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K. C. Sivaramakrishnan and B. N. Singh
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I. Urbanisation Trends Spatial Manifestation of Urban Growth II. Impact of Urbanisation Water Supply Sanitation Solid Waste Management Land Urban Environment III. Urban Housing National Housing Policy Overview of Urban Housing Housing and Investment Requirement for the Ninth Plan Constraints to the Development of Housing – Need for Facilitatory Mechanisms IV. Likely Areas of Tension and Conflict Economy Income growth Poverty Economic disparities Pollution, Public interest and Employment Urban Violence Gender Issues Urban Performance Affecting Social, Economic and Political Stability Likely Areas Between Different States; Some Better, Some Worst V. Structures of Governance Municipal Urban Situation Multi-municipal Urban Situations Non-municipal Urban Situation Inter-governmental Issues VI. Future Scenario Urban Corridors The Emerging Corridors Future Governance Structure Urban Housing Public Transport Urban Poverty Private Sector Participation Conflicts References
U R B A N I S A T I O N
I. Urbanisation Trends 1. Urbanisation in India is neither unique nor exclusive but is similar to a world-wide phenomenon. Indian urbanisation has proceeded as it has elsewhere in the world as a part and product of economic change. Occupational shift from agriculture to urban-based industry and services is one part of the change. At the same time, increased agricultural performance has also promoted urbanisation as noticed in several top rice and wheat producing districts in the country. To cite some examples, in the districts of Chengalpet, Krishna, Burdwan, Ludhiana or Kurukshetra, the percentage of urban population is seen to be higher than the state average. New industrial investments and expansion of the services industry in new location is also another factor. As for the magnitude, in 1901, only 25 million people constituting 10.84 per cent of population lived in urban areas in India. In the 100 years since then, the urban population has grown 12 times and it is now around 285 million people constituting 28 per cent of the total population. In the following 20 years (2001-21), the urban population will nearly double itself to reach about 550 million. According to the World Urbanisation Prospects (the 1996 Revision), the urban population in the year 2025 will rise to 42.5 per cent (566 million).
These figures, however, do not portray a full picture. The state-wise variations are significant. The pace and spread of urbanisation are not uniform. Maharashtra with an urban population percentage of 42 per cent (41 million), Gujarat with 37 per cent (19 million) and Tamil Nadu with 44 per cent (27 million) and the least urbanised state, Assam with 13 per cent in 2001 indicate this inter-regional variation. In 2021,
Maharashtra (50.45%), Gujarat (44.45%), Tamil Nadu (42.54%), Karnataka (41.12%) and Andhra Pradesh (39.13%) will be the most urbanised states in the country in that order. Maharashtra will be more than half urban while Gujarat and all the southern states will be more than 40 per cent urban. Among the northern states, Punjab, Haryana and
Western Uttar Pradesh will have significant urbanisation levels. The rate of urban increase will also vary. Between 2001 and 2016, in the country as a whole, urban population will increase by nearly 50 per cent compared to 17 per cent rural.
During the past five decades, growth rates of urban population have been significant. It
was 41.4% during 1941-51, in the decade 1961-71, 38.2%, and in the next decade 1971-81, 46.1%. A drop in the rate to 36.4% in the next decade (1981-91) prompted some observers to suggest that the urbanisation was slowing down. This appears to be due mainly because of a decline in rural - urban migration but the urban growth rate of 3.1% has been significantly higher than overall population growth rate of 2%. The urban growth rate during 1991-2001 is 31.39% which is lower than the 1981-91 urban growth rate.
Contrary to popular perception, migration is not the principal or the dominant factor in
urban growth. In the 1981-91 period, natural increase accounted for 60 per cent of urban growth, migration for 21.20 per cent and reclassification of new towns 18.80 per cent. The figures for the past 3 decades show that nearly 60 per cent of the total migratory movement has been from rural to rural. However in the case of some large cities for certain periods of time, migration has been a major factor. For instance, migration has increased between 1981 and 1991 in the case of Mumbai, Delhi and Hyderabad, but as a component of city’s growth its share has declined.
Table 1: Migration Pattern in Major Metropolitan Cities (Million)
U R B A N I S A T I O N
33 1.91 1. better governance and management.09 1.08 Bangalore 1981 1991 2. According to a recent estimate. The urbanisation trends in India are a direct reflection of the structural changes that are taking place in the economy. in the case of Bangalore.Cities Population Population Increase Of which Migration In per cent Mumbai 1981 1991 8.08 2. In 2001.07 0. The cities need to be supported with improved planning and infrastructure to accommodate growth. the proportion has increased slightly. The combined contribution of industry and services to GDP is significantly higher than that of agriculture.73 8. the number of metropolitan cities will be 51 by 2011 and 75 by 2021 AD.24 12.16 55.72 0.38 2.65 1.92 4.51 1.16 0.72 0. Spatial Manifestation of Urban Growth 6.77 1. there is inadequate recognition of the role that cities play in economic development. there would be 500 large cities (one lakh and above size) and 4430 medium and small towns (less than one lakh population size).57 2. The urban areas are likely to play an increasingly important role with the continuing liberalisation of the economy. It is very important to understand the shape and physical patterns of urban growth. Cities with transport and telecom linkages with global economy.12 1.81 41.36 51.57 53.92 Calcutta 1981 1991 9.29 5. In 1991. However. 30.27 4.69 39.73 1.30 Delhi 1981 1991 5.19 10.13 0.36 1.68 60. there are 4368 UAs/towns. The analysis of urbanisation pattern and projections for the next 20 years is indicative of the fact that bulk of the urban U R B A N I S A T I O N 5 . Much of the growth of the economy will come from economic activities that are likely to be concentrated in and around existing cities and towns.50 40. About 38% of the total urban population are residing in 35 metro cities.55 68.78 Hyderabad 1981 1991 2.28 0.73 0.75 1.60 However. another one-third in the remaining 277 Class I cities and the rest in the 3468 UAs/towns.25 32. there were 3768 UAs/towns.01 0. In addition. are the preferred destinations for investments.51 43.26 1. It is therefore worthy of note that the common notion that migration largely fuels urban growth is only partially correct. About one-third of the urban population in 1991 resided in 23 metropolitan cities.55 4. 5.61 35.55 31.6% in remaining 358 Class I cities and the rest in 3975 UAs/towns.50 0. particularly large cities.53 Chennai 1981 1991 4.
In some corridors. in some cases. limited as it is within a city – municipality model. 7.g. Most of these agglomerations will grow along transport corridors. U R B A N I S A T I O N 6 . metropolitan nodes will be further densified. and unrestrained by municipal jurisdictions. Agricultural mandi towns.g. These factors will also cause the existing urban agglomerations to become bigger. e. Within these corridors. but the pattern of growth will not be continuous and will have some characteristics as follows: Much of the urban growth will be along essentially transport corridors. The infrastructure and environmental implications will require careful management.population will be living in metropolitan regions. The corridors will be multi-nodal but these nodes will not be as well connected functionally as needed. the peripheries may densify e. Calcutta. This does not mean that the main cities within these regions will continue to grow at the same pace. Agglomerations covering several municipal jurisdictions will emerge as a distinct feature of India’s urbanisation. wasting land and other resources in the process.. the distinction between urban and rural will get blurred. Bangalore. central city growth may decline but in the peripheries there will be new growth. The organisational framework required for governance will be very different than what we have at present. new industrial centres and service activities located in the metropolitan regions will coalesce. In some cities.. In fact. growth will be continuous but in many it will be discontinuous and sparse with creeping urban sprawl.
6%) were reported to be without access to safe water supply. The impact of all this growth on space. Water Supply 9. basic health services and education. to say the least. Deteriorating infrastructure. the water supply is more than 200 lpcd. These deficiencies have serious health impacts particularly affecting the urban poor. quality and quantity of water supply available to different parts of the city. sewerage.4 per cent of urban household had access to safe drinking water but 40 million persons (18. particularly in large cities. The provision of infrastructural facilities required to support such large concentration of population is lagging far behind the pace of urbanisation.II. Mumbai and Hyderabad. Several studies have indicated large segments of urban population do not have access to drinking water. sanitation and solid waste management. As a consequence. is deteriorating very rapidly. environment and quality of life will be. All cities have severe shortage of water supply. The impact of urbanisation may be considered in the context of urban infrastructure services comprising water supply. incomes and services for the poor. Delhi and Chennai) are worst in terms of hours of availability of water per day varying between 4 to 5 hours. It is claimed that in metropolitan cities like Delhi. transportation and other facilities. the urban environment. West Bengal. housing. 81. U R B A N I S A T I O N 7 . There are about 80 class I towns in Tamil Nadu. According to the 1991 census. developed land. Andhra Pradesh. tremendous. India’s three largest cities (Mumbai. sanitation. Rajasthan and Maharashtra which have got per capita supply of less than 75 lpcd. However this figure hides the very serious inequities in access. Impact of Urbanisation 8. quality and distribution of services have been very poor. land and urban environment. Calcutta. The level. weak municipal institutions and poor delivery systems have constrained the urban economy and its ability to generate employment. The daily per capita supply of water to Bangalore is about 75-80 litres and in Chennai it is about 70 litres. water availability ranges from 3-8 hours per day. In many cities.
