyond that city. floating in the air. goes to Krûrapura. in the tenth month. 72. Having seen many people crying in agony in various ways. He goes on the way lamenting. 'Oh heavens.' Having heard their words. carry him across like a fish upon a hook. the departed. 61. and this is called Vaitaraṇî because it is crossed over by that. and being himself faint of heart. 74. Travelling in the air he suffers great misery.' he exclaims. Having left that city. There he enjoys what is given by his sons in the seventh month. He remains. seeing which he cries loudly. 68. 'If you have made the gift of a cow. O Ruler of Birds. Seeing him it seethes. 64-65. Having then eaten the rice-balls of the sixth month. Then having come before him some fishermen say: 'We have arrived. he passes on. then the boat will come to you. over which kingdom rules a king named Vichitra. 73. he arrives at the city of Duhkhada. he cries in great misery. very greatly afflicted with the desire to eat. goes. 62-63. He goes to Chitrabhavana. 70. who see the truth.

having reached the city of Bahubhîti. and half after the eleventh month he reaches Payovarṣaṇa. There he enjoys what is offered in the eleventh month by his sons and others. he. of which the way of the southern gate has been declared to you. painfully bound in tight bonds. has been told.76. to work out its karma. sets out through the air with the servants of Yama. afflicted with hunger. thus go. 77. O Kâśyapa. in misery. How they go on this most dreadful path. Hungry and pierced with cold. thirst and exhaustion. . Though he there obtains the rice-ball gifts and water. he casts off the body the measure of a hand. giving misery to the departed. obtains the Śrâddha before the annual one. and them. he looks about in the ten directions. 84. 78. Into the city of the King of Justice there are four gateways. coming nearer to the abode of Yama. 85. 86. Those who do not offer gifts for the dweller in the upper body. 80. 82. The spirit the size of a thumb. getting a body of torment. At the end of the year. he is not happy At the completion of the eleventh month he goes to the city of Raudra. 'Does there remain any relative who will remove my misery?' 81. O Bird. What else do you wish to hear? Footnotes 14:1 The Ganges. There clouds team. There the servants ask: 'What sort of merit have you?' Having eaten the annual riceballs he plucks up courage again. 83. where cold a hundred times greater than that of the Himâlaya afflicts him. 70. At the end of the year he goes to the city of Śîtâḍhya.

although he is allknowing. on earth. having gone to Chitragupta. enquires of the Śravaṇas 1. 7. Even at the description of hell you will tremble. Garuḍa said: What are the torments like that the sinful suffers. having passed along the way of Yama into the abode of Yama? Tell me this. 1 reports the good and evil deeds. These report to Chitragupta everything that is said and done. Thus do these truth-speaking Śravaṇas relate the actions of man. O Descendant of Vinatâ. speech and body. lies the great city of the King of Justice. these are all. 9. they become benevolent. by men. 4-5. 2. well-known to the King of Justice. O Keśava. 14. and always delight in great sin. O Kâśyapa. and the karma born of mind. An Account of the Torments of Yama. distinctively. Then Chitragupta tells it to the King of Justice. To the man who pleases them by austerity. 3. those who walk about in the city of Yama. Their wives have a similar nature. Chitragupta. openly and secretly. and see a long way off. He. 11. and in the nether regions. Oh. 10. Such is the power of these.CHAPTER III. The doorkeeper Dharmadhwaja. granting heaven and liberation. Nevertheless. . These followers of the King of Justice know accurately all the virtues and vices of mankind. The Śravaṇas are the sons of Brâhmaṇ who wander in heaven. They know accurately all that is done by women. he asks Chitragupta about their sins. who have authority over mortals and immortals. All go to the door-keeper and report it to him. hear and understand at a distance. beyond the city of Bahubhîti. charity and truthful speech. The sinful man cries when he hears the mingled wails of 'Oh. I will tell it to you from the beginning to the end. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. Sravanîs. The men who are Deniers. 1. 6. 13. always stands there. 12. 8.' and having heard his cry. Four and forty yojanas. as is proper. and are called. O Târkshya.

with eyes like wells. you foolish people. Extending three yojanas. overcome with fear. seated on a buffalo. polluted with egoism. 22. terrible with weapons gleaming like lightning. Knowing the wicked actions of the sinful. 18. Roaring like a cloud at the time of pralaya. The sun and moon. evil-doers. Chitragupta. the heart. Then Yama. It is no use turning your faces away. Then. Having seen him. Even Chitragupta is fearful. and thereby are now destined for torment. the beggar and the wealthy. 25. like a mountain of lampblack. day and night. by command of Yama. with mouth gaping with formidable fangs. 'The sinful actions done by you are very many. 27 'Hitherto you have committed sins with great delight. the sinful then grieve over their karmas.15. 'O. cries 'Oh. 29. . why ever did you commit sin? 26. the wretch. Śravaṇas. having assured himself concerning the sins of the sinful. attended by Death. 23. possessing thirty-two arms. Hearing these words of Chitragupta. the sun and others see fully the sins and merits of the embodied being. you sinners. why ever did you commit that misery-giving sin which is born of lust.' The sinful soul who made no gifts trembles and cries again. 19-21. and those sins are the cause of unavoidable misery. Oh. earth and water. 17 The King of Justice.' 30. the strong and the weak. Yama. roaring. 24. 'It is known that Yama deals equally with the fool and the learned. the two twilights. resembling Yama. those truth-speakers. wind. Fever and others. Very sinful people behold the terrifying form of Yama--huge of body. with red eyes and a long nose. 28. injudicious. 16. fire. rod in hand. Near to him are all the messengers. and Justice--know the actions of man. anger and association with the sinful. relating them before the King of Justice. 'O. become dispensers of misery. and bewailing their karmas. summons them and shows them his own very terrible form. and remain silent and motionless. sky. Chitragupta speaks to all those sinners. who are crying.

34. by the messengers. nor worshipped the deities. with metal rods. You did not meditate well upon Yama and Chitragupta. 39-40. Then. you evildoers. 45. nor repeat their mantra. 42. lead them towards the hells. 43. 31. You never visited any places of pilgrimage. they beat them. why ever did you commit such wicked deeds? You did not even make the easy water and food offerings at all. Though living as a householder you did not even express compassion. head downwards. 32. Many sinful ones are hung on that silk-cotton tree. 'You did not give even halt a mouthful of food to the dog or the crows. 'Forgiveness of faults is done by the Lord Hari 1 Îśwara. 36. glowing like a blazing fire. . with spears. Again and again they are forcibly struck. Thus beaten they become still. those most. cry. 'Go along. for whom there is no rescuer. 44. Then the cruel messengers. the servants address them thus: 'O. executors of the sentences of Yama. seeing them standing motionless like thieves. They. Having bound them on the tree by chains. nor make the water-offering to the forefathers. 35. as we are ordered. with iron clubs.' 33. seeing them quiet. with maces and with big pestles. say. along with which torment cannot exist. forgive my faults'--with suppliant hands. Suffer the fruits of your own sin! Because you are devoid of righteousness you deserve to be beaten. burning there. having beaten them. sinful people.31. The King of Justice. having bound them with one noose. It covers five yojanas and is one yojana in height. The messengers. Thus having spoken the messengers heat them mercilessly. Chaṇḍaka 1 and others. We only punish miscreants. Prachaṇḍa. exhausted by hunger and thirst. 41. There is one big tree there. you sinner. helpless. 'Oh. 37. has fitting punishment ordered for the sinful. with hammers. swooning away. to the very dreadful terrifying hells. and beaten by the messengers of Yama. and on account of the beating they fall down like glowing charcoal. implore the messengers.' 46. nor honour your guests. 'You did not do any acts of service. you sinners.

give up my wealth. in front of huge maddened elephants. 1 Lohaśaṇku. 16 . others plunged into pits full of worms. By the hard beaks of huge flesh-eating crows and vultures they are pecked in the head. are squeezed like sugar-cane. are given pieces of flesh torn off with pincers by the messengers. Tâmisra. 3 Raurava. being bound with various nooses some are beaten with hammers. 12 Kâka. 8 Lohitoda.' 57. Some are surrounded closely with blazing charcoal. fixed in the middle of a machine. 51. 52. and some with hands and feet bound are placed head downwards. they are taken hold of by the messengers. In the world of Yama I see my wealth being enjoyed by you. the midst of which are twenty-one most dreadful of the dreadful. There are eighty-four lakhs of hells. 2 Kâlasûtraka. 11 Mahâniraya. Hells full of great misery are there. In falling their limbs are cut by the sharp leaves. 60.--in which there is great misery indescribable in words. and they cry. 10 Sampratâpana. 7 Maharauravaśâlmalî. which you owe me. Thus quarrelling. eyes and faces. 50. Tâmisra and others. are eaten away by them. 58. 49. Others. 48. 54. by order of Yama. 56. and thrown into the dreadful hells.47. their bodies half-buried in a pit. enwrapped with torches. Some are thrown in the way. Then the mouths of those who are crying are filled with dust by the messengers. and like a cake thrown into the frying-pan they are turned about. 61-64. and others thrown flat on the ground. O Bird.--near to the tree. 9 Saviṣa. 13 Ûlu. 53. some are hurled from heights. Thus disputing. and smelted like a lump of ore. and. 4 Kuḍmala. 59. 15 Mahâpathin. like firewood. 6 Pûtimṛittika. and others into heated oil. are pierced in the head with arrows. 5 Saṅghâta. in the hell-region. 55. Some of the sinful are cut with saws. Others clamour: 'Give up. Some are plunged into heated butter. Some are thrown into wells. the sinful. fallen down and bitten by dogs. are chopped into pieces with axes. 14 Sanjîvana. Some.

65. 28:5 Blossoming. All formed of various afflictions and diseases of different classes. 18 Kumbhîpâka. and inhabited by multitudes of servants. Raurava and other hells. The man experiences in a foul hell what is ordained by his fate. goes to Andhatâmisra. Andhatâmisra. purified. 69. and being departed. 28:2 Iron spears. The sinful fools. 68. experience there. 67. 28:3 Very terrible silk-cotton tree. 28:1 Darkness. He who takes away (sins). 17 Andhatâmisra. Having cast off his body. he comes here again. . 22:1 Lit. the various torments of hell. Who have fallen into these. obtains appropriate fruit. 20 and Tapana. 70: The individual. 28:4 Terrible. 71. 19 Sampratâpana. 66. Thus he who was holding a family or gratifying his belly. Having experienced in due order the torments below. the support of his family. 21--in all twenty-one. until the end of the age. who was fond of supporting his family by unrighteous means alone. Men and women suffer the torments of Tâmisra. which is the place of uttermost darkness. 24:1 Both names mean fierce or violent.Avîchi. the various fruits of sin. which are produced by secret association. 26:1 Lit. devoid of righteousness. provisioned with the opposite of happiness. Listeners. like an invalid who has been robbed of his wealth. he goes alone to hell. which was nourished at the expense of other creatures. Footnotes 21:1 Name of the being who records the doings of men. having given up both.

28:19 Based like a pot. 28:14 Owls. 28:11 Burning. 28:15 Living together. 28:13 Crows. 28:9 Iron weights. 28:21 Hot.28:6 The thread of death. 28:16 The great path. 28:8 Accumulation. 28:10 Poisonous. 28:18 Besetting darkness. 28:17 Waveless. 28:7 Stinking clay. 28:12 The great exit. . 28:20 Burning.

Those who steal the wealth of the teacher. Garuḍa said: For what sins do they go on that great Way? Why do they fall into the Vaitaraṇî? Why do they go to hell? Tell me this. the Mîmâṁsâ. from misery to misery. 1. good actions. weeping day and night. who turn away from the company of the good. and those who kill with poisonous foods. who turn away from good deeds. Those who do not repay their debts. drinkers of intoxicants. Those who despise places of pilgrimage. Those who do not listen to good counsel nor even to the word of the Śâstras. Beaten by the messengers of Yama. who are foolish. destroyers of the embryo. and those who steal the possessions of children. the Vedas. I will tell you what sinners fall into it. The Blessed Lord said: 'Those who always delight in wrong deeds. and are always evil-minded. good men. the Nyâya and the Vedânta. . 4. who are foolish. I will tell you who the sinners are who go by it. Slayers of Brâhmiṇs. who thinks themselves learned. very sinful. certainly go on the Way of Yama. slayers of owe. they go towards the Vaitaraṇî. An Account of the Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell. 5-12. and those who commit secret sins. those who disparage the Purâṇas. those who take away the possessions of women. 2. The righteous go into the city of the King of Justice by three gateways. who are unbending. but the sinful go into it only by the road of the southern gate. go from hell to hell. who are attached to the wicked. and many others. infanticides. Those who seize upon the fault and depreciate the merit. 3. who are self-satisfied. those who misappropriate deposits.-These. teachers and Shining Ones. from fear to fear. the property of the temple or of the twice-born. who are jealous of those who have merit. who try to make the happy wretched. The Vaitaraṇî River is only on this very miserable way. Those who are elated at seeing the miserable. O Keśava. who speak evil words. those who betray confidence. 13.CHAPTER IV. murderers of women. devoid of righteousness.

which is the foremost among hells. fathers. who perform false duties. and who gain a livelihood by thieving. 15. gardens and forests. who destroy the chastity of widows. . Who cut down and destroy big trees. who is lustful towards virgins. by command of Yama. 17. and many other fools. Who did not make gifts of black cows. who abducts others' wives. 18-24. who does not study the Śâstras. who wears the sacred thread or consorts with Brâhmiṇ women. who is of unbridled nature. nor perform the ceremonies for those who are in the upper body. of noble birth. who neglect vows and pilgrimages. Those who dishonour their mothers. anal abandoning prescribed ditties. fond of treading forbidden paths. who ploughs up pastures. 26. Who give false witness. 16. who kills animals for his own gratification. and who. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. having called them. of good qualities.'--of these two the stay is continued. and modest. The Brâhmiṇ who sells liquors. Who covets the King's wife. they then hurl those sinners into the Vaitaraṇî. and consorts with a lowcaste woman. 'There is nothing for you. possessed of thousands of merits. Those who ascribe evil to the good. faithful. The Śûdra who studies the letter of the Vedas. Who does not fulfil promises made to Brâhmiṇs. who eats flesh and drinks liquor. O King of Birds. 27. the messengers hurl them into that river again. who repents of his gifts: who takes away another's livelihood. having suffered great misery in it. who removes fieldboundaries. not for the prescribed sacrifices of the Vedas. 28-30.-These. who prevents the telling of stories. teachers and preceptors and the reverend. who earn by cheating. and treat them disrespectfully. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. and who slanders virtuous women. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. who drinks the milk of the tawny cow.14.--these men sink in it. Those who wickedly abandon their wives. 23. Who has put aside his Brâhmaṇic duties. go to the tree standing on its bank. and having come. Having come all along the path the sinful reach the abode of Yama. Who takes away what he gave. says. Who obstructs sacrifices. who hinders others making gifts.

goes to a low condition. 32. in a road. 33.The woman who despises her husband and thinks about another. commit transgression at the time of conception. Those who throw their bodily refuse into fire. with timber. with women who have no other refuge. Those who destroy wells. Sûrya. 43. those who break the laws of morality. and having neglected the offerings to the forefathers and the Shining Ones. these who sell poisons. Hari. . on Śrâddha occasions. the messengers cast into hells.--such and others at the silk-cotton tree experience much beating. blinded by passion. Those who. 31. Śivâ. with mounds. in water. through being beaten.--these certainly go to hell. servants and teachers. through malignity. women who sell their hair. 34. 41. the avaricious. 42. Those who fall down. he is certainly degraded from the Brâhmiṇ rank: That wretched twice-born is not worthy of salutation at any time. or people's houses. having neglected their wives. in the day time. Those who are fond of quarrels.-all these certainly go to hell. Gaṇeśa. those attached to senseobjects. and those who are sellers of them. Those who eat. children. and of bows and arrows. with stones or with thorns. Those who are makers of swords. Deniers. do not worship Śiva. shrines. Those who obstruct roads with posts. Those men who. the ungrateful. 37-38. ponds. consort with women in the monthly courses. on the four days of lunar change. self-indulgent. 40. into water. in a garden. Vaiśyas who are dealers in skins. tanks. 44. 36. begetting offspring of a Śudra woman.--these certainly go to hell. hypocrites. I will tell you about the sinful who fall into them. 39.---these certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell. 35. do not give up causing dissension among Brâhmaṇs and cow-fights but delight in them. The Brâhmaṇi who places a harlot on his bed. Those who. and the good teachers.--these certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell. those fools who worship him certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell. the wise.--they certainly go to hell. these certainly go to hell. or in a cowpen.

sharp as swords. then the messengers give him boiling oil to drink. 53. who hate the good. 49. and then is led by the messengers into the forest of sword-like leaves. who punish the guiltless. when they are spoken of in all the Śâstras? 59.--these certainly go to hell. O Târkṣya. 50. even though food is cooked. Being tortured thus. cast them away again.--these certainly go to hell. processions of the Shining Ones.' As soon as he drinks it he falls down. those who deceive all creatures. a village or a wood. Those who do not feed the Brâhmaṇ guests. he begs for water to drink. When his limbs are cut by its leaves.45. The very sinful man who sets fire to a house. Those who do not respect the teacher who imparts the knowledge of the Supreme Self. Then they say: 'Drink this liquid and eat this food. burning inside. Why should I explain them fully. 'Ah. ha! Sleep comfortably in this cool shade!' 55. Thus. those who cut short friendship. 52. is captured by the messengers of Yama and baked in pits of fire. By order of Yama they return to the earth and become unmoving and other creatures: . 48. and afterwards. that there are many torments for the sinful. afflicted with thirst. 1 or bands of pilgrims. 56.--these certainly go to hell. 51. When his limbs are burnt with fire. who have come full of hope to the house. 46. Powerless and breathless he is unable even to speak. and who are cruel to them. men and women by thousands are baked in dreadful hells until the coming of the deluge. 57. Those who assume observances. Having eaten there their undecaying fruits they are born again. He who interferes with marriage. he begs for a shady place. dwells in a dreadful hell from which there is no return. he wails piteously. then they say.--these certainly go to hell. 47. 54.--these certainly go to hell. When. 58. and those who destroy hopes. 60-62. with senses uncontrolled. Those who do not compassionate the helpless. Those who are suspicious of all creatures. it is declared. and the tellers of the Purâṇas. Those who betray their friends. Getting up again somehow.--these certainly go to hell.

birds. All these evolve thence into the human condition. . by the stains of sin. bushes. having come back from hell they are born in the human kingdom amongst low outcastes. born blind. animals and fish.Trees. rocks and grasses. enveloped in great delusion. infested with grievous maladies.-Insects. and even there. 63. and bearing the marks of sin.--it is said that there are eighty-four hundred thousands of fates of birth-fates. become very miserable. creepers. Thus they become men and women oozing with leprosy. 64. these are spoken of as unmoving. plants. Footnotes 36:1 The images are carried round the streets on occasions.

who goes with his teacher's wife. 10. 9. who sells flesh becomes unlucky. the Brâhmaṇ who. O Keśava. who interferes with marriage becomes lipless. an incendiary becomes bald. and salt. eats what should not be eaten. Who bears false witness becomes dumb. honey. Garuḍa said: Tell me. who eats fled of other beings becomes diseased. 5. a musk-rat. The slayer of a woman and the destroyer of embryos becomes a savage full of diseases. 4. insults his teacher. 7. who commits illicit intercourse. who steals any metal becomes poverty-stricken. Who steals jewels is born in a low caste. through pride. a scorpion. and who steals poison.--these hear from me. the drinker of intoxicants. and the signs produced by particular sins.CHAPTER V An Account of the Signs of Sins. who steals gold gets diseased nails.--all three born as outcastes. diseased-skinned. who breaks the meal-row 1 becomes oneeyed. one with discoloured teeth. who steals water becomes a Châtaka-bird 2. The man who. flesh. Who steals food becomes a rat. on account of greed. 6. 12. . the murderer of a virgin becomes leprous. becomes big-bellied. and to what sorts of birth such sins lead? 2. becomes swollen-necked. the killer of a cow becomes humpbacked and imbecile. who speaks lies becomes a stammerer. an ant. who steals a book-is born blind. The Blessed Lord said: The sins on account of which the sinful returning from hell come to particular births. Who steals vegetables and leaves becomes a peacock. A poisoner becomes insane. without giving to others. He who eats sweet foods. becomes an epileptic. a gad-fly. 11. who steals grain becomes a locust. who despises the Vedas and the Śâstras certainly becomes jaundiced. who gives impure food at a Śrâddha ceremony is born a spotted leper. The murderer of a Brâhmaṇ becomes consumptive. 3. 13. 1. Who strikes a cow or a Brâhmaṇ with his foot is born lame and deformed. and who listens to them becomes deaf. by what sins particular signs are produced. The eater of flesh becomes very red. a vulture. 8. a eunuch. perfumes.

