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An Introduction

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Aesthetics 1
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Aesthetics 1

Aesthetics (also spelled Ästhetics or esthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and
taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty.[1] It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or
sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste.[2] More broadly, scholars in the field
define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature."[3] [4]

It was derived from the Greek ÄÅÇÉÑÖÜáàâ (aisthetikos, meaning "esthetic, sensitive, sentient"), which in turn was
derived from ÄÅÇÉÑÖÜáÄà (aisthanomai, meaning "I perceive, feel, sense").[5] The term "aesthetics" was appropriated
and coined with new meaning in the German form ästhetik (modern spelling ãsthetik) by Alexander Baumgarten in

History of aesthetics

Ancient aesthetics
There are examples of pre-historic art, but they are rare, and the context of
their production and use is not very clear, so the aesthetic doctrines that
guided their production and interpretation are mostly unknown.
Ancient art was largely, but not entirely, based on the eight great ancient
civilizations: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, Persia, India, China and
Mayan. Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and
Bronze sculpture, thought to be either
characteristic style in its art. Greece had the most influence on the Poseidon or Zeus, National
development of aesthetics in the West. This period of Greek art saw a Archaeological Museum of Athens
veneration of the human physical form and the development of corresponding
skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. Furthermore, in many Western and
Eastern cultures alike, traits such as body hair are rarely depicted in art that addresses physical beauty. More in
contrast with this Greek-Western aesthetic taste is the genre of grotesque.[6]

Greek philosophers initially felt that aesthetically appealing objects were beautiful in and of themselves. Plato felt
that beautiful objects incorporated proportion, harmony, and unity among their parts. Similarly, in the Metaphysics,
Aristotle found that the universal elements of beauty were order, symmetry, and definiteness.

Islamic aesthetics
Islamic art is not, properly speaking, an art pertaining to religion only. The term "Islamic" refers not only to the
religion, but to any form of art created in an Islamic culture or in an Islamic context. It would also be a mistake to
assume that all Muslims are in agreement on the use of art in religious observance, the proper place of art in society,
or the relation between secular art and the demands placed on the secular world to conform to religious precepts.
Islamic art frequently adopts secular elements and elements that are frowned upon, if not forbidden, by some Islamic
According to Islam, human works of art are inherently flawed compared to the work of God; thus, it is believed by
many that to attempt to depict in a realistic form any animal or person is insolence to God. This tendency has had the
effect of narrowing the field of artistic possibility to such forms of art as Arabesque, mosaic, Islamic calligraphy, and
Islamic architecture, as well as more generally any form of abstraction that can claim the status of
non-representational art.
Aesthetics 2

The limited possibilities have been explored by artists as an outlet to artistic expression, and has been cultivated to
become a positive style and tradition, emphasizing the decorative function of art, or its religious functions via
non-representational forms such as Geometric patterns, floral patterns, and arabesques.
Human or animal depiction is generally forbidden altogether in Islamic cultures because it is said to lead to
sculptural pieces which then leads to worship of that sculpture or "idol". Human portrayals can be found in early
Islamic cultures with varying degrees of acceptance by religious authorities. Human representation for the purpose of
worship that is uniformly considered idolatry as forbidden in Sharia law. There are many depictions of Muhammad,
Islam's chief prophet, in historical Islamic art.[8] [9]
The calligraphic arts grew out of an effort to devote oneself to the study of the Quran. By patiently transcribing each
word of the text, the writer was made to contemplate the meaning of it. As time passed, these calligraphic works
began to be prized as works of art, growing increasingly elaborate in the illumination and stylizing of the text. These
illuminations were applied to other works besides the Quran, and it became a respected art form in and of itself.

Indian aesthetics
Indian art evolved with an emphasis on inducing special spiritual or philosophical states in the audience, or with
representing them symbolically. According to Kapila Vatsyayan, "Classical Indian architecture, sculpture, painting,
literature (kåvya), music, and dancing evolved their own rules conditioned by their respective media, but they shared
with one another not only the underlying spiritual beliefs of the Indian religio-philosophic mind, but also the
procedures by which the relationships of the symbol and the spiritual states were worked out in detail."
In the Pan Indian philosophic thought the term 'Satyam Shivam Sundaram' is another name for the concept of the
Supreme. 'Sat' is the truth value, 'Shiv' is the good value & 'Sundaram' is the beauty value. Man through his 'Srabana'
or education, 'Manana' or experience and conceptualization and 'Sadhana' or practice, through different stages of life
(Asramas) comes to form and realize the idea of these three values to develop a value system. This Value-system
helps us to develop two basic ideas 1) that of 'Daksha' or the adept/expert and 2) of Mahana/Parama or the Absolute
and thus to judge anything in this universe in the light of these two measures, known as 'Adarsha'. A person who has
mastered great amounts of knowledge of the grammars, rules, & language of an art-form are adepts (Daksha), where
as those who have worked through the whole system and journeyed ahead of these to become a law unto themself is
called a Mahana. Individuals idea of 'Daksha' and 'Mahana' is relative to one's development of the concept of
'Satyam-Shivam-Sundaram.' For example, Tagore's idea of these two concepts should be way above any common
man's and many perceive Tagore as a 'Mahana' Artist in the realm of literature. This concept of
Satyam-Shivam-Sundaram, a kind of Value Theory is the cornerstone of Indian Aesthetics.
Of particular concern to Indian drama and literature are the term 'Bhava' or the state of mind and rasa referring
generally to the emotional flavors/essence crafted into the work by the writer and relished by a 'sensitive spectator' or
sahçdaya or one with positive taste and mind. Poets like Kâlidâsa were attentive to rasa, which blossomed into a
fully developed aesthetic system. Even in contemporary India the term rasa denoting "flavor" or "essence" is used
colloquially to describe the aesthetic experiences in films; "mâsala mix" describes popular Hindi cinema films which
serve a so called balanced emotional meal for the masses, savored as rasa by these spectators.
Rasa theory blossoms beginning with the Sanskrit text Nâtyashâstra (nåtya meaning "drama" and shåstra meaning
"science of"), a work attributed to Bharata Muni where the Gods declare that drama is the 'Fifth Veda' because it is
suitable for the degenerate age as the best form of religious instruction. While the date of composition varies wildly
among scholars, ranging from the era of Plato and Aristotle to the seventh century CE. The Nâtyashâstra presents the
aesthetic concepts of rasas and their associated bhâvas in Chapters Six and Seven respectively, which appear to be
independent of the work as a whole. Eight rasas and associated bhâvas are named and their enjoyment is likened to
savoring a meal: rasa is the enjoyment of flavors that arise from the proper preparation of ingredients and the quality
of ingredients. What rasa actually is, in a theoretical sense, is not discussed and given the Nâtyashâstra's pithy
wording it is unlikely the exact understanding of the original author(s) will be known.
Aesthetics 3

The theory of the rasas develops significantly with the Kashmiri aesthetician ändandavardhana's classic on poetics,
the Dhvanyâloka which introduces the ninth rasa, shânta-rasa as a specifically religious feeling of peace (éånta)
which arises from its bhâva, weariness of the pleasures of the world. The primary purpose of this text is to refine the
literary concept dhvani or poetic suggestion, by arguing for the existence of rasa-dhvani, primarily in forms of
Sanskrit including a word, sentence or whole work "suggests" a real-world emotional state or bhâva, but thanks to
aesthetic distance, the sensitive spectator relishes the rasa, the aesthetic flavor of tragedy, heroism or romance.
The 9th - 10th century master of the religious system known as "the nondual Shaivism of Kashmir" (or "Kashmir
Shaivism") and aesthetician, Abhinavagupta brought rasa theory to its pinnacle in his separate commentaries on the
Dhvanyâloka, the Dhvanyâloka-locana (translated by Ingalls, Masson and Patwardhan, 1992) and the
Abhinavabharati, his commentary on the Nâtyashâstra, portions of which are translated by Gnoli and Masson and
Patwardhan. Abhinavagupta offers for the first time a technical definition of rasa which is the universal bliss of the
Self or Atman colored by the emotional tone of a drama. Shânta-rasa functions as an equal member of the set of
rasas but is simultaneously distinct being the most clear form of aesthetic bliss. Abhinavagupta likens it to the string
of a jeweled necklace; while it may not be the most appealing for most people, it is the string that gives form to the
necklace, allowing the jewels of the other eight rasas to be relished. Relishing the rasas and particularly shânta-rasa
is hinted as being as-good-as but never-equal-to the bliss of Self-realization experienced by yogis.

Chinese aesthetics
Chinese art has a long history of varied styles and emphases. In ancient times philosophers were already arguing
about aesthetics. Confucius emphasized the role of the arts and humanities (especially music and poetry) in
broadening human nature and aiding "li" (etiquette, the rites) in bringing us back to what is essential about humanity.
His opponent Mozi, however, argued that music and fine arts were classist and wasteful, benefiting the rich but not
the common people.
By the 4th century AD, artists were debating in writing over the proper goals of art as well. Gu Kaizhi has 3
surviving books on this theory of painting, for example, and it's not uncommon to find later artist/scholars who both
create art and write about the creating of art. Religious and philosophical influence on art was common (and diverse)
but never universal; it is easy to find art that largely ignores philosophy and religion in almost every Chinese time

African aesthetics
African art existed in many forms and styles, and with fairly little
influence from outside Africa. Most of it followed traditional
forms and the aesthetic norms were handed down orally as well as
written. Sculpture and performance art are prominent, and abstract
and partially abstracted forms are valued, and were valued long
before influence from the Western tradition began in earnest. The
Nok culture is testimony to this. The mosque of Timbuktu shows
that specific areas of Africa developed unique aesthetics.

Western medieval aesthetics The Great Mosque's signature trio of minarets

overlooks the central market of Djennã. Unique Malian
Surviving medieval art is primarily religious in focus and funded
largely by the State, Roman Catholic or Orthodox church,
powerful ecclesiastical individuals, or wealthy secular patrons.
These art pieces often served a liturgical function, whether as chalices or even as church buildings themselves.
Objects of fine art from this period were frequently made from rare and valuable materials, such as gold and lapis,
Aesthetics 4

the cost of which commonly exceeded the wages of the artist.

Medieval aesthetics in the realm of philosophy built upon Classical thought, continuing the practice of Plotinus by
employing theological terminology in its explications. St. BonaventureÄs ÅRetracing the Arts to TheologyÇ, a primary
example of this method, discusses the skills of the artisan as gifts given by God for the purpose of disclosing God to
mankind, which purpose is achieved through four lights: the light of skill in mechanical arts which discloses the
world of artifacts; which light is guided by the light of sense perception which discloses the world of natural forms;
which light, consequently, is guided by the light of philosophy which discloses the world of intellectual truth; finally,
this light is guided by the light of divine wisdom which discloses the world of saving truth.
Saint Thomas Aquinas's aesthetic is probably the most famous and influential theory among medieval authors,
having been the subject of much scrutiny in the wake of the neo-Scholastic revival of the late 19th and early 20th
centuries and even having received the approbation of the celebrated Modernist writer, James Joyce. Thomas, like
many other medievals, never gives a systematic account of beauty itself, but several scholars have conventionally
arranged his thoughtÉthough not always with uniform conclusionsÉusing relevant observations spanning the entire
corpus of his work. While Aquinas's theory follows generally the model of Aristotle, he develops a singular
aesthetics which incorporates elements unique to his thought. Umberto Eco's The Aesthetics of Thomas Aquinas
identifies the three main characteristics of beauty in Aquinas's philosophy: integritas sive perfectio, consonantia sive
debita proportio, and claritas sive splendor formae. While Aristotle likewise identifies the first two characteristics,
St. Thomas conceives of the third as an appropriation from principles developed by neo-Platonic and Augustinian
With the shift from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, art
likewise changed its focus, as much in its content as in its mode of

Modern aesthetics
From the late 17th to the early 20th century Western aesthetics
underwent a slow revolution into what is often called modernism.
German and British thinkers emphasised beauty as the key
component of art and of the aesthetic experience, and saw art as
necessarily aiming at absolute beauty.
For Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten aesthetics is the science of the
sense experiences, a younger sister of logic, and beauty is thus the
most perfect kind of knowledge that sense experience can have.
For Immanuel Kant the aesthetic experience of beauty is a
judgment of a subjective but similar human truth, since all people
should agree that Åthis rose is beautifulÇ if it in fact is. However,
beauty cannot be reduced to any more basic set of features. For Lorsch Gospels 778Ñ820. Charlemagne's Court School.
Friedrich Schiller aesthetic appreciation of beauty is the most
perfect reconciliation of the sensual and rational parts of human nature.

For Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, the philosophy of art is the "organon" of philosophy concerning the relation
between man and nature. So aesthetics began now to be the name for the philosophy of art. Friedrich von Schlegel,
August Wilhelm Schlegel, Friedrich Schleiermacher and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel have also given lectures on
aesthetics as philosophy of art after 1800.
For Hegel all culture is a matter of "absolute spirit" coming to be manifest to itself, stage by stage, changing to a
perfection that only philosophy can approach. Art is the first stage in which the absolute spirit is manifest
immediately to sense-perception, and is thus an objective rather than subjective revelation of beauty.
Aesthetics 5

For Arthur Schopenhauer aesthetic contemplation of beauty is the most free that the pure intellect can be from the
dictates of will; here we contemplate perfection of form without any kind of worldly agenda, and thus any intrusion
of utility or politics would ruin the point of the beauty. It is thus for Schopenhauer one way to fight the suffering.
The British were largely divided into intuitionist and analytic camps. The intuitionists believed that aesthetic
experience was disclosed by a single mental faculty of some kind. For Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of
Shaftesbury this was identical to the moral sense, beauty just is the sensory version of moral goodness. For Ludwig
Wittgenstein aesthetics consisted in the description of a whole culture which is a linguistic impossibility. That which
constitutes aesthetics lies out side the realm of the language game.
On 7 January 1904 James Joyce attempted to publish A Portrait of the Artist, an essay-story dealing with aesthetics,
only to have it rejected from the free-thinking magazine Dana. He decided, on his twenty-second birthday, to revise
the story into a novel he called Stephen Hero. It was a fictional rendering of Joyce's youth, but he eventually grew
frustrated with its direction and abandoned this work. It was never published in this form, but years later, in Trieste,
Joyce completely rewrote it as A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. The unfinished Stephen Hero was published
after his death.
For Oscar Wilde the contemplation of beauty for beauty's sake was not only the foundation for much of his literary
career but was quoted as saying "Aestheticism is a search after the signs of the beautiful. It is the science of the
beautiful through which men seek the correlation of the arts. It is, to speak more exactly, the search after the secret of
Wilde famously toured the United States in 1882. He travelled across the United States spreading the idea of
Aesthetics in a speech called "The English Renaissance." In his speech he proposed that Beauty and Aesthetics was
"not languid but energetic. By beautifying the outward aspects of life, one would beautify the inner ones." The
English Renaissance was, he said, "like the Italian Renaissance before it, a sort of rebirth of the spirit of man".[11]
For Francis Hutcheson beauty is disclosed by an inner mental sense, but is a
subjective fact rather than an objective one. Analytic theorists like Henry
Home, Lord Kames, William Hogarth, and Edmund Burke hoped to reduce
beauty to some list of attributes. Hogarth, for example, thinks that beauty
consists of (1) fitness of the parts to some design; (2) variety in as many ways
as possible; (3) uniformity, regularity or symmetry, which is only beautiful
when it helps to preserve the character of fitness; (4) simplicity or
distinctness, which gives pleasure not in itself, but through its enabling the
eye to enjoy variety with ease; (5) intricacy, which provides employment for
our active energies, leading the eye on "a wanton kind of chase"; and (6)
quantity or magnitude, which draws our attention and produces admiration
and awe. Later analytic aestheticians strove to link beauty to some scientific
William Hogarth, self-portrait, 1745 theory of psychology (such as James Mill) or biology (such as Herbert
Aesthetics 6

Post-modern aesthetics and psychoanalysis

Early twentieth century artists, poets and composers challenged existing notions of beauty, broadening the scope of
art and aesthetics. In 1941, Eli Siegel, American philosopher and poet, founded Aesthetic Realism, the philosophy
that reality itself is aesthetic, and that "The world, art, and self explain each other: each is the aesthetic oneness of
opposites."[12] [13]
Various attempts have been made to define Post-modern aesthetics. The challenge to the assumption that beauty was
central to art and aesthetics, thought to be original, is actually continuous with older aesthetic theory; Aristotle was
the first in the Western tradition to classify "beauty" into types as in his theory of drama, and Kant made a distinction
between beauty and the sublime. What was new was a refusal to credit the higher status of certain types, where the
taxonomy implied a preference for tragedy and the sublime to comedy and the Rococo.
Croce suggested that ÅexpressionÇ is central in the way that beauty was once thought to be central. George Dickie
suggested that the sociological institutions of the art world were the glue binding art and sensibility into unities.
Marshall McLuhan suggested that art always functions as a "counter-environment" designed to make visible what is
usually invisible about a society. Theodor Adorno felt that aesthetics could not proceed without confronting the role
of the culture industry in the commodification of art and aesthetic experience. Hal Foster (art critic) attempted to
portray the reaction against beauty and Modernist art in The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture. Arthur
Danto has described this reaction as "kalliphobia" (after the Greek word for beauty - 'kalos').[14] Andrã Malraux [15]
explains that the notion of beauty was connected to a particular conception of art that arose with the Renaissance and
was still dominant in the eighteenth century (but was supplanted later). The discipline of aesthetics, which originated
in the eighteenth century, mistook this transient state of affairs for a revelation of the permanent nature of art.[16]
Brian Massumi suggests to reconsider beauty following the aesthetical thought in the philosophy of Deleuze and
Daniel Berlyne created the field of experimental aesthetics in the 1970s, for which he is still the most cited
individual decades after his death.[18]
Pneumaist aestheticism is a theory of art and a highly experimental approach to art negating historical
preconceptions of the aesthetic.
Jean-Franåois Lyotard re-invokes the Kantian distinction between taste and the sublime. Sublime painting, unlike
kitsch realism, "...will enable us to see only by making it impossible to see; it will please only by causing pain."[19]

Sigmund Freud inaugurated aesthetical thinking in Psychoanalysis mainly via the "Uncanny" as aesthetical affect.[21]
Following Freud and Merleau-Ponty,[22] Jacques Lacan theorized aesthetics in terms of sublimation and the Thing

Aesthetics and information

Aesthetics 7

In the 1970s, Abraham Moles and Frieder Nake were among the first to
analyze links between aesthetics, information processing, and information
theory.[24] [25]
In the 1990s, Jçrgen Schmidhuber described an algorithmic theory of beauty
which takes the subjectivity of the observer into account and postulates:
among several observations classified as comparable by a given subjective
observer, the aesthetically most pleasing one is the one with the shortest
description, given the observerÄs previous knowledge and his particular Initial image of a Mandelbrot set zoom
[26] [27] sequence with continuously coloured
method for encoding the data. This is closely related to the principles
of algorithmic information theory and minimum description length. One of
his examples: mathematicians enjoy simple proofs with a short description in
their formal language. Another very concrete example describes an aesthetically pleasing human face whose
proportions can be described by very few bits of information,[28] [29] drawing inspiration from less detailed 15th
century proportion studies by Leonardo da Vinci and Albrecht Dçrer. Schmidhuber's theory explicitly distinguishes
between what's beautiful and what's interesting, stating that interestingness corresponds to the first derivative of
subjectively perceived beauty. Here the premise is that any observer continually tries to improve the predictability
and compressibility of the observations by discovering regularities such as repetitions and symmetries and fractal
self-similarity. Whenever the observer's learning process (which may be a predictive neural network - see also
Neuroesthetics) leads to improved data compression such that the observation sequence can be described by fewer
bits than before, the temporary interestingness of the data corresponds to the number of saved bits. This compression
progress is proportional to the observer's internal reward , also called curiosity reward. A reinforcement learning
algorithm is used to maximize future expected reward by learning to execute action sequences that cause additional
interesting input data with yet unknown but learnable predictability or regularity. The principles can be implemented
on artificial agents which then exhibit a form of artificial curiosity.[30] [31] [32] [33]

Applied aesthetics
As well as being applied to art aesthetics can also be applied to cultural objects. Aesthetic coupling between
art-objects and medical topics was made by speakers working for the US Information Agency[34] This coupling was
made to reinforce the learning paradigm when English-language speakers used translators to address audiences in
their own country. These audiences were generally not fluent in the English language. It can also be used in topics as
diverse as mathematics, gastronomy, fashion and website design.[35]

Aesthetic ethics
Aesthetic ethics refers to the idea that human conduct and behaviour ought to be governed by that which is beautiful
and attractive. John Dewey [36] has pointed out that the unity of aesthetics and ethics is in fact reflected in our
understanding of behaviour being "fair" - the word having a double meaning of attractive and morally acceptable.
More recently, James Page [37] has suggested that aesthetic ethics might be taken to form a philosophical rationale
for peace education.
Aesthetics 8

Truth as beauty, mathematics, analytic philosophy, and physics

Mathematical considerations, such as symmetry and complexity, are used for analysis in theoretical aesthetics. This
is different from the aesthetic considerations of applied aesthetics used in the study of mathematical beauty.
Aesthetic considerations such as symmetry and simplicity are used in areas of philosophy, such as ethics and
theoretical physics and cosmology to define truth, outside of empirical considerations. Beauty and Truth have been
argued to be nearly synonymous,[38] as reflected in the statement "Beauty is truth, truth beauty" in the poem Ode on
a Grecian Urn by John Keats. The fact that judgments of beauty and judgments of truth both are influenced by
processing fluency, which is the ease with which information can be processed, has been presented as an explanation
for why beauty is sometimes equated with truth.[39] Indeed, recent research found that people use beauty as an
indication for truth in mathematical pattern tasks.[40]

Computational inference of aesthetics

Since about 2005, computer scientists have attempted to develop automated methods to infer aesthetic quality of
images. Large number of manually rated online photographs were used to "teach" computers about what visual
properties are of relevance to aesthetic quality. The Acquine engine, developed at Penn State University, rates
natural photographs uploaded by users.[41]
Notable in this area is Michael Leyton, professor of psychology at Rutgers University. Leyton is the president of the
International Society for Mathematical and Computational Aesthetics and the International Society for Group Theory
in Cognitive Science and has developed a generative theory of shape.
There have also been relatively successful attempts with regard to chess and music.[42]

Aesthetic judgment
Judgments of aesthetic value rely on our ability to discriminate at a sensory level. Aesthetics examines our affective
domain response to an object or phenomenon. Immanuel Kant, writing in 1790, observes of a man "If he says that
canary wine is agreeable he is quite content if someone else corrects his terms and reminds him to say instead: It is
agreeable to me," because "Everyone has his own (sense of) taste". The case of "beauty" is different from mere
"agreeableness" because, "If he proclaims something to be beautiful, then he requires the same liking from others; he
then judges not just for himself but for everyone, and speaks of beauty as if it were a property of things."
Aesthetic judgments usually go beyond sensory discrimination. For David Hume, delicacy of taste is not merely "the
ability to detect all the ingredients in a composition", but also our sensitivity "to pains as well as pleasures, which
escape the rest of mankind." (Essays Moral Political and Literary. Indianapolis, Literary Classics 5, 1987.) Thus, the
sensory discrimination is linked to capacity for pleasure. For Kant "enjoyment" is the result when pleasure arises
from sensation, but judging something to be "beautiful" has a third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure
by engaging our capacities of reflective contemplation. Judgments of beauty are sensory, emotional and intellectual
all at once.
Viewer interpretations of beauty possess two concepts of value: aesthetics and taste. Aesthetics is the philosophical
notion of beauty. Taste is a result of education and awareness of elite cultural values; therefore taste can be learned.
Taste varies according to class, cultural background, and education. According to Kant, beauty is objective and
universal; thus certain things are beautiful to everyone. The contemporary view of beauty is not based on innate
qualities, but rather on cultural specifics and individual interpretations.
Aesthetics 9

Factors involved in aesthetic judgment

Judgments of aesthetic value seem often to involve many other kinds of issues
as well. Responses such as disgust show that sensory detection is linked in
instinctual ways to facial expressions, and even behaviors like the gag reflex.
Yet disgust can often be a learned or cultural issue too; as Darwin pointed
out, seeing a stripe of soup in a man's beard is disgusting even though neither
soup nor beards are themselves disgusting. Aesthetic judgments may be Rainbows often have aesthetic appeal.
linked to emotions or, like emotions, partially embodied in our physical
reactions. Seeing a sublime view of a landscape may give us a reaction of awe, which might manifest physically as
an increased heart rate or widened eyes. These unconscious reactions may even be partly constitutive of what makes
our judgment a judgment that the landscape is sublime.