Low cost sanitation is not considered a total substitute. Sanitation 10. In the circumstances only 15 per cent of the urban population have access to private toilets. Provision of sewerage system continues to be expensive particularly in regard to collection and conveyance. Poor pricing policies fail to promote conservation of water. The sewerage system exist in 60 Class I cities out of 300 but where systems exist they cover the area only partially. pollutants enter ground water. Less than half of the total sewage is collected and only 30-40 per cent of which is treated properly. More than half of urban population particularly in small and medium towns resort to open defecation. So far works have been taken up in 1155 towns and 6. U R B A N I S A T I O N 8 . We also have a problem of quantity.Delhi’s per capita water supply of 200 lpcd does not mean much to about 30% of the city’s population who have access to only 25 litres or less. Then there are leakages (between 25-50 per cent) in water supply system thereby creating further shortages. Low water pressure and intermittent supplies allow back – syphonage and contamination. If these trends continue there is a real danger that more and more urban areas may run out of water. A national programme of low cost sanitation aimed at elimination of manual scavenging has been taken up. rivers and other water sources causing water borne diseases. Drinking water may need only a small proportion of total water resources but even that is not available where needed. their pollution by discharge of domestic and industrial wastes is a direct threat to public health.95 lakh units have been completed by 1997. Due to inadequate sewerage and lack of water treatment facilities. Since about 60 to 70 per cent of drinking water is drawn from surface streams. Nearly three-fourths of the population living in cities have no access to any human waste collection and disposal system. This programme seeks to replace about 6 million dry latrines by sanitary latrines in 3600 towns.
These problems are directly linked to inadequate planning. In industrial areas of many cities. threatening both surface water and ground water quality. sanitary landfill or drainage system. about 75% in Calcutta and Hyderabad. U R B A N I S A T I O N 9 . finances and management capacity at the local level. while the accumulation of garbage has become a common site in most of the cities.000 metric tonnes of solid waste every day. Only 60 per cent of this volume is collected. collection varies from about 90% in Delhi and Chennai. In other cities.Solid waste Management 11. Solid wastes create one of the most visible environmental problems in low-income areas. 68% in Bangalore and 70 % in Kanpur. the municipal solid waste is getting mixed up with hazardous waste creating a serious problem. Per capita solid waste generated is about 350-400 gms and in large cities it exceeds 500 gms. even less is transported and disposed off. The volume of garbage in Indian cities is increasing. Sanitary landfill or composting as methods of garbage disposal is limited to very few cities. Indian cities and towns are estimated to generate about 80. Most solid wastes that are collected end up in open dumps. The collection is around 50% in smaller towns. Mumbai generates about 3200 tonnes of garbage of which about 97% is collected.
roads. unregulated development. pace or distributional effects of land development. more and more agricultural areas have been converted into urban use. grazing. People’s participation in and commitment to land use planning and control need to be facilitated by local bodies and made more dynamic in response to changing needs. Traditional land use systems generally do not adequately control the quality.Land 12. whereas the increase in spatial expansion was as high as 230% recording 3 times growth. Urban Environment U R B A N I S A T I O N 10 . waste disposal and recreation. the increase of population and spatial expansion of Lucknow is 66% and 131% respectively. pollution due to the inadequate disposal of urban and industrial waste. industrial and urban uses. For example. Rapid urban growth has led to the problems of urban sprawl. during 1981-91. ribbon development. The optimum use of land requires that land resources be well inventorised. lacking financial resources and participation by the people. All such issues involve land. Likewise. With the increase of urban population. Large cities on the other hand do not have the land to spread out. utility corridors. Much of the legislation needed for land use planning already exists. their spatial relations be delineated and their capacities for all likely uses be determined. The record shows that public land development and regulatory agencies have not been able to accommodate the constantly changing needs of urban economies and populations in an orderly manner. the increase in population of Vishakapatnam was 75%. Land can be used in many ways – agriculture. forestry. spatial expansion was 34% compared to the increase in population of 77%. For instance in Greater Bombay. high cost for urban infrastructure. The evidence suggests that many Master Plans have failed because they are over-ambitious.
between the people and government. 90% of oxides of nitrogen and 65% of hydrocarbons. which are struggling to provide and maintain the already inadequate level of urban services. the urban poor are the most vulnerable. Vehicles contribute about 80% of carbon monoxide pollution. Such conflicts are arising because of declining availability of water resources on one hand and rising demand of economic activities on the other. Among the major environmental problems faced by urban areas are air. In recent years. The bulk of transport vehicles are to be found in the metropolitan cities with 1. which largely bypass city governments. The metropolitan cities are experiencing critical environmental degradation and pushing to the limit their ability to sustain human life. This has aggravated atmospheric pollution. Managing the urban environment is a daunting problem. U R B A N I S A T I O N 11 . and between urban and rural areas have become frequent in Gujarat. The drinking water problem in Gujarat has accentuated over the past four decades. It is poor performance of local governments in the delivery of basic urban services that lead to environmental degradation and lower quality of life in urban areas. Currently. water. 14. Although the entire urban population is affected.13. Conflicts over drinking water between the people and the industry. and soil pollution and growing volume of wastes including hazardous waste. These are no doubt critical but sustainability requires a wider understanding of the environmental issues. Cities are major polluters of environment. Industrial emissions are significant but vehicular pollution is the single most important source of air pollution. The process of rapid urbanisation poses serious challenges to towns and cities. the urban environment has become a major subject of concern. awareness of urban environmental problems continues to centre around air and water pollution. Government systems set up so far are limited to pollution control boards at the centre and the states.63 million vehicles in these cities. 15.
housing. sanitation and solid waste would be the corner stone of the future strategy. NGOs. such as land. Their demands for natural and socio-economic resources. Carrying capacity concept provides the physical limits to economic development governing the maximum rate of resource consumption and waste discharges. India’s urbanisation will throw up formidable challenges like running out of land. water. Sanitation and waste disposal will require low cost technologies. air. A metropolitan city and its region cannot have infinite population carrying capacity. running out of water and even running out of clean air to breath. communities and the private sector.16. There is a need for evolving a system of environmental monitoring through measurement of environmental quality levels ensuring measures for disaster prevention and in the unavoidable event of a natural disaster. state and local governments. 17. Coping the urban environmental problems will require sharing of responsibilities and action taken by a host of actors – central. Drastic measures will be needed to control demand and manage traffic within cities. 18. The protection of environment and safeguarding of health through the integrated management of water resources. having a disaster management strategy. Carrying capacity may be viewed as the ability to produce desired outputs from a limited resource base and achieve equitable quality of life levels while maintaining desired U R B A N I S A T I O N 12 . Urban environmental management would have to deal with the impact of various economic activities on the environment which as per the definition of the Environment (Protection) Act. other species and property. land and human beings. Metropolitan cities are increasingly assuming the role of engines of economic growth. The scale of devastation is directly related to poor governance structures and lack of preparedness which increase vulnerability of population and settlements. A proper management of water resources would need to be drawn. An effective combination of regulatory and pricing mechanism will be needed to preserve scarce water resources and prevent its contamination. energy and other required infrastructure are often stressing their environmental settings beyond sustainable development. 1986 includes the inter-relationship which exists among and between water.