19. Who lives by violence. father and teacher. The lustful man who goes with a female ascetic becomes a desert fiend. 17. and she who scolds her husband becomes a louse. having become a hyena and a porcupine. 28. or browbeats a Brâhmaṇ. 22. The Brâhmiṇ who does not recite the Gâyatrî 1. 27. who cheats in selling. The Brâhmiṇ who officiates for one unfit to perform sacrifice becomes a village hog. who is not hospitable to the goody becomes a howling Fire-face.--an ass or a cow. . Who threatens and spits at his teacher. and causes constant quarrels. a house-lizard. certainly becomes a goat in a butcher's house. who does not meditate at twilight. runs after another man. 15. a crow. Who hates mother. 25. by embracing a woman of his own family. 21. Who steals betel. is born from the womb of a bear. an owl. 26. Who dies by drinking poison becomes a black serpent on a mountain. He who cuts off his lineage. become tigers in a desolate forest. who is inwardly wicked while outwardly pious. whose feature is unrestrained becomes an elephant in a desolate forest. who consorts with an immature girl becomes a huge snake in a wood. becomes a flying-fox. 2 23. 29. The twice-born who does not impart learning to the deserving becomes a bull. who quarrels with sister and brother. The woman who abuses her mother-in-law and father-in-law. 16. or a kind of female serpent. becomes a leech. is born as a Brâhmiṇ-fiend in a waterless wilderness. becomes a ruddy goose for a long time. Who does not give to a twice-born according to his promise becomes a jackal. grass and cotton are born from sheeps' wombs. by eating without grace. who robs caravans on the road. 24. becomes a crane. who steal shoes. who speaks ill of caste and order is born a pigeon in a wood. 18. and who eat all foods without consideration. even for a thousand births. and by too many sacrifices he becomes an ass. Those twice-born who do not make offering to the World-deities. and who is fond of hunting. the pupil who does not serve his teacher becomes an animal. fruits and flowers becomes a forest-monkey. who through dislike abandons his wife. 20. Who destroys hopes and who destroys affection.14. Who. Who deceives a friend becomes a mountain-vulture. abandoning her own husband. is destroyed when an embryo in the womb.

a drinker of intoxicants enters the wombs of a wolf. a donkey. powdered stone. Who covets his teacher's wife. 36. families become broken up. who robs a Brâhmiṇ. Who commits unnatural vice becomes a village pig.--and by forcible robbery even as long as the moon and stars exist: A man may digest even iron filings. gives it to some other. 44. who is passionate becomes a lustful horse. is born as a Brâhmiṇ-fiend. 34. and with his friend's wife. he is born blind and in poverty. and by neglecting Brâhmiṇs. Who goes with his teacher's wife. are born here upon the exhaustion of their karma. goes to the condition of grass. enjoyed even in friendship. The devalaka is born from the womb of a hen. 35. who misappropriates deposits. a camel and a she-buffalo. The Brâhmiṇ's possessions acquired by deception. becoming not a giver but a beggar. Who feeds upon the eleventh-day offerings to the dead is born a dog. who consorts with a Śûdra woman becomes bull. 31. 37. it would be like offering to ashes instead of to the blazing fire near by. But it is no neglect if the Brâhmiṇ is without Veda-knowledge. bushes and plants. an insect and a bird. having passed through dreadful hells produced by their great sins. . and having experienced the results in the successive hells. but where is the person in the three worlds who can digest a Brâhmiṇ's wealth! Chariots and troops supported by the wealth of a Brâhmiṇ crumble away in battle like artificial river-banks of sand. Those who are very sinful. 32-33. by taking a Brâhmiṇ's possessions. 41-43. who goes with the king's wife becomes corrupt. becomes a chameleon. The murderer of a Brâhmaṇ goes into the womb of an ass. By appropriating temple property. a dog and a jackal. Having neglected.30. He is called a neglector who. and poison. afflict the family even for seven generations. The wretch among twice-born who worships the deities for the sake of wealth is called a devalaka and is unfit to offer oblations to ale deities and forefathers. The stealer of gold attains the condition of a worm. instead of making a gift to one who is well-read in the Vedas and Śâstras and has resorted to him. O Târkṣya. Who steals another's wife. 38-40.

Karma which has been made. They revolve at one time of earth. must inevitably be suffered. obtaining for thousands of lives the bodies of animals.45. Who takes away a plot of land. 49. they suffer from carrying burdens and other miseries. are seen to be the karma of the embodied. These and other signs and births. he becomes an embryo in due course. O Lord of Birds. whether good or evil. 55. who robs Brâhmiṇs of their means of sup port becomes an ape. held fast by the noose of karma. a dog and a monkey. 51. As the wheel of time turns. thus turns the wheel in the four kingdoms of beings. is born for sixty thousand years as a worm in excrement. in these stated forms. goes into hell until the coming of the deluge. Thus the makers of bad karma. Karma not suffered does not fade away even in tens of millions of ages. Man and woman having come together. 50. 56. . is born as a lame dog. Birth and death are the lot of all embodied beings. rain and heat. having experienced the tortures mf hell. 47. Having given the means of subsistence and a piece of land. he afterwards reaches the human state. 53. Having experienced as a bird the misery of cold. made by themselves in this world. he again dies. 48. 46. Who gives the means of support to Brâhmiṇs obtains fruit equal to that of a lakh of cows. but robs. when the good and evil are balanced. Then. at another in hell. and is again born in poverty and again becomes sinful. 57. which was given by himself for another. 52. he should then protect it firmly. The sinner who takes back by force what has been given by himself. Who does not protect. He who does not mike gifts becomes poverty--stricken and through poverty he commits sin. 54. so mortals revolve by my magic. by the force of sin he goes to hell. are born with the residues of their sins. Having suffered the miseries from conception onwards to death.

Footnotes 39:1 This refers to the custom among Brâhmiṇs of sitting in a row at meals. Whoever gives different food to one than to another is said to break the row also. 40:1 A sacred mantra repeated every day by the twice-born caste. 39:2 A bird fabled to live only on rain-drops. . 40:2 A class of evil spirits. and rising together.

4. it swoons away repeatedly through excessive pain. 10. and the creature at the time of birth lies in the disgusting hollow of the loins. 12.--like a parrot in a cage. 6. the body of the sinful begins to form. 2. obtaining not the least happiness. it feels pain all over its body. how he who returns from hells is formed in the womb of the mother. bitter. 5. sour and acid. 1 and after that an egg of flesh. All its limbs bitten constantly by hungry worms. By the fourth the seven bodily fluids. and what miseries he suffers in the embryonic condition. sobs for a long time. on the second as the murderer of a Brâhmiṇ. O Keśava. skin. With its head placed in its belly and its back and neck curved. Garuḍa said:--Tell me. 13. by the tenth day like the fruit of the jujube tree. amid fœces and urine. enters the womb of a woman. by the fifth hunger and thirst arise. linga and other cavities. The mother of one returning from hell is regarded on the first day as an outcaste woman. 7-8. as they are very tender. by the fifth night round. it moves to the left of the womb. in obtaining a body. according to karma. the Karma generated in hundreds of previous births. by divine power. . 3. salt. bones. The bodily substances are formed of the foods and liquids of the mother. 9. Viṣṇu said: I will tell you how the mortal is born when the male and female elements are bound together by the union of man and woman. There he remembers. by the third occurs the formation of nails.CHAPTER VI. In the middle of the menstruation period. In one night it becomes a lump. by the second the arms and other parts of the body are formed. The creature. 1. caused by the mother's eating many things--pungent. Thus enveloped by the womb and bound outside by the sinews. which is the receptacle of a man's seed. By the first month the head.--and remembering. 11. it is unable to move its limbs. in the three days on which Indra incurs the sin of Brâmicide. hot. the divine eye. hair. and on the third as a washerwoman. by the sixth. The Miseries of Birth of the Sinful. enveloped by the chorion.

who has given me this experience. or upon hearing the Purâṇas were permanent--who would not be liberated from bondage! 28. 27. by the winds of delivery. where misery results from my sinful actions. and has been ten months in the womb. "But no. "If I am released from this womb I will lay myself at Thy feet. From the beginning of the seventh month. after experiencing his karma. like a uterine worm. He is become changed in condition. and anxious to escape from it. and as s result I am tormented. resorting to Thy feet I will keep myself aloof from the worlds of change. with hands put together. 16-23. and cries loudly. "Fallen into a well of fœces and urine. the destroyer of evil. the husband of Śrî. he comes out with anxiety and painfully breathless and with memory destroyed. When shall I get out? "In Him alone. When he comes out of the womb. during illness. and is compassionate to the afflicted. suddenly is cast out head downwards into birth. bending down his head. The creature says. deprived of knowledge. as regards body and son and wife. will I seek refuge. Having fallen on the ground he moves like a worm in excrement." 24. who is compassionate to those who come for shelter. he who is in the womb trembles and moves about because of the parturition winds. If the state of mind which arises in the womb. I am burnt by the fire of the belly. while they who enjoy the fruits escape. Let not this transmigration occur to me again. Cast out forcibly. then verily the man is bewildered by the magic of Viṣṇu. while praying. .14. "I did good and evil actions for the sake of my dependents. imploring and trembling. misled by my egoism I am transmigrating. bearing the fatigue. 15. endowed with insight. 26. "I am bewildered by Thy magic. "I seek refuge in Viṣṇu. the supporter of the universe. and I will take the means by which I may obtain liberation. O Lord. though he gains consciousness. bound in seven bonds. on the cremation ground. Having this insight he. adores in plaintive tones Him who placed him in the womb. The Blessed Lord said: He who has thus considered. 25. "Because remaining even here in great misery. I wish never to come out of the womb.

spends in vain the human birth which was difficult to obtain. to sit. skinless and weeping and deprived of understanding. 34. 38. the bee and the fish: these five are led to destruction by one of the senses. The deer. unable to ward off what is thrust upon him against his desire. Who is more sinful than the fool who. 40: After hundreds of lives one obtains human birth on earth. The lover makes quarrels with rivals. and. he is troubled with great diseases. he is unable to scratch his limbs. Then. he reaches youth and acquires evil tendencies. 41. when he is touched by that magic. Thus I have related to you. go in hell. 31. like a moth into a flame.29. and on account of ignorance becomes angry and sorry. In this wise having experienced the miseries of infancy and of childhood. 32. death having come. bewildered by my magic. his senses captivated by her blandishments. powerless. he is unable to speak. how then shall the infatuated one not be destroyed. He longs for the unobtainable. attached to sense-objects. mingling in the company of the wicked. Then. the sinful. through foolishness lets slip the nectar from his hand. Mosquitoes. He experiences the miseries of infancy and childhood arising from dependence. having arrived at old age. and his pride and anger increase with the growth of his body. and becomes lustful. Seeing a seductive woman. he goes to a miserable hell. just as insects bite little worms. the bird. 42. What else do you wish to hear? . how the sinful. Thus held fast in the ever-circling noose of karma. infatuated he falls into great darkness. 35. rise or move. deprived of the sacrifices for the dead. are never released. he hates the scriptures and good men. 39. Then he begins evil brooding. 36. and even more difficult to obtain is that as a twice-born: and who then only provides for and pampers the senses. He is nourished by people who do not understand his wishes. Lain upon a bed unclean and befouled by perspiration. to his own ruin and is destroyed by those stronger than himself. O Târkṣya. 30. 43. as one elephant by another. as before. when he enjoys the five kinds of objects by five senses. 37. 33. bugs and other flies bite him. gnats. the elephant.

. hard.Footnotes 46:1 That is.

2. but never so. trembling like a leaf of the holy fig-tree. The son of a Brâhma marriage uplifts. Babhruvâhana's Sacrament for the Departed One. therefore he was named "putra" by the Self-existent himself. and I will tell you all. grandsons. 12. By the touch of his grandson a mortal is released from the three-fold debt. 10.CHAPTER VII. and the means by which people attain a happy condition. If by any past action of his the birth of a son has been prevented. They alone. 6. 1. Listen attentively. the exact meaning of the Purâṇas. 13. their reason clouded by sin. one is released from the debt to the forefathers. Accordingly. The Blessed Lord said: O Târkṣya. 'By the son he conquers the worlds. Sûta said: Having heard this. Garuḍa said: Tell me by what means men who have committed sins unknowingly or knowingly escape from the torments of the servants of Yama. again questioned Keśava for the benefit of men. is the fate of the sinful and those without sons. O Lord. 11.' is the ancient saying. 8. if righteous. Knowing this. For those men who are immersed in the ocean of transmigration. O Bird. O Lord of Birds. Having listened to the Harivanśa. the intelligent should beget a son. . With the help of sons. by making Śrâddha-gifts are the means of their fathers' attaining heaven. O Best of Birds. of weak intelligence. Sons having father and mother of the same caste are legitimate. 14. Hard indeed. 3-4. The Vedas also proclaim the great importance of the son. or worshipped the Blessed Śiva with devotion. as already said. their self dimmed by attachment to senseobjects-For their uplifting tell me. 5. but the illegitimate drags down. one should avoid a woman of lower caste. having seen the face of a son. 7. O Mâdhava. The son saves his father from the hell called Put. you have done well in asking for the benefit of men. carries the whole family over. that of those who have sons and who are righteous. Garuḍa. and great-grandsons he goes from the worlds and obtains heaven. Even a single son. then some means should be taken for obtaining a son. or performed the Śatachaṇḍî. 9.

Formerly. following the blood-stains on the grass. Concerning this I will give you. with his army. an example of the efficacy of gifts for the higher body. Then. a lover of Brâhmaṇs. dirty. sounding with many birds. 17-19. rendered fragrant by the-pollen of the lotus. and firm in righteousness. Lord of Gifts. Now listen. ran out of sight into the interior of the forest. from ancient history. severely wounded by his very hard arrow. 16. The king approached and sat at its root. who was very powerful. A sacrificer. 29-31. giving cool shade with its large spreading boughs. Need I say one attains heaven by means of the Śrâddha performed by a son. that powerful king. That leader of men. compassionate. when a Departed One went to heaven even when it was offered by another. always delighting in Kṣattriya duties. and with senses discomposed by hunger and thirst. coming to a lake bathed in it with his horse. in the Treta age. went hunting. and punishing the guilty. carrying the arrow with him.15. pursued the deer and came into another forest. skilled. also seeing the king who had come to that dreadful forest. Righteously protecting his subjects as though they were his own sons. having drunk of that cool water. The deer. And saw a delightful fig-tree. 24. humpbacked and fleshless. with hair erect. 22. fainting with the heat and with fatigue. endowed with good character and of good conduct. The king. 20-21. Seeing him deformed and dreadful Babhruvâhana wondered. of terrible appearance. 25-27. And standing like a big standard over the whole forest. Once. hungry and with parched throat. valuing the good. 28. prosperous. 23. there reigned over the delightful city of Mahodaya a king named Babhruvâhana. full of various kinds of trees. Târkṣya. and resounding with the cries of various birds. The Departed One. . Now he beheld a Departed One. Crowded with various species of animals. Babhruvâhana came out of the water refreshed. He entered a thick forest. In the midst of the forest the king saw a deer in the distance.

by being in touch with you. no companion. "In that manner please act. "Therefore. through my evil fate has proved fruitless. "If the sixteen monthly Śrâddhas. by doing the ceremonies for my higher body. always engaged in worship of the Shining Ones. Suffering from the misery of hunger and thirst. 42-45. "Uplift me then. I dwelt. so that my departed condition may be destroyed." 32-33. possessed of all prosperity. this king of the Departed spoke thus to the king: "I have escaped the condition of the Departed and reached the highest condition. O Great-Armed one. I gave food of various kinds to the poor. You will surely have compassion upon me when you have heard the cause of my condition as Departed. by name Sudeva. The king said: "O Black-complexioned and Gaping-mouthed. the blind and the wretched. no relative and no friend like you. are not performed. who will perform for me the ceremonies for the-higher body.And becoming filled with curiosity. and my higher state arise. O Best of Kings. the condition as Departed becomes firmly fixed. O Lord of Kings. by what bad deeds did you reach this state of the Departed. "By caste I am a Vaishya. if you desire my welfare. O Târkṣya. "I have no offspring. and in which many religious acts are performed.--I am highly blessed. O great king. "All this. and I will give you a most precious jewel. having many districts. O King. "There is a town named Vaidaśa. please know. and by what gifts will your condition as Departed pass away?" 34-38. "Beautiful with palaces and mansions. By fire-offering I pleased the Shining Ones. It is said that in this world the king is the kinsman of all castes. The Departed one said: "I will tell you everything from the beginning. O Lord of Earth. How my good deeds proved fruitless I will relate to you. O warrior. "I gladdened the twice-born by offering various gifts. I cannot endure this departed condition. Then. help me over. came near to him. and abounding in precious stones of various kinds. and likewise the forefathers by food. and highly unhappy?" "Tell me in detail the cause of your condition. There. O Reverend Sir. even if hundreds of annual Śrâddhas are performed for him. . 39-41. dreadful to see. dear. Who are you.