Likewise, aesthetic judgments may be culturally conditioned to some extent. Victorians in Britain often saw African
sculpture as ugly, but just a few decades later, Edwardian audiences saw the same sculptures as being beautiful. The
Abuse of Beauty, Evaluations of beauty may well be linked to desirability, perhaps even to sexual desirability. Thus,
judgments of aesthetic value can become linked to judgments of economic, political, or moral value.[43] In a current
context, one might judge a Lamborghini to be beautiful partly because it is desirable as a status symbol, or we might
judge it to be repulsive partly because it signifies for us over-consumption and offends our political or moral
"Part and Parcel in Animal and Human Societies". in Studies in animal and human behavior, vol. 2. pp.é115Ñ195.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1971 (originally pub. 1950.) Aesthetic judgments can often be very fine-grained and
internally contradictory. Likewise aesthetic judgments seem often to be at least partly intellectual and interpretative.
It is what a thing means or symbolizes for us that is often what we are judging. Modern aestheticians have asserted
that will and desire were almost dormant in aesthetic experience, yet preference and choice have seemed important
aesthetics to some 20th century thinkers. The point is already made by Hume, but see Mary Mothersill, "Beauty and
the CriticÄs Judgment", in The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics, 2004. Thus aesthetic judgments might be seen to be
based on the senses, emotions, intellectual opinions, will, desires, culture, preferences, values, subconscious
behavior, conscious decision, training, instinct, sociological institutions, or some complex combination of these,
depending on exactly which theory one employs.

Are different art forms beautiful, disgusting, or boring in the same way?
A third major topic in the study of aesthetic judgments is how they are unified across art forms. We can call a
person, a house, a symphony, a fragrance, and a mathematical proof beautiful. What characteristics do they share
which give them that status? What possible feature could a proof and a fragrance both share in virtue of which they
both count as beautiful? What makes a painting beautiful is quite different from what makes music beautiful, which
suggests that each art form has its own language for the judgement of aesthetics.[45]
At the same time, there is seemingly quite a lack of words to express oneself accurately when making an aesthetic
judgment. An aesthetic judgment cannot be an empirical judgement. Therefore, due to impossibility for precision,
there is confusion about what interpretations can be culturally negotiated. Due to imprecision in the standard English
language, two completely different feelings experienced by two different people can be represented by an identical
verbal expression. Wittgenstein stated this in his lectures on aesthetics and language games.
A collective identification of beauty, with willing participants in a given social spectrum, may be a socially
negotiated phenomenon, discussed in a culture or context. Is there some underlying unity to aesthetic judgment and
is there some way to articulate the similarities of a beautiful house, beautiful proof, and beautiful sunset?[46]
Defining it requires a description of the entire phenomenon, as Wittgenstein argued in his lectures on aesthetics.
Likewise there has been long debate on how perception of beauty in the natural world, especially perception of the
Aesthetics 10

human form as beautiful, is supposed to relate to perceiving beauty in art or artefacts. This goes back at least to Kant,
with some echoes even in St. Bonaventure.

Aesthetics and the philosophy of art

Aesthetics is for the artist as Ornithology is for the birds.

[47] [48]
É Barnett Newman

Aesthetics is used by some as a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel, while others insist on a distinction
between these closely related fields. In practice aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or
appreciation of an object (not necessarily an art object), while artistic judgement refers to the recognition,
appreciation or criticism of art or an art work.
The philosophical aesthetics has not only to speak about art and to produce judgments about the art works, but has
also to give a definition of what art is. Art is an autonomous entity for the philosophy, because art deals with the
senses (i. e. the etymology of aesthetics) and art is as such free of any moral or political purpose. Hence, there are
two different conceptions of art in the aesthetics : art as knowledge or art as action, but aesthetics is neither
epistemology nor ethics.[49]

What is "art"?
How best to define the term ÅartÇ is a subject of constant contention; many
books and journal articles have been published arguing over even the basics
of what we mean by the term ÅartÇ.[50] Theodor Adorno claimed in 1969 ÅIt is
self-evident that nothing concerning art is self-evident.Ç[51] [52] Artists,
philosophers, anthropologists, psychologists and programmers all use the
notion of art in their respective fields, and give it operational definitions that
vary considerably. Furthermore, it is clear that even the basic meaning of the
term "art" has changed several times over the centuries, and has continued to
evolve during the 20th century as well.
Harmony of colors
The main recent sense of the word ÅartÇ is roughly as an abbreviation for
creative art or Åfine art.Ç Here we mean that skill is being used to express the artistÄs creativity, or to engage the
audienceÄs aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of the ÅfinerÇ things. Often, if the
skill is being used in a functional object, people will consider it a craft instead of art, a suggestion which is highly
disputed by many Contemporary Craft thinkers. Likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way
it may be considered design instead of art, or contrariwise these may be defended as art forms, perhaps called applied
art. Some thinkers, for instance, have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with
the actual function of the object than any clear definitional difference.[53] Art usually implies no function other than
to convey or communicate an idea.

Even as late as 1912 it was normal in the West to assume that all art aims at beauty, and thus that anything that
wasn't trying to be beautiful couldn't count as art. The cubists, dadaists, Stravinsky, and many later art movements
struggled against this conception that beauty was central to the definition of art, with such success that, according to
Danto, "Beauty had disappeared not only from the advanced art of the 1960Äs but from the advanced philosophy of
art of that decade as well."[51] Perhaps some notion like "expression" (in CroceÄs theories) or "counter-environment"
(in McLuhanÄs theory) can replace the previous role of beauty. Brian Massumi brought back "beauty" into
consideration together with "expression".[54] Another view, as important to the philosophy of art as "beauty," is that
Aesthetics 11

of the "sublime," elaborated upon in the twentieth century by the postmodern philosopher Jean-Franåois Lyotard. A
further approach, elaborated by Andrã Malraux [55] in works such as The Voices of Silence, is that art is
fundamentally a response to a metaphysical question ('Art', he writes, 'is an 'anti-destiny'). Malraux argues that, while
art has sometimes been oriented towards beauty and the sublime (principally in post-Renaissance European art) these
qualities, as the wider history of art demonstrates, are by no means essential to it.[56]
Perhaps (as in Kennick's theory) no definition of art is possible anymore. Perhaps art should be thought of as a
cluster of related concepts in a Wittgensteinian fashion (as in Weitz or Beuys). Another approach is to say that ÅartÇ
is basically a sociological category, that whatever art schools and museums and artists define as art is considered art
regardless of formal definitions. This "institutional definition of art" (see also Institutional Critique) has been
championed by George Dickie. Most people did not consider the depiction of a Brillo Box or a store-bought urinal to
be art until Andy Warhol and Marcel Duchamp (respectively) placed them in the context of art (i.e., the art gallery),
which then provided the association of these objects with the associations that define art.
Proceduralists often suggest that it is the process by which a work of art is created or viewed that makes it art, not
any inherent feature of an object, or how well received it is by the institutions of the art world after its introduction to
society at large. If a poet writes down several lines, intending them as a poem, the very procedure by which it is
written makes it a poem. Whereas if a journalist writes exactly the same set of words, intending them as shorthand
notes to help him write a longer article later, these would not be a poem. Leo Tolstoy, on the other hand, claims that
what decides whether or not something is art is how it is experienced by its audience, not by the intention of its
creator. Functionalists like Monroe Beardsley argue that whether or not a piece counts as art depends on what
function it plays in a particular context; the same Greek vase may play a non-artistic function in one context
(carrying wine), and an artistic function in another context (helping us to appreciate the beauty of the human figure).

What should we judge when we judge art?

Art can be difficult at the metaphysical and ontological levels as well as at the
value theory level. When we see a performance of Hamlet, how many works
of art are we experiencing, and which should we judge? Perhaps there is only
one relevant work of art, the whole performance, which many different
people have contributed to, and which will exist briefly and then disappear.
Perhaps the manuscript by Shakespeare is a distinct work of art from the play
by the troupe, which is also distinct from the performance of the play by this
troupe on this night, and all three can be judged, but are to be judged by
different standards.

Perhaps every person involved should be judged separately on his or her own
merits, and each costume or line is its own work of art (with perhaps the
director having the job of unifying them all). Similar problems arise for
music, film, dance, and even painting. Is one to judge the painting itself, the
work of the painter, or perhaps the painting in its context of presentation by
Nature provides aesthetic ideals.
the museum workers?
These problems have been made even more difficult by the rise of conceptual
art since the 1960s. WarholÄs famous Brillo Boxes are nearly indistinguishable from actual Brillo boxes at the time. It
would be a mistake to praise Warhol for the design of his boxes (which were designed by Steve Harvey), yet the
conceptual move of exhibiting these boxes as art in a museum together with other kinds of paintings is Warhol's. Are
we judging WarholÄs concept? His execution of the concept in the medium? The curatorÄs insight in letting Warhol
Aesthetics 12

display the boxes? The overall result? Our experience or interpretation of the result? Ontologically, how are we to
think of the work of art? Is it a physical object? Several objects? A class of objects? A mental object? A fictional
object? An abstract object? An event? Or simply an Act?

What should art be like?

Many goals have been argued for art, and aestheticians often argue that some goal or another is superior in some
way. Clement Greenberg, for instance, argued in 1960 that each artistic medium should seek that which makes it
unique among the possible mediums and then purify itself of anything other than expression of its own uniqueness as
a form.[57] The Dadaist Tristan Tzara on the other hand saw the function of art in 1918 as the destruction of a mad
social order. ÅWe must sweep and clean. Affirm the cleanliness of the individual after the state of madness,
aggressive complete madness of a world abandoned to the hands of bandits.Ç[58] Formal goals, creative goals,
self-expression, political goals, spiritual goals, philosophical goals, and even more perceptual or aesthetic goals have
all been popular pictures of what art should be like.

The value of art

Tolstoy defined art, and not incidentally characterized its value, this way: "Art is a human activity consisting in this,
that one man consciously, by means of certain external signs, hands on to others feelings he has lived through, and
that other people are infected by these feelings and also experience them."
The value of art, then, is one with the value of empathy.
Other possible views are these: Art can act as a means to some special kind of knowledge. Art may give insight into
the human condition. Art relates to science and religion. Art serves as a tool of education, or indoctrination, or
enculturation. Art makes us more moral. It uplifts us spiritually. Art is politics by other means. Art has the value of
allowing catharsis. In any case, the value of art may determine the suitability of an art form. Do they differ
significantly in their values, or (if not) in their ability to achieve the unitary value of art?
But to approach the question of the value of art systematically, one ought to ask: for whom? For the artist? For the
audience? For society at large, and/or for individuals beyond the audience? Is the "value" of art different in each of
these different contexts?
Working on the intended value of art tends to help define the relations between art and other acts. Art clearly does
have spiritual goals in many contexts, but what exactly is the difference between religious art and religion per se?
The truth is complex; art is both useless in a functional sense, and also the most important human activity.
An argument for the value of art, used in the fictional work 'The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy', proceeds that,
should some external force presenting imminent destruction of Earth, ask the inhabitants, of what use is humanity,
what should humanity's response be? The argument continues that the only justification humanity could give for its
continued existence would be the past creation and continued creation of things like a Shakespeare play, a
Rembrandt painting or a Bach concerto. The suggestion is that these are the things of value which define
Aesthetics 13

Aesthetic universals
The philosopher Denis Dutton identified seven universal signatures in human aesthetics:[60]
1. Expertise or virtuosity. Humans cultivate, recognize, and admire technical artistic skills.
2. Nonutilitarian pleasure. People enjoy art for art's sake, and don't demand that it keep them warm or put food on
the table.
3. Style. Artistic objects and performances satisfy rules of composition that place them in a recognizable style.
4. Criticism. People make a point of judging, appreciating, and interpreting works of art.
5. Imitation. With a few important exceptions like abstract painting, works of art simulate experiences of the world.
6. Special focus. Art is set aside from ordinary life and made a dramatic focus of experience.
It might be objected, however, that there are rather too many exceptions to Dutton's categories. For example, the
installations of the contemporary artist Thomas Hirschhorn deliberately eschew technical virtuosity. People can
appreciate a Renaissance Madonna for aesthetic reasons, but such objects often had (and sometimes still have)
specific devotional functions. "Rules of composition" that might be read into Duchamp's Fountain or John Cage's
4'33" do not locate the works in a recognizable style (or certainly not a style recognizable at the time of the works'
realisation). Moreover, some of Dutton's categories seem too broad: a physicist might entertain hypothetical worlds
in his/her imagination in the course of formulating a theory. Another problem is that Dutton's categories seek to
universalise traditional European notions of aesthetics and art forgetting that, as Andrã Malraux and others have
pointed out, there have been large numbers of cultures in which such ideas (including the idea "art" itself) were
Increasingly, academics in both the sciences and the humanities look to evolutionary psychology and cognitive
science in an effort to understand the connection between psychology and aesthetics. Aside from Dutton, others
exploring this realm include David Bordwell, Brian Boyd, Christine Buci-Glucksmann, Noel Carroll, Ellen
Dissanayake, Nancy Easterlin, Bracha Ettinger, David Evans, Jonathan Gottschall, Torben Grodal, Paul Hernadi,,
Patrick Hogan, Carl Plantinga, Rolf Reber, Elaine Scarry, Murray Smith, Wendy Steiner, Robert Storey, Frederick
Turner, and Mark Turner.