housing is regarded as one of the basic needs. The development of indicators to be used as tool to define the carrying capacity in respect of each of environmental resources comprise assessing waste assimilative capacity and socio-economic capacity of the urban region to support urban population.. 19. in terms of public policies and investments. the housing problem continues to be daunting. This will help to manage the process of development as a whole in such a manner as to achieve a balance between the three basic facets of development. Urban Housing 20. The benefits of public housing programmes have accrued disproportionately to the better-off sections of society. Such management approaches and mechanisms may ensure the process of sustainable development. overcrowding U R B A N I S A T I O N 13 .environmental quality levels in a large urban setting. The carrying capacity based approach to planning is thus both a concept and a tool for assessment of various supportive and assimilative capacities of urban environmental resources and of decision-making based on their carrying capacities. III. Despite this recognition. In the political rhetoric. viz. There is a need to develop a long term strategy taking into account the limit of the available natural resources having due regard to the sectoral and environmental issues at the state and local levels with focus on delivery of basic urban services. The housing crisis manifests itself in many ways: growth of slums and haphazard development. Despite considerable investment and efforts over successive plan periods. (a) economic viability in terms of efficiency of resources utilisation (b) equity among communities and (c) environmental appropriateness. The NIUA study (1995) for the National Capital Region (NCR) provides a useful example of what municipalities can do in preparing their own Local Agenda 21 by suggesting planning methods that may address issues concerning the environment in the context of available natural resources in the National Capital Region (NCR). housing has generally received a very low priority. The housing sector needs to be viewed within the perspective of the emerging macroeconomic policies.
speculation and profiteering in land and houses. The need to protect the interests of women. The endeavour should be to accomplish the goal of shelter for all. catalyst. Given the relentless growth of urban population and the difficult economic environment. Subsequently a revised National Housing Policy was tabled in Parliament in 1992 and was adopted in August 1994. The policy thrust of National Housing Policy is in consonance with the macro-economic policy in advocating a supportive and facilitative role of government in housing. undoubtedly. Overview of Urban Housing 22. National Housing Policy 21. The percentage of households living in single room accommodation in urban areas declined from 45. India had a total housing stock of 148 million dwelling units of which 39. The policy. the housing problem will further worsen unless concerted measures are taken to ameliorate the living conditions of vast majority of vulnerable sections of the society. 1998 has clearly defined the roles of various stakeholders including the state and central governments. and 8 per cent kutcha houses. 16 per cent semi-pucca. a draft National Housing Policy (NHP) was formulated by the government in 1988 and was tabled in Parliament. Subsequently a National Agenda declared shelter for all as a priority area and formulated a new National Housing and Habitat Policy in 1998. provider. 76 per cent formed pucca houses.and deficient services. The new National Housing and Habitat Policy. to reorient and promote the various housing activities. both in rural and urban areas. In 1991. particularly women headed households has been recognised. In pursuance of the Global Shelter Strategy adopted by the United Nations. which was laid before the parliament in July 1998.8 per cent in U R B A N I S A T I O N 14 . increasing homelessness.7 million in rural areas.3 million was in urban areas and 108. envisages that the direct role of government in the construction of houses should be specifically reduced and focused on the poorer and other vulnerable sections of the society. The envisaged roles of governments at various levels and other public agencies for implementation of this policy are to act as a facilitator. Of the total urban housing stock.
1 per cent during the last decade.23 million units in urban and 14.6 per cent in 1991. comprising 8. an overall urban housing shortage of 7. Housing and Investment Requirement for the Ninth Plan 23. the total requirement of investment would be Rs. The requirements have been initially projected in terms of the backlog up to 1997. The Working Group on Urban Housing for the Ninth Plan of the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment has extensively dealt with the issue of requirement of housing in urban areas.57 million units. 53.2 per cent. Against the above.5 per cent lived in owned accommodation in 1981 and 63.8 per cent. about 70 per cent of the units is required for the urban poor/weaker sections of the society while about 20 per cent is for low-income group.76 million units to be built and upgraded during the 9th plan period.9 million units. The shortage due to congestion.21. As regards tenurial status. 17 per cent and 19. and the additional construction of 8. The Special Action Plan envisages construction of 20 lakh additional houses every year of which 7 lakh units are for urban areas. excess of households over houses and obsolescence formed 23. upgradation of 0.5 per cent to 34. The housing shortage in urban areas was primarily characterised by the need for greater upgradation.67 million in rural areas.371 crore during the next five years to meet the requirement of housing shortage of 7. A significant feature of the housing requirement estimations by the Working Group is that of the total requirement of 16.87 million units.1981 to 39. The investment requirement for construction of 7 lakh units is U R B A N I S A T I O N 15 . With the nature of additionality in housing stock keeping in view of the trends from 1961-1991. respectively. This would mean that for urban housing alone. the availability of funds in the Ninth Plan is estimated to be only 28 per cent of the total requirement from the formal sources. 24.57 million units has been estimated as of 1997 and 6. The estimated shortage of housing in 1991 was of the order of 22.1. Thus the proportion of those living in rented accommodation has come down from 46.32 million semi-pucca EWS units.1 per cent in 1991. which formed 40 per cent of the total urban housing shortage. and 10 per cent for the middle and higher income group segments.64 million units by 2001.
commercial banks and cooperative banks. The government of India established the National Housing Bank (NHB) in 1988 as a premier refinancing institution and also a regulatory body to promote and develop housing finance system in terms of providing individual house loans through housing finance institutions. HUDCO’s assistance has already a significant social orientation as 55 per cent of its resources are allocated for EWS and LIG households. 16000 crores for 4 years during the Ninth Plan as the programme commenced from the second year of the Ninth Plan. The NHB interventions in the development of specialised housing finance companies has led to housing credit portfolio of Rs. Constraints to the Development of Housing – Need for Facilitatory Mechanisms Housing Affordability and Housing Finance 25. 27. Reforms are urgently required to make institutional housing finance U R B A N I S A T I O N 16 . 22. The reach of the formal housing finance institutions is quite limited. Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC) established in 1978 took the lead in establishing a market-driven housing credit instrument and developed a viable home ownership market.Rs. 26. a wide range of housing finance institutions have been established.8 billion. is a major constraint for market based approach to housing. With the successful programmes of HDFC and HUDCO. many specialised housing finance institutions emerged with the viability of housing finance intermediation. HUDCO developed credit packages to reach out the poor and disadvantaged group. Housing affordability. This is already endorsed in National Housing Policy. The government’s role as facilitator includes ensuring that all segments are covered over time and those segments which are unlikely to be covered by non-governmental sector. During the last about 30 years. There is a need for bringing dynamism and enhancing the credit for housing to all the sections of the needy population specially the poor. The cooperative sector played an important role and operated a cooperative housing finance mechanism. have to be provided housing by the government in its role as a provider. The NHB promoted the growth of specialised housing finance institutions which are presently around 300 in number. viewed as a mismatch between household’s ability/willingness to pay. 4000 crores per annum or Rs.
The NHP envisages a wide spread resource mobilisation to tap households’ savings in the formal and informal sectors. wood substitutes etc. cementitious binders. They emphasise specifications rather than performance. the Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC) has been established in 1990 to operationalise and develop an integrated system for technology transfer and delivery in the housing and building sector. This may be done through establishing linkage between the formal and informal sources of financing and through reforms in the development of secondary mortgage market. 29. The dimension of the problem is colossal. flooring and roofing materials. Availability of Developed Land U R B A N I S A T I O N 17 . There is a need to adopt cost effective technologies by upgrading traditional technologies and local materials as well as using modern construction materials. Use of such building materials and technologies can enable substantial cost savings. Building Technology and Shelter Costs 28. In this context. will require key building materials and technologies like burnt clay bricks. it is yet to be implemented at the local level. In view of 6. walling.6 million houses per year to be built and upgraded to remove both rural and urban housing shortage during the next five years. The existing building regulations do not encourage use of low-cost building materials. The resulting dwellings with conventional materials as specified in the regulations are quite expensive.accessible to the urban poor. The BMTPC facilitates to develop cost effective innovative building materials and construction technologies and promote decentralised production of building materials. Although an amended National Building Code takes account of these problems. down marketing of housing finance by innovative financing mechanism involving NGOs and cooperative network. The NHP also advocates for increasing proportion of resources of insurance sector to be channelled into housing.