the sacrificer should perform. bathe it in many waters. and having made the gift of a bed. worship of Viṣṇu. The departed said: "Oh Great King. austerities. you have done well in asking this. 46-48. Make offerings to the universal deities with clarified butter. O King. according to the rite. according to the rite. Madhusûdana 2 to the south. 51-56. having gone round them. The king said. are the destroyers of the departed condition. on account of my sympathy for all. "The gift which is named 'the pot for the departed.--and placing it. Bring two pieces of gold. but I am not able to grasp them at all. honestly gained. and pleasant fruits. "He must commence. "Then he must give thirteen sets of pots to Brâhmiṇs. I have heard. Please take notice and l will describe that good gift by which the departed condition cannot exist. by giving up anger and greed. along with all the ceremonies for the higher body. "Dress it with a pair of yellow cloths. 5 Worship these in turn with sandal-paste and flowers. to the west Vâmanadeva 3. in front of Nârâyaṇa. "Next. "Place Śrîdhara 1 to the east of it. the ceremony for the upper body. "Listening to holy scriptures. and compassion to all beings. O King. 4 "In the middle Pitâmaha 5 and also Maheśwara." 57. and perform all the ceremonies and the release of a bull. to the north Gadâdhara. you should worship thus. about the pot which gives release to the departed. "If the great Nârâyaṇa rite is performed for me. as prescribed in the scriptures. make offerings in the fire to these deities. "Then. In all the worlds it is difficult to obtain this dissipator of evil conditions. "How is the pot for the departed to be prepared. put on it various ornaments. gifts. Vaidic mantras.' is a destroyer of all evil.--these. association with the good. having bathed. "So I will tell you about the worship of Viṣṇu. calm and controlled in mind. "Then surely my condition as departed will unfailingly pass away. the destroyer of the departed condition. with Vaidic mantras. 49-50." 58-63. although afflicted with hunger and thirst. curds and milk. and make one image of Nârâyaṇa from them."In this forest there is sweet and cool water. consecrate a pot of water for the sake of the departed. . and in accordance with what: rites must it be given? Tell me.

should be made with faith. By the Śrâddha. What good are a hundred other gifts from you?"Brahmâ in the middle. one should give away the golden pot. and Śaṅkara. which is superior to all other gifts in removing great sins. O King. with incenses. and all the guardians of the quarters. followed him up. again implored him. O Bird. attained heaven. eternal giver of happiness. with elephants. bowed to him. give it to a twice-born. performed even by a stranger. O Kâśyapa. He who hears. have acted sinfully. consecrated it to Brahmâ. . The Blessed Lord spoke on: His army. in the neck of it. and became invisible. On the arrival of the army the departed one. though they may. 66-68. Having come out of the forest. Îśa 1 and Keśava 2." 64-65."Having prepared a pot of refined gold. the guardians of the universe. slayer of the demon Madhu. horses and chariots. flowers and sandal-paste. He duly performed. the rites and ceremonies for the dweller in the upper body. in order-"These having duly worshipped. while he was thus conversing with the departed. the king returned to his city. and arrived there remembering all that was said by the departed one. never go to the departed condition. in the east and other directions. likewise Viṣṇu. "This gift. 58:2 Another form of Viṣṇu.--what wonder then that when the son performs it the father should reach it! 60. O King. full of milk and clarified butter. 58:4 The club-bearing Viṣṇu. filled it with clarified butter and worshipped before it with devotion. having given the great jewel to the king. Footnotes 58:1 Viṣṇu. and the departed. 58:3 The divine dwarf Viṣṇu. 58:5 A name for Śiva. and he who causes others to hear this holy history. 59:1 Śiva. the departed attain a happy state. 59:2 Viṣṇu. for the release of the departed. a form of. released by these sacred gifts.

CHAPTER VIII.
An Account of the Gifts for the Dying. 1. Garuḍa said: Tell me, O Lord, all the rites for those in the other worlds who have done good, and also how these rites should be performed by the sons. 2. The Blessed Lord said: O Târkṣya, you have done well in questioning me for the benefit of mankind. I will tell you all about the rites proper for the righteous. 3-4. The good person, finding his body, in its old age, afflicted with diseases, and the planetary conditions unfavourable, and not hearing the sounds of life, And knowing his death to be near, should he fearless and alert, and should make reparation for any sins committed knowingly or in ignorance. 5-8. When it is near the time to die he must perform his ablutions, and worship Viṣṇu in the form of Śâlagrâma. He must worship with fragrant substances, with flowers, with red saffron, with leaves of the holy basil, with incense, with lamps, with offerings of food and many sweetmeats, and other things. He should give presents to Brâhmiṇs, should feed them with the offerings, and should recite the eight and the twelve syllabled mantras. He should call to mind, and listen to, the names of Viṣṇu and Śiva. The name of Hari, coming with the range of hearing, takes away the sins of men. 9. Relatives, coming near the diseased, should not mourn. My holy name should be remembered and meditated upon repeatedly. 10-11. The Fish, the Tortoise, the Boar, the Man-lion, the Dwarf, Paraśurâma, Râma, Kṛiṣṇa, Buddha, and also Kalkî 1: These ten names should always be meditated upon by the wise. Those who recite them near the diseased are called relatives. 12-16. Of him who gives voice to the auspicious name "Kṛiṣṇa" tens of millions of great sins are quickly reduced to ashes. Even the dying Ajâmila reached heaven by pronouncing the name Hari, which had been given to his son. 2 How much more then is its effect when it is pronounced with faith! Hari, meditated upon even by one who has evil thoughts, takes away sins: fire burns, even though accidentally touched. The sinful man is not able to sin while the power of the name Hari is uprooting the sins, O Twice-born.

Yama said to his servants: "Bring the man who denies, but O messengers, do not bring the man who meditates on the name Hari." 17-20. One should worship the Achyuta, Keśava, Nârâyaṇa, Kṛiṣṇa, Dâmodara, Vâsudeva, Hari, Śrîdhara, Mâdhavam, Gopîkâvallabham, Râmachandra, the Lord of Jânakî. 1 "O servants, do not go near those sinless people who take refuge in the lotus-eyed Vâsudeva and Viṣṇu, who is the supporter of the earth, and carries in his hand the conch and discus. "Bring those sinners who always turn away from time nectar of the lotus-feet of Viṣṇu,-which are served by the race of Paramahaṅsas, who know the true essence of things, and are without possessions,--and those whose desires are bound up in the household, which is the path to hell." "Bring them whose tongues do not pronounce the qualities and name of the Lord, whose minds do not meditate upon His lotus feet, whose heads never bow to Kṛiṣṇa, who do not offer worship to Viṣṇu." 21-23. Know, then, O Lord of Birds, the hymning of Viṣṇu, which bestows welfare on the universe, to be the best expiation for even great sins. The performance of penances does not purify the wicked man, who has turned his face away from Nârâyaṇa; just as even rivers cannot purify a liquor-pot. By the name of Kṛiṣṇa one is riddened of sins, and never sees, even in dream, Yama nor his servants. 24-25. The man, having a body of flesh, bones and blood,--who, towards the end gives cows to the twice-born, uttering "Nandanandanam," never falls into the Vaitaraṇî. Hence one should remember the name of Mahâ Viṣṇu, which effaces multitudes of sins, and should read or listen to the Gîtâ and the Hymn of the Thousand Names. 26-27. The fast of the eleventh day, the Gîtâ, the water of the Ganges, the leaves of the holy basil, the foot-water and names of Viṣṇu--all these are givers of freedom at the time of death. Then he must dedicate food, with clarified butter and gold, to a learned twice-born and. also give cows with calves. 28-31. Whatever a man gives in his last days, little or much, if it is approved by his Son, is exempt from decay, O Târkṣya. In these last days a good son should make all the gifts. It is for the sake of this that the wise pray for a righteous son in this world,

The sons, seeing their father lying upon the ground with eyes half-closed, should not covet his earned wealth. 1 A good son will make such gifts as will prolong his father's life, and free him from misery when he goes into the next world. 32-34. In disease and calamity two gifts rank above all others. They are indispensable-the eight-fold gift of sesamum and other things. Sesamum, iron, gold, cotton stuff, salt, the seven grains, a plot of ground, a cow,--every one of these is said to purify. The eight great gifts are the effacers of great sins, and should be given in the last days. Hear now their good effects: 35-36. There are three kinds of holy sesamums generated from my sweat. Asuras, Dânavas and Daityas 2 are gratified by the gift of these sesamums. White, black and brown are the three kinds of sesamums. The gift of these removes the sins gathered in speech, thought and action. 37-40. A gift of iron-ore should be made with the hands touching the ground,--then he does not go within the domain of Yama, nor tread his path. Yama holds in his hands, for the punishing of the sinful, an axe, a threshing-pestle, a rod, a sword and a dagger. This gift is considered propitiatory to these weapons of Yama. Therefore should be made the gift of iron, which is the bringer of happiness in the world of Yama. Because of this gift of iron, happiness is bestowed by these great messengers of Yama:-Uraṇa, Śyâmasûtra, Śuṇdâmarka, Udumbara, Śeṣa and Bala. 41-44. Hear this great secret, O Târkshya, about this most supreme gift, by which are pleased the dwellers in Bhû, Bhûvar and Swar worlds. 1 Brahmâ and others, sages, shining ones, and those who are in the assembly of the King of Justice are gratified by the gift of gold, and become granters of boons. Therefore a gift of gold should be made for the uplifting of the departed. He does not go to the world of Yama, O child, but reaches heaven. He dwells for a long time in the world of truth and is then reborn here as a king, handsome, righteous, eloquent, prosperous, and of unexcelled strength. 45. By the gift of cotton-stuff one is freed from fear of the messengers. By the gift of salt one is freed from the fear of Yama.

sesamum and gold.--one is absolved of all these sins. shall dwell in hell as long as Śeṣa 2 supports the earth. The cows verily carry the man beyond three kinds of hells. I say. is reborn for many times as a beggar. salt. does not give land to the twice-born. The fruit produced by the gift of land increases daily. Having given even once a tawny cow. another to absolve himself of debts. though for others. learned in the Vedas. another for the gaining of liberation. All other gifts. should the gift of a cow for Vaitaraṇî be made. in the forenoon and the afternoon. wheat. He who. 53-55. He who gives to the twice-born land filled with grains goes to the abode of Indra and is worshipped by divinities and demons. . barley. 56-57. It has been observed by the sages that the gift of a plot of land of the size of a cow's hide. Not by vows. having become a king. of a cow is equal to a gift of land. not by any gifts but by the gift of land is a great sin committed in kingship expiated. kidney beans. The sins committed in boyhood. without even a village hut. absolves one from Brahmicide. mâṣa. are producers of little fruit.46-48. not by holy pilgrimages. O Bird. to a proper person. With special rites. The sins committed in the night. milkgiving. to a well-conducted and austere Brâhmiṇ. in the morning. O Kâśyapa. Rices. Therefore shall a king especially make gifts of land. dwarf-peas: these are called the seven grains. in accordance with the rites. The king who. through pride. cotton-stuff. does not make gifts of land. 58-61. the gift. in manhood. Chitragupta and the others who dwell in the city of Yama are propitiated. speech and thought. 1 panic seeds. And by gifts of the seven grains the standard-bearer of the King of Justice and others who stand at the gates are propitiated. By gifts of inn. with the calf and other necessary things. The giver is released by her at the end from the accumulated sins. a cow should be given. in youth.--of action. in old age and in previous births. 49-52. in the twilight. He should give a cow to overcome death. Towards the end.

and in it place the raft: Having placed the things which are born from the body of the sun in it. 69. which is a means for crossing the Vaitaraṇî River. One who has studied the scriptures and made fire-offerings to the shining ones and who does not eat food cooked by others is not polluted by receiving even the earth filled with precious stones. dedicate the cow there in accordance with the scriptures. and milk it into a bronze vessel. recite this mantra:-- . One should decorate a black or reddish cow. are equal. A gift made to a deserving person. fastening it with silk threads. 65-68. place clarified butter in the bronze vessel and put all upon the cow. The gift of one cow while one is in full vigour of mind.62-63. A gift made to a deserving person multiplies a hundred-thousand-fold. properly worship with fragrances. Put there a golden image of Yama. A gift should not be made to an undeserving person by the wise who desire their own welfare. with ornaments to a Brâhmiṇ. increases a hundred thousand fold. Mantras and fire. silver its feet. 70-76. I will tell you about the gilt of a cow. and place the covered bronze vessel upon some cotton-stuff. and an iron rod. The cow given to an undeserving person leads the giver to hell. Take hold of the tail of the cow. hang a bell round its neck. Cover it with a pair of black cloths. 64. One cow should be given to one only. tip its horns with gold. and coloured rice 2. It brings unending fruit to the giver and does not harm the recipient. 1 Present the cloths. place a foot in the boat. fill it with water. the gift of a thousand when dying and bereft of mental faculties. having honoured a Brâhmiṇ. Make a raft of sugarcanes. of which I have spoken to you already. do not themselves partake of these evil qualities. the removers of cold and poison. And the gift of one hundred thousand cows after death 1. flowers. who has bathed at the sacred waters. and never to many. And it troubles the recipient's people for a hundred generations. If he either sells it or shares it his family will he troubled to the seventh generation. and. the gift of a hundred cows while suffering from diseases. make a hole.

He who. and having walked round all these things. uplift me. he should give them to the Brâhmiṇ. I have presented this gift to you. 91-92. Bodies are transitory. and lies on the very dreadful way of Yama. with these mantras. gives the Vaitaraṇî cow. At the equinoctial and solstitial points. 85-86.--the supreme gift of a cow should be made. Vaitaraṇî. Salutations to Vaitaraṇî! "I have presented this to you. "May she who is the Goddess of Prosperity for all creatures. to a learned Brâhmiṇ.77-82. like the Ganges. with these rites. 2 on Yuga days 3 and at other sacred times. That verily is called the sacred time. and may I dwell in the midst of cows. Thou art verily the saviour of those who are immersed in the ocean of existence. who is the mainstay of the shining ones. O Bird. which is a hundred yojanas in extent. and in the dwelling-places of Brâhmiṇs. Whether the body is well or ill one should carry out the Vaitaraṇî observance. according to his wealth. the very form of Viṣṇu. should make a gift of a cow. compassionate to those who seek refuge in Thee. made miserable by the waves of sorrow and remorse. The wise man. Queen of the shining ones! "May cows be in front of me. goes by a righteous path into the assembly of the King of Justice. "O Lord of the Universe. "O Cow. Yama in the form of a cow. 87-88. Salutations to thee. in which faith is produced. being desirous of crossing that river. 89. may cows be in my heart 1. does not appear in the Great Way after the gift of a cow. 90. God upon earth.--one should accumulate righteousness." 83-84. At all the sacred bathing-places. That river. possessions are not eternal. its the form of a cow remove my sins. at Vyatîpâta. on the day of the new moon. Salutations to Vaitaraṇî. . 2 Therefore it is necessary to give a cow at all sacred times. and when a proper person is present. at the crossing over 1. "O Best of the Twice-born. look upon me. death is always near. may cows be behind me. So one who desires his own welfare should make unending gifts. desiring to cross that river. at the eclipses of the sun and moon. for the sake of my passing through the gateway of Yama on the great path.--thence flows unending benefit. With hands together having invoiced.

93-94. and the relatives from the cremation-ground. 103-104. 105-106. He is born by the attraction of karma. If not to the living. but when they have known him to be dead. and the grandsons? Whose is the wife. The relatives turn away with averted faces leaving the dead body on the ground. reaches the supreme goal. He who. 95-96. Otherwise--without provision--the man suffers pain on the path. The good and evil karma he has made goes with him. Knowing all this. or the wealth? In the world of change nobody belongs to anybody. while still alive. goes happily on the Great Way.The gift of even a little wealth. The fruitfulness of birth as a human being depends upon the pursuit of righteousness alone. much less will anyone give to the dead. Therefore righteousness should be sought. son. but righteousness goes with him. but when the wealth becomes another's one can have nothing to say. wife and fancily. brother. 97-99. so long should one make gifts to a Brâhmiṇ. body. The man who neglects righteousness. So long as a man is alive he has a father and other relatives. 100. 107-100. their affection soon fades away. He who has gifts as provision. and who can give afterwards? 101-102. goes and comes in misery. follows righteousness. wife and the others. Like creatures in a water-tank.--all these are transitory. be it good or bad. kinsman. and like the motion or sticks in a river is one's contact with mother. The wealth disappears from the house. presented with one's own hand:--this is unending. like a lump of wood or earth. birth as a human being is obtained. He should constantly remember that the true kinsman of the self is the Self. Wealth. Life is transient. Whose are the sons. As long as one is in possession of wealth. Nobody has a relation in this changing ocean of sorrow. one should give with one's own hand. . having gained it. By the power of great merit. sons. Therefore one should make gifts himself. kinsmen. father. and goes again upon its exhaustion. and the time is effectual. All the gifts made by human beings in this world clear the way for them on the path of the world of Yama. When his body has been destroyed by fire his karma remains and wherever he is the man experiences it.

through the brother. Therefore. do not make gifts at the time of illness come to grief when dead. The wise. Wealth is born of righteousness. For him who makes gifts there are no troubles and no torments of hell. and no fear caused by the messengers of Yama at the time of death. From him who offers to Me. by that. 65:1 They may expect ancestral property. by righteousness desire is conquered. his sets. 63:1 Names of Vishnu. grandsons and great-grandsons are ennobled. which appeared in archaic and ancient times. A righteous son is honoured even by the shining ones. but not that earned by the father. and as prescribed. a fruit or water--from him. descents or incarnations of Viṣṇu. 62:2 Ajâmila was a man of very evil life. Sons. a gift should be made. with devotion. I accept that. presented with devotion. Whether it be small or great does not count with me. incalculable. brothers.On account of gifts made in a former birth much wealth is obtained in this. 116-118. 112. 115. not by large piles of wealth. and happened to call him as he was dying. the self-subdued. leave faith. 65:2 Classes of non-human beings. grandsons. who. . by one knowing this. Righteousness is supported by faith. a thousand-fold. Righteousness verily is the cause of freedom. though in poverty. through the sister. All those sinful-misers. 113-114. He should cause his ailing father to make gifts on earth. a flower. through the mother. What is given through the father has a hundred-fold merit. 110-111. who is still to come. ten-thousand fold. except Kalkî. Therefore should righteousness be pursued. If the wealth made by the father is given to the deserving by the sons--then. himself. because of greed. Hence should wealth be given. by all means. and go to heaven. kinsmen and friends who do not make gifts on behalf of a dying man are without doubt slayers of Brâhmaṇ. O Bird. for the sake of righteousness. a leaf. Footnotes 62:1 The ten avatâras. who named his son Nârâyaṇa.