The philosophy of aesthetics has been criticized by some sociologists and writers about art and society. Raymond
Williams argues that there is no unique aesthetic object but a continuum of cultural forms from ordinary speech to
experiences that are signaled as art by a frame, institution or special event. Pierre Bourdieu also takes issue with
Kant's aesthetics and argues that it represents an experience that is the product of an elevated class habitus and
scholarly leisure.

[1] Definition 1 of aesthetics (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ aesthetics) from the Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online.
[2] Zangwill, Nick. " Aesthetic Judgment (http:/ / plato. stanford. edu/ entries/ aesthetic-judgment/ )", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
02-28-2003/10-22-2007. Retrieved 07-24-2008.
[3] Kelly (1998) p. ix
[4] Review (http:/ / www. arlisna. org/ artdoc/ vol18/ iss2/ 01. pdf) by Tom Riedel (Regis University)
[5] Definition of aesthetic (http:/ / www. etymonline. com/ index. php?term=aesthetic) from the Online Etymology Dictionary
[6] Grotesque entry in Kelly 1998, pp.338-341
[7] Davies, Penelope J.E. Denny, Walter B. Hofrichter, Frima Fox. Jacobs, Joseph. Roberts, Ann M. Simon, David L. Janson's History of Art,
Prentice Hall; 2007, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Seventh Edition, ISBN 0131934554 pg. 277
[8] The Arab Contribution to Islamic Art: From the Seventh to the Fifteenth Centuries (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=rpUuqLPPKK4C&
dq=wijdan& printsec=frontcover& source=web& ots=QXySmKzsy6& sig=a9V6tTTfsrTT5Ex01QGnwrL7XYY), Wijdan Ali, American
Univ in Cairo Press, December 10, 1999, ISBN 9774244761
[9] From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of the Prophet Muhammad's(s.a.w) Portrayal from 13th century Ilkhanid Miniatures to
17th century Ottoman Art (http:/ / www2. let. uu. nl/ solis/ anpt/ EJOS/ pdf4/ 07Ali. pdf), Wijdan Ali, EJOS (Electronic Journal of Oriental
Aesthetics 14

Studies) (http:/ / www2. let. uu. nl/ Solis/ anpt/ ejos/ EJOS-1. html), volume IV, issue 7, p. 1-24, 2001
[10] "Oscar Wilde" by Richard Ellman p 159, pub Alfred A Knopf, INC. 1988
[11] Ellman, p164
[12] Green, Edward, "Donald Francis Tovey, Aesthetic Realism and the Need for a Philosophic Musicology," International Revue of the
Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, 2005, p. 227. (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 30032170?searchUrl=/ action/ doBasicSearch?acc=off&
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AND+ self+ explain+ each+ other& Search=Search& hp=25& wc=on& acc=off& Search=yes)
[13] Siegel, Eli, "Is Beauty the Making One of Opposites?", Journal of Aesthetics & Art Criticism, 1955. (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/
425879?searchUrl=/ action/ doBasicSearch?acc=off& Query=%22the+ making+ one+ of+ opposites%22+ Eli+ Siegel& gw=jtx&
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[14] 'Kalliphobia in Contemporary Art' in Art Journal v. 63 no. 2 (Summer 2004) p. 24-35
[15] http:/ / www. home. netspeed. com. au/ derek. allan/ default. htm
[16] Derek Allan, Art and the Human Adventure, Andrè Malraux's Theory of Art (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2009)
[17] Massumi, Brian, (ed.), A Shock to Thought. Expression after Deleuze and Guattari. London & NY: Routeledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-23804-8
[18] Daniel Berlyne (1924-1976): Biographical Analysis. http:/ / www. psych. utoronto. ca/ users/ furedy/ daniel_berlyne. htm
[19] Lyotard, Jean-Franåoise, What is Postmodernism?, in The Postmodern Condition, Minnesota and Manchester, 1984.
[20] Lyotard, Jean-Franåoise, Scriptures: Diffracted Traces, in Theory, Culture and Society, Volume 21, Number 1, 2004.
[21] Freud, Sigmund, "The Uncanny" (1919). Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Work of Sigmund Freud, 17:234-36. London: The
Hogarth Press
[22] Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1964), "The Visible and the Invisible". Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0-810-10457-1
[23] Lacan, Jacques, The Ethics of Psychoanalysis (The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book VII), NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 1992.
[24] A. Moles: Thèorie de l'information et perception esthètique, Paris, Denoèl, 1973 (Information Theory and aesthetical perception)
[25] F Nake (1974). êsthetik als Informationsverarbeitung. (Aesthetics as information processing). Grundlagen und Anwendungen der
Informatik im Bereich ësthetischer Produktion und Kritik. Springer, 1974, ISBN 3211812164, ISBN 9783211812167
[26] J. Schmidhuber. Low-complexity art. Leonardo, Journal of the International Society for the Arts, Sciences, and Technology, 30(2):97Ñ103,
1997. http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 1576418
[27] J. Schmidhuber. Papers on the theory of beauty and low-complexity art since 1994: http:/ / www. idsia. ch/ ~juergen/ beauty. html
[28] J. Schmidhuber. Facial beauty and fractal geometry. Cogprint Archive: http:/ / cogprints. soton. ac. uk , 1998
[29] J. Schmidhuber. Simple Algorithmic Principles of Discovery, Subjective Beauty, Selective Attention, Curiosity & Creativity. Proc. 10th Intl.
Conf. on Discovery Science (DS 2007) p. 26-38, LNAI 4755, Springer, 2007. Also in Proc. 18th Intl. Conf. on Algorithmic Learning Theory
(ALT 2007) p. 32, LNAI 4754, Springer, 2007. Joint invited lecture for DS 2007 and ALT 2007, Sendai, Japan, 2007. arXiv:0709.0674
[30] J. Schmidhuber. Curious model-building control systems. International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Singapore, vol 2, 1458Ñ1463.
IEEE press, 1991
[31] J. Schmidhuber. Papers on artificial curiosity since 1990: http:/ / www. idsia. ch/ ~juergen/ interest. html
[32] J. Schmidhuber. Developmental robotics, optimal artificial curiosity, creativity, music, and the fine arts. Connection Science,
18(2):173Ñ187, 2006
[33] Schmidhuber's theory of beauty and curiosity in a German TV show: http:/ / www. br-online. de/ bayerisches-fernsehen/ faszination-wissen/
schoenheit--aesthetik-wahrnehmung-ID1212005092828. xml
[34] Giannini AJ (December 1993). "Tangential symbols: using visual symbolization to teach pharmacological principles of drug addiction to
international audiences". Journal of clinical pharmacology 33 (12): 1139Ñ46. PMIDé7510314.
[35] Moshagen, M. & Thielsch, M. T. (2010). Facets of visual aesthetics. In: International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68 (10),
689-709. PDF (http:/ / www. thielsch. org/ download/ paper/ moshagen_2010. pdf)
[36] Dewey, John. (1932)'Ethics', with James Tufts. In: The Collected Works of John Dewey, 1882-1953 Edited Jo-Ann Boydston: Carbonsdale:
Southern Illinois University Press. p. 275.
[37] Page, James S. (2008) Peace Education: Exploring Ethical and Philosophical Foundations. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing. ISBN
978-1-59311-889-1. (http:/ / www. infoagepub. com/ products/ content/ p478d75b79b1ea. php) (http:/ / eprints. qut. edu. au/ 12263/ )
[38] Why Beauty Is Truth: The History of Symmetry, Ian Stewart, 2008
[39] Reber, R, Schwarz, N, Winkielman, P: "Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing experience?",
Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(4):364-382
[40] Reber, R, Brun, M, Mitterndorfer, K: "The use of heuristics in intuitive mathematical judgment", Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,
[41] "Aesthetic Quality Inference Engine - Instant Impersonal Assessment of Photos" (http:/ / acquine. alipr. com). Penn State University. .
Retrieved 21 June 2009.
[42] Manaris, B., Roos, P., Penousal, M., Krehbiel, D., Pellicoro, L. and Romero, J.; A Corpus-Based Hybrid Approach to Music Analysis and
Composition; Proceedings of 22nd Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-07); Vancouver, BC; 839-845 2007.
[43] Holm, Ivar (2006). Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial design: How attitudes, orientations, and underlying assumptions shape
the built environment. Oslo School of Architecture and Design. ISBN 8254701741.
[44] Korsmeyer, Carolyn ed. Aesthetics: The Big Questions 1998
[45] Consider Clement GreenbergÄs arguments in "On Modernist Painting" (1961), reprinted in Aesthetics: A Reader in Philosophy of Arts.
Aesthetics 15

[46] Immanuel Kant, The Critique of Judgment.

[47] Barnett Newman Foundation, Chronology, 1952 (http:/ / www. barnettnewman. org/ chronology. php) Retrieved August 30, 2010
[48] The Abuse of Beauty: Aesthetics and the Concept of Art, By Arthur Coleman Danto, p.1, Published by Open Court Publishing, 2003, ISBN
0812695402, 9780812695403
[49] Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert, Introduction to Aesthetics (Einfêhrung in die ãsthetik), Munich, Wilhelm Fink, 1995, p. 7.
[50] Davies, 1991, Carroll, 2000, et al.
[51] Danto, 2003
[52] Goodman,
[53] Novitz, 1992
[54] Brian Massumi, Deleuze, Guattari and the Philosophy of Expression, CRCL, 24:3, 1997.
[55] http:/ / home. netspeed. com. au/ derek. allan/ default. htm
[56] Derek Allan. Art and the Human Adventure. Andrè MalrauxÄs Theory of Art. (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2009)
[57] Clement Greenberg, ÅOn Modernist PaintingÇ.
[58] Tristan Tzara, Sept Manifestes Dada.
[59] The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, by Douglas Adams
[60] Denis Dutton's Aesthetic Universals summarized by Steven Pinker in The Blank Slate
[61] Derek Allan, Art and the Human Adventure: Andrè Malraux's Theory of Art. (Amsterdam: Rodopi. 2009)