Increased Involvement of NGO/CBO/Co-operative Efforts 31. as in the case of Delhi. Availability of land is the most critical input for housing. The shelter costs are most sensitive to land price as it can often account for over half the cost of shelter. Land availability can be increased through innovative methods of land pooling and land readjustments etc. predictably. Past efforts of the public agencies direct interventions in the land market through bulk acquisition of land. It is thus a key parameter where policy reforms are necessary. Co-operative movement in housing has demonstrated a great deal of effectiveness in meeting housing needs through jointly owned organisations. This has considerably helped in developing large chunk of land in urban areas. in forging partnerships. NGOs/CBOs have been engaged in organising the community particularly women and children.30. In the context of its increasing recognition and the need for increasing the flow of resources through public participation. IV. has been tried in many cities. A heavy vacant land tax can enable release of considerable land for housing.a change in the occupational pattern from the primary sector to secondary and tertiary sectors. and equipping them eminently to reach target groups and communities in housing related decision making process. private developers have been inducted into the formal system by a facilitative regulatory and support system by providing license for development of land. It is difficult for a public agency to develop land fast enough to keep pace with demand due to organisational and financial limitations. Urbanisation signifies a structural change in the economy. The forces causing such a U R B A N I S A T I O N 18 . Likely Areas of Tension and Conflict Economy 32. For instance in Haryana. The private sector was explicitly excluded from the entire process of land development and shelter constructions. CBOs and the private sector. understanding of local issues. and enabling them to manage their own affairs. The eventual result of such a programme has been. The efforts need to be supplemented with larger participation by the private sector. counter-productive. there is a need for the state to play a role as a facilitator to help forge partnerships among NGOs.
not matched by a corresponding decline in the working force. The declining share of agriculture in the economy and the growing contribution of non-agricultural activities have accentuated urban and rural disparities. the economic shift from rural to urban sector has become an important and steadily growing phenomenon. The push factors have been more dominant due to structural changes in the rural economy such as increasing pressure on agricultural land and declining man-land ratio.change are in the nature of “pull” or “push” factors. In the economy as a whole. The primary sectors contribution is declining. The structural changes in the economy have accelerated the process of urbanisation. Disparities in per capita income between urban and rural areas have. The contribution of the urban sector to the Indian economy rose to 47% in 1980-81 as against 20% in 1950-51. increased. The percentage of labour force has remained broadly constant due to natural increase in the labour force in rural areas. By the end of 2001. The per capita increase in income in secondary and tertiary sectors employment was significantly higher than in primary sector. Thus structural change has further widened disparities in per capita rural-urban income. This decline in the contribution of primary sector is. This U R B A N I S A T I O N 19 . it is expected to increase to 60%. Income growth 34. and there are serious limitations in the agricultural sector to absorb this increasing labour force. therefore. It was 45% in 1965. however. This relation between urban areas and secondary and tertiary economic activities is contributing to the rapid increase in urbanisation in the country. We have both the phenomenon of poverty induced as well as agricultural prosperity. 33. Growth rate of employment during 1977-78 to 1987-88 averaged at about 4% per annum while the growth rate of employment in the rural areas was less than 1% per annum. which came down to 30% in 1989. The contribution of secondary sector has risen from 22 % in 1965 to 29 % in 1989 while the services sector from 34% to 41%.induced forces impacting on urban growth. The growth of employment in urban areas has been higher than overall employment average in the country.
44% to 37. The majority of the poor largely get accommodated in slums and informal settlements. While there has been an overall rise in income in the urban areas there is considerable disparity between the different groups. According to an estimate. Housing deficit in urban areas is about 7. There was a decline in urban poverty from 49. The income distribution is considerably skewed as in the case of large cities in the country. The urban labour market is undergoing rapid changes as most of the opportunities are coming from the self-employed and informal sector. In 1991. During the same period rural poverty declined from 56. affordable shelter. as much as 30 per cent of the total urban population do not have access to basic urban services. Attempts to ameliorate the living conditions by providing subsidies for access to urban infrastructure services have not been effective. security of tenure and transport.01% in 1973-74 to 32.trend is likely to continue in future.36% in 1993-1994. such as water and sanitation. Projections indicate that the percentage of households below the poverty line in Mumbai Metropolitan Areas will fall from 25% in 1991 to nearly zero in Mumbai U R B A N I S A T I O N 20 . Poverty 35. as the non-poor have captured most of the benefits. Evidence shows that other manifestation of poverty in terms of access to housing and basic services is equally serious.36 per cent of the total urban population live under conditions of absolute poverty as they do not have necessary income to secure 2100 calories per day being the threshold limit between the poor and the non-poor. and is particularly much more severe for economically weaker sections of population.57 million units.1% without any form of basic sanitation. While the available evidence points out an overall improvement in the income of the urban people.6% of persons in urban areas were without access to safe water supply and 36. The serious deprivation in the provision of basic services to large segments of urban population is today’s ground reality.27%. land. Economic disparities 36. nearly 18. the incidence of poverty in urban areas has been quite a disturbing phenomenon. A little over 76 million persons or 32.
In the context of pollution in river Ganga. Managing the urban environment is emerging as an important issue and has become major subject of concern. Pollution. Delhi’s inability to deal with slums is a continuing reminder of the problem. nearly half of city’s households will still be living in slums. which are struggling to provide and maintain the already inadequate level of urban services. Currently awareness of environmental urban problems continues to centre around air and water pollution. and less than 5% in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region by 2011. Toxic and hazardous wastes are often discharged into the municipal drains or dumped in municipal garbage heaps. the Supreme Court passed important orders to close down several tanneries in Kanpur. Most of the river stretches in the country passing through the cities where such factories are located are heavily polluted. However. Past and current efforts towards the control of pollution have been mainly through the identification and shifting of non-conforming industries. Obviously these deficiencies affect the slum population more seriously. Voluntary organisations in Delhi and Chennai have been active in taking public U R B A N I S A T I O N 21 . The process of rapid urbanisation poses serious challenge to towns and cities. However. the Union of India is a leading public interest litigation. This vast population of Delhi lives in sub-human conditions. Nearly one-third of the population of Delhi resides in slum settlements. The Delhi and Mumbai Master Plans specifically provide for such shifting and have allocated land where such non-conforming industries could shift. In series of hearings. They are paying a high price for services. Concentrations of industries have also caused land pollution where industrial wastes are dumped resulting in pollution of ground water. Delhi has the highest per capita income in the country and unemployment is low. Public interest and Employment 37. Besides air and water pollution.city. the gross inequities in Delhi’s service provision are far too many to enlist. the cities are facing growing volume of wastes due to concentration of industries. The Bombay Environmental Group has been active in limiting industrial development in green belt and Navasheva port area. the case of Madhu Mehta vs. with very poor access to all basic services. often more than the non-poor households. Public interest litigation has emerged in recent years in reinforcing this approach.
Much of the tension. The process of sealing or closing non conforming industries had to begin. the court directed the Delhi government and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi not to renew licenses of non-conforming industries. The Delhi government had no alternative this time except to comply. In April 1996. The impression was also gathering that with political pressures. brought the national capital to a crisis and crippling normal life for days together in November 2000. factory owners and NCR towns to facilitate a smooth relocation had been pursued. the Master Plan would be amended and relocation would not be insisted upon. The Delhi government’s response was still inadequate. the Supreme Court reiterated the order for the relocation of industries to suitable locations including NCR. the subsequent Master Plan and from time to time the Delhi government promised to provide alternative sites for relocating these industries. seeking a direction to remove polluting industries operating in residential and non-conforming areas. in September 1999. It is still continuing. In November 1995. U R B A N I S A T I O N 22 . 38. There is growing acceptance that this process is inevitable. or close down. The Master Plan for Delhi-62. the SC passed another order directing the Delhi government to relocate all the industries by December 1999 and appointed the Union Urban Affairs Ministry as the nodal agency for implementation of this directive. threatened with a loss of livelihood. at the time of writing. the genesis goes back to a petition filed way back in 1985 in Supreme Court (SC). Despite the agitation by the factory owners and restive industrial workers. conflict and losses to the economy could have been avoided if the development of alternative sites by the government and a participatory mechanism between the government. While the provocation was the order by Delhi government sealing-off all industrial units operating in residential and non-conforming areas. Subsequently. The issue of polluting industries in Delhi. their encroachment of residential land. That they did not happen stands out as a patent failure of governance.authorities to court for violation of development plans and zoning regulations on the grounds of environmental damage.