67:2 The eternal serpent. silk. and used to honour persons by sprinkling over them. 68:1 That is. 71:2 Note the subjective character of the "river. 70:1 Probably the afore-mentioned cow. . given by another for one. 67:1 A kind of spotted grain. ghee. astral and lower mental worlds.66:1 Physical. and the minutes declination are the same. 70:2 Akṣata. gold. 72:3 Every month there is a day called Yuga--the last or last but one. 71:1 Note here. are closely connected with sacrifice and therefore with the sun. that the cow is merely a symbol. 72:2 When the sun and moon are on opposite sides of either solstice." 72:1 The passing of the sun from one constellation to another. etc. whole rice coloured with turmeric and saffron.

1 Next. goes to the city of Viṣṇu. in the middle of the kuśa is Janârdana. The man who dies with a leaf of it in his mouth. and by what rites men after death reach a good condition. unfailingly. 1 at the tip of the kuśa is Śaṅkaradeva 2--three shining ones are seated in the kuśa grass. near to a holy basil tree one should make a ring with cowdung. 1.CHAPTER IX. though he have hundreds of sins. darbha-grasses and holy basil are three holy things. though he have no son. which removes all ills and sins. Brahma is seated at the root of the kuśa-grass. O Lord. hence by the mere touch of them men attain heaven. hence Asuras. Sesamums.--the servants of Yama do not come to it. having scattered sesamum seeds. upon a seat of sesamum and darbhagrass. O Târkṣhya. 14-15. The house in which the holy basil tree is enshrined is like a holy bathing place. which removes the pain of being. and they prevent an ailing man from going to a miserable condition. mantras. . O Târkṣya. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. Yama is not able to see him who gives up his life while having a holy basil shoot. 3-5. 6-9 Where is the shade of the holy basil tree. Garuḍa said: You have spoken fully about the gifts for the diseased. 10-13. When. of the rites for the dying. there is always liberation for the dying. The darbha grasses. fire. Tell now. difficult to obtain by gifts. 2. holy basil. the embodied leaves his ordinary body. Because the sesamum is produced from My sweat it is holy. and I will explain the rites for one leaving the body. he should strew darbha-grass. my riches. Dânavas and Daityas run away from sesamum. An Account of the Rites for the Dying. Liberation is certain for the being who dies near the Śâlagrâma stone. and then have the Śâlagrâma stone placed on the cleaned platform. by the effects of karma. Brâhmiṇs and cows do not lose their purity by being used again and again. Hence kuśa. then. are produced from my hairs.

He who drinks the water of the Ganges. are both equal. "O Ganges. on a cremationground. and Sacrificial Fire stand upon the ring. 1 Brahmâ. which is the effacer of great sins. He who performs a thousand times the Chândrâyaṇa fast which purifies his body. . and fire. goes when dead to the city of Viṣṇu. 16-20. It sanctifies meritless men by hundreds and thousands. by his drinking the water of the Ganges. when basely used. so. Just as. and goes to the residence Vaikuṇṭḥa. nor place the dying man upon the ground. Therefore should one drink of the Ganges. Then one should give him the water of the Ganges. Demons. One should lay the dying man on the ground cleaned with cow-dung and spread over with darbha-grasses. 21-22.Darbha-grass becomes unclean with rice-balls. Brâhmiṇs. and gives fruit of merit equal to bathings and gifts at all the sacred waters. O Târkṣya. the feeding of Brâhmiṇs. He who drinks even a drop of the water of the water of the Śâlagrâma stone 3 is absolved from all sins. The ground must he pure everywhere. by eating the offerings for the departed. and he who drinks the water of the Ganges. Śrâddha. goblins. Viṣṇu. and the followers of Yama enter an impure place.--so also by merely touching. placing him on the cleaned ground.--therefore should one make a ring. elementals. He who calls. Rudra 2 all the shining ones. By bathing in other rivers men are purified. with no stain to be seen. and a cot above the ground. not support him in the air. is his sin reduced to ashes. Hence without this ring one should not perform oblations to the fire. a bundle of cotton is destroyed by falling into the fire. one should put gold and jewels upon his lips. the worship of the Holy Ones. drinking or calling upon the Ganges. Ganges" while life is flickering in the throat. If there is a stain it should be cleaned away by further plastering. 4 23-30. and is not born again on earth. heated by the rays of the sun 1 is freed from all births and goes to the abode of Hari. cows and holy basil. Next. whose water helps one over the ocean of transmigration. and give him the Water of the Feet of Vishnu in the form of the Śâlagrâma. mantras. spooks.

At the time when the breath is leaving the body. becomes detestable and unfit to touch. as does a householder whose house has been burnt. become separate. Yogins go through an opening in the head.-worm. ether to ether: and the Self that is in the bodies is happy. 1 which is a giver of liberation. also air in air. the hymning of Viṣṇu and Śiva--these bring liberation at death to Brâhmiṇs. left by the vital breath. The individual. 2 He who says. contemplates with faith the Ganges. the life-breath departs from the inert body. eternally free. 36-39. "I have relinquished. foul smells soon arise in it. which are joined. birthless and deathless. fire is dissipated in fire. with its three conditions. dung and ashes? 42-43. 3 while life is still flickering in his throat. When the rising and descending life-breaths. The motionless body. Endowed with good tendencies. however little. surrounded with sense-objects of sound and the rest. Dissatisfied with worldly things the twice-born should take up relinquishment. likewise water to water. O Bird. all-pervading. enters a new body created by his own karma." goes at death to the city of Viṣṇu. and is not born again on earth. 44-45. clinging to desire and love. Earth is dissipated to earth. environed by the sheath of karma. he should make a fast. 40-41. then. and drink its water.And the man who. The repeating of the Vedas and the Upaniṣads. The mouth. possessing all the senses. and it is disliked by everybody. who perish in a moment. . be proud of the body. eyes. the life breaths easily pass out through the higher opening. similarly. nostrils and ears are the seven gateways through which go those of good deeds. O Bird. the body falls like a tree unsupported and stricken by time. to the Bhâgavata. 31-33. goes to the highest goal. Then. Therefore he should contemplate. when his life is leaving. witness of the world. keep in mind the Ganges. becoming subtle. Then he should listen. 34-35. Kṣattriyas and Vaiṣyas. When the Lord of Breath departs. salute. of him who is righteous and has thus performed the rites. How can men. or half or quarter of a verse of the Bhâgavata never returns hither from the world of Brahmâ. And. He who in his last moments repeats a verse.

77:2 Śiva. 48. knowing the true righteousness. giving up attachment to worldly life and its objects. And they. to die they remove him from the couch to the ground. 80:3 That is. 79:1 Here is a mystical suggestion. bringing a chariot wreathed with countless bells. always beloved by the righteous. in a resplendent body. 78:4 The heaven of Viṣṇu. possessed of gold and diamond ornaments. away in their own chariot. 80:2 Sannyâsa. and is honoured by the Holy Ones. who has performed the rites. with shining garments and garlands. 78:1 When the people of the house are aware that one is about. carry him. wise. and thus consecrated to Viṣṇu. 80:1 The Bhâgvata Purâṇa. 78:3 Water is poured over the stone. 78:2 Siva. . 77:1 Viṣṇu.46-47: Then the messengers of the Shining Ones. truly says. arrive. resplendent with flashing plumes. That great man. Footnotes 76:1 Cowdung is extensively used in India as a purifier and antiseptic. by virtue of gifts attains heaven.

with his sacred thread on the right shoulder.--how can he be called a son. At the place of death. by this the evil ones amongst the tens of millions of elementals can do no harm. after cleaning and sprinkling. by doing which sons and grandsons are released from the hereditary debt. Then. should have the shave. but one should perform the funeral ceremonies for his parents. Then the daughter-in-law 1 and others should go round it and worship it. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. half-way. garlands. or the clay of the Ganges. having bathed with his relatives he must put on clean cloths. bringing river water. then along with the other relatives the son should bear it on his shoulder. Therefore he must have the shave by all means. O Târkṣya. The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire. . except the nails and the hair of the armpits. he should offer them. O Lord. Then the son. 1 4-6. 7-9. should pronounce the family name. 2.CHAPTER X. along with all his relatives. and describe also the greatness of the wife who is faithful. There is no need for numerous gifts. he should make a halt. and dedicate rice-balls and presents. By this the earth and its presiding deity become pleased. he should make an offering for him. in the name of the so-called dead. Then. abandoning sorrow. Garuḍa said: Tell me. Then. 11-13. Ḥe should wake offering at the threshold in the name of him who is become a traveller. He who carries his dead father on shoulder or back or hip pays off the debt of constant parental kindnesses. he should bathe the corpse and next adorn it with sandalpaste. I will tell you all about the ceremonies for the upper body. 14. the helper through the ocean of changefulness. Having bathed the corpse. The son who bears his father on his shoulder to the burning-ground obtains the fruit of the horse-sacrifice at every step. Having covered it with new cloths he. 10. The son who does not have the shave when the mother or father has died. 1. 3. in order to remove all sins. the son who does so obtains fruit like that of the Agniṣṭoma. the rites for burning the bodies of the good.

either in this name. O Târkṣya. Having thus prayed to the fire. as follows: Having swept the ground and washed it with cow-dung. demons and fiends. 24. Who dies in the Pañchaka does not attain a good condition.15. An offering should be made on the funeral pyre. make of darbha grass. lead Thou him to heaven!" 20-22. and consecrated with the four Rikṣa mantras. he should offer in the name of the departed two rice ball. should give them to the fire. From the time he is released on the funeral pyre the condition as departed begins. and some trouble arises for the sons and family. This one belonging to the changing world is dead. and with the wood of palâsha and aśwattha. Harm befalls the house in which death takes place in the Rikṣa mansion. for the burning of the body. Thus the dead gets the benefit of the offering of five rice-balls. . Oblations should be made in order that goblins. Womb of the World. evil occurs. shall not cause disturbance of that body which is to be sacrificed. and laid down with its head to the north. Then one should place near the corpse images. 1 he should make an oblation as prescribed. he should make there a funeral pyre with sandal wood. 23. having taken out some earth and erected an altar and sprinkled it with water. Supporter of Beings. 1 25-27. The son. 28. and having placed the fire as prescribed. Burning should not be done then.on the funeral pyre. the holy bath wood. 16-19. beginning with 'loman. Nourisher of Creatures. Those who know the ways of the departed call him a seeker. having dedicated five rice-balls to the departed. 20-33. if there is not Pañchaka. And having worshipped with flowers and coloured rice the Shining One known as the eater of flesh. Beginning from the middle of Dhaniṣṭhâ. in the five Pañchaka mansions ending with Revatî 2 is not a suitable time for burning. If burning takes place. another death occurs. I will explain to you the rites for the warding off of all ills. Some place should be cleaned there. Having placed the departed on the funeral pyre. or in that of Departed. and having brought the oblation with the grasses. and others in the various directions. in case burning takes place in the middle of Rikṣa. otherwise the abovementioned come to disturb. Then it should be taken to the burning-ground.'-"Oh. if it is done. in the hand of the dead. Thou.

Having bathed again at home. in the name of the family. He should eat the leaves of the nimba-tree and recount the virtues of the dead. 63. diamonds. having split open the brahmarandra 1 should make an oblation of clarified butter with this mantra: "Thou art born from him. 34-66.Purified gold should be used. with mantras and sesamum offerings. filled with milk and water. Then the burning along with the images should be done. in the case of householders with a piece of wood. O Târkṣya. blaze forth!" Thus having made an oblation of clarified butter. at the cross-roads or on the burning-ground. 56-50. and sacrifice performed with Rikṣa mantras. he should repeat this mantra: "Thou hast been burned with the fires of the burning-ground. bathe and drink!" . he should weep loudly. gold. at sunset. and a bronze vessel filled with clarified butter. his skull should be split open. that he may become happy 60-61. 2 may he be born again from you. His son. They should walk home. Holding the unbaked earthen pot. with the mantra "Pretâjayata. bound with-three sticks. Thou hast been forsaken by relatives. after having thus performed the pacificatory ceremonies. When the burning is finished the women should bathe. turned to the south." and with leaf-vessels. he should keep a lamp burning there. in that of ascetics with a cocoanut. does the burning. Who. He is an offering to the heaven-world. so that he may attain the world of the forefathers. should perform the pacificatory rites for him. silver. on the day of the offering of the rice-balls. For warding off ills he should give a vessel full of sesamum. then the sons. and the son. 62. he should give food to a cow and eat-from a leaf-plate-but not any food already in the house. Having cleaned the place of death with cow-dung. in order. milk and water in an earthen pot. Here is milk and here water. O Fire. he should offer. and offer water mixed with sesamum. For three days. Whether half or wholly burnt. the women in front and the men behind. and the departed goes to the supreme condition. up to the twelfth day.--no harm befalls him.

and walk round three times. Then he should several times sprinkle the bones with water and milk. on the second or the third day he should do as follows: 68-78. carry it to a tank of water. digging a hole there. and begin to pick up the heap of bones. he. 79-84. . water and sweetmeats. should offer three rice-balls. taking the vessel from the hole. with sandal-paste and saffron. the jar of bones. O Lord of Birds. Having prepared a triangular plot of ground. repeating the mantra beginning with "Yamâyatva. and. which destroys the pain of burning. he should sprinkle them with milk and water. When the wind which has touched the waves of the Ganges touches the dead. touched with it his heart and head and walked round it saluting it. Then he should offer over it a rice-ball. and by those who do not. containing water. Having collected the ashes from the pyre. by those who maintain household fires. in the three directions. he should sprinkle water. Having put them into a leaf-box. he should drop it into the middle of the Ganges. and. with great austerities. the divine Ganges. having put on a woollen garment. Having gone to the burning-ground." Then having sprinkled milk over the place of the funeral pyre. facing south. taking a three-legged stool he should place on it a jar with mouth uncovered. and wearing the sacred ring. Then he should make. As long as a man's bones float on the water of the Ganges. Having worshipped. On the fourth day the collection 1 should be made.67. Bhagîratha 1 brought her down from the world of Brahmâ. having bathed and become pure. He whose bones sink in the water of the Ganges within ten days. his sin is at once destroyed. for the uplifting of his forefathers. perform Śrâddha as prescribed. 1 The son should make the grain oblation to the denizens of the burning-ground. O Bird. place in it. never returns from the world of Brahma. If there is nothing to prevent. He should take fifteen steps in the northerly direction and. as prescribed.--for so many thousands of years he remains in the heaven-world. Having placed them on palasha leaves. having put them into an earthen pot. an oblation of cooked rice with curds and clarified butter. and worship them well. for the departed. and cleansed it with cow-dung.

And from the same day the ten-days' ceremonies should be performed and that date should be noted. up to twenty-seven months old. then one should offer a jar. and food should be given to children. who led to heaven the sons of Sagara 2 who had been reduced to ashes. it should simply be thrown into the Ganges. fed. it should be buried in the ground. went to the place called hell. . her womb should be cut open. milk-porridge and eatables. On the eleventh and twelfth days one should perform the ceremonies for a youth. on the day this is heard of-Having made an effigy of darbha grass. and she alone be burned. 88-90. If a youth dies. or in a wood. and the child drawn out and placed on the ground. Now. After the bones are collected he should perform the ten-days' ceremonies. for the performance of the annual Śrâddha. but without the rites of releasing a bull and of the great gift. If an infant dies. If the embryo perishes. 92-93. there are no rites. one should give milk. 87. one should offer ten rice-balls. 94-98. if in another place. and then collect its ashes and drop them into the water of the Ganges. one should have Brâhmiṇs. then. and if his body is not found. along with milk-food and lumps of sugar. Hence the good son should himself drop the bones in the Ganges. whether vowed or not. or from dangerous thieves. 85-86. When his bones were dropped into the Ganges by a crow he ascended the divine chariot and went to the abode of the Shining Ones. If a child dies on the bank of the Ganges. Those men who die after committing sins attain the heaven-world by their bones falling into the Ganges. if a child dies. along with children. When one who has passed five years dies.In the three worlds is celebrated the purifying fame of the Ganges. as explained above. if anybody meets his death in an uninhabited place. Older than that it should be burned and its bones strewn on the Ganges. a destroyer of all sorts of creatures who. If a woman dies in the fulness of pregnancy. one should burn it alone. There was a certain hunter. killed by a lion in a great forest. If a youth who has taken the vow dies. one should have young children fed. A gift of a waterpot should be made. 91.

with devotion to the forefathers. 99. Previous to the taking of vows. they must be buried in the ground. Paramahaṅsa. 84:1 His son's wife--the wife of the son performing the rite. Footnotes 83:1 A certain sacrifice. becomes Nârâyaṇa 1. because of carrying the three-fold staff they never go into the condition of the departed. 5 days in each month. with all the castes. 86:1 A certain astrological position. with women and Śûdras. Kutîchaka. they should be thrown into them. 85:1 The fire-deva. . requires but scanty rites. these are Sannyâsins. If the Ganges. and when dead. A man. the great gift and the gift of a cow should be made. Bahûdaka. it is declared that they should be buried in the ground. 102-107. but on the twelfth day one should perform the ceremony for him alone. 100. there is not joint rite for the youth. or other.If the father is living. In boyhood and in youth the cot. by realisation of their own true nature. 2 O Târkṣya. Therefore rice-balls and water should not be offered to them. Those who know are always free. but one should perform the annual Śrâddha at the sacred waters. and the ten-days' ceremonies should not be performed for them by their sons. no water rites. is not available. and the gifts of land. rites are done according to age. by the mere holding of the staff. Where great rivers exist. and Śrâddha at Gayâ. 86:2 The fifth Nakṣatra. He who is little attached to action. hence they do not expect rice-balls to be given. who is little bound by sense-objects. Marriage. The Haṅsa. 101. With all ascetics there is no burning. and he who is young in age of body. is declared to take the place of vows. the bull and other sacrifices should be performed.

87:87-34 87:87-35 88:88-41 88:88-42 88:88-46 .