Further reading
í Handbook of Phenomenological Aesthetics. Edited by Hans Rainer Sepp and Lester Embree. (Series:
Contributions To Phenomenology, Vol. 59) Springer, Dordrecht / Heidelberg / London / New York 2010. ISBN
í Theodor W. Adorno, Aesthetic Theory, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1997.
í Derek Allan (, Art and the Human Adventure,
Andre Malraux's Theory of Art, Rodopi, 2009
í Augros, Robert M., Stanciu, George N., The New Story of Science: mind and the universe, Lake Bluff, Ill.:
Regnery Gateway, c1984. ISBN 0895268337 (has significant material on Art, Science and their philosophies)
í John Bender and Gene Blocker Contemporary Philosophy of Art: Readings in Analytic Aesthetics 1993.
í Christine Buci-Glucksmann (2003), Esthètique de l'èphèmëre, Galilãe. (French)
í Noel Carroll (2000), Theories of Art Today, University of Wisconsin Press.
í Benedetto Croce (1922), Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistic.
í E. S. Dallas (1866), The Gay Science, 2 volumes, on the aesthetics of poetry.
í Danto, Arthur (2003), The Abuse of Beauty: Aesthetics and the Concept of Art, Open Court.
í Stephen Davies (1991), Definitions of Art.
í Terry Eagleton (1990), The Ideology of the Aesthetic. Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16302-6
í Feagin and Maynard (1997), Aesthetics. Oxford Readers.
í Penny Florence and Nicola Foster (eds.) (2000), Differential Aesthetics. London: Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-1493-X
í Berys Gaut and Dominic McIver Lopes (eds.), "Routledge Companion to Aesthetics". London: Routledge, 2005.
ISBN 0415327989
í Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert (1995), Einfêhrung in die ãsthetik, Munich, W. Fink.
í David Goldblatt and Lee Brown, ed. (1997), Aesthetics: A Reader in the Philosophy of the Arts.
í Greenberg, Clement (1960), "Modernist Painting", The Collected Essays and Criticism 1957-1969, The
University of Chicago Press, 1993, 85-92.
í Evelyn Hatcher (ed.), Art as Culture: An Introduction to the Anthropology of Art. 1999
í Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1975), Aesthetics. Lectures on Fine Art, trans. T.M. Knox, 2 vols. Oxford:
Clarendon Press.
í Hans Hofmann and Sara T Weeks; Bartlett H Hayes; Addison Gallery of American Art; Search for the real, and
other essays ( (Cambridge, Mass.,
M.I.T. Press, 1967) OCLC 1125858
Aesthetics 16

í Michael Ann Holly and Keith Moxey (eds.), Art History and Visual Studies. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN
í Kant, Immanuel (1790), Critique of Judgement, Translated by Werner S. Pluhar, Hackett Publishing Co., 1987.
í Kelly, Michael (Editor in Chief) (1998) Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
4 voll., pp.éXVII-521, pp.é555, pp.é536, pp.é572; 2224 total pages; 100 b/w photos; ISBN 978-0-19-511307-5.
Covers philosophical, historical, sociological, and biographical aspects of Art and Aesthetics worldwide.
í Alexander J. Kent, "Aesthetics: A Lost Cause in Cartographic Theory?" The Cartographic Journal, 42(2) 182-8,
í Sìren Kierkegaard (1843), Either/Or, translated by Alastair Hannay, London, Penguin, 1992
í Peter Kivy (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics. 2004
í Carolyn Korsmeyer (ed.), Aesthetics: The Big Questions. 1998
í Lyotard, Jean-Franåois (1979), The Postmodern Condition, Manchester University Press, 1984.
í Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1969), The Visible and the Invisible, Northwestern University Press.
í Martinus Nijhoff, A History of Six Ideas: an Essay in Aesthetics, The Hague, 1980.
í Novitz, David (1992), The Boundaries of Art.
í Mario Perniola, The Art and Its Shadow, foreword by Hugh J.Silverman, translated by Massimo Verdicchio,
London-NewYork, Continuum, 2004.
í Robert Pirsig, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values, 1974, paperpack, or hardback
first edition ISBN 0-688-00230-7
í Griselda Pollock, "Does Art Think?" In: Dana Arnold and Margaret Iverson (eds.) Art and Thought. Oxford: Basil
Blackwell, 2003. 129-174. ISBN 0-631-22715-6.
í Griselda Pollock, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive. Routledge, 2007.
ISBN 0415413745.
í George Santayana (1896) , The Sense of Beauty. Being the Outlines of Aesthetic Theory. New York, Modern
Library, 1955.
í Elaine Scarry, On Beauty and Being Just. Princeton, 2001. ISBN 9780691089591
í Friedrich Schiller, (1795), On the Aesthetic Education of Man. Dover Publications, 2004.
í Alan Singer & Allen Dunn (eds.), Literary Aesthetics: A Reader. Blackwell Publishing Limited, 2000. ISBN
í Wîadysîaw Tatarkiewicz, History of Aesthetics, 3 vols. (1Ñ2, 1970; 3, 1974), The Hague, Mouton.
í Leo Tolstoy, What Is Art?, Penguin Classics, 1995.
í The London Philosophy Study Guide ( offers many suggestions on
what to read, depending on the student's familiarity with the subject: Aesthetics (
í John M. Valentine, Beginning Aesthetics: An Introduction To The Philosophy of Art. McGraw-Hill, 2006. ISBN
von Vacano, Diego, "The Art of Power: Machiavelli, Nietzsche and the Making of Aesthetic Political Theory,"
Lanham MD: Lexington: 2007.
í Thomas Wartenberg, The Nature of Art. 2006.
í John Whitehead, Grasping for the Wind. 2001.
í Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lectures on aesthetics, psychology and religious belief, Oxford, Blackwell, 1966.
í Richard Wollheim, Art and its objects, 2nd edn, 1980, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521 29706 0
Aesthetics 17

External links
í Revue online Appareil (
í Aesthetics ( entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
í Postscript 1980- Some Old Problems in New Perspectives (
í Aesthetics in Art Education: A Look Toward Implementation (
í An history of aesthetics (
í The Concept of the Aesthetic (
í Aesthetics ( entry in the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy
í Philosophy of Aesthetics (
entry in the Philosophy Archive

Art is the product or process of deliberately
arranging items (often with symbolic
significance) in a way that influences and
affects one or more of the senses, emotions,
and intellect. It encompasses a diverse range
of human activities, creations, and modes of
expression, including music, literature, film,
photography, sculpture, and paintings. The
meaning of art is explored in a branch of
philosophy known as aesthetics, and even
disciplines such as history and psychology
analyze its relationship with humans and

Traditionally, the term art was used to refer

to any skill or mastery. This conception
changed during the Romantic period, when
art came to be seen as "a special faculty of
the human mind to be classified with
religion and science".[1] Generally, art is Clockwise from upper left: A self-portrait from Vincent van Gogh, an African
Chokwe-statue, detail from the Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli and a Japanese
made with the intention of stimulating
Shisa lion.
thoughts and emotions.

Philosopher Richard Wollheim distinguishes three approaches to assessing the aesthetic value of art: the realist,
whereby aesthetic quality is an absolute value independent of any human view; the objectivist, whereby it is also an
absolute value, but is dependent on general human experience; and the relativist position, whereby it is not an
absolute value, but depends on, and varies with, the human experience of different humans.[2] An object may be
characterized by the intentions, or lack thereof, of its creator, regardless of its apparent purpose. A cup, which
ostensibly can be used as a container, may be considered art if intended solely as an ornament, while a painting may
be deemed craft if mass-produced.
Art 18

The nature of art has been described by Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human
culture".[3] It has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for
exploring and appreciating formal elements for their own sake, and as mimesis or representation. Leo Tolstoy
identified art as a use of indirect means to communicate from one person to another.[4] Benedetto Croce and R.G.
Collingwood advanced the idealist view that art expresses emotions, and that the work of art therefore essentially
exists in the mind of the creator.[5] [6] The theory of art as form has its roots in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, and
was developed in the early twentieth century by Roger Fry and Clive Bell. Art as mimesis or representation has deep
roots in the philosophy of Aristotle.[4] More recently, thinkers influenced by Martin Heidegger have interpreted art as
the means by which a community develops for itself a medium for self-expression and interpretation.[7]


Works of art worldwide can tell stories or simply express an aesthetic truth or feeling. Panorama of a section of A
Thousand Li of Mountains and Rivers, a 12th-century painting by Song Dynasty artist Wang Ximeng.
Britannica Online defines art as "the use of skill and imagination in the creation of aesthetic objects, environments,
or experiences that can be shared with others." By this definition of the word, artistic works have existed for almost
as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art; however, some theories restrict the concept to
modern Western societies.[8] Adorno said in 1970, "It is now taken for granted that nothing which concerns art can
be taken for granted any more: neither art itself, nor art in relationship to the whole, nor even the right of art to
exist."[9] The first and broadest sense of art is the one that has remained closest to the older Latin meaning, which
roughly translates to "skill" or "craft." A few examples where this meaning proves very broad include artifact,
artificial, artifice, medical arts, and military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of the word, all
with some relation to its etymology.
Art 19

The second and more recent sense of the word art is as an

abbreviation for creative art or fine art. Fine art means
that a skill is being used to express the artist's creativity,
or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to
draw the audience towards consideration of the finer
things. Often, if the skill is being used in a common or
practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art.
Likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or
industrial way, it will be considered commercial art
instead of fine art. On the other hand, crafts and design
are sometimes considered applied art. Some art followers
have argued that the difference between fine art and
applied art has more to do with value judgments made
about the art than any clear definitional difference.[10]
However, even fine art often has goals beyond pure
creativity and self-expression. The purpose of works of
art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically,
spiritually, or philosophically motivated art; to create a
sense of beauty (see aesthetics); to explore the nature of
perception; for pleasure; or to generate strong emotions.
The purpose may also be seemingly nonexistent.

Art can describe several things: a study of creative skill, a 20th-century Rwandan bottle. Artistic works may serve practical
process of using the creative skill, a product of the functions, in addition to their decorative value.
creative skill, or the audience's experience with the
creative skill. The creative arts (art as discipline) are a collection of disciplines (arts) that produce artworks (art as
objects) that are compelled by a personal drive (art as activity) and echo or reflect a message, mood, or symbolism
for the viewer to interpret (art as experience). Artworks can be defined by purposeful, creative interpretations of
limitless concepts or ideas in order to communicate something to another person. Artworks can be explicitly made
for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. Art is something that stimulates an individual's
thoughts, emotions, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. It is also an expression of an idea and it can take many
different forms and serve many different purposes. Although the application of scientific knowledge to derive a new
scientific theory involves skill and results in the "creation" of something new, this represents science only and is not
categorized as art.
Art 20

Sculptures, cave paintings, rock paintings, and petroglyphs from
the Upper Paleolithic dating to roughly 40,000 years ago have
been found, but the precise meaning of such art is often disputed
because so little is known about the cultures that produced them.
The oldest art objects in the worldÉa series of tiny, drilled snail
shells about 75,000 years oldÉwere discovered in a South African

Venus of Willendorf, circa 24,000Ñ22,000 BP.

Many great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of

the great ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia,
Persia, India, China, Ancient Greece, Rome, as well as Inca,
Maya, and Olmec. Each of these centers of early civilization
developed a unique and characteristic style in its art. Because of
the size and duration of these civilizations, more of their art works
have survived and more of their influence has been transmitted to
other cultures and later times. Some also have provided the first
records of how artists worked. For example, this period of Greek
art saw a veneration of the human physical form and the
Cave painting of a horse from the Lascaux caves, c.
development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise,
16,000 BP.
beauty, and anatomically correct proportions.

In Byzantine and Medieval art of the Western Middle Ages, much art focused on the expression of Biblical and
nonmaterial truths, and used styles that showed the higher unseen glory of a heavenly world, such as the use of gold
in the background of paintings, or glass in mosaics or windows, which also presented figures in idealized, patterned
(flat) forms. Nevertheless a classical realist tradition persisted in small Byzantine works, and realism steadily grew in
the art of Catholic Europe.
Renaissance art had a greatly increased emphasis on the realistic depiction of the material world, and the place of
humans in it, reflected in the corporeality of the human body, and development of a systematic method of graphical
perspective to depict recession in a three-dimensional picture space.
Art 21

In the east, Islamic art's rejection of iconography led to emphasis

on geometric patterns, calligraphy, and architecture. Further east,
religion dominated artistic styles and forms too. India and Tibet
saw emphasis on painted sculptures and dance, while religious
painting borrowed many conventions from sculpture and tended to
bright contrasting colors with emphasis on outlines. China saw the
flourishing of many art forms: jade carving, bronzework, pottery
(including the stunning terracotta army of Emperor Qin), poetry,
calligraphy, music, painting, drama, fiction, etc. Chinese styles
vary greatly from era to era and each one is traditionally named
The stylized signature of Sultan Mahmud II of the
after the ruling dynasty. So, for example, Tang Dynasty paintings
Ottoman Empire was written in Arabic calligraphy. It
are monochromatic and sparse, emphasizing idealized landscapes, reads Mahmud Khan son of Abdulhamid is forever
but Ming Dynasty paintings are busy and colorful, and focus on victorious.
telling stories via setting and composition. Japan names its styles
after imperial dynasties too, and also saw much interplay between
the styles of calligraphy and painting. Woodblock printing became
important in Japan after the 17th century.