there have been amalgamation and fusion. Pune city recorded significant increase of 52.265). Urban India has seen during the recent decades a tremendous increase in crime and of incidents of communal conflicts. Even in number of rape cases. loosing social control in the context of overall changing composition of the city’s population. Security and violence have not been regarded as core issues of urban U R B A N I S A T I O N 23 . Amongst other cities.. Again Delhi stands first in terms of reported robbery incidence of 728. diverse socio- religio-cultural disparities. illegal settlements.3 per cent over the figures of 1997. and lack of common citizen’s awareness and responsibility for the city.9%). separation of different groups and social strata is observed. particularly the large and metropolitan cities. followed by Madurai (23. But in the majority of situations. It is seen that the incidence of total cognisable crimes in 1998 reported in Delhi was highest (59. Due to peculiar problems such as unchecked migration. is becoming more and more a melting pot for different strata of society. The increase in crime is attributed largely to two factors. lack of services. Kanpur reported increase of 44. Of the total murder cases reported. i. Urban India. from time to time. In some cases.e.1 per cent amongst all cities followed by Mumbai (365). Both these factors are closely inter-related and it is often not possible to separate them. uneven income distribution etc. and Ludhiana (2) and Madurai (12) remained relatively peaceful in as far as riots are concerned. These criminal activities are juxtaposed with other issues of urban growth such as poor municipal governance. Various explosions of unrest have. and the widening social gap between the rich and the poor. Delhi reported the highest rape incidence (365). 41. Delhi had the highest (523) sharing 18. the metropolitan cities are facing increased criminal activities.561) and Pune (1.195) reported more riots cases than any other cities.011) followed by Mumbai (30.Urban Violence 39. surfaced and shaken up the public at large.017) and Bangalore (29.3 per cent murder cases over previous year. 40. The cities of Jaipur (1.
recognising women as participants of development. India’s initiatives on women issues in initial Five-Year Plans were welfare oriented. The urban areas offer the opportunity for all people including women to respond to the effective demand for their labour and to achieve a higher level of personal well being. The cities provide opportunities for all women and men to earn a dignified and productive living and ensuring an adequate livelihood.management. the National Commission for Women Act was passed to safeguard the rights and interest of women. The role of women in development must be recognised and clear strategies evolved to effectively break down traditional barriers that prevent their full participation. but urban managers cannot avoid dealing with these problems in the future. In 1990. Measures have been proposed to integrate the needs of women in housing and other development programmes to overcome socio-economic constraints. A number of housing projects with women as the beneficiaries group were started during the International Year for Shelter for the Homeless (1987). During the Sixth Five-Year Plan. efforts are being made to create an enabling environment where women can freely exercise their rights. It reviews women-specific and women-related legislations and advises the government to bring amendments from time to time. Gender Issues 42. This adds to the unprecedented complications in the task of managing cities. A ‘National Policy for Empowerment of Women’ is on the anvil. In West Bengal. citizen’s life and wellbeing. However. a separate department of Women’s Welfare was set up. Bringing women into full partnership in development can provide immense benefits to society. through which one-third of the total number of elected seats in Panchayats and Municipalities are reserved for women. The 73 rd and 74th Amendments to the constitution were made in 1992. in past two decades. U R B A N I S A T I O N 24 . Empowerment of women being one of the primary objectives of the Ninth Plan. there has been a shift towards women in development. 43. Kerala and Karnataka the number of women elected to these bodies have exceeded the mandatory requirement of 1/3rd of total seats.
technology and higher education. cities have been usually regarded as centres of innovation. Social mobility and acceptance have thus been a positive change in urban areas. housing and other activities among low income women. But this is mainly in the sphere of government employment which mercifully is only a part of the job market in the country. Economic and Political Stability Social 44. rising incomes as well as the heterogeneity inherent in urban housing has diluted the rigours of the traditional barriers of caste and creed. managers of community development projects. organisers and. The role of the cities in the modernisation of a society has been long recognised. Employment in these occupations has been by and large on the basis of education and other qualifications rather than religion or caste. Sulabh International consults women before providing latrines. In the Indian society affirmative action particularly in the period after independence. This alliance provides the interface with formal development authorities at the grassroots level. MAHILA MILAN plays a supportive role with the alliance formed by the national entity of slum dwellers and the women street dwellers with the SPARC. SEWA is one such NGO. Industrialisation and the growth of the tertiary sector has created a wide range of new occupations. Because of proximity. It has successfully lobbied in favour of women’s interest in shelter. Urban Performance Affecting Social. well run with a high level of participation among its women members in decision – making with regard to small business development. urban society also has the potential U R B A N I S A T I O N 25 . health and nutrition. particularly security of tenure. marketing. Besides. has introduced a significant element of caste in employment. Another example is SPARC which has helped women pavement dwellers in Mumbai to improve their own shelter conditions. But we require many more of these efforts and then scaling up to the city level if substantial impact is to be felt. Women must be involved as motivators. This in turn further reinforces the potential for positive interaction in urban societies. The new and widening range of occupational patterns.Many NGOs/ CBOs initiatives focus on women’s pivotal role to help provide finance for small business.
these forces of positive modernisation through urbanisation also contain in themselves the potential for dissent. It is important. economic linkages. Many of the affected people regard this as deliberately discriminatory which can give rise to conflicts. nor can their habitat be generalised as slums. the intended and unintended city.interagency and public-private. there is a strong need for institutional coordination among the actors involved both horizontal . interest groups. finance. the serviced and the unserviced city appear to be growing.to organise itself and interact with the government and other public authorities for better services and better governance. In addition. infrastructure. Economic 45.. Crisis in public health are increasingly viewed with anger as failures on the part of public authorities. epidemics like cholera or jaundice affected many cities but by and large the people affected endured the hardships. It touches many sensitive areas such as land. In the absence of equitable distribution. the rise in wealth and incomes can make the differences between people sharper. Political 46. However. levels of consumption. They need not necessarily be the urban poor. empowerment etc. During 1950s and 60s. therefore. community involvement and environment. often leads to a failure of well conceived programmes and projects. and vertical coordination: centre – state local levels. to obtain the maximum public and political endorsement of strategies. about one-third to one-half of the population in most Indian cities are now regarded as marginalised. raising issues of governance. But the differences between the so-called the `pucca’ and `kutcha’ city. Decentralisation has enhanced the potential for meaningful U R B A N I S A T I O N 26 . programmes and projects. Whatever be the basis of definition. These are highly political subjects. The process of urban development involves a wide variety of interest groups in the public and private sectors. access to physical and social facilities or environment. But in recent years the position has changed. food intake. It has been seen that dealing with urban development issues in a technocratic manner and ignoring the political implications for government policy.
48. The unprecedented scale of global trade has also introduced competitiveness as an important dimension of national. State planning has been viewed as largely a derivative exercise from national policies and prescriptions. have brought about a major change in the situation. some worse 47. But India is not alone in this race. We are witnessing once again that large cities and their peripheries are able to corner much of the national and international capital. but by the quality of its human resources and services and the speed of its response. There is need for enabling local leadership exercising public authority and using public resources in a manner as to ensure transparent. U R B A N I S A T I O N 27 . The rest of the country is likely to get very little of the public or private sector investment. resulting in increased unemployment and poverty. The states will have to assess what the new challenges and opportunities mean for them and in what ways urban performance will promote or deter their economic performance. skills and knowledge.participation and involvement of the civil society actors. Economic reforms and liberalisation measures. accountable and effective governance of towns and cities. not by exhortations. The major investment projects are going to metropolitan regions. In this atmosphere of competitiveness. state and city economies. for public-private partnerships. This in turn would worsen the existing regional disparities. Likely variation between different states. All countries seek foreign direct investment and each tries to play and win. 42% and 45% of the investment projects respectively upto 1998 in these areas. however. For instance. and for participatory management through pooling of resources. Economic opportunities would thus get concentrated in these few “global cities”. some better. the investments have favoured the developed national capital region around Delhi and the western and southern parts of the country with 13%. We are already witnessing the competition between states to attract new investment. the role of the cities could be as important or even more than that of the State or the Nation.
mainly on the basis of their economic relevance and strength. choices are being and will be made between better performing and better-equipped major metropolitan cities in the country. urban poverty alleviation.49. As a follow up to the mandatory provisions. As more and more countries embrace market economies. or for new investment. The CAA visualises a larger role for the municipalities and such functions as urban planning. ‘The competitiveness of cities’ has become an even more critical issue than the ‘competitiveness of nations. Structures of Governance Municipal Urban Situation 50. It has sought in principle functional and fiscal devolution to local governments. The Committee is expected to serve as an effective forum for interaction with the ward councillor and rendering the process more accountable. The Constitution Amendment Act (CAA) has brought in a third stratum in the system of governance by constitutionally recognising the municipalities as institution of self-government for urban governance. making the municipalities accountable to their electorate. The states must take steps to constitute these committees and define their functions. For expansion of industry and trade. greater transparency. today and tomorrow. State Finance Commissions have been set up to examine the fiscal relationship between state and local governments with respect to local taxation powers and revenue sharing. The emphasis is on creating democratic and participatory structure at the local level. Adequate representations in the Wards Committees should be given to different sections of the population U R B A N I S A T I O N 28 . urban forestry. The Amendment also aims to enhance people’s participation through decentralised and consultative decision making. protection of environment and promotion of ecological aspects. and slum improvement and upgradation have been envisaged to be assigned to municipalities. stronger finances and a more rigorous democratic process. V. The municipalities and municipal corporations have now the right to exist.’ Cities will survive and prosper. the difference in their fiscal and trade policies are becoming less and less. municipalities have been constituted in the states and municipal elections have been held. The provision of Wards Committees is to ensure some proximity between the citizens and their elected representatives.