93:1 A great king who is said to have brought down the Ganges from heaven to earth. 96:2 These names are given to advanced stages of human development.000 sons of Sagara were reduced to ashes by Viṣṇu. 90:2 The funeral pyre is lighted from the sacred household fire. and that they. 93:2 There is a legend to the effect that the 80. . 96:1 Viṣṇu. put on the third finger of right hand. 92:1 A finger-ring of kusha grass. 91:1 Of the bones. the ancestors of Bhrigu. were released and purified by him in the Ganges.89:89-48 89:89-53 90:1 An opening at the top of the head.

There is no way out. for the man who has no son. and birth is certain for the dead. the son should perform the rites. Garuḍa said: Tell me. and they should not weep when sorrow is useless. the body is only a dream. O Keśava. rests awhile and then departs again. a good son is released from the hereditary debt. Although there be sorrowing day and night for thousands of years. resorting to some shady place.CHAPTER XI. should perform them. If there were a way of averting the inevitable. If there is no son the wife. should offer rice-balls to the father. and given up sorrow arising from ignorance. Râma and Yudiṣhṭhira would not have experienced miseries. 1. or a Brâhmiṇ's pupil or a proper kinsman should perform them. Nobody should form an excessive attachment to anybody. how can there be permanence in a body which is sustained by these foods? 12-17. what then of other persons’? As a traveller. 9-11. The ten-days' ceremonies. taking calm courage. An Account of the Ten-Days' Ceremonies. either human or divine. Having considered this. O Târkṣya. . having done which. then Nala. which removes misery. Death is certain for those who are born. O Bird. 3-8. the man who is dead may never be seen. The son. and I will tell you about the ten-days' ceremony. The good things eaten in the morning are destroyed by evening. refraining from tears. the being who has come under the sway of death must be born again here. and if no wife the brother. should be performed by the sons or grandsons of his younger or his elder brother. Because the departed has inevitably to drink the bitter tears let fall by his relatives. so is the coming together of beings. 2 The Blessed Lord said: Listen. what good results follow from the performance of the ten-days' rite. This is inevitable and therefore a wise man should not grieve over it. and who should perform it if there is no son.

saying the "Atasî. only one has a son. . sandal paste. obtains the fruit of tens of millions of sacrifices.--the son should make the offering. obtains such fruit as is acquired by performing the Śrâddha at Gayâ. He should place on it. the family priest may do them. perform it. a lamp. they are all considered. should bow to it.Manu declared that if. O Bird." Then having spread kuśa grass in front of it. on account of that son. devoted to Brâhmaṇ.-Only by one these ceremonies. 18. between nine and twelve noon. at a sacred bathing-place. Having gone to a well or a tank. as a seat for the rice-ball. he should make an altar 1 there. eatables. But the annual Śrâddha should be performed severally if the wealth has been divided. he should bathe without reciting mantras. but only one of them has a son. by this sacrament for the helpless departed. cleansed with cow-dung. incense. Being purified. 2 and pure. the flowers of the Bhṛiṅgarâja. For all who have no sons a friend may offer the rice-balls. as is obtained by going round the shrines seven times. Therefore should the eldest son perform with devotion the ten-days’ ceremony. in a garden. mouth-perfumes and presents. on account of that son. over leaves. 25-30. of brothers of the same father. The ten-days' ceremony for the father should be performed by the son. 19-21. all of them have a son. If there is nobody else. or in a temple. a twice-born 2 made of darbha and kuśa grasses. even if the wealth has been divided. He should dedicate Usîra-root. only one shall perform the ten-days' ceremony. Made of cooked rice or of barley meal. The son who performs the rites for one year. 22-24. If a man has several wives. 1 eating one meal. The son obtains such fruit from the performance of the rite for the father and mother. sleeping on the ground. and having placed upon it a ball prepared in the family-name of the departed. through excessive affection. The rites must not be neglected. Even if the eldest son dies. and the other sixteen Śrâddhas. seated facing southward at the root of a tree. to have a son. Although there be many sons. beginning with the ten-days' ceremony. A man or a woman who performs the rites for a friend. the father should not. and having worshipped it with water for the feet and other things. the riceball offerings.

100:1 A square flat mound a few inches high. he should. as also should the other relatives." Every day at the conclusion of the Śrâddha he should prayerfully repeat this incantation. with hands together. the Eternal. confer eternity upon the dead. Footnotes 99:1 One each day. 33. one should pronounce the name of the departed woman or man. During the ten days he should feed a twice-born with seasoned foods. 40. Therefore. Having bathed in the open. they should proceed to the place of the dead. pray for the release of the departed. 41-42. that has been given by me to the departed in his earthly name. 39. And say: "May his family increase like the panic grass. he may eat. There is no reason for fear for those who bow to Govinda. O Bearer of the conch. . wealth or other things. be Thou the giver of release to the departed. if given in the name of the departed. and handfuls of castor-oil in a pot: "May all this. Having meditated upon Hari. The son who performs the ceremony must again have a complete shave. and having the women go in front. 99:2 Celibate. cloths. symbolical of the deceased twice-born person. Food. O Lord of Birds. since flesh is forbidden in the Kali Yuga at the ceremony for the forefathers. in accordance with the sapiṇḍa rite." 31-33. On the ninth day all the authorised kinsmen at the proper time should besmear themselves with oil. 34-36. discus and mace. Indestructible. gone home. as beautiful as the atasî flower. or a ball of mâṣa. and given food to the cow. "O Beginningless and Endless Deva. persist. In the same way that on the first day a rice-ball is given as prescribed. milk and water. 37-38. so should the nine rice-balls be given. Having bathed. On the tenth day he should shave. and radiate like the parched grain. clad in yellow robes. wishing the dead to reach heaven. taking with them panic grass and parched grain." and then leave in the house the mixed-panic grass and grain. On the tenth day a ball of flesh should be given. 100:2 A rough image. Lotus-eyed. from the first day onwards.Crow-food. water.

11-13. He should invite Brâhmiṇs.CHAPTER XII. with the sacred thread over the right shoulder 1. Garuḍa said: O Lord of the Holy Ones. clad in red robes. to Śiva and to Justice. with hands folded together. a silver one of Brahmâ. To the north there should be a pot of honey and clarified butter for Rudra. clad in yellow robes. and placed therein kuśa-grass. He should make water-offering.--a brass vessel filled with clarified butter. one should do the eleventh-day ceremony. and there one should place Rudra. which he has used. To the east there should be a pot of milk and water for Brahma. without mantras. The son. the seven grains which he liked. and there one should place Brahmâ. 3. well-read in Vedas and Śâstras. O Ruler of the universe. and perform diligently all the funeral ceremonies. having made a circle in the middle. as prescribed.--these. and upon it one should place Yama. clad in black robes. his ornaments. with Vaidic mantras. His clothes. O Bird. and performing the Sandhyâ and other ceremonies 1. and. To the west there should be a pot filled with Ganges water for Viṣṇu. to the creator 2. clad in white robes. . facing southward. tell me about the eleventh-day rite also. and on the eleventh day. Even a preceptor should become purified by bathing. with mantras. One should perform the tenth-day Śrâddha in the family name. To the south there should be a pot of rain-water for Yama. One should make a golden image of Viṣṇu. offer a rice-ball to the departed. should make the wateroffering. explain the ceremony of the dedication of the bull. The Blessed Lord said: In the early morning on the eleventh day one should go to a water-reservoir. And he should next make a gift of a cow for the helping along of his forefathers: "this cow is given by me. 5. a copper one of Rudra. his conveyances. 1. An Account of the Eleventh-day Rite. 2." 12-15. 3 perform the offering to the fire and then the eleventh-day Śrâddha. and an iron one of Yama. 6-10. to Viṣṇu. pray for the release of the departed. 4. and upon it one should place Viṣṇu. O Mâdhava. and bowing their heads. May it please Thee.

and having worshiped it. and is the uplifter of the ancestors. . 16. give the bed as prescribed. and increases the satisfaction of the forefathers. neck and hoofs. A glossy and red complexion is suitable for a Kṣattriya. The bull whose face. the departed goes to the highest condition. and the other things. flour-cakes and milk. and brown hoofs and horns is called dark-coloured. is called very dark--of which five varieties are known. yellow colour for a Vaiśya. so going round him he should salute him and present it. sweetmeats. they should be brought to his bedside and he should have them given. and Śrâddhas of the ninth and other days. 17-. ill or too young. and red in its eyes. with tail and feet white. That which is dark over all its body. the eight great gifts: if one does not offer these in his last days. for the sake of the departed.19. That which has one colour over all its limbs and tail and hoofs is called dark-brown." With these words it should be given to a Brâhmiṇ preceptor who has a family. with white face and tail. That which has a red colour. and which is the colour of lac dye is called dark. and is entirely beautiful in all its limbs. On the eleventh day the rite of the dedication of a bull should be performed as prescribed. is called a reddish bull. 21-30. for the sake of the dead. 20. Then the son should place upon the bed a golden image. white belly and black back is suitable for a Brâhmiṇ.Sesamum and the rest. with the image of the departed. and by the rite of the dedication of a bull. legs and tail are white. He should not use a cow which is crippled. red horns. That which has red eyes. O Brâhmiṇ. One with all limbs red-brown. "This bed is given by me to you. Having washed the feet of a Brâhmiṇ he should honour him with cloths and other things. That which is dove-coloured and has a tilaka-mark 1 on its forehead is called deep-brown. but one having well-marked characteristics. and give him cooked food. a reddish colour. black is suitable for a Śûdra. By this gift of the bed.

help over this ocean of existence!" Having thus bowed to it. when the sun is going north. "By whose dedication. Even the forefathers who have gone to heaven desire the dedication of a bull: "which son in our lineage will perform the dedication of a bull. of whom one perchance may go to Gayâ. He should do everything with diligence according to the prescribed rite. . 31-35. "I shall always be the grantor of boons to you. or marry a virgin Gaurî or dedicate a dark bull." 36. One should desire for many sons. On account of your being released. and. one should perform the dedication of a bull. He should [mark] the right side with the trident of Śiva and the. Therefore this should be done. In the month of Kârtika 1 and in other auspicious months. all of us will go to the highest condition? Among all sacrifices. according to the Śâstras. Therefore. 38-42. and will give release to the departed. walk round them. and should not be used for domestic purposes.This should by all means be dedicated. It exists in the world on this account." 43. doing it himself. In the two eclipses. And should bathe the bull and young cow with the water from the pot of Rudra. at a sacred bathing place. and worship a bull. 44-45.--so runs an ancient saying. Any one whose ancestors are tormented in Raurava and other hells helps them all out for twenty-one generations by the dedication of a bull. Having released the bull. or the dark on the twelfth and following days. he should release the bull and the young cow. the son. for the release of the forefathers. with hands folded together. in the bright fortnight. with this mantra. at the equinoctial and solstitial points. left side with a discus. the bull-sacrifice is the certain giver of release to us. 37. having worshipped them with fragrances and garlands. one should perform the bull-sacrifice. Having brought together a young bull and cow. he should bind them together with a marriage string in accordance with marriage rites. He alone should be considered a son who performs the dedication of a bull and the Gayâ Śrâddha---who does not do so verily is like unto excrement. goes easily to the highest condition. the ailing man should make the fire-offering. should recite this mantra:-"Thou art Justice in the form of a bull. Having cast the positions of the planets and worshipped them with their respective mantras. and then tether them to a post. Its fruit comes even during life. Thou wert formerly created by Brahma. The man who has no son.

the drinker of intoxicants. there is no merit in all the three worlds equal to that from the dedication of a bull. 57-59. at the funeral pyre. in youth. 55-56. without doubt. the purification of the body should be done. One should offer the first rice-ball to Viṣṇu. O Târkṣya. at the threshold. having a husband and a son. . falls into a dreadful hell. half-way on the road. the ungrateful. in the hand of the corpse. the slayer of a Brâhmiṇ. all the rites should be done. and then perform the Śrâddha for himself and give gifts to the twice-born. The sins which are committed in infancy. O bird! until the coming of the deluge. by fire-offerings. he who goes with his teacher's wife. by the dedication of a bull. such as the fire-offering and the rest. the second to the blessed Śiva. 51-53. The man who cruelly strikes a bull with his fists or with sticks. O Bird. by the performance of the dedication of a bull obtains the fruit of all his desires. Having thus carried out the dedication of a bull. sixteen:-30-64. one should present the third to the retinue of Yama. And next I will tell you about the second. That at the place of death.--these six. 54. He who does this. predeceases both. in manhood and in old age are destroyed. As in the former case. and at the collection of the bones. and the ten piṇḍas given in the ten days:-These first sixteen are called impure. nor by manifold gifts. the middle. and in a pure place. Therefore should one perform the bull sacrifice with all diligence. By recitation. And having placed a Śâlagrâma one should do the Vaiṣṇava Śrâddha. He who burdens a bull on the shoulder or on the back. The betrayer of friends. 50. I will tell you what should be done prior to sapiṇḍîkaraṇa ceremony. That condition which is obtained by the performance of the release of a bull.46-49. If a woman. the stealer of gold are all absolved by the dedication of a bull. suffers the torments of Yama until the end of the age. in childhood. is not reached by oblations to the fire and other sacrifices.--one should present a milk-giving cow. one should perform the sixteen Śrâddhas. likewise by gifts. the dedication of a bull should not be performed. whether having a son or not. At the hour when the sun enters an auspicious constellation. a Brâhmiṇ who knows the rites and has the auspicious signs should be invited.

and also before the year. 70-72. owing to carelessness. 1 and the sixth to the bearer of oblations to the forefather.The fourth to king Soma.-This is the last sixteen. The forty-eight Śrâddhas destroy the condition of the ghost-life. 65-67. and the annual and the fortnightly is called by me. and the eleventh reverently to Viṣṇu. O Târkṣya. The three sixteens should be performed so that the departed may join the assembly of the forefathers. Also. If he is killed through recklesness or wilfully. much strew rice and sesamum. 2 the tenth to the departed. One should offer a serpent incenses and lights. I have declared to you. the fifth to the bearer of oblations to the Shining Ones." This faithful wife lives for the good of her husband: the life is fruitful of her who worships her dead lord. 73-78. or by water. and should dedicate 1 uncooked rice-flour. is killed by fire. 2 eatables and milk. before the six months. One should give rice-balls in each one of the twelve months. the fourteenth to Śiva. or if the wife does them for the husband there is uninterrupted prosperity. then me should worship a serpent on the fifth day of each fortnight. Having had food cooked. She who does the funeral ceremonies on the death of her husband. If the performance of the three sixteens of Śrâddhas is not carried out. the seventh one should present to Death. The twelfth one should give to Brahmâ. "the Faithful. One should form a picture of a hooded serpent upon the ground with ricepowder. . The sixteenth rice-ball. as prescribed. 1 the ninth to Puruṣa. one should give to Puruṣa: These are called the middle sixteen by men who know the truth. O bird. either by himself or another. He for whom this series is performed becomes a member of the assembly of the forefathers. or by a serpent. for any one who. 68-69. The eighth one should give to Rudra. the fifteenth to Yama. then he certainly does not join them. one should perform the sacrament and other rites as prescribed. Therefore the three sixteens should be performed by the son. on the fortnight. and worship with white sweet-smelling flowers and sandalpaste. the thirteenth to Viṣṇu. the third fortnight. if deprived of Śrâddhas the ghost remains as preta always.

Thus. 79. 111:1 Śiva. according to his means. 106:1 Orthodox Hindus place a mark on the forehead to show caste and other things. 110:1 That is Fire. 113:1 This ceremony is performed on the twelfth day. Sris Chandra Vasu. 104:3 Dharma or Yama. usually with sugar and cocoanut.One should offer a serpent made of gold. see the Daily Practice of the Hindus by Mr. 112:2 Made into a ball. Panini Office. 104:2 Brahmâ. he mast change it. 112:1 The food is placed near the image. with hands together "may the King of Serpents be pleased. for this ceremony. one should give every day a jar with food and water until the end of the year. 1 and when free from pollution he should have made a gift of a bed and other gifts. 80. and passes of the hands are made as though a influence it towards the image. 104:1 It is usually worn ever the left shoulder under the right arm. 111:2 The primeval man. It is the ceremony for all the ancestors together. or rice-balls with water regularly. . having done all the rites. as it were in anticipation of the annual event. 108:1 Including the latter part of October and the first part of November. Viṣṇu. by which they are absolved of all sins and obtain residence in heaven. and a cow. Footnotes 103:1 For an account of these ceremonies. Having done this on the eleventh day he should then offer the rice-balls for all the ancestors." And should further perform for them the rite Nârâyaṇa-bali. Then one should. Allahabad. to a twiceborn.

If after a year. If the son is always impure. a quarter of a day. The Sapiṇḍa relatives 1 are purified from the death pollution in ten days. If a second pollution comes daring that from the first death. and afterwards. purification is immediate. If after the lapse of ten days. then the purification from the first pollution includes that from the second. An Account of the Ceremony for all the Ancestors. by which the condition of preta is left behind and the soul enters the class of the pitṛis. Those who are related within the fourth degree to the deceased are purified in ten nights. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. 6-9. A Brâhmiṇ becomes pure in ten days. four days. O Târkṣya. Garuḍa said: Tell pre. merely till bathing. about the method of [performing] the Sapiṇḍa rite. three days. . Therefore the Sapiṇḍa. 3-5. he becomes pure even by bathing. those in the fifth degree. the tenth. without the Sapiṇḍa rite the impurity does not depart. before tonsure. the sixth. 12. If a boy who has not yet cut his teeth dies. and I will explain to you the entire Sapiṇḍa rite. and the gift of accessories. 1 are not uplifted by the various gifts made by the sons. should be performed by the son. and the gotrajâs 3 are purified merely by bathing. three nights. the seventh. a single day. O Lord.CHAPTER XIII. a Kṣattriya in twelve days. before the investiture with the thread. then the impurity lasts for the remaining portion of ten days on which he hears the news.--so long lasts the pollution of death and birth [according to the distance of degrees from the deceased]. at the end of the pollution period. Those whose piṇḍas have not been mixed together with the ancestors called Śiva and the rest. the Sâkulya relatives 2 in three nights. If a person dies in a foreign land and one hears of his death. 10-11. one night. The eighth. a Vaiśya in fifteen days. the ninth. 2. the removal of pollution. 13. ten nights. 1. I will tell you about the ending of pollution to be observed by all. a Śûdra in a month. in six nights. they are never purified. he is polluted for three nights. it is said.

so Manu declared. for the purifying from pollution. or a twice-born intent upon Brâhmaṇ. 19. the third fortnight. Therefore. and before the pollution by birth or death. hiding his pollution. gives food to a twice-born. If a girl dies between birth and tonsure. the occasional and the specially desired ceremonies--of him the regular and other ceremonies already done are lost. during pollution. purification of the Sapiṇḍa relatives is immediate. Up to betrothal a single day. But I say. and the Brâhmiṇ who knowing it. accepts it. accepts through ignorance. engaged in mantras or in fire-offerings. He who during pollution performs the daily. 17-18.14-16. purification is immediate. Blessing the worship of the Shining Ones. can be eaten. reception of guests. only the husband's family. 23. giving. feeding of Brâhmiṇs and the observance of vows should not be done during the death pollution. offering to the forefathers. During the Kali Age--it is authoritatively declared in the Śâstras--ten days' purification for all the castes. . 24-26. After this the women are polluted. fire-offering. suffers evil. If the embryo dies before sixth month. If after the betrothal ceremony three days for both families. Sandhyâ prayers. Whoever. but the giver even though it be to a mendicant that he gives. and from that to old age three nights are authoritative. and touching others should not he done during the death pollution. the sixth month or at the end of the year. If the embryo dies. 20-22. in all the castes alike. it should be understood. For one observing vows. following the scriptural ordinances. Whoever. if after marriage. one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony for the father.--are both subjected to suffering. religious study. purity is regained. an ascetic or a king there is verily no pollution. according to the caste. 28-30. in as many days the embryo lived months. lying on a bed. that for the four castes the Sapiṇḍa should be on the twelfth day. Food prepared before marriage festivals and sacrifices. The truth-knowing sages hare declared that the Sapiṇḍa ceremony should be on the twelfth day. reciting. 27. O Târkṣya. after births and deaths. who then goes to the world of the forefathers to join the multitudes of forefathers. suffers no evil. salutation.