The Great Mosque of Kairouan (also called the

Mosque of Uqba) is one of the finest, most significant
and best preserved artistic and architectural examples
of early great mosques; dated in its present state from
the 9th century, it is the ancestor and model of all the
mosques in the western Islamic lands. The Great
Mosque of Kairouan is located in the city of Kairouan
in Tunisia.

The western Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century saw artistic

depictions of physical and rational certainties of the clockwork
universe, as well as politically revolutionary visions of a
post-monarchist world, such as Blake's portrayal of Newton as a divine
geometer, or David's propagandistic paintings. This led to Romantic
rejections of this in favor of pictures of the emotional side and
individuality of humans, exemplified in the novels of Goethe. The late
19th century then saw a host of artistic movements, such as academic
art, Symbolism, impressionism and fauvism among others.

The history of twentieth century art is a narrative of endless

possibilities and the search for new standards, each being torn down in
Painting by Song Dynasty artist Ma Lin, c. 1250.
24,8 ï 25,2 cm.
succession by the next. Thus the parameters of Impressionism,
Expressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Dadaism, Surrealism, etc. cannot be
Art 22

maintained very much beyond the time of their invention. Increasing global interaction during this time saw an
equivalent influence of other cultures into Western art, such as Pablo Picasso being influenced by African sculpture.
Japanese woodblock prints (which had themselves been influenced by Western Renaissance draftsmanship) had an
immense influence on Impressionism and subsequent development. Later, African sculptures were taken up by
Picasso and to some extent by Matisse. Similarly, the west has had huge impacts on Eastern art in the 19th and 20th
centuries, with originally western ideas like Communism and Post-Modernism exerting a powerful influence on
artistic styles.
Modernism, the idealistic search for truth, gave way in the latter half of the 20th century to a realization of its
unattainability. Relativism was accepted as an unavoidable truth, which led to the period of contemporary art and
postmodern criticism, where cultures of the world and of history are seen as changing forms, which can be
appreciated and drawn from only with irony. Furthermore the separation of cultures is increasingly blurred and some
argue it is now more appropriate to think in terms of a global culture, rather than regional cultures.

Art tends to facilitate intuitive rather than rational understanding, and is usually consciously created with this
intention. Fine art intentionally serves no other purpose. As a result of this impetus, works of art are elusive,
refractive to attempts at classification, because they can be appreciated in more than one way, and are often
susceptible to many different interpretations. In the case of Gãricault's Raft of the Medusa, special knowledge
concerning the shipwreck that the painting depicts is not a prerequisite to appreciating it, but allows the appreciation
of Gãricault's political intentions in the piece. Even art that superficially depicts a mundane event or object, may
invite reflection upon elevated themes.
Traditionally, the highest achievements of art demonstrate a high level of ability or fluency within a medium. This
characteristic might be considered a point of contention, since many modern artists (most notably, conceptual artists)
do not themselves create the works they conceive, or do not even create the work in a conventional, demonstrative
sense. Art has a transformative capacity: it confers particularly appealing or aesthetically satisfying structures or
forms upon an original set of unrelated, passive constituents.

Forms, genres, media, and styles

The creative arts are often divided into more specific categories, each
related to its technique, or medium, such as decorative arts, plastic arts,
performing arts, or literature. Unlike scientific fields, art is one of the
few subjects that are academically organized according to technique
[13]. An artistic medium is the substance or material the artistic work
is made from, and may also refer to the technique used. For example,
paint is a medium used in painting, and paper is a medium used in

An art form is the specific shape, or quality an artistic expression

takes. The media used often influence the form. For example, the form
of a sculpture must exist in space in three dimensions, and respond to
gravity. The constraints and limitations of a particular medium are thus
called its formal qualities. To give another example, the formal
Detail of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa,
showing the painting technique of sfumato. qualities of painting are the canvas texture, color, and brush texture.
The formal qualities of video games are non-linearity, interactivity and
virtual presence. The form of a particular work of art is determined by the formal qualities of the media, and is not
related to the intentions of the artist or the reactions of the audience in any way what so ever.
Art 23

A genre is a set of conventions and styles within a particular medium. For instance, well recognized genres in film
are western, horror and romantic comedy. Genres in music include death metal and trip hop. Genres in painting
include still life and pastoral landscape. A particular work of art may bend or combine genres but each genre has a
recognizable group of conventions, clichãs and tropes. (One note: the word genre has a second older meaning within
painting; genre painting was a phrase used in the 17th to 19th centuries to refer specifically to paintings of scenes of
everyday life and can still be used in this way.)
The style of an artwork, artist, or movement is the
distinctive method and form followed by the respective
art. Any loose brushy, dripped or poured abstract
painting is called expressionistic. Often a style is linked
with a particular historical period, set of ideas, and
particular artistic movement. So Jackson Pollock is
called an Abstract Expressionist.

Because a particular style may have specific cultural

meanings, it is important to be sensitive to differences
in technique. Roy Lichtenstein's (1923Ñ1997) paintings
are not pointillist, despite his uses of dots, because they
The Great Wave off Kanagawa by Hokusai (Japanese, 1760Ñ1849),
are not aligned with the original proponents of colored woodcut print.
Pointillism. Lichtenstein used Ben-Day dots: they are
evenly spaced and create flat areas of color. Dots of this
type, used in halftone printing, were originally used in
comic strips and newspapers to reproduce color.
Lichtenstein thus uses the dots as a style to question the
"high" art of painting with the "low" art of comics Ñto
comment on class distinctions in culture. Lichtenstein
is thus associated with the American Pop art movement
(1960s). Pointillism is a technique in late
Impressionism (1880s), developed especially by the
artist Georges Seurat, that employs dots that are spaced
in a way to create variation in color and depth in an
attempt to paint images that were closer to the way
people really see color. Both artists use dots, but the
particular style and technique relate to the artistic
movement adopted by each artist.

These are all ways of beginning to define a work of art,

R. Gopakumar: Cognition-Libido (Digital Print on Canvas, Limited
to narrow it down. "Imagine you are an art critic whose Edition, 1/7) In the permanent collection of the Kinsey Institute for
mission is to compare the meanings you find in a wide Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction
range of individual artworks. How would you proceed
with your task? One way to begin is to examine the materials each artist selected in making an object, image video,
or event. The decision to cast a sculpture in bronze, for instance, inevitably effects its meaning; the work becomes
something different from how it might be if it had been cast in gold or plastic or chocolate, even if everything else
about the artwork remains the same. Next, you might examine how the materials in each artwork have become an
arrangement of shapes, colors, textures, and lines. These, in turn, are organized into various patterns and
compositional structures. In your interpretation, you would comment on how salient features of the form contribute

to the overall meaning of the finished artwork. [But in the end] the meaning of most artworks... is not exhausted by a
discussion of materials, techniques, and form. Most interpretations also include a discussion of the ideas and feelings
Art 24

the artwork engenders."[14]

Skill and craft

Art can connote a sense of trained ability or mastery of a medium.
Art can also simply refer to the developed and efficient use of a
language to convey meaning with immediacy and or depth. Art is
an act of expressing feelings, thoughts, and observations.[15] There
is an understanding that is reached with the material as a result of
handling it, which facilitates one's thought processes. A common
view is that the epithet "art", particular in its elevated sense,
requires a certain level of creative expertise by the artist, whether
this be a demonstration of technical ability or an originality in
stylistic approach such as in the plays of Shakespeare, or a
Adam. Detail from Michelangelo's fresco in the combination of these two. Traditionally skill of execution was
Cappella Sistina (1511) viewed as a quality inseparable from art and thus necessary for its
success; for Leonardo da Vinci, art, neither more nor less than his
other endeavors, was a manifestation of skill. Rembrandt's work, now praised for its ephemeral virtues, was most
admired by his contemporaries for its virtuosity. At the turn of the 20th century, the adroit performances of John
Singer Sargent were alternately admired and viewed with skepticism for their manual fluency, yet at nearly the same
time the artist who would become the era's most recognized and peripatetic iconoclast, Pablo Picasso, was
completing a traditional academic training at which he excelled.

A common contemporary criticism of some modern art occurs along the lines of objecting to the apparent lack of
skill or ability required in the production of the artistic object. In conceptual art, Marcel Duchamp's "Fountain" is
among the first examples of pieces wherein the artist used found objects ("ready-made") and exercised no
traditionally recognised set of skills. Tracey Emin's My Bed, or Damien Hirst's The Physical Impossibility of Death
in the Mind of Someone Living follow this example and also manipulate the mass media. Emin slept (and engaged in
other activities) in her bed before placing the result in a gallery as work of art. Hirst came up with the conceptual
design for the artwork but has left most of the eventual creation of many works to employed artisans. Hirst's
celebrity is founded entirely on his ability to produce shocking concepts. The actual production in many conceptual
and contemporary works of art is a matter of assembly of found objects. However there are many modernist and
contemporary artists who continue to excel in the skills of drawing and painting and in creating hands-on works of
Art 25

Value judgment
Somewhat in relation to the above, the word art is also used to apply
judgments of value, as in such expressions as "that meal was a work of art"
(the cook is an artist), or "the art of deception", (the highly attained level of
skill of the deceiver is praised). It is this use of the word as a measure of high
quality and high value that gives the term its flavor of subjectivity.
Making judgments of value requires a basis for criticism. At the simplest
level, a way to determine whether the impact of the object on the senses
meets the criteria to be considered art is whether it is perceived to be
attractive or repulsive. Though perception is always colored by experience,
and is necessarily subjective, it is commonly understood that what is not
somehow aesthetically satisfying cannot be art. However, "good" art is not
always or even regularly aesthetically appealing to a majority of viewers. In
other words, an artist's prime motivation need not be the pursuit of the
aesthetic. Also, art often depicts terrible images made for social, moral, or
Aboriginal hollow log tombs. National
thought-provoking reasons. For example, Francisco Goya's painting depicting
Gallery, Canberra, Australia.
the Spanish shootings of 3rd of May 1808 is a graphic depiction of a firing
squad executing several pleading civilians. Yet at the same time, the horrific
imagery demonstrates Goya's keen artistic ability in composition and execution and produces fitting social and
political outrage. Thus, the debate continues as to what mode of aesthetic satisfaction, if any, is required to define

The assumption of new values or the rebellion against accepted notions of what is aesthetically superior need not
occur concurrently with a complete abandonment of the pursuit of what is aesthetically appealing. Indeed, the
reverse is often true, that the revision of what is popularly conceived of as being aesthetically appealing allows for a
re-invigoration of aesthetic sensibility, and a new appreciation for the standards of art itself. Countless schools have
proposed their own ways to define quality, yet they all seem to agree in at least one point: once their aesthetic
choices are accepted, the value of the work of art is determined by its capacity to transcend the limits of its chosen
medium to strike some universal chord by the rarity of the skill of the artist or in its accurate reflection in what is
termed the zeitgeist.
Art is often intended to appeal to and connect with human emotion. It can arouse aesthetic or moral feelings, and can
be understood as a way of communicating these feelings. Artists express something so that their audience is aroused
to some extent, but they do not have to do so consciously. Art may be considered an exploration of the human
condition; that is, what it is to be human.[16]
Art 26

Purpose of art
Art has had a great number of different functions throughout its
history, making its purpose difficult to abstract or quantify to any
single concept. This does not imply that the purpose of Art is "vague",
but that it has had many unique, different reasons for being created.
Some of these functions of Art are provided in the following outline.
The different purposes of art may be grouped according to those that
are non-motivated, and those that are motivated (Levi-Strauss).