51. While some of the states have taken initiatives to strengthen and improve local government. Participation of the people in the planning and development activities at different levels is central to the Constitution Amendment Act. in most other functional domain. women. The Amendment also provides for the constitution of District Planning Committees and Metropolitan Planning Committees. 52. the state should promote greater autonomy and accountability to local bodies in municipal affairs. The amended Constitution seeks sharing of functional and financial domain and this process can only be influenced significantly through political process and public interest. While decentralisation confers the right to local self-government. financial autonomy. a comprehensive assessment is necessary to define the role of the city vis-à-vis the state and institutions playing a dominant role in urban affairs. a fusion of public and private initiatives of citizens particularly in governance. financing and managing municipal affairs. Cities are already becoming ungovernable through traditional structures and mechanisms. Government needs to become a collaborative effort of the government and non-government sector.in the area including weaker sections. NGOs and voluntary agencies. planning and participatory and consultative governance. U R B A N I S A T I O N 29 . Secondly. by and large. proximity between the people and the elected representatives. In all most all states. At the state. The CAA recognises that governance can no longer remain solely the prerogative of governments. The primary issues facing urban governance revolve around the need for autonomy. good governance outlines its responsibilities. remain unresolved issues in most of the states. Representation given to the various sections of the people including interest groups in the DPC/MPC will ensures that voices of the different sections are heard at the institutional level. planning. which will consolidate plans prepared by local governments in collaboration with elected representatives. As such. accountability and transparency. state-owned boards and authorities functions within city limits but are divorced from local government. the creation of suitable structures and process is vital to the success of democratic decentralisation.
Large city growth and concentration of urban population in agglomerations is a pronounced feature of India’s urbanisation. but the efforts of these organisations have been limited and confined to certain areas. Some of this growth is because of densification in existing cities but much of it will be the growth on the peripheries around existing cities. Multi-municipal Urban Situations 54. a Citizens Participative Forum called ‘SWABHIMANA’ has been set up with a view to provide a platform for NGOs. The 74th Constitution Amendment stipulates that every metropolitan area comprising two are more municipalities and having a population of more than one million should have a U R B A N I S A T I O N 30 . They are multimunicipal urban agglomerations. What is important is to build a partnership between NGOs and the civic agencies who are engaged in providing basic services. New industrial centers and service activities including market towns for agricultural products also contribute to this metropolitan pattern of growth. A forum needs to be created to coordinate the efforts of various agencies so that there is optimum utilisation of resources – financial and human. inter-organisational and participatory in nature. which are intergovernmental. 56. 55. The arrangements need to reconcile the twin objectives of aggregation at the metropolitan level required for economy and efficiency and disaggregation necessary to sustain proximity to the people and sensitivity to local needs. In Bangalore. The Indian census places cities with a population of one million or more in a separate category. They need special and innovative arrangements. but not municipal. Many of these million plus cities are not single municipal entities. which also include various jurisdictions which are urban or urbanising. Multi-municipal urban agglomerations are complex and arrangements for their governance cannot be treated as an extension of the existing arrangements. Voluntary agencies and resident groups to interact with civic agencies.53. There have been a number of voluntary initiatives in areas like garbage collection and shelter to the urban poor.
Two-thirds of the members of the MPC are to be drawn from the elected members of the urban and rural local bodies within the area and the remaining one-third are to be nominees of the State government. In this context. However. In rapidly growing urban centres. environmental conservation. The wide range and scale of economic activities and the vast array of services required to maintain the metropolis. Inter-governmental Issues 58. sharing of water and other physical and natural resources. and extent and nature of investments likely to be made etc. For this purpose.Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC). to a few New Towns where large scale industries developed. such new settlements have mushroomed and urban peripheral growth is taking place in an unplanned and uncontrolled manner. The composition will thus lend political and representative legitimacy to the metropolitan area and also provide a platform for the different local bodies and agencies to come together. The core municipalities are not keen to include these areas in their fold. The current trend. it is important to note that all that is urban is not municipal. most settlements are emerging spontaneously virtually untouched by formal governance. Local authorities are not capable of providing all the basic infrastructure facilities and other amenities. The constitutional provision is in the nature of a broad inter-governmental prescription. and. Non-municipal Urban Situation 57. multiple organisations and multiple U R B A N I S A T I O N 31 . inevitably results in multiple tasks. integrated development. coordinated spatial planning. overall objectives and priorities of the Central and State governments. to a lesser extent. which new settlements create for their immediate neighbourhoods in the municipal areas. The preparation of development plan for the metropolitan area as a whole is the task of this Committee. such urbanising fringes begin to burden the existing civic services and also health hazards. it should consider matters of common interest between the municipalities and panchayats. is towards movement into the periphery of metropolitan and other large cities. Rural-urban migration in the past was largely directed to big cities. In many cities. however.
It has to be inter-governmental. providing linkages among important urban centres with increased flow of goods and passengers is well recognised. VI. may be distinct and even spectacular but do not necessarily reflect any cogent pattern. The problems of such multi-municipal agglomerations or metropolitan regions and devising organisational arrangement for their governance have been a formidable task. The answer does not lie in artificially reducing their number. Chennai and Calcutta as well U R B A N I S A T I O N 32 . new industrial and service centres. In essence a metropolitan area can rarely be unitary. Transport and urbanisation mutually reinforce each other. Karnataka. There is a need to evolve appropriate municipal model. It is also necessary to ensure that the organisational arrangements do not increase the distance between the people and the government. If the urbanising areas are not well defined `towns and cities’ but are urbanised stretches along the corridors. in peripheries of large urban agglomerations. Transport corridors. In India’s future urbanisation. In some cases. The phenomenon is not new but the spatial pattern emerging along such transport corridors needs careful attention. trading centres and agricultural mandi towns. metropolitan agglomerations or mega cities – much of the growth will take place on the peripheries around these cities as well as densification of some existing cities. with a minimum framework of governance to serve the future multi-municipal pattern of urban growth.jurisdictions. irrespective of the definition of large cities – whether million plus. or in between such urbanisation will only be a shapeless mass and a creeping sprawl. Andhra. Future Scenario Urban Corridors 59. In increasingly urbanising states like Tamil Nadu. Maharashtra and Gujarat the shape of urban growth will be multi municipal agglomerations but all that is urban which is comprised in these agglomerations will not be municipal either. Fostering rural urban linkages within the growing metropolitan area is an additional problem and requires developing meaningful strategies. Mumbai. The government decision to establish a network called the Golden Quadrilateral linking Delhi.
the National Commission on Urbanisation had identified 329 urban centres all over the country as generators of economic momentum (GEMs) where development activities should converge. 60. The findings of the study of the above five states have reconfirmed the emergence of the earlier corridors with a few new corridors. excluding Mumbai) U R B A N I S A T I O N 33 . Such growth should not come as a surprise. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh) covered in the CPR study. Tamil Nadu. The following corridors of growth stand out prominently in the 5 states (Maharashtra. therefore. will reinforce this corridor type growth. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. in addition to expressways in certain stretches. Tamil Nadu. A SPUR was not merely a confirmation of the observed trends of growth but was based on the Commission’s assessment of growth potential and optimising investments and opportunities already in that particular region. The Centre for Policy Research (CPR) in a recent study looked at the evidence available in respect of the states of Maharashtra. Maharashtra Mumbai-Thane (to Ahmedabad) (42% of state’s urban population by 2021) Mumbai-Pune (11% of state’s urban population by 2021. The Emerging Corridors 61. A subsequent study titled “INDIA-URBAN CORRIDORS’ based on 1991 Census by National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation (NATMO) identified a set of 25 urban corridors at the country level. different from the SPURs. The liberalisation of economic policies have tended to favour major cities and their peripheries as location for investment in manufacturing and infrastructure. The percentages of the state’s urban population which are likely to be located in these corridors is also indicated. Gujarat. The Commission also identified 49 Spatial Priority Urban Regions (SPURs). This was a diagnostic and descriptive delineation and was. Gujarat. In 1988. The picture that emerges is clearly one of strong and in some cases spectacular growth along the corridors.as north-south and east-west corridors.