The husband should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony for his.The twelfth day is preferable because of the endless variety of conditions in the Kali Age. agreeable fools. He should worship with sandal-paste. good cloths and presents. oblations. marriage and other ceremonies should not be done. Rudra and Arka. By the omission of rites sinfulness arises. that the Sapiṇḍa ought to be done. The father's rice-ball. Hence. whether he be without fire or with fire. in the forms of Vasu. Having divided the rice-ball for the departed into three parts with a thin bar of gold. having given rice-balls to other departed ones. and the fourth rice-ball to the dead. mouth-scents. and because of the shortened life of men. if she has no son. or should mix the rice-ball with both mine and great Lakṣmî's. the son should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony. 1 and âchamana. The fruit which accrues from visiting all the sacred bathing-places. 35. divided into three parts should be mixed with their rice-balls. and guestofferings should not be accepted. If a Brâhmiṇ house-holder dies. leaves of the holy basil. 36-30. 2 Next. and having cleaned with cow-dung the place of death. having bathed. If the father dies while the grandfather still lives. he should mix them severally with the three rice-balls given to the grand father and the others. 40. the fulfilment of vows. He should offer three rice-balls in order to his grandfather and others. The daily and the occasional ceremonies should be discontinued. therefore one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony on the twelfth day. wife. lamps. 41-43. three rice balls should be offered to the great grandfather and his predecessors. the fruit which accrues from performing all sacrifices: that fruit is obtained by doing the Sapiṇḍa ceremony on the twelfth day. as laid down in the scriptures. . incenses. Until the Sapiṇḍa has been performed the mendicant should not accept alms. then investiture with the sacred thread. the mother's with the grandmother's and the father's with the grandfather's. 44. It is my decision. and the impermanence of the body. O Târkṣya. Then he should worship the world-deities with foot-water. If the mother dies before the grandmother-Then he should perform the mother's Śrâddha in the same way as the fathers. 31-33. he should sip water. he should do the Sapiṇḍa for her along with the mother-in-law and others. 34.

50-57. 49-51. first the offering of a rice-ball and other things for the father. the Shining Ones and the Dânavas are pleased. "The Sapiṇḍa rite for women should be done with that for the husband. 47. and make to him a gift." and four abundances is called "hantakâra. Therefore a bed should be given. then. he should make the offering of water to the forefathers. Made of the choicest wood. Devi. delightful. 54. After the feeding of the twice-born. and having bound a thread upon the hand. canopied with silken cloth. a chariot and a plot of ground given to a preceptor. having bathed again. Then he should have Brâhmiṇs fed with various pleasant sweetened foods. he should perform it with that of the mother-in-law and father-inlaw. and a rod should be touched severally by the castes. . a good cow. a horse. Then he should worship with mantras--after saying "Hail to thee"--the planets. food. Only one son should perform the rites. because the wife being already half the body of her husband requires no Sapiṇḍa ceremony with regard to her husband. clarified butter. a weapon. and twelve pots with water and food. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony having been thus performed. He should utter "Let there be Swadhâ. during life or else after death. who are respectively thus purified." four mouthfuls is "abundance." along with Vaidic mantras. The preceptor should then. and after that. strong. and he should give them presents. scales. 46. Having done the Sapiṇḍa. He should have maintenance for a year. and white cloths having been donned. Afterwards he should always have a guest fed until he says "hanta. the cloths worn during the rite should be cast off. coloured rice and eatables. 2 and Vinîyakam 3. 55. As much as a mouthful is called "alms. ornamented with gold leaves. for his continued satisfaction. the sages. During the Sapiṇḍa he should worship the feet of a twice-born with sandal-paste and coloured rice. his father and grandfather"--that. should present the coloured rice also consecrated with mantras. with mantras." 1 By this the forefathers. the gift of a bed should he made. extol the gift of a bed. is not my opinion. silver. painted in beautiful colours. O Kâśyapa! husband and wife ascend the same funeral pyre. gold." 52-53. 59-64. O Târkṣya. 58. an elephant. water. the rite for the mother. sprinkle water. with saffron.45. O Târkṣya. All the Devâs. 1 headed by Indra. If. having put grasses between them.

Facing north. and say. and then. your bed is the ocean full of milk. standing in front of the Brâhmiṇ: "Just as. may this likewise be not empty in my future births. a seat. in their proper places. and a canopy of five colours. seated on the bed. should be seated by him on the comfortable bed. and then the bed-gift with its accompaniments. ornaments. having walked round and bowed. If a living man makes with his own hand the gift of a bed. give them leave. together with Lakṣmî. How seldom does any one so give!" He should rock the twice-born and Lakṣmî and Hari. it should be placed on the ground covered with cloth. an oxtail fan. and holding flowers in his palms." 72-74. 75. and all the other necessary things. "O Brâhmiṇ. a row of silver lamps. so that he may sleep happily on the bed. and tells about Brâhmiṇ. An umbrella. in the case of women. And all the other accompaniments of the bed he should place round it. clothes. in front of Lakṣmî and Nârâyaṇa. with his wife adorned with fragrances and flowers. Well-bound with bright bands. a water-pot. 69-71. If he is rich he should give a very beautiful house. He should give it to him who observes vows. a vessel. 65-66. receive these. He should worship Hari and Lakṣmî with saffron and flower-garlands. and adore the Guardians of the World. the Planetary Spirits and Vinâyaka. together with a coverlet made fragrant with the scent of flowers. there should be performed. furnished with all the necessaries. 76. O Kṛiṣṇa. 67-68. Wearing a turban and an upper cloth and jacket. Then a Brâhmiṇ. on full moon day the dedication of a bull. .Having beautiful pillows stuffed with swans' down. with all the ornaments. And. On it he should have placed a golden Hari. he should have the red dye. broad and pleasant: such a bed as this being made. Thus he should place the handsful of flowers before the Brâhmiṇ and the image of Hari. weapons and clothes. with ear and finger ornaments and golden necklaces. is a teacher. saffron. according to the rite. a mirror. he should pronounce this mantra. having placed them on the bed. while he is still living.

At the celestial house of Indra. Having. until the coming of the deluge. by which the man is scorched. Who. There is there intense heat. The father. a signet ring. the son should have Padadâna given. 79-80. foods. a set of five vessels--are called the seven kinds of padas. Having given a bed to a deserving person. valuables. those who gave shoes go riding horses. O Bird. uncooked rice. He will reside there free from trouble. and at the abode of Yama. rejoices here and hereafter. full of great thorns. By this padadâna the righteous go to a good condition. An umbrella. waited upon by numbers of celestial damsels. shoes. It is enveloped in great heat. drinks water. This bed should be given to one only. . through the gift of a water pot he. for the dead. a water-pot. Divided or sold it drags down the giver. when thirsty. and sacred threads. is windless and without water. very terrible. them to thirteen Brâhmiṇs on the twelfth day. gives a water-vessel made of copper. and this padadâna gives happiness to those who have gone on the way of Yama. but the gift of an umbrella makes pleasant shade above his head. The merit from all the sacred bathing places. Listen to my words. The miseries of cold and heat and wind are dreadful there. according to his means. he will arrive without doubt through the potency of the gift of a bed. but by the power of the gift of clothes he goes happily along the way. 81. 78.77. do not trouble on the road him who made the gift of a signet ring. he may obtain the fruit of his desires. obtained these thirteen padas he should give. The messengers of Yama. seated in the best of chariots. a seat. and on all the days of the changes of the moon: even superior to these is the merit arising from the gift of a bed. and the son giving it. certainly enjoys the fruit which is obtained by thousands of gifts of wells. and never to several. and I will tell you the method of it. clothes. And on the path in the world of Yama. a copper vessel. 87-93. fierce and brown-black. This pada becomes complete with a staff. Having this made the gift of a bed. 82-86.

a water-pot with rice-balls should be given every month. The ceremony for one only should not be done. 100-105. as prescribed. 1 When there are two months in one month. When in one month [Kṣayamâsa] two saṅkrântis occur. his day is the fourteenth. 94-95. after the Sapinda and before the annual ceremony. 107-110. and of dying on lunar days. should be done when there is no sankrânta.] For the first half day take the former [the dark]. . leisurely going on the path he comfortably enjoys his provisions. also chaṇḍalâs and other outcasts. In these cases one should perform the fortnightly Śrâddha on the twentieth day. Having thus given. but. rice-balls are proper. on the day of the Sapiṇḍa ceremony. in addition. the month being double. the latter. If one dies on the fourth day his rites fall on the ninth. the annual and the fortnightly ceremonies. in the irregular month. 106. Then. the Śrâddha is not performed. When there is no sankrânta. for the sake of the departed it may be done again. 1 O Bird. rice-balls are not used. Thus the annual Śrâddha should be done in both months. If one dies on the ninth day. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony.Through properly giving to a twice-born a seat and a vessel. he should have many Brâhmiṇs fed. 97-99. when there is sankrânta. Thus are understood by the wise the two months which are in the irregular month. the twice-born should be fed. Thus. and in that. Now I shall tell you the rules concerning the monthly. If there is an additional month in the middle of a year. for the second half. of those two. then in the thirteenth month the annual ceremony for the departed occurs. the two fortnights and the thirty days are the same [both must be performed. O bird. There is no re-doing of what is done excepting the rites for the departed. similarly the monthly and the first annual Śrâddhas. at the end of the first year one should perform the annual Śrâddha. 911. After a year one should always offer three rice-balls at the Śrâddha. If one dies at the full moon his rites fall on the fourth day. as a means of unfading satisfaction. this gift. by it one becomes the destroyer of his forefathers.

like the son of Kauśika. it should be done after a year. the garden of Ikṣvâku. If the son performs the Śrâddha at Gayâ. concerning the deceased. nor on yuga days. all the ceremonies. and giving liberation to the forefathers. will offer us rice-balls. even he. the Gajachchhâyam. treading the good path. a rice-ball of the size of even a śamî leaf helps over seven clans and one hundred and one fatuities. giving merit to and satisfying the desires of the son. the Śrâddha at Gaya. the son of Manu:-"Are there none in your family. O Târkshya. 111-113. and all these sons of the twice-born attained liberation through devotion to the forefathers. O Lord of Birds. The seven sons of Bharadwâja. they go to the supreme state. Thus I have told you. having experienced a series of births. He who offers. is happy and becomes liberated. for the fathers--these he should not do during the year. The seven hunters in the country of Daśârṇas. by favour of the Viṣṇu. were liberated by the favour of the forefathers. the Chakravaka birds in Śaradvîpa: and the swans in the Mânasa lake Were born as Brâhmiṇs learned in the Vedas. 121. with devotion to the forefathers. absolved from sins. the forefathers hear a song sung by the Holy Ones in Kalâpa. 120. The forefathers are freed from the ocean of existence by the Śrâddha at Gayâ and. 111-115. He should worship the feet of Viṣṇu with the shoots of the holy basil. O Lord of birds. obtains the fruit of gifts. but hears this account. with devotion?" 116-119. the deer on the mountain of Kâlinjira.The Śrâddha at a sacred bathing-place. and in proper order offer rice-balls round them. for by devotion to the forefathers he becomes happy either in this or the other world. his life is fruitful. having gone to Gayâ. 122. performs the Śrâddha and gives satisfaction to the forefathers. He who. who. nor at eclipses. O Târkṣya. having gone to Gayâ. Any man who is poor. . The son who thus performs the rites for the other world. on the head of Gayâ. on the field of the Kurus. Therefore a man should make every effort in devotion to the forefathers. although they killed a cow. O Târkshya. delighting the family.

121:1 A high class of superhuman beings. thus declared by the Blessed Viṣṇu. 120:120-48 . 120:2 The consort of Śiva.--all males and unmarried females. his father and grandfather are considered as corresponding to Vasu. gratified by the Śrâddha.--all males and unmarried females. with water. on the male line. 120:3 Gaṇeśa. granting the son's desires. but this may. 115:2 Cousins up to the fourteenth. on the male line. Garuḍa went into raptures. 127. highly respected.123-126. the Śrâddha offerings described by me. wealth of cows and his great-grandfather becomes the giver of riches. on the male line. in the assembly of Righteousness. . 120:1 A benediction which the recipient makes when he has had enough. the grandfather. 115:1 Cousins up to the seventh. Footnotes 114:1 The grandfather. darbha grass. The great-great-grandfather gives foods in abundance: all these. 118:1 Consisting of rice.--listen to the fruit for him:-The father gives good sons. according to the rite. Sûta said: Having heard the result of the after-death gifts and their mighty greatness. He who performs. Rudra is Śiva. Rudra and Âditya. and flowers.--all males and unmarried females. and there they remain. 115:3 Cousins up to the forty-second. 125:1 If other ceremonies have been badly done they may not be re-performed. 118:2 See "Daily Practice of the Hindus" for an account of âchamana. and also hears the Garuḍa Purâṇa. Go on the way of righteousness to the mansion of the King of Justice.

. lf. although it is a year of intercalary month. The month preceding month which is dropped has its two fortnights taken as belonging to the regular and the dropped month respectively. in which there is no sankrânti. The sankrânta is a solar month. if his death occurred during the first half of the day. It is November. January or February which is thus dropped. but there are to be only twelve of the monthly ones in a year. or irregular portion. the passing of the sun through one zodiacal constellation. and on the same day in the bright half if he died during the second half of the day. Astrological calculations are done with solar months. while the second half is regular. the malamasa. a main has died and his month is dropped the preceding month is taken for the annual Śrâddha. but the intercalary is always associated with one of the other eight. In this case the intercalary is added and (?) treated as such. on the other hand.126:1 "The ceremonies are performed according to the lunar months. then his annual Śrâddha must be done in the dark half on the same day on which he died. December. In this long month. hence an additional irregular month occurs once in 27 months. If a man dies in the second fortnight in this case the annual ceremony belongs to the month which was dropped. not 13. The difference of solar and lunar months is about 11 days in the year. but the regular mouth is dropped. The kṣaya-mâsa is a name for a month which occurs every 149th year. If a man dies in the adigmâsa. is the first half.--thus there are only 12 months in that year. Hence there is an intercalary month of 30 days every three years.

which is accessible to Nârada and others find is reached by the very meritorious. and Biliousness also. surrounded by high ramparts and measuring a thousand yojanas. To the north there is consumption and Jaundice likewise. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. I will tell you about that shining city of Justice. 10-15.CHAPTER XIV. To the west are those of the Snare of Death. Headache. Syncope. To the south are those of Rheumatism and skin diseases. 1-2. and with whom does Justice reside? The righteous go by righteous ways to the mansion of Justice. with four gateways. Chitragupta. 6-9. impregnable by Holy Ones or Demons. or by whom good or evil deeds have been done And by order of Chitragupta he experiences all of them there. It is declared to be four-angled. up to ten [yojanas] heights. Garuḍa said: what is the extent of the world of Yama? What is it like? By whom was it made? What is the assembly like. He is never mistaken in distinguishing between good and evil deeds. to the north-west. with hundreds of streets decorated with flags and banners. To the east of the abode of Chitragupta is the great house of Fever. all built of diamonds. to the south-east. habited in every part by celestial damsels and choristers. O Treasure-house of Compassion. and sounding with the songs of various birds. decorated by skilful painters and constructed by divine architects. and smallpox likewise. which extends to the number of twenty-five yojanas. seated on his most wonderful throne in that assembly. Abounding in chariots. 3-5. An Account of the City of the King of Justice. resounding with songs and music. . tell me about those righteous ones and the ways. Beautiful with gardens and parks. Surrounded with shining ramparts of iron. Dyspepsia. resplendent. considers the lives of men individually. O Târkṣya. Between the south and south-west is the city of the son of Vivaswata. In that city is the very lovely dwelling of Chitragupta.

the sounds and other things there are pleasant. most ravishing to the mind with no sorrows and no old age there. the eatables are tasteful and plentiful. both hot and cold.To the south-west. 29-30. full of light. is enchanting. and measures fifty yojanas in height. and are adorned with shining garments. tranquil. Twenty yojanas before the abode of Chitragupta. plants and creepers without thorns. Pleasing to the mind with cupolas of the splendour of the autumnal sky. That assembly. accomplished. to the north-west cold and heat--with these and other diseases it is surrounded. and purified by good actions go there. 16-23. In the middle of the city. O Târkṣya. and is full of palaces and mansions. truth-speaking. and no trouble of hunger and thirst. It is certainly two hundred yojanas in extent. is Dysentery. with beautiful crystal stairways and walls beautified with diamonds. and enjoyable in every way. decorated with flags and banners. 1 With no extreme heat and no extreme cold. 24-28. The water. It is supported by thousands of pillars. ornamented with gold. are of good vows. with hundreds of golden doors. whether they be human or divine. In that there is a divine assembly place which is a thousand yojanas in extent. All there are in a condition of happiness. Filled with various wonders. decorated with emeralds. . and splendid like lightning. beautiful with trees. are sweet. Those who have done great tapas. Chitragupta records the good and evil of men. It is shining with jewels. and was created by the Architect of the Universe by doing tapas 2 for a long time. is a fulfiller of desires. is the very resplendent mansion of the king of justice. has no bondage. flame and the sun. and remain there ornamented with their own meritorious actions. And with windows of strings of pearls. and in every way satisfying. rich with the sounds of bells and drums. All there have bodies of light. With these and other embellishments decorated always--it was created by the architect of the Universe by the power of his own Yoga. and embellished with golden fringes. splendid like the sun. and trees always bear the fruit desired. renouncing.

splendid as a blue cloud. on a throne pure and incomparable. Who are the Agniṣvâttha. Duṣmanta. Ambarîṣa. . Śântaṇu.31-33. Surrounded by various servants equal to him in prowess. and also Sahasrârjuna. Dakṣa. and no jealousy. and Pṛithu. Kraturatha. Sagara. Bharata. Adorned with all ornaments. meritorious. 46-47. Jâmadagnya. music and dances. Aṅgiras. Righteousness alone prevails in the assembly of the King of Justice. 34-40. Nala.-These royal sages. He is waited up by Mṛityu 1 with a noose in his hand. having performed many horse sacrifices. Bhagîratha.--all these wait upon the King of Justice. also of the Lunar Race. impossible to enumerate. hosts of progenitors. Manu. Agastya. Vaśiṣṭha. bearing awful nooses and rods. O Bird. and others having forms. Multitudes of celestial choristers and numerous groups of celestial damsels. and by Chitragupta. by kâla 1 still more powerful. Those who expound with accurate commentaries. 1 serve the King of Justice by order of Parameṣṭhin. the recorder of fate. Dilîpa. Śibi. the Dharmaśâstras. Nârada. the Best of the Good. with the sages: Atri. Pulaha. Pitṛis. prosperous. well-read in the Vedas. made splendid with a large crown. Puru. famous. 41-45. Aryamâs and others. his head dignified with the regal umbrella.--these knowers of righteousness wait upon the King of Justice in the assembly. 2 the Somapâs and the Uṣmapâs. Yayâti. and many others in the assembly of the King of Progenitors. are in the assembly of Righteousness. Nimi. Mândhâtâ. bedecked with all kinds of jewels-Sits. There the Lord of Justice. There is there no favouritism. 2 The kings of the Solar Race. Nahuṣa. the powerful Barhiṣads formed and formless. and fanned by celestial damsels bearing in their hands fans of hair. either by their names or their deeds. ornamented with ear-rings. serve him with songs. ten yojanas in extent. no untruthfulness. ready to do his bidding. Muchakunda. and also Bhṛigu.-These. Pulastya. round about. Pâṇdu. Anaraṇya.