Non-motivated functions of art

The non-motivated purposes of art are those that are integral to being
human, transcend the individual, or do not fulfill a specific external
purpose. Aristotle said, "Imitation, then, is one instinct of our nature."
In this sense, Art, as creativity, is something humans must do by
their very nature (i.e., no other species creates art), and is therefore
beyond utility.
A Navajo rug made c. 1880.
1. Basic human instinct for harmony, balance, rhythm. Art at this level
is not an action or an object, but an internal appreciation of balance
and harmony (beauty), and therefore an aspect of being human
beyond utility.
"Imitation, then, is one instinct of our nature. Next, there is
the instinct for 'harmony' and rhythm, meters being
manifestly sections of rhythm. Persons, therefore, starting
with this natural gift developed by degrees their special
aptitudes, till their rude improvisations gave birth to
Poetry." -Aristotle [18]
2. Experience of the mysterious. Art provides a way to experience
one's self in relation to the universe. This experience may often
come unmotivated, as one appreciates art, music or poetry.
"The most beautiful thing we can experience is the
mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science."
-Albert Einstein [19] Mozarabic Beatus miniature; Spain, late 10th
3. Expression of the imagination. Art provide a means to express the century.
imagination in non-grammatic ways that are not tied to the formality
of spoken or written language. Unlike words, which come in sequences and each of which have a definite
meaning, art provides a range of forms, symbols and ideas with meanings that are maleable.
"Jupiter's eagle [as an example of art] is not, like logical (aesthetic) attributes of an object, the concept of
the sublimity and majesty of creation, but rather something else Ñsomething that gives the imagination
an incentive to spread its flight over a whole host of kindred representations that provoke more thought
than admits of expression in a concept determined by words. They furnish an aesthetic idea, which
serves the above rational idea as a substitute for logical presentation, but with the proper function,
however, of animating the mind by opening out for it a prospect into a field of kindred representations
stretching beyond its ken." -Immanuel Kant[20]
Art 27

4. Universal communication. Art allows the individual to express things toward the world as a whole. Earth artists
often create art in remote locations that will never be experienced by another person. The practice of placing a
cairn, or pile of stones at the top of a mountain, is an example. (Note: This need not suggest a particular view of
God, or religion.) Art created in this way is a form of communication between the individual and the world as a
5. Ritualistic and symbolic functions. In many cultures, art is used in rituals, performances and dances as a
decoration or symbol. While these often have no specific utilitarian (motivated) purpose, anthropologists know
that they often serve a purpose at the level of meaning within a particular culture. This meaning is not furnished
by any one individual, but is often the result of many generations of change, and of a cosmological relationship
within the culture.
"Most scholars who deal with rock paintings or objects recovered from prehistoric contexts that cannot
be explained in utilitarian terms and are thus categorized as decorative, ritual or symbolic, are aware of
the trap posed by the term 'art'." -Silva Tomaskova[21]

Motivated functions of art

Motivated purposes of art refer to intentional, conscious actions on the part of the artists or creator. These may be to
bring about political change, to comment on an aspect of society, to convey a specific emotion or mood, to address
personal psychology, to illustrate another discipline, to (with commercial arts) to sell a product, or simply as a form
of communication.
1. Communication. Art, at its simplest, is a form of communication. As most forms of communication have an intent
or goal directed toward another individual, this is a motivated purpose. Illustrative arts, such as scientific
illustration, are a form of art as communication. Maps are another example. However, the content need not be
scientific. Emotions, moods and feelings are also communicated through art.
"[Art is a set of] artefacts or images with symbolic meanings as a means of communication." -Steve
2. Art as entertainment. Art may seek to bring about a particular emotion or mood, for the purpose of relaxing or
entertaining the viewer. This is often the function of the art industries of Motion Pictures and Video Games.
3. The Avante-Garde. Art for political change. One of the defining functions of early twentieth century art has been
to use visual images to bring about political change. Art movements that had this goalÉDadaism, Surrealism,
Russian Constructivism, and Abstract Expressionism, among othersÉare collectively referred to as the
avante-garde arts.
"By contrast, the realistic attitude, inspired by positivism, from Saint Thomas Aquinas to Anatole
France, clearly seems to me to be hostile to any intellectual or moral advancement. I loathe it, for it is
made up of mediocrity, hate, and dull conceit. It is this attitude which today gives birth to these
ridiculous books, these insulting plays. It constantly feeds on and derives strength from the newspapers
and stultifies both science and art by assiduously flattering the lowest of tastes; clarity bordering on
stupidity, a dog's life." -Andrã Breton (Surrealism)[23]
4. Art for psychological and healing purposes. Art is also used by art therapists, psychotherapists and clinical
psychologists as art therapy. The Diagnostic Drawing Series, for example, is used to determine the personality
and emotional functioning of a patient. The end product is not the principal goal in this case, but rather a process
of healing, through creative acts, is sought. The resultant piece of artwork may also offer insight into the troubles
experienced by the subject and may suggest suitable approaches to be used in more conventional forms of
psychiatric therapy.
5. Art for social inquiry, subversion and/or anarchy. While similar to art for political change, subversive or
deconstructivist art may seek to question aspects of society without any specific political goal. In this case, the
function of art may be simply to criticize some aspect of society.
Art 28

Spray-paint graffiti on a wall in Rome.

Graffiti art and other types of street art are graphics and images that are spray-painted or stencilled on publicly
viewable walls, buildings, buses, trains, and bridges, usually without permission. Certain art forms, such as graffiti,
may also be illegal when they break laws (in this case vandalism).
6. Art for propaganda, or commercialism. Art is often utilized as a form of propaganda, and thus can be used to
subtly influence popular conceptions or mood. In a similar way, art that tries to sell a product also influences
mood and emotion. In both cases, the purpose of art here is to subtly manipulate the viewer into a particular
emotional or psychological response toward a particular idea or object.[24]
The functions of art described above are not mutually exclusive, as many of them may overlap. For example, art for
the purpose of entertainment may also seek to sell a product, i.e. the movie or video game.

Controversial art
Thãodore Gãricault's Raft of the Medusa (c.
1820), was a social commentary on a current
event, unprecedented at the time. ñdouard
Manet's Le Dèjeuner sur l'Herbe (1863),
was considered scandalous not because of
the nude woman, but because she is seated
next to men fully dressed in the clothing of
the time, rather than in robes of the antique
world. John Singer Sargent's Madame
Pierre Gautreau (Madam X) (1884), caused
a huge uproar over the reddish pink used to
color the woman's ear lobe, considered far
too suggestive and supposedly ruining the
Thãodore Gãricault's Raft of the Medusa, c. 1820
high-society model's reputation.

In the twentieth century, Pablo Picasso's Guernica (1937) used arresting cubist techniques and stark monochromatic
oils, to depict the harrowing consequences of a contemporary bombing of a small, ancient Basque town. Leon
Golub's Interrogation III (1981), depicts a female nude, hooded detainee strapped to a chair, her legs open to reveal
her sexual organs, surrounded by two tormentors dressed in everyday clothing. Andres Serrano's Piss Christ (1989)
is a photograph of a crucifix, sacred to the Christian religion and representing Christ's sacrifice and final suffering,
submerged in a glass of the artist's own urine. The resulting uproar led to comments in the United States Senate
about public funding of the arts.
Art 29

Art theories
In the nineteenth century, artists were primarily concerned with ideas of truth and beauty. The aesthetic theorist John
Ruskin, who championed what he saw as the naturalism of J. M. W. Turner, saw art's role as the communication by
artifice of an essential truth that could only be found in nature.[25]
The definition and evaluation of art has become especially problematic since the 20th century. Richard Wollheim
distinguishes three approaches: the Realist, whereby aesthetic quality is an absolute value independent of any human
view; the Objectivist, whereby it is also an absolute value, but is dependent on general human experience; and the
Relativist position, whereby it is not an absolute value, but depends on, and varies with, the human experience of
different humans.[26]
The arrival of Modernism in the late nineteenth century lead to a radical break in the conception of the function of
art,[27] and then again in the late twentieth century with the advent of postmodernism. Clement Greenberg's 1960
article "Modernist Painting" defines modern art as "the use of characteristic methods of a discipline to criticize the
discipline itself".[28] Greenberg originally applied this idea to the Abstract Expressionist movement and used it as a
way to understand and justify flat (non-illusionistic) abstract painting:
Realistic, naturalistic art had dissembled the medium, using art to conceal art; modernism used art to call
attention to art. The limitations that constitute the medium of painting Ñthe flat surface, the shape of the
support, the properties of the pigment É were treated by the Old Masters as negative factors that could be
acknowledged only implicitly or indirectly. Under Modernism these same limitations came to be regarded as
positive factors, and were acknowledged openly.[28]
After Greenberg, several important art theorists emerged, such as Michael Fried, T. J. Clark, Rosalind Krauss, Linda
Nochlin and Griselda Pollock among others. Though only originally intended as a way of understanding a specific
set of artists, Greenberg's definition of modern art is important to many of the ideas of art within the various art
movements of the 20th century and early 21st century.
Pop artists like Andy Warhol became both noteworthy and influential through work including and possibly critiquing
popular culture, as well as the art world. Artists of the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s expanded this technique of
self-criticism beyond high art to all cultural image-making, including fashion images, comics, billboards and

Classification disputes
Disputes as to whether or not to classify something as a work of art are referred to as classificatory disputes about
Classificatory disputes in the 20th century have included cubist and impressionist paintings, Duchamp's Fountain,
the movies, superlative imitations of banknotes, conceptual art, and video games.[29]
Philosopher David Novitz has argued that disagreement about the definition of art are rarely the heart of the problem.
Rather, "the passionate concerns and interests that humans vest in their social life" are "so much a part of all
classificatory disputes about art" (Novitz, 1996). According to Novitz, classificatory disputes are more often disputes
about societal values and where society is trying to go than they are about theory proper. For example, when the
Daily Mail criticized Hirst's and Emin's work by arguing "For 1,000 years art has been one of our great civilising
forces. Today, pickled sheep and soiled beds threaten to make barbarians of us all" they are not advancing a
definition or theory about art, but questioning the value of Hirst's and Emin's work.[30] In 1998, Arthur Danto,
suggested a thought experiment showing that "the status of an artifact as work of art results from the ideas a culture
applies to it, rather than its inherent physical or perceptible qualities. Cultural interpretation (an art theory of some
kind) is therefore constitutive of an object's arthood."[31] [32]
Anti-art is a label for art that intentionally challenges the established parameters and values of art;[33] it is term
associated with Dadaism and attributed to Marcel Duchamp just before World War I,[33] when he was making art
Art 30

from found objects.[33] One of these, Fountain (1917), an ordinary urinal, has achieved considerable prominence and
influence on art.[33] Anti-art is a feature of work by Situationist International,[34] the lo-fi Mail art movement, and the
Young British Artists,[33] though it is a form still rejected by the Stuckists,[33] who describe themselves as
anti-anti-art.[35] [36]

Art, class, and value

Art is sometimes perceived as belonging
exclusively to higher social classes. In this
context, art is seen as an upper-class activity
associated with wealth, the ability to
purchase art, and the leisure required to
pursue or enjoy it. The Palace of Versailles
and the Hermitage in St. Petersburg
illustrate this view: such vast collections of
Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive art are the preserve of the rich, of
entrance cour d'honneur, later copied all over Europe. governments and wealthy organizations.

Fine and expensive goods have been

popular markers of status in many cultures, and they continue to be so today. There has been a cultural push in the
other direction since at least 1793, when the Louvre, which had been a private palace of the Kings of France, was
opened to the public as an art museum during the French Revolution. Most modern public museums and art
education programs for children in schools can be traced back to this impulse to have art available to everyone.
Museums in the United States tend to be gifts from the very rich to the masses (The Metropolitan Museum of Art in
New York City, for example, was created by John Taylor Johnston, a railroad executive whose personal art
collection seeded the museum.) But despite all this, at least one of the important functions of art in the 21st century
remains as a marker of wealth and social status.