excluding Hyderabad) Coastal Andhra Pradesh: Srikakulum-Vishakhapatnam-Kakinada-Guntur-Nellore (27% of state’s urban population by 2021) U R B A N I S A T I O N 34 . excluding Mumbai) Pune-Ahmadnagar-Aurangabad-Jalgaon (6% of state’s urban population by 2021) Gujarat Mehsana-Gandhinagar-Ahmedabad-Vadodara-Bharuch-Surat-Valsad (72% of state’s urban population by 2021) Ahmedabad-Rajkot-Junagarh (9% of state’s urban population by 2021. excluding Hyderabad) Hyderabad-Nizamabad-Adilabad (3% of state’s urban population by 2021. excluding Bangalore) Coastal Corridor: Mangalore-Udipi-Karwar (6% of state’s urban population by 2021) Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad-Ananthpur-Hindupur (31% of state’s urban population by 2021) Hyderabad-Vijaywada (11% of state’s urban population by 2021. excluding Ahmedabad) Coastal Corridors Bhavnagar-Porbandar (6% of state’s urban population by 2021) Jamnagar-Morvi-Gandhidham-Bhuj (6% of state’s urban population by 2021) Tamil Nadu Chennai-Krishnagiri-Hosur (43% of state’s urban population by 2021) Coimbatore-Erode-Salem-Krishnagiri (19% of state’s urban population by 2021) Coastal Corridors Chennai-Cuddalore-Tanjavur-Karaikudi (7% of state’s urban population by 2021) Tuticorin-Nagarcoil (4% of state’s urban population by 2021) Karnataka Bangalore-Belgaum (58% of state’s urban population by 2021) Mysore-Bangalore-Kolar (13% of state’s urban population by 2021.Mumbai-Nasik-Dhule-Amravati-Nagpur (21% of state’s urban population by 2021.
Running out of water has been a recurring phenomenon in cities. its use has been highly disproportionate to urban growth. The issues of land. Delhi-Jaipur. similar corridors have also emerged in the North. The recently completed Yamuna bridge at Sirajganj in Bangladesh will be a major stimulus for regional linkages and economic growth in the region. The air is getting polluted and water sources contaminated. Amritsar-Jallandhar and Lucknow-Kanpur segments. There is a need for conserving scarce water resources U R B A N I S A T I O N 35 .62. Guwahati-Jorhat is slowly emerging as an urban corridor.East In the north . Delhi-Moradabad-Bareily. Kohima and Shillong have witnessed high rates of growth. The implications of the corridor development are many.east. the Chota Nagpur Crescent is a possible urban corridor stretching from Calcutta to Cuttack through Jamshedpur and Rourkela. would have to be planned and visualised. The corridor continues to be sparse and discontinuous. residential development. Delhi-Dehradun. Udaipur-Kota. The corridors will be multi-nodal but not well connected functionally. but in specific areas. The location of future economic activities. 63. individual towns like Tripura. The North . While the CPR study is limited to 5 states. This calls for co-ordinating land use allocations within longterm strategies. Though urban areas use only a limited amount of land as a whole. Aizawal. water and environment will pose formidable problems. infrastructure together with integration of multinodal centres both spatially and functionally. The East In the east. Such connectivity will require careful planning and policy choices on whether the corridors need to be continuous or discontinuous. Delhi-Agra. We have to identify water as a defining envelope and learn to live within that envelope. East and North-East as follows: The North Urban corridors have already taken shape in the north such as Delhi-Chandigarh.
all that is urban or will become urban is not municipal.environmental interactions as well. the overall urban housing shortage will reduce to 1. The projections indicate substantial increase in pucca and semipucca units with marginal increase in kutcha houses. The congestion factor is estimated as 4. Organisational arrangements for their governance will have to be evolved in the context of this new pattern of growth. The group hopes that there will be no housing shortage from 2015 onwards.86% and obsolescence factor as 4. Some attempts are being made to improve the municipal model to serve local needs better. semi-pucca and kutcha houses and the annual exponential growth rate of households are given in the following table. Future Governance Structure 64. The fact remains that within the existing design on organisational model of a municipality. There is a need to take into account the wider issues of development .23 million in 1991.and preventing its contamination. However. the future pattern of urban growth with multi-municipal entities will need a new arrangement for governance. the country has not been very successful in dealing with the issues of urban management. Urban Housing 65. Another issue requiring consideration is the governance of multi-municipal pattern of urban growth along the corridors. Table 2: Projections for Housing Stock. Households and Housing Shortage (2001 – 2025) (in million units) Category Trend Rate 1991 2010 2020 2025* (%) U R B A N I S A T I O N 36 . Besides. The 74 Constitutional Amendment suggests Metropolitan and District Planning Committees as possible arrangements. 2020 and 2025 based on the Report of the Working Group on Urban Housing for the Ninth Plan using regression growth rates of pucca.66 million units by 2010 as against 8.14% of the total housing stock. Such arrangements should be flexible to cope with the emerging pattern and issues of urban management. Based on these assumptions. The projections of households and state of housing stock for the years 2010.
making more trips in urban areas over longer distances.1795 4.6933 Households 3. pre-empting the limited road space and adding to congestion and pollution. Public Transport 67. However. The vehicle population is reaching alarming proportions in relation to the road network in cities. India’s Urban Sector Profile. Ministry of Surface Transport. City 68.64 79. NIUA. Slum settlements need not necessarily mean jhuggis. Most of the large cities are already facing serious problem of inadequate public transport.4454 8.23 1. The traffic creeps at less than 15 kms/hour in the National Capital . In the absence of public transport.3252 0 66.0 14.6586 Source: Report of the Working Group on Urban Housing.9838 108.40 40.0 16.4760 9.5698 0 157.0 Calcutta 6. 2.0 Source : 1 Motor Transport Statistics of India. Research Study Series – 61. Rapid urban growth will put enormous demands on transport systems for moving large number of passengers and freight. the prevailing scene is one of pucca housing in kutcha environment.8570 Semi Pucca 1.33 62.60 88.2 7. This is already confirmed by available data. the use of personal transport modes will grow rapidly. the figures of housing stock in terms of bricks and mortar or dwelling units as such are only a part of the story. as given in the table below.99 29.7148 Housing Shortage 8. Ninth Plan *Computed 123. of Vehicles – 19981 Share of Public Share of Suburban (in lakh) Transport (%) Railway (%) Mumbai 8. it is clear that public transport has become and will continue to be a casualty.6652 3. Table 3: Number of Vehicles and Share of Public Transport in Four Metropolitan Cities.2 3. 1998. It is widely known that rise in incomes will generate more travel trips. In most cities.Delhi on account of unprecedented U R B A N I S A T I O N 37 . The serious strain on the quantum and quality of urban services has been discussed already.0 Delhi 30.Pucca 4. No.8 75.0 44. 1997-98.76 3.0 1.16 6. While Delhi presents the most severe problem.7 77.75 67. Congestion is the most visible manifestation of the failures of urban transport.0 Chennai 9. The availability of basic urban services may well be persisting problems.1375 128. Housing without services is a distortion as well as a drain on the economy.7213 Kutcha 0.
The system is a combination of elevated. lack of mass transport systems are all adding to the serious problems of congestion and pollution. The role of public bus system is most significant in Delhi (61%) followed by Chennai (51%). The system will have a capacity of 40. work on the Delhi MRTS has started and is in full swing on the first phase development. Chaotic urban traffic causes a large number of accidents. Unfortunately. Congestion is also the result of inadequate road network. Though late by almost four decades. 70. U R B A N I S A T I O N 38 . the system is unconnected to the National Capital Region’s existing rail lines. Inadequate provision for roads in cities. increasing number of vehicles with less efficient engines. such as land use – transport planning. Delhi needed a MRTS since sixties when the same was envisaged in the Master Plan for Delhi 1962. In next ten years. Other initiatives needed for controlling air pollution are use of unleaded fuel. Faced with rising transportation demand. demand management. urban areas require new approaches to address transportation problems. The objective should be to provide maximum access at a minimum cost. the role of traditional modes of transport is substantially low and these cities have to depend upon public transport system. In mega cities. cleaner fuels and technologies.000 passengers per hour. integration of traffic modes and traffic management. There are too few vehicles relatives to demand. There are many hard decisions to be made in developing efficient public transport in large cities. Motor vehicles produce more air pollution than industrial emissions. phasing out old vehicles and priority for public transport. Cities need to re-examine urban transportation demand and devise new strategies.increase in the number of private vehicles. Chennai and Kolkata are the only three mega cities where the Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) plays an important role. Public transport continues to receive poor attention while distortions in taxation and use of road space clearly benefit private vehicles. surface and underground railway lines totalling 55 km. 69. the vehicles will crawl at 5kms/hour. Expanding the network and improvements are beyond most of the city’s financial resources. Mumbai.