O Târkṣya. Those who make gifts of land. the stainless royal sages. Busy with numerous chariots. and paved with jewels. and is paved with yellow sandal-wood. and who give fuel in winter. those devoted to father and mother. By their merits they go into it. and multitudes of celestial damsels. 2 and those who bathe at the sacred waters at the changes of the moon. and beautiful with Brâhmany ducks. those taking pleasure in the service of their Teacher. 59-61. 50. they go to the Assembly of Righteousness. bounded by trees and pleasure-gardens. of cows. who go by the southern path. Hear about them:-51-55. Those who shelter ascetics 1 in their houses during the rains. Such.--are travellers on the path-These. is filled with hundreds of great chariots and with palanquins. of houses.All those assembled are knowers of the scriptures. covered with the shade of Pârijâta trees. There are four ways leading into the city of the King of Justice: The way for the sinful has already been described to you. The second. and make them gifts. those who speak consolation to the mentally distressed. . and of purified intelligence. splendidly lined with swans. There is an eastern way. By that go the holy Brâhmiṇ-sages. do not behold it. Skilful in goodness. eastern and others. and certainly those who give a hermitage. magicians and great serpents. those free from anger and greed. and in that assembly they continually wait upon Vaivasvata 3 48-49. enter by the eastern gate. On this way go those who are learned in the Vedas. is the assembly of the great-souled King of Justice. And those who delight in truth and righteousness. those who are worshippers of Dûrgâ 1 and Bhanu. are those of good deeds. Those who go into the mansion of righteousness by the three gateways. all are devoted to righteousness. and others of good deeds. and the devotees of Śiva. choristers. having the essence of nectar. those who impart learning. The sinners. And worshippers of the deities. and there is there a delightful tank full of the essence of nectar. those who give rest-houses in the summer. It is full of swans and water-fowl. the northern way. abounding in all enjoyments. also those who honour guests. those who tell and listen to the Purâṇas.

Those who are rid of the three-fold debt. those who maintain household fires.-these. and those who delight in making great gifts. .Those who die in the pursuit of righteousness. accompanied by numbers of celestial damsels. those who perform the Sandhyâ at the proper times. those intent upon renunciation. those who are accidentally drowned in the sacred waters. Those who turn away from injury to others. at the sacred waters and on holy ground. mace and sword. and from calumny. Is filled with maddened elephants sprung of the family of Airâvata 1 and with jewels of horses sprung from Uchchaiḥśravâ. those who die in the protection of cattle. is beautified with jewelled mansions. discus. The third. and go to the mansion of righteousness. the austere. those entirely devoted to Viṣṇu. and entering by the western gate. the good. 2 By this way go the self-reliant. 65-73. seeing them come. those faithful to their wives. in the service of the master. assuming his four arms. those who contemplate the good scriptures. by the will of the Shining Ones. rising and coming forward. Those who have attained knowledge and dispassion. those who repeat the Vedas. he speaks and acts in a hind and friendly way to those who delight in meritorious deeds. go to the Assembly of Righteousness. forest dwellers. those who die in Benares. those who always take pleasure in the five sacrifices. holding his conch. and splendid with ponds. Those who always honour the deserving. ascend the best of chariots.-these. devoted to the society of the good. those who perform the rites of Brahmâ. entering by the northern gate. those who keep vows to Śiva and Viṣṇu. Then. Those who die for the sake of Brâhmiṇs. those who repeat the Gâyatrî-mantra. Those who abstain from the company of the wicked. always filled with the essence of nectar. those who perform Śrâddha for the forefathers. devotees of the feet of Śrî. Yama. those who look equally upon gold. They drink nectar. Observers of the vow of celibacy. those intent upon the welfare of all beings. and those who die of vow of starvation. the western way. those who die in the practice of Yoga. repeatedly bids them welcome. 74-76. from the wealth of others. stone and earth. reach the Assembly of Righteousness.

the state of happiness. Go you to the holy place which abounds in all enjoyments. departing from my dominion. you have by your merits attained divinity. 135:2 Brâhmaṇ. accompanied by multitudes of chariots. Who is more foolish than he? "He who. All this about the abode of Yama has been told you upon your asking. 134:1 Forms of Death. they obtain. Best of the Wise. never acts wisely. expert in all the scriptures. having heard the words of Justice. in the impermanent body. Then again they go to the highest condition by their own good conduct. washes their feet. He. he goes to a dreadful hell. as a result of their merits. he alone is a wise man. Go along the highest path. then those in that assembly of righteousness rise up with great respect Having spent there 1 some ages. and bows to them. 135:1 Scriptures teaching the duties of life. 134:2 A class of progenitors. 86. and enjoyed superhuman pleasures. "Therefore should righteousness be accumulated. and being honoured by the immortals and extolled by the leaders of the sages. "He who. and having saluted him and the assembly. who avoid the pains of hell. attaining the human state. amid perishable wealth and other things. They.He offers them the throne. The man who hears this with devotion goes to the assembly of the King of Justice." 82-85. will go to the world of Brahmâ. holy human birth. . 133:2 Meditation with an effort to produce physical effects. with every effort. stores up unchanging righteousness. 77-81. difficult to reach. Footnotes 133:1 Taking any form desired. Wealthy and wise. "O. "O’ You Assembled! Salute with deepest reverence the knower. and then honours them with sandal-paste and other things.

140:1 That is in Heaven world. 138:1 The divine elephant. .135:3 Yama. 137:1 The consort of Śiva. 136:1 Those who have renounced the world. the son of Visvasvat. 138:2 The divine horse. 137:2 The Sun.

I wish to hear what. After menstruation the women should be avoided for four days. Now tell me how he is produced in the womb of the mother. I will tell you the real nature of that body which possesses the attributes of the universal Egg. Their face should not be seen during that time. the man of good deeds thinks. That night is never obtained by vulgar people. acid. O Târkṣya. is born in a stainless family. and washed her clothes. a store of auspicious qualities. I will tell you also about the rites and observances of the parents. Tell me. Having bathed. . Sixteen nights are declared to be common for women. The Blessed. Pungent. 13. The husband.--the object of concentration of Yogins. having sown the seed of great potentiality in the field which is productive of grain. astringent and hot things should be entirely avoided. During the seven days the embryo continues impure. An Account of the Coming to Birth of People who have done Good. Sons are born on even nights. O Treasurehouse of Compassion! 3-4. and likewise meditation upon the nature of Chit and Ânanda in the Brahmarandhra. Lord said: You have asked well. 1 On the fourteenth night the seed remains there certainly. reaps a good harvest. 1-2. daughters on odd. her during the first seven days. Keeping away from. even by knowing which one becomes all-knowing. in this body. Garuḍa said: The righteous man having enjoyed heaven. like a husbandman. 14-18. And how he of good deeds is born in the house of the pure and prosperous. On the firth. 7-10. a woman becomes pure on the fourth day. I will tell you that supreme secret. From the seventh day she becomes fit to perform the rites of worship to the forefathers and the Shining Ones.CHAPTER XV. on even nights he enters. 5-6. Here the sons gradually enter during the eighth day. day women should eat sweet foods. Then is produced the righteous son. lest sin should arise in the body. 11-12. Hear how the Yogins perform the meditation upon the six chakras 1 within it.

According to the thoughts in his mind at the time of union will be the nature of the one who enters the womb. declared to you by me. Earth. O Lord of birds. formerly done. the fifth. austerities. which are of the genus "Not-self. bones. sleep and sexual desire--are called the five attributes of fire by Yogins everywhere. sloth. Saliva. fire. should unite with his good wife. stretching and moving. When desire. He grows up in his parents' house. I will tell you the attributes of earth and the others. For the understanding of the dissociation of Brâhmaṇ from that with which he is associated. Then he constantly strives to discriminate between the self and the not-self. Then the man obtains semen. At the time of his birth Brâhmiṇs receive much wealth. 24. The good son who enters the womb is the giver of the highest bliss. thirst.The man. . hair and flesh. by the union of sperm and germ [cells] 19. 1 put on flowers and sandal-paste. having chewed betel. arising as the result of great merit. The intelligence joined with the seed remains always in the sperm. The meritorious soul obtains birth in a high family. For him there are numerous rites. jumping.--these are the five attributes of earth. and pilgrimages to sacred waters. O Târkṣya. air and ether--these are called the stable elements. water.--are said to be the five attributes of water. sperm. becoming skilful in all the sciences." 25-30. Now hear those of fire:-Hunger.--these are declared the five attributes of air. and in the interior of the womb the formation of ovum takes place. Bending. and with righteous thoughts in his mind. and blood. By adhyâropa 1 and apavâda 2 he meditates upon Brâhmaṇ. by association with the wise. such as the Punsavana. 2 20-23. This body is made up of the five elements. In his youth he is divinely handsome. running. and clean clothes. endowed with learning and modesty. thought and sperm become united. marrow. Skin. wealthy and benevolent. nerves. urine.

is ejected from the body. The fire. 32. in the region of the throat. navel. as soon as eaten. in the navel. 4 Gajajihva. Dhanañjaya. nostrils. Vâta. Prâṇa. Mitra. Iḍâ. feet. in the anus. 31. opening and shutting the eyes is known as Kûrma. 8 and Kuhû. affecting people. Yawning. 1 Pingalâ. The Prâna standing under the fire. Mind. 6 Yaśasvinî. and distributed all over the body. the cause of hunger is to be known as Kṛikala. tongue and nose are the sense organs. Udâna. hands. Samâna. Apâna. Indra. Prâṇa. inflames it slowly. Thus the airs. placing the water over the fire. hair--are called unclean places. Having entered near the anus it separates the solid and liquid portions. Devadatta and Dhanañjaya 12:-In the heart. generative organs. all-pervading. vacuity. Dik. Kûrma. may be understood by you with effort. 3 thirdly.--Nâga. separates the substance from the waste. inflamed by the air. analysis--these four are called the Internal Means. Samâna. 34-35. and have the flavour of past karma. delusion and mental instability--the five attributes of ether. The Vyâna air makes the essence go all over. are declared to be the duties of the organs of sense and action. and are the ten principal Naḍîs. Ears. having derived their power from the self. is split into two by that air. skin. the two Aśvins. and the solid over the water. Food. and carries all over the body the nourishment which is obtained by eating mouthfuls of food. 9 and Saṅkhinî. . 45. Vyâna: Vomiting is called Nâga. eyes. Upeudra. 44. head. 40-43. Devadatta. does not leave even the corpse. Udâna. nails. The organs of speech. Prachetas. The air called Vyâna carries the essential part in all the Nâḍîs.Speech. 33. 7 Alambuṣa. the organs of generation and of excretion are the organs of action. and Vyâna also. Arka. reason. 5 Pûṣâ. Kṛikala. and also Gândhârî. thought. teeth. perform their own functions. forced through the twelve gateways. just as does the rising of the sun. eyes. 11 36-39. Ears. Vahni. anus. 10 the tenth as well--are situated in the interior of the body. 2 Suṣumnâ. trunk. and the waste. tongue. Apâna. individualisation.

Himâchala. 47-52. at the middle of the navel. Vitala. both dense and subtle. Svarloka. Niṣada is in the upper lines Gandhamâdana in the lines on the right. In the Pâramârthika body. which are the objects of meditation of Yogins. as they are constantly changing. Below the feet is called Atala.46. at the thighs Mahâtala. mountains. Ramaṇa in the lines on the left. I will tell you about these. At the hips.--the seven great mountains. Talâtala. at the throat it should be known as Maharloka. On the Vyâvahârika there are thirty-five millions of hairs of the body. There are said to be thirty-two teeth usually. it is said. seven hundred thousands of hairs of the head. bile is fifty palâs. and the second Pâramârthika. Meru is situated in the triangle 1. ovum one kuḍava. One is Vyâvahârika. . there are six chakras in which are said to be located the attributes of the egg of Brahmâ. continents. Tapolaka. marrow is twelve palâs. All the worlds. at the loins Pâtâla. number tens of million. 60-61. The waste materials are not measurable. O Bird. above the feet. Kailâśa is in the right triangle. at the forehead. these are declared to be the seven worlds: Bhûloka. 2 53. phlegm is half of that. 4 56-59. and bones in the body are said to be three hundred and sixty. suns and planets are in the Pâramârthika 3 body. and twenty nails. Fat is ten palâs. skin is seven palâs. By pondering upon them one becomes the enjoyer of the nature of Vairâja. at the secret part Rasâtala. the "great blood" is three palas. The nâḍîs. above it the Bhuvarloka. in the region of the mouth. Mandara is in the inverted triangle. 54. the two-fold nature of the body of man. in the left triangle. at the knees know it as Sutala. Now hear. the flesh is said to be one thousand palâs 1 and blood one hundred palâs. O son of Vinatâ. Seed is known to be two kuḍavas. The body which possesses these attributes is Vyâvahârika. in the heart. Satyaloka in the Brahmarandhra--these are the fourteen worlds. Janaloka. 55. oceans.

62-65. Jambu is in the place of the bones; Sâka is situated in the marrow; the Kuśa continent is situated in the flesh; the Krauncha continent in the nerves; The Śâlmalî continent is in the skin; Gomeda, in the mass of hair; Puṣkara, in the place of the nails;--and next the oceans: In the urine the Kṣâra ocean; the Kṣîra ocean in the milk; the Sura ocean is situated in the phlegm; in the marrow, the Ghṛita ocean; The Rasa ocean in the juices; the Dadhi ocean is known to be in the ova; the Swâdu ocean in the region of the soft palate; you should know son of Vinatâ. 66-68. The sun is situated in the Nâda chakra; the moon is in the Bindu chakra; Mars is situated, it should be known, in the eyes; Mercury is in the heart, it is declared; Jupiter is in the Viṣṇu-sthâna, it should be known; Venus is situated in the seed; Saturn is in the navel; Râhu, in the face, it is declared; Ketu is situated in the lungs;--in the body is the circle of the planets. In all these forms one should meditate on his own body. 69-71. Always at dawn, sitting steadily cross-legged, one should meditate upon the six chakras, in the order of the Ajapâ. 1 The Gâyatrî called Ajapâ is the giver of liberation to the sages; by merely thinking upon it one is released from all sin. Listen, O Târkṣya, and I will explain the best method of Ajapâ, by doing which the individual always gives up his separateness. 72-73. Mûlâdhâra, Swâdhishthâna, Maṇipûraka, Anâhatam, Viśuddhi and also Âjñâ,--are spoken of as the six chakras. One should meditate in order upon the chakras, at the root of the generative organ; in the region of the pelvis; in the navel; in the heart; in the throat; between the eyebrows; at the top of the head. 74-75. The mûlâdhâra is four-petalled and resplendent, with letters from va to sa; the Svâdhiṣṭhâna resembles the sun, is six-petalled, and has the letters from ba to la; the Maṇipûraka is red in colour and has ten petals, from da to pha; the Anâhata is twelvepetalled, from ka to tḥa, and is golden-coloured; The viśuddhi lotus is sixteen-petalled, with the vowels, and has the light of the moon; the Mâtra 1 lotus is two-petalled, has the letters ha and kṣa, and is red in colour; the one at the top of the head is the most resplendent, this lotus has a thousand petals, and is the seat of truth and bliss, ever auspicious, light-possessing and eternal.