There have been attempts by artists to create art that can not be bought
by the wealthy as a status object. One of the prime original motivators
of much of the art of the late 1960s and 1970s was to create art that
could not be bought and sold. It is "necessary to present something
more than mere objects"[37] said the major post war German artist
Joseph Beuys. This time period saw the rise of such things as
performance art, video art, and conceptual art. The idea was that if the
artwork was a performance that would leave nothing behind, or was
simply an idea, it could not be bought and sold. "Democratic precepts Performance by Joseph Beuys, 1978 : Everyone
revolving around the idea that a work of art is a commodity impelled an artist Å On the way to the libertarian form of
the social organism.
the aesthetic innovation which germinated in the mid-1960s and was
reaped throughout the 1970s. Artists broadly identified under the
heading of Conceptual art... substituting performance and publishing activities for engagement with both the material
and materialistic concerns of painted or sculptural form... [have] endeavored to undermine the art object qua

In the decades since, these ideas have been somewhat lost as the art market has learned to sell limited edition DVDs
of video works,[39] invitations to exclusive performance art pieces, and the objects left over from conceptual pieces.
Many of these performances create works that are only understood by the elite who have been educated as to why an
idea or video or piece of apparent garbage may be considered art. The marker of status becomes understanding the
work instead of necessarily owning it, and the artwork remains an upper-class activity. "With the widespread use of
Art 31

DVD recording technology in the early 2000s, artists, and the gallery system that derives its profits from the sale of
artworks, gained an important means of controlling the sale of video and computer artworks in limited editions to

[1] Gombrich, Ernst. (2005). "Press statement on The Story of Art" (http:/ / www. gombrich. co. uk/ showdoc. php?id=68). The Gombrich
Archive. . Retrieved 2008-11-18.
[2] Wollheim 1980, op. cit. Essay VI. pp. 231Ñ39.
[3] Richard Wollheim, Art and its objects, p.1, 2nd edn, 1980, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521297060
[4] Jerrold Levinson, The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics, Oxford university Press, 2003, p5. ISBN 0-1992-7945-4
[5] Jerrold Levinson, The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics, Oxford university Press, 2003, p16. ISBN 0-1992-7945-4
[6] R.G. Collingwood's view, expressed in The Principles of Art, is considered in Wollheim, op. cit. 1980 pp 36Ñ43
[7] Martin Heidegger, "The Origin of the Work of Art", in Poetry, Language, Thought, (Harper Perenniel, 2001). See also Maurice
Merleau-Ponty, "Cãzanne's Doubt" in The Merleau-Ponty Aesthetics Reader, Galen Johnson and Michael Smith (eds), (Northwestern
University Press, 1994) and John Russon, Bearing Witness to Epiphany, (State University of New York Press, 2009).
[8] Elkins, James "Art History and Images That Are Not Art", The Art Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Dec. 1995), with previous bibliography.
"Non-Western images are not well described in terms of art, and neither are medieval paintings that were made in the absence of humanist
ideas of artistic value". 553
[9] Adorno, Theodor W., Aesthetic Theory, (1970 in German)
[10] David Novitz, "The Boundaries of Art", 1992
[11] Radford, Tim. " World's Oldest Jewellery Found in Cave (http:/ / education. guardian. co. uk/ higher/ artsandhumanities/ story/
0,12241,1193237,00. html)". Guardian Unlimited, April 16, 2004. Retrieved on January 18, 2008.
[12] John Stothoff Badeau and John Richard Hayes, The Genius of Arab civilization: source of Renaissance. Taylor & Francis. 1983. p. 104
(http:/ / books. google. fr/ books?id=IaM9AAAAIAAJ& pg=PA104& dq=oleg+ grabar+ kairouan+ mosque& cd=3#v=onepage& q=oleg
grabar kairouan mosque& f=false)
[13] http:/ / www. rchoetzlein. com/ quanta/ theory/ theory-new-media. htm
[14] Robertson, Jean and Craig McDaniel: Themes of Contemporary Art, Visual Art after 1980, page 4. Oxford University Press, 2005.
[15] Breskin, Vladimir, Triad: Method for studying the core of the semiotic parity of language and art (http:/ / vip. iva. dk/ signs/
Articles_Signs_International_Section/ 2010/ Breskin_(2010)_Signs_Triad_eng_final_rev_2010. pdf), Signs ÑInternational Journal of
Semiotics 3, pp.1Ñ28, 2010. ISSN: 1902-8822
[16] Graham, Gordon (2005). Philosophy of the arts: an introduction to aesthetics. Taylor & Francis.
[17] Aristotle. The Poetics, Republic
[18] Aristotle. The Poetics, Republic. Note: Although speaking mostly of poetry here, the Ancient greeks often speak of the arts collectively.
http:/ / www. authorama. com/ the-poetics-2. html
[19] Einstein, Albert. The World as I See It. http:/ / www. aip. org/ history/ einstein/ essay. htm
[20] Immanuel Kant, Critique of Aesthetic Judgement (1790).
[21] Silvia Tomaskova, "Places of Art: Art and Archaeology in Context": (1997)
[22] Steve Mithen. The Prehistory of the Mind: The Cognitive Origins of Art, Religion and Science. 1999
[23] Andrã Breton, Surrealist Manifesto (1924)
[24] Roland Barthes, Mythologies
[25] "go to nature in all singleness of heart, rejecting nothing and selecting nothing, and scorning nothing, believing all things are right and good,
and rejoicing always in the truth." Ruskin, John. Modern Painters, Volume I, 1843. London: Smith, Elder and Co.
[26] Wollheim 1980, Essay VI. pp. 231Ñ39.
[27] Griselda Pollock, Differencing the Canon. Routledge, London & N.Y.,1999. ISBN 0-415-06700-6
[28] Modern Art and Modernism: A Critical Anthology. ed. Francis Frascina and Charles Harrison, 1982.
[29] Deborah Solomon, "2003: the 3rd Annual Year in Ideas: Video Game Art", New York Times, Magazine Section, December 14, 2003
[30] Painter, Colin. "Contemporary Art and the Home". Berg Publishers, 2002. p. 12. ISBN 1-8597-3661-0
[31] Dutton, Denis Tribal Art (http:/ / www. denisdutton. com/ tribal_art. htm) in Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, edited by Michael Kelly (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1998).
[32] Danto, Arthur. "Artifact and Art." In Art/Artifact, edited by Susan Vogel. New York, 1988.
[33] "Glossary: Anti-art" (http:/ / www. tate. org. uk/ collections/ glossary/ definition. jsp?entryId=571), Tate. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
[34] Schneider, Caroline. "Asger Jorn" (http:/ / www. encyclopedia. com/ doc/ 1G1-78637292. html), Artforum, 1 September 2001. Retrieved
from, 24 January 2010.
[35] Ferguson, Euan. "In bed with Tracey, Sarah ... and Ron" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ artanddesign/ 2003/ apr/ 20/ thesaatchigallery.
art2), The Observer, 20 April 2003. Retrieved on 2 May 2009.
[36] "Stuck on the Turner Prize" (http:/ / www. artnet. com/ Magazine/ news/ artnetnews/ artnetnews10-27-00. asp), artnet, 27 October 2000.
Retrieved on 2 May 2009.
Art 32

[37] Sharp, Willoughby (December 1969). "An Interview with Joseph Beuys". ArtForum 8 (4): 45.
[38] Rorimer, Anne: New Art in the 60s and 70s Redefining Reality, page 35. Thames and Hudson, 2001.
[39] Fineman, Mia (2007-03-21). "YouTube for ArtistsThe best places to find video art online." (http:/ / www. slate. com/ id/ 2162382/ ). Slate. .
Retrieved 2007-08-03.
[40] Robertson, Jean and Craig McDaniel: Themes of Contemporary Art, Visual Art after 1980, page 16. Oxford University Press, 2005.

í Arthur Danto, The Abuse of Beauty: Aesthetics and the Concept of Art. 2003
í Dana Arnold and Margaret Iverson (eds.) Art and Thought. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2003.
í Michael Ann Holly and Keith Moxey (eds.) Art History and Visual Studies. Yale University Press, 2002.
í John Whitehead. Grasping for the Wind. 2001
í Noel Carroll, Theories of Art Today. 2000
í Evelyn Hatcher, ed. Art as Culture: An Introduction to the Anthropology of Art. 1999
í Catherine de Zegher (ed.). Inside the Visible. MIT Press, 1996.
í Nina, Felshin, ed. But is it Art? 1995
í Stephen Davies, Definitions of Art. 1991
í Oscar Wilde, "Intentions".
í Jean Robertson and Craig McDaniel, "Themes of Contemporary Art, Visual Art after 1980." 2005

Further reading
í Augros, Robert M., Stanciu, George N., The New Story of Science: mind and the universe, Lake Bluff, Ill.:
Regnery Gateway, c1984. ISBN 0895268337 (this book has significant material on Art and Science)
í Richard Wollheim, Art and its Objects
í Carl Jung, Man and His Symbols
í Benedetto Croce, Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistic, 1902
í Wîadysîaw Tatarkiewicz, A History of Six Ideas: an Essay in Aesthetics, translated from the Polish by Christopher
Kasparek, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1980.
í Leo Tolstoy, What Is Art?, 1897
í Kleiner, Gardner, Mamiya and Tansey (2004). Art Through the Ages, Twelfth Edition (2 volumes). Wadsworth.
ISBNé0-534-64095-8 (vol 1) and ISBN 0-534-64091-5 (vol 2).
í Kristine Stiles and Peter Selz, eds., Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1996.

External links
í Art and Play from the Dictionary of the History of ideas (
í In-depth directory of art (
í Art and Artist Files in the Smithsonian Libraries Collection (
art-design/artandartistfiles/) (2005) Smithsonian Digital Libraries
í Visual Arts Data Service (VADS) ( Ñonline collections from UK
museums, galleries, universities
í RevolutionArt ÑArt magazines with worldwide exhibitions, callings and competitions (http://www.
í Artforum magazine Ñonline art reviews Ñalso previews of upcoming exhibitions (
í Article on the meaning of Art in Ancient India (
htm) on the website of Frontline
Art 33

í The Definition of Art ( entry by Thomas Adajian in the Stanford

Encyclopedia of Philosophy
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Article Sources and Contributors

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Acabtp, Aidan Kehoe, Aknxy, Alan Liefting, Alansohn, Aletheia, AlexLibman, Alexjohnc3, Alison, Allen3, Alpha456, Aman13preet, AmishArmadillo, Anarchia, Andypandy.UK, Angela,
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Babacol, Backpackadam, Baher, Banno, Barasoaindarra, Bellhalla, Bennelliott, Bento00, Berislav, Bhamfree, Big Bird, Billych, Birkinstein, Bleedingshoes, Bloodshedder, Blue-Haired Lawyer,
Bmicomp, Bmorton3, Bobblewik, Boing! said Zebedee, Bomac, Bondi444, Boneheadmx, Bookgrrl, Bornhj, Boudreauxgg, Bradjohns, Brion VIBBER, Brosi, Brossow, Btdurant, BullRangifer,
Bus stop, CLW, Cailil, CallidusUlixes, Calliopejen1, Caltas, Camblast, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianLinuxUser, Cantiana, Carbon-16, Catgut, Caton, CharlieHuang, Chase me ladies,
I'm the Cavalry, CheshireKatz, Chevrefoil, Chi Sigma, Chloroform42, Chowbok, Chris Roy, Christofurio, Citengam, ClanCC, Cmgjr, CodySteed, CommonsDelinker, Conscious, Conversion
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Dspradau, Dumbleton, Dungodung, Dysmorodrepanis, E rulez, ESkog, Egpetersen, Einmonim, Ekki01, El C, Ellis.ebineezer.ellis, Ellywa, Endomion, Epbr123, Erianna, Ericoides, Esteve83,
Ethicoaestheticist, Everyking, Excirial, ExplicitImplicity, Fabartus, Fatal error, Fconaway, Feezo, Fifelfoo, Filam3nt, Fleabox, Fmuratozdemir, Fourdee, Fox, Fraterm, Fredrik, Freshacconci,
Fsvallare, Funeral, Furrykef, Fuzzy artist, Gandalf61, Gene Ward Smith, Giftlite, Gimmetrow, GirasoleDE, Gkerkvliet, Glenn, Go for it!, Goethean, Gogo Dodo, GoingBatty, Gonzonoir,
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Markwalters79, MarylandArtLover, Matt Gies, Matturn, Meaghan, Mediaphd, Meinolf Wewel, Merbabu, Merond e, Michael Hardy, Michaeldsuarez, Miegoreng, Mike Rosoft, Mikeo,
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Renewolf, Research Method, RexNL, Rholton, Rich Farmbrough, Rich Janis, Rich257, Richard001, Richarddecker, Rick Block, Ricky81682, Rigadoun, Rjwilmsi, Robth, Rodasmith, Ronz,
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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 36

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Image:Poseidon.jpg éSource: éLicense: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported éContributors: Bibi Saint-Pol,
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License 37

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