India will witness rapid urbanisation and the next two decades will be characterised by industrialisation and metropolitanisation. a visible manifestation of the process of future urbanisation. Urban infrastructure services require huge investments. Ninth Plan proposals identify 12.Urban Poverty 71. The India Infrastructure Report has identified the total requirement of urban infrastructure development including backlog in service provision and O & M for the next 10 years as Rs.000 crore per annum. and the urban poor from the rural poor.000 crore or 25. coupled with requirements for deferred maintenance of the urban services. The improvements in the living conditions of urban poor with access to economic benefits cannot be ignored and allowed to persist without endangering the social fabric. The income inequality will sharpen the distinction between and among different social groups. The next two decades will also witness urbanisation of poverty. such as urban rich from the urban poor. operate effectively and manage efficiently in order to provide sustainable livelihoods. Most of the growth will take place through physical transformation of rural areas into urban areas on the periphery of urban agglomerations and urban corridors. There is a need to turn to private sector or institutional financing. The new migrants to urban areas taking up informal sector employment with low wages. Against this figure. This process will be stimulated by economic development. This will lead to increasing overcrowding. Private Sector Participation 72. safe and secure living environments for the urban poor.000 crore for urban development. Such meagre funding will undoubtedly adversely affect the economic growth. The Maharashtra amended municipal legislation allows private participation in municipal services. worsening of access to shelter and environmental health problems. water supply and sanitation. with longer journeys to work will be the dominant feature of this process. Urban areas would have to plan strategically. occupying illegal settlements without basic services and security of tenure in its peripheries. The Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh governments have had U R B A N I S A T I O N 39 . Inequalities will threaten further marginalisation of the poor.50. Such heavy financing is beyond the means of urban local bodies.2.
removing several bottlenecks for private sector participation. The private sector may well emerge in the coming decades in India if the regulatory. such as solid waste management in Mumbai. The rapid rate of urbanisation has produced radical changes in the basic pattern of living environment. Our cities are a mixture of splendour and squalor. impacting severely on women and the poor. Conflicts 73. management and financing of urban infrastructure services. The rapid urbanisation will exacerbate disruptions in the pattern of living of people migrating from rural areas in adopting urban pattern of living. technical and management expertise characterise the private sector. better education. Urbanisation contributes to economic development as much as it seems to constraint it. Availability of capital. The dispersed pattern of cities will contribute to social inequities because of limited access to jobs by the urban poor. The private sector has the potential of supplying vital skills and access to funds. Other municipalities including Hyderabad. residing in the periphery of cities. chaotic and squalid. 74. Surat and Panjim and water supply schemes in Chennai. Urban areas have become symbols of many contrasts and conflicts. The 74 th Constitution Amendment enables local governments to assume greater role in planning. Tiruppur and Bangalore. Surat. Rajkot. U R B A N I S A T I O N 40 .similar initiatives. This will be particularly conspicuous between the small group of rich and powerful and the overwhelming low-income households in large urban agglomerations. Nasik and Pune have contracted out the provision of services. they are also congested. legislative and tariff reforms are undertaken. 75. health and social services. They provide better employment opportunities. At the same time. Violence will increase in cities due to further densification of already congested cities. Municipalities and water boards are looking to the private sector in the development of urban services. poverty and economic deprivation of the urban poor. The process of private sector participation has already begun in urban infrastructure services. higher income levels.
The sharp contrast of poverty and wealth in the cities. as the disparities will widen among the incomes of high and low wage workers. Added to this is the newly recognised and complex dimension of the urban environment. The metropolitan urban agglomerations and their peripheries in the emerging urban corridors will be the setting of many conflicts in the use of land such as between agricultural and urban uses through conversion of agricultural land and sharing of water resources for irrigation and drinking purposes. they can often be in conflict. 76. Globalisation will exacerbate inequalities. clean living environment and equity in paying for these services are all valid claims. On the contrary. safe water. will accentuate. industrial development. It is now recognised that such incidents even though of much smaller dimensions have to be dealt with promptly and effectively failing which the urban society will be affected by panic and tension. The growing conflict between livelihood and living environment has become a common problem to every city with industrial expansion. Crime rates would rise. But they need not all be congruous at the same point of time. The Bhopal gas leakage tragedy has been the largest environmental calamity in any urban area. Different sections of the society may themselves be taking varying positions. Defining public interest and upholding that with some consistency is not easy. Employment. Income inequalities between and among the cities will widen. The problems are brought about by growth rather than stagnation. which has begun to breed bitterness and frustrations among the poor. 77. Chronic problems like air and water pollution have also to be viewed in the same perspective. affordable and accessible transport.The people in metropolitan cities will exhibit far more hostile and anti-social behaviour than their counterparts in small size cities. Delhi recently witnessed severe industrial and social turmoil when Delhi government ordered polluting industries located in non-conforming areas to shift or close down by a stipulated date. in U R B A N I S A T I O N 41 . economic growth. The increase in crime rate may be attributable largely to overall changing composition of the city’s population and widening social gap between the rich and the poor.
particularly when it is sparred by market forces brings into conflict many interests. Umpiring become an urgent and continuing necessity. Growth on the other hand. That can of course be dismissed as the quietness of the graveyard. 78. It is also a central concern in managing urban growth.compliance to a Supreme Court order. Kolkata High Court also ordered industries to either clean up or shut down such industries. In a similar development. It also brings about a low level equilibrium. Economic stagnation presents many problems but it persists over a period of time. U R B A N I S A T I O N 42 .
1996. 13. Highlights and Shadows. Sivaramakrishnan. 6 No. 1997.. Istanbul. 1998. 1999. 1. Sivaramakrishnan. The Challenge of Urbanisation. Urbanisation and problems of governance. Centre for Policy Research. K. SDR. 4. Sivaramakrishnan. Ninth Five Year Plan. Disaster Management in an Urbanizing World. K. 8. Resources for Housing..C. 2000. April 17-24. Government of India.2. New Delhi. Vol. Research Study Series – 61. 2000. 1996. Venkateshwarlu U. India’s Urban Vision 2021: Agenda for Shaping the Urban Future. Planning Commission. Ministry of Urban Development. Centre for Policy Research. India National Report: 6. Dec 22. 2001. Emerging Patterns of Urban Growth in India. Managing Urban Environment in India: Towards an Agenda for Action. 3. Government of India. 1998. Motor Transport Statistics of India. Vinish Kathuria. K. UNCHS. Proceedings of National Housing Seminar.. Suresh V. Urbanisation in India: Problems and Prospects. 9. Ministry of Surface Transport. 5. Relocating Polluting Units. Problems of Governance in South Asia. NIUA .R E F E R E N C E S Annapurna Shaw.. New Age International Publishers. National Crime Records Bureau. National Housing Policy. Role of State Housing Boards in India.C. 1999. 1996. Political Reforms: Asserting Civic Sovereignty. The Times Research Foundation. Jorge Gavidia..C.C. 1998. 2001. Delhi’s Dilemma. India’s Urban Sector Profile. Democratic Decentralisation. New Delhi. 18. Sivaramakrishnan. 1993. January 20. 2000. 2001. 11.2 March – April 1998. 19. Calcutta. 17. Sukumar Muralidharan. 16. 2. Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment. Crime In India 1998. Government of India. 14. 1998. 12. New Delhi. 10. 1992. K. Fifty Years of Swaraj.5 No. Venkateshwarlu U. Economic and Political Weekly. U R B A N I S A T I O N 43 . 7. Economic and Political Weekly. Centre for Policy Research. Frontline. 15. Ministry of Home Affairs New Delhi. 2000. The Times Research Foundation. Second UN Conference on Human Settlements. 1997-2002. Vol. 1997-98. 2000. Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment.
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