76. One should meditate, in order, in the chakras, on Gaṇeṣa, on Vidhi, 2 on Viṣhṇu, on Śiva, on Jîva, on Guru, and on Parambrahmaṇ, all-pervading. 17-80. It is said by the wise that the subtle movements of the breath in one day and night number twenty-one thousand six hundred. It goes out with the sound of "ha," and enters again with the sound of "sa." The individual is, indeed, always repeating the mantra. "Haṁsa, haṁsa,"-Six hundred for Gaṇeśa; six thousand for Vedhas 1; six thousand for Hari 2; six thousand for Hara. 3 A thousand for the Jîvâtman; a thousand for Guru; a thousand or the Chidâtman;--thus one should understand the respective numbers of the repetitions. 81-82. Aruṇa and other sages, who know the succession of Teachers, meditate upon the deities presiding over the chakras, who are rays of Brahmaṇ. The sages, Śuka and ethers, teach it to their pupils; therefore a wise man, after meditating upon the path of the Great Ones, should always meditate thus. 83. Having worshipped mentally in all the chakras, with unwavering mind, he should repeat the Ajapâ-gâyatrî according to the instructions of the Teacher. 84-88. He should meditate in the Ranḍhra, with the thousand-petalled lotus inverted, upon the Blessed Teacher within the Haṁsa, whose lotus-hand frees from fear. He should regard his body as being washed in the flow of nectar from His feet. Having worshipped in the five-fold way he should prostrate, singing His praise. Then he should meditate on the Kuṇḍalinî, as moving upwards and downwards, as making a tour of the six chakras, placed in three-and-a-half coils. Then he should meditate on the place called Suṣumnâ, which goes out of the Randhra; thereby he goes to the highest state of Viṣṇu. Then he should always meditate, between four o'clock and sunrise, on my form, selfillumined, eternal and ever-blissful. 89. He should bring his mind to a state of steadiness, not by efforts alone, but under the instruction of a teacher, without whom he falls. 90. Having done the inward-sacrifice he should perform the outward-sacrifice. Having done the purificatory ablution, and the Sandhyâ, he should worship Hari and Hara. 91-94. For those who are attached to the body facing-inward 1 does not come about. For then devotion is easier, and that gives liberation.

Tapas, and Yoga, and others, are also ways to liberation, but for those who are attached to the world of change the path by devotion to me is far superior. This is the conclusion of the all-knowing Brahma and others, after having conned the Vedas and the Śâstras for three periods. Sacrifices and other righteous duties purify the mind. The devotion to me has a form of fruit from which the obtainer never falls away. 95. The good man who follows this, O Târkṣya, by the union due to devotion to me, goes to eternal liberation.

Footnotes
141:1 Certain centres in the etheric and higher bodies, which revolves like wheels when set in motion by meditation; hence the name chakra. 142:1 Sixteen are favourable, but the fourteenth of them is best, if some other cause doer not render it inauspicious. 143:1 To augment the virile power. 143:2 A rite performed when living conception is observed. 144:1 False ascription, and ... 144:2 refutation, two sorts of arguments. 145:1 The left hand nâḍî. 145:2 The right hand one. 145:3 The central one. 145:4 This goes to the left eye. 145:5 This goes to the right eye. 145:6 This goes to the right ear. 145:7 This goes to the left ear. 145:8 This goes to the mouth. 145:9 This goes to the liṅgam.

151:1 Brahmâ. because they are thinking of outer things. 145:12 Various forms of the vital breath.145:10 This gees to the mûla. 145:11 An inner nerve. 151:2 Viṣṇu. 149:1 The saying of "Haṁsa. 150:2 Brahmâ. . 147:4 Viraj means "to shine. channel for the vital breath. 147:3 Universal and spiritual body. 151:3 Śiva. Meru is the sacred mountain or pakk. the Âjñâ. 152:1 Their meditation is unsuccessful.) 147:2 Individual and common physical body." 150:1 That is. 147:1 Pala is a little more than an ounce (6/5 oz." 148:1 The triangle in the triangle.

The Blessed Lord said: Listen. without attributes. O Ocean of compassion. 8-10 These. in the worlds of change. animals. a higher and more subtle body. in the unsubstantial. are born and die-of them no end is known. Garuḍa said: I have heard from you. Always miserable in this world. O Ruler of the Shining Ones. can obtain no knowledge of the truth. according to their order. O Târkṣya. 14-16.--in this terrible world of change. and fortune born of karma. The endless multitudes of individuals. An Account of the Law for Liberation. all-doing. O Lord of Liberation. men. about the transmigrating of the individual. Śiva. like sparks of a fire. tell me by what means they may obtain release. In every life obtained. beyond the Beyond. in the eighty-four hundred thousands of bodies before attaining human birth. Having worn and cast aside the four sorts of bodies thousands of times. with beginningless ignorance. all-knowing. and if he becomes a knower 1 he attains liberation. They have also. Are fettered by forms of good and evil. That which is considered the individual is from a part of Him. 1-4. Self-illumined. 11-13. birds. Lord of all. and I will explain to you what you have asked. and also the liberated. O Bird. The embodied. goats. stainless and secondless. the liṅga. . I now wish to hear about the means for eternal liberation. one becomes a man by good deeds. giving happiness and misery. through the accumulation of merit. even by the hearing of which a man is released from the world of change.--with nationality of body. through ignorance. Through millions of myriads of thousands of births some time a being obtains human birth.CHAPTER XVI. the thirtythree deities. The unmoving things. separated and encased in bodies by beginningless karma. There is a Shining One. Being and Knowing and Bliss. 5-7. compassionate to those who seek refuge. O Lord. in all deep miseries. beginningless and endless. worms. O Lord. who has the nature of Supreme Brâhmaṇ. placed in various kinds of bodies. who is partless. length of life. no one is ever known to be happy. the righteous. lasting until liberation.

--the stupid man digs his well when the corner of his house is already afire. and the miserable. The time of death is not known by those who are variously embodied in the world of change. does not help himself over. . The wise always adopt means for the preservation of the body. between happiness and misery. difficult to get. what will he do? 24-25. afflicted with disease and having gone to a country where there is no medicine. It should be guarded for the sake of duty. the afflicted. therefore should he guard his body as wealth and perform meritorious deeds. Living. Though seeing those just born. and a step to liberation. life is fickle as lightning. even those afflicted with diseases such as leprosy do not wish to give it up. 26-32. in view of welfare. Without a body. a field again. having drunk the liquor of delusion. Alas! a man. 17-19. nobody obtains the object of human life. does not understand what benefits the soul is a slayer of Brâhmaṇ. and half of it is sleep and idleness. having obtained this highest birth and superior senses. which is the means to everything.--where is there a discerning one who is at ease? Even a hundred years of life is very little. knowledge for the sake of Yoga-meditation. Old age comes on like a tigress. So long as the body lasts. A village again.--then he is soon released. so long should he strive for the best. Riches are like unto a dream. life goes like water from a broken pot. and even that little is unfruitful owing to the miseries of childhood. the dead. He should always guard his body. a house again. If he does not guard himself against harm who else will? Therefore should he look after his own benefit. wealth again. so long should truth be pursued. good and evil actions again-the body never again. so long as the senses are not decayed. He who does not take precautions against the diseases of hell while here. Therefore should he strive for the best. disease and old age. diseases attack like foes. people are never afraid.He who.--who in this world is more sinful than he? The man who. those whom calamity has befallen. duty for the sake of knowledge. having obtained a human body. so long as calamity does not befall. 1 20-21. So long as misery does not come. 22-23. he should make every effort to protect it. youth is like a flower. does not know his own benefit.

this other is done or not done. Earth is burnt away by time. He who abandons it becomes happy. leaving his own body.He does not do what ought to be done. it must be done to-day. . Death attacks children. whose. coming is shown by age. ether may be split. and baked in the fire of desire and repulsion. father. Though seeing.--otherwise never. though reading. What is the good of association with wife. he does not know. when he should be awake he sleeps. though wearing away with every moment. mother. Time. He who is in it is afflicted with misery. the old. waves may be bound. He who does not know what is good for him thinks the harmful beneficial. my wealth.--life cannot be made permanent. this is to be done. 36-38. young men. This individual. he does not understand. though hearing. This universe is immersed in the boundless ocean of death. where he should fear he confides. even Meru is reduced to powder. he does not understand. the impermanent permanent. goes to the abode of Yama."-death does not consider whether it leas been done or not done. those in the embryo condition. just as an unbaked pot placed in water disappears imperceptibly. is unnoticed. which is like foam on water and is attached to passing objects." Him who is thus prating death overpowers. in the morning or in the afternoon. Alas! what man is not stricken. he falters. my wife.--though grasped by the crocodiles of death. Thou shalt encounter the enemy. and the evil good. bitten by the serpent of sense-objects. The wolf of death forcibly slays the lamb of a mortal. the water of the ocean is dried away--what shall be said of the body? 39-41. my relatives. 45-48. Air may be enclosed. who prates of "my offspring. 42. disease and old age. death. bewildered by the divine magic. who has an army of dreadful diseases--wilt thou not see the saviour? 43-44. Death preys upon the man afflicted with the needles of thirst. "It must be done to-morrow.--such is this world of creatures. be free from fear? 33-35. son and others? The world of change is verily the root of misery. How shall the individual who has taken a body." "This has been done.

so the embodied. with self enveloped in ignorance the imposters go about. fasts and other restraints. How shall he not tread evil ways? 58. So long as the being makes attachments pleasant to the mind. wife and other things. It is not possible to give up everything. and do not understand the highest righteousness. Attachment to the good. and are intent on the filling of the belly. sexual pleasure. Those men who do not understand what is good and what is not good for them. Therefore should attachment be shunned always. 52-55. should be abandoned at once. 49-51. are born and die deluded by ignorance. does not see the iron hook. therefore should friendship with the great be cultivated. Some are intent upon ceremonies. All those deluded men who turn away from the duties of their respective castes and orders. desire to obtain the invisible by single meals. in the night by passion and sleep. and eating are common to all creatures. The fools.This world of change. bewildered by My magic. 59-60. and purity of the eyes--the man who has not these is blind. alas! 56-57. but from the fetters of son and wife can never be freed. A man bound in fetters of iron or wood may be released. The men who are attached to the ceremonial alone are satisfied with mere names. wealth. does not see the torments of Yama. oblations and other things. and by elaborate rituals. deluded by the repetitions of mantras. the seat of all calamities. who is devoid of it is called a beast. Just as the fish. attached to the practice of vows. and the refuge of all sins. . Alas! Fie upon the foods of the senses. Foolish men are tormented at break of day by nature's calls. All those beings who are attached to their bodies. Sleep. who constantly pursue evil courses. which is the source of all misery. perish fruitlessly. 61-62. so long shall the dagger of sorrow pierce his heart. and by the emaciation of the body. as a remedy for attachment. when the sun is in the meridian by hunger and thirst. People are destroyed every day by the desire for great wealth. O Bird. are destined for hell. covetous of flesh. covetous of pleasure. which steal away the senses of the body. discrimination. Who possesses knowledge is called a man.

Men trouble themselves variously. rats. Are these free from attachment? If men are to be liberated by earth. 65-69. quite naked and unashamed. putting on appearances. and using antelope skins. fishes and others. He who is attached to the pleasures of the worlds of change.--are these observers of vows? 70. 76-77. ashes and dust."--thus bewildered by anxiety they read the scriptures day and night. and even delude people. what liberation can there be by bodily tortures alone? What great serpent is killed by beating the anthill alone? 1 63. O Lord of Birds. they explain in different ways but the best purport of the Śâstras is otherwise. Therefore this class of practices is a thing which makes pleasure for people. He who knows the Vedas. saying "I am a knower of Brâhmaṇ. wander about like knowers. turning away from the highest truth. does the dog which always live among earth and ashes become liberated? The jackals.--do these become Yogins? Pigeons at times eat stones." and is devoid of both rites and Brâhmaṇ should be shunned like a low outcaste. bound in the snare of animalism. miserable with anxiety.Of those who have no discrimination. dwell in the waters of Ganges. 64. remain with senses bewildered. the brutes do not understand the chief good. "This is known. leaves and water.--of that imitator all this is as the speech of a crow. which feed upon grass. and Châtaka birds do not drink water from the earth.--direct knowledge of the Truth is the cause of liberation. caught in the six waves they remain sophists. 1 O Bird. The hypocrites. Donkeys walk about among people. and wearing quantities of matted hair.--do these become ascetics? The crocodiles. . They are tossed hither and thither in the dreadful ocean of Vedas and Śâstras. 71-73. but the highest truth is otherwise. which from birth to death. in forests and among houses. deer and others. the Śâstras and the Purâṇas. Fallen into the great well of the six philosophies. but does not know the chief good. The fools. this must be known. and always live in forests. 71-76. decorated with garlands of poetry constructed of forms of speech.

Haring practised the Vedas and the Śâstras. so is there not use for the scriptures. hence. The study is of Śabda Brâhmaṇ. peers into the well. not knowing that the truth is seated in himself. nor are actions. The stages of life are not the cause of liberation. The Śâstras are numerous.--like the swan taking the milk in the water. therefore the essence should be understood. life is brief. There is no liberation by the study of the Vedas. all learning is masquerade. They repeat the Vedas and the Śâstras. 83-84. 85-86. to the knower of the Truth. and argue with one another. and to be obtained by the word of the Teacher. not otherwise. and having known the Truth.They talk of the highest experiences. is like a mirror to the blind. this must be known. Para Brahmaṇ is reached by discrimination. Reading.--like the spoon the flavour of the food."--he wishes to hear everything. for those who have understanding. The fool. the wise man should abandon all the scriptures. Śâstras are only a potter to the knowledge of the truth. not by the study of tens of millions of texts.--a foolish goatherd. 91. 89-90. O Târkṣya. Some prefer the Non-dual 2. the nostril knows the smell. is beyond efforts of action. but they do not understand the highest truth. Among thousands of woods the Sañjîvana 1 is best. is bewildered by the Śâstras. The head bears flowers. "'This is known. not realising them themselves. Some have ceased preaching. The non-dual. 87-88. being engrossed in egotism. 78-82. If one lives for a thousand celestial years he cannot reach the end of the Śâstras. just as one rich in grains abandons the straw.--darkness never disappears by talking of a lamp. Just as there is no use for food to one who is satisfied with nectar.---knowledge only is the cause. and there are tens of millions of obstacles. beyond the Dual and Non-dual. The word from the Teacher gives liberation. but find impossible the understanding of the truth. other prefer the Dual 3 but they do not understand the One Reality. Knowledge is said to be of two kinds: study and discrimination. O son of Vinatâ. They read the Vedas and the Śâstras. verily declared auspicious. . nor by the reading of the Śâstras. 92. nor are the philosophies. Verbal knowledge cannot destroy the illusions of the world of change. to a man devoid of wisdom. Emancipation is by knowledge alone. with the young goat under his arm.

O Târkṣya. so long as there is no meditation upon the Śâstras. so long as there is no love for the Teacher. rid of fear. that the knowledge that gives release.93-94. and fruits are heaven and liberation. so long as there is the sense of "mineness. He should practise mentally upon the supreme three-fold pure Word of Brahmâ. oblations. with understanding. with the sword of unattachment. Therefore. which is called the Nirvâṇa of Brâhmaṇ. Two phrases make for bondage and liberation: "Mine" and "Not-mine. So long as actions are performed. One who is tormented by the three miseries and the rest. Therefore from the mouth of the Blessed Teacher the Truth of the self should be known. By knowledge the being is easily released from the awful bondage of the worlds of change. Listen! I will tell you now about the final actions of the knower of the Truth. whose flowers are righteousness and knowledge. So long as there is not stability of mind. 102. he should every effort. drawn away by karmas. should resort to the shade of the tree of Liberation. vows. the desires connected with the body. So long as one does not reach Truth. by which he obtains liberation. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? 98-99." so long as there is excited striving. 101. worship and reading of the prescribed texts of the Vedas and Śâstras. with breath controlled. other knowledge is skilful chiselling. so long as there is imagination of plans." The being saying "Mine" is bound. restrain his mind. so long as the senses are fickle. sitting alone on a pure seat prepared as prescribed. if one desires liberation for himself. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? So long as there is pride of body. so long should he do austerities. and should fix his mind. He should. should cut off. other karma is worrying. not forgetting the Brahma Bîja. the man. performing ablutions in the water of the holy bathing places. His last days approaching. recitations. . saying "Not-mine" is released. Courageously wandering from home. and under all circumstances he attached to Truth. 1 With reason for charioteer he should withdraw the senses from the sense-objects by the mind. always. 100. That is the karma that does not bind. pilgrimage to sacred waters. upon the pure. 103-107. so long as the impressions of the world of change remain. 95-97.

in the lake of knowledge. 111-114. full-visioned. the Supreme Abode. do not go there. Thus in sixteen chapters I have related to you the extracted essence of all the scriptures." Having said this." remembering me. expecting to die. 117. with tranquil self. Garuḍa became silent and lost in meditation. This eternal way of liberal in al has been described to you. Sûta said: Having thus heard. they go. devoid of knowledge and unattachment. worships me. sinners go to an evil condition. always dwelling in the Higher Self. 3 Gayâ. 1 which removes the impurities of attraction and repulsion. The hypocrites. 5 Kañchi. He who bathes in the water of the Mânasa. He who. utters the one-syllabled Brâhmaṇ. the remembrance of whom removes evil. he verily attains liberation. firm in non-attachment. dwells at a sacred bathing-place. 121. having heard these words of nectar I have been helped over the ocean of existence.--he verily attains liberation. and who gives liberation for supreme devotion to Him. O. birds and others transmigrate. said this. 108. with hands folded together:-"O Lord. . repeatedly prostrating himself."1 am Brâhmaṇ. O Târkṣya. Ayodhyâ. Free from pride and delusion. 6 Avantikâ. on that eternal path. I will tell you about the wise. 116. He who. 4 Kaśî. He who. What else do you wish to hear? 118-120. Knowers of Truth attain liberation. My desires have been completely fulfilled. Protector! "I stand freed from doubts. May Hari.--hearing it with knowledge and dispassion one attains liberation. O God of Gods. undeluded. who go to that goal. 7 Dwârâvatî. 109-110. the Highest Goal. with the evils of attachment conquered. I am Brâhmaṇ. 2 Mathurâ. or dies in a place of liberation. righteous men go to heaven. with desires overcome."--having realised this and placed the self in the self he should meditate. thinking of no other. goes to the Highest Goal. Garuḍa.--he verily attains liberation. O King. O Lord. these words from the mouth of the Lord. 115. when leaving the body. "Oṁ.--protect us. in the waters of Truth. leaning his home. released from the contracts known as pleasure and pain. who gives the condition of happiness for the sacrifice of worship. 8--these seven cities should be known as the givers of liberation.

165:1 The plant brought by Hanumat to restore Lakṣman when killed by Indrajit. 165:3 Dwaita. 161:1 There is supposed to be a serpent living in the ground beneath the ant-hill. Yoga. . Mîmânsâ. 167:1 Bîja is a seed. 162:1 Nyâya. Sâṅkhya. One who knows the Self. a mantra governing a work such as an Upaniṣad Oṁ. 165:2 Adwaita philosophy. 168:4 Gayâ. 168:8 Dwârakâ. 168:3 Muttra. 168:5 Benares. 156:1 Meaning that one may re-obtain these things after losing them--but not the body. Eternal inseparateness and non-duality. 168:1 A holy lake in the Himâlayas. 168:7 Ujjain. also a mystical place. Vaiśeṣika. Separateness of the individual and universal self.Footnotes 155:1 That is. 168:2 Perhaps Oudh. 168:6 Conjeeveram. Vedânta.

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