ALGEBRAIC CURVES

An Introduction to Algebraic Geometry
WILLIAM FULTON
January 28, 2008
Preface
Third Preface, 2008
This text has been out of print for several years, with the author holding copy-
rights. Since I continue to hear from young algebraic geometers who used this as
their first text, I amglad nowto make this editionavailable without charge to anyone
interested. I am most grateful to Kwankyu Lee for making a careful LaTeX version,
which was the basis of this edition; thanks also to Eugene Eisenstein for help with
the graphics.
As in 1989, I have managed to resist making sweeping changes. I thank all who
have sent corrections to earlier versions, especially Grzegorz Bobi ´ nski for the most
recent and thorough list. It is inevitable that this conversion has introduced some
new errors, and I and future readers will be grateful if you will send any errors you
find to me at wfulton@umich.edu.
Second Preface, 1989
When this book first appeared, there were fewtexts available to a novice in mod-
ern algebraic geometry. Since then many introductory treatises have appeared, in-
cluding excellent texts by Shafarevich, Mumford, Hartshorne, Griffiths-Harris, Kunz,
Clemens, Iitaka, Brieskorn-Knörrer, and Arbarello-Cornalba-Griffiths-Harris.
The past two decades have also seen a good deal of growth in our understanding
of the topics covered in this text: linear series on curves, intersection theory, and
the Riemann-Roch problem. It has been tempting to rewrite the book to reflect this
progress, but it does not seem possible to do so without abandoning its elementary
character and destroying its original purpose: to introduce students with a little al-
gebra background to a few of the ideas of algebraic geometry and to help them gain
some appreciation both for algebraic geometry and for origins and applications of
many of the notions of commutative algebra. If working through the book and its
exercises helps prepare a reader for any of the texts mentioned above, that will be an
added benefit.
i
ii PREFACE
First Preface, 1969
Although algebraic geometry is a highly developed and thriving field of mathe-
matics, it is notoriously difficult for the beginner to make his way into the subject.
There are several texts on an undergraduate level that give an excellent treatment of
the classical theory of plane curves, but these do not prepare the student adequately
for modern algebraic geometry. On the other hand, most books with a modern ap-
proach demand considerable background in algebra and topology, often the equiv-
alent of a year or more of graduate study. The aim of these notes is to develop the
theory of algebraic curves from the viewpoint of modern algebraic geometry, but
without excessive prerequisites.
We have assumed that the reader is familiar with some basic properties of rings,
ideals, and polynomials, such as is often covered in a one-semester course in mod-
ern algebra; additional commutative algebra is developed in later sections. Chapter
1 begins with a summary of the facts we need from algebra. The rest of the chapter
is concerned with basic properties of affine algebraic sets; we have given Zariski’s
proof of the important Nullstellensatz.
The coordinate ring, functionfield, andlocal rings of anaffine variety are studied
in Chapter 2. As in any modern treatment of algebraic geometry, they play a funda-
mental role in our preparation. The general study of affine and projective varieties
is continued in Chapters 4 and 6, but only as far as necessary for our study of curves.
Chapter 3 considers affine plane curves. The classical definition of the multiplic-
ity of a point on a curve is shown to depend only on the local ring of the curve at the
point. The intersection number of two plane curves at a point is characterized by its
properties, and a definition in terms of a certain residue class ring of a local ring is
shown to have these properties. Bézout’s Theorem and Max Noether’s Fundamen-
tal Theorem are the subject of Chapter 5. (Anyone familiar with the cohomology of
projective varieties will recognize that this cohomology is implicit in our proofs.)
In Chapter 7 the nonsingular model of a curve is constructed by means of blow-
ing up points, and the correspondence between algebraic function fields on one
variable and nonsingular projective curves is established. In the concluding chapter
the algebraic approach of Chevalley is combined with the geometric reasoning of
Brill and Noether to prove the Riemann-Roch Theorem.
These notes are from a course taught to Juniors at Brandeis University in 1967–
68. The course was repeated (assuming all the algebra) to a group of graduate stu-
dents during the intensive week at the end of the Spring semester. We have retained
an essential feature of these courses by including several hundred problems. The re-
sults of the starred problems are used freely in the text, while the others range from
exercises to applications and extensions of the theory.
From Chapter 3 on, k denotes a fixed algebraically closed field. Whenever con-
venient (including without comment many of the problems) we have assumed k to
be of characteristic zero. The minor adjustments necessary to extend the theory to
arbitrary characteristic are discussed in an appendix.
Thanks are due to Richard Weiss, a student in the course, for sharing the task
of writing the notes. He corrected many errors and improved the clarity of the text.
Professor Paul Monsky provided several helpful suggestions as I taught the course.
iii
“Je n’ai jamais été assez loinpour biensentir l’applicationde l’algèbre à la géométrie.
Je n’ai mois point cette manière d’opérer sans voir ce qu’onfait, et il me sembloit que
résoudre un probleme de géométrie par les équations, c’étoit jouer un air en tour-
nant une manivelle. La premiere fois que je trouvai par le calcul que le carré d’un
binôme étoit composé du carré de chacune de ses parties, et du double produit de
l’une par l’autre, malgré la justesse de ma multiplication, je n’en voulus rien croire
jusqu’à ce que j’eusse fai la figure. Ce n’étoit pas que je n’eusse un grand goût pour
l’algèbre en n’y considérant que la quantité abstraite; mais appliquée a l’étendue, je
voulois voir l’opération sur les lignes; autrement je n’y comprenois plus rien.”
Les Confessions de J.-J. Rousseau
iv PREFACE
Contents
Preface i
1 Affine Algebraic Sets 1
1.1 Algebraic Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Affine Space and Algebraic Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 The Ideal of a Set of Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4 The Hilbert Basis Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5 Irreducible Components of an Algebraic Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.6 Algebraic Subsets of the Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.7 Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.8 Modules; Finiteness Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.9 Integral Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.10 Field Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2 Affine Varieties 17
2.1 Coordinate Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2 Polynomial Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.3 Coordinate Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.4 Rational Functions and Local Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5 Discrete Valuation Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.6 Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.7 Direct Products of Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.8 Operations with Ideals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.9 Ideals with a Finite Number of Zeros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.10 Quotient Modules and Exact Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.11 Free Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3 Local Properties of Plane Curves 31
3.1 Multiple Points and Tangent Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2 Multiplicities and Local Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.3 Intersection Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
v
vi CONTENTS
4 Projective Varieties 43
4.1 Projective Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.2 Projective Algebraic Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.3 Affine and Projective Varieties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.4 Multiprojective Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5 Projective Plane Curves 53
5.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.2 Linear Systems of Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.3 Bézout’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
5.4 Multiple Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.5 Max Noether’s Fundamental Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5.6 Applications of Noether’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6 Varieties, Morphisms, and Rational Maps 67
6.1 The Zariski Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
6.2 Varieties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.3 Morphisms of Varieties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
6.4 Products and Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
6.5 Algebraic Function Fields and Dimension of Varieties . . . . . . . . . . 75
6.6 Rational Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
7 Resolution of Singularities 81
7.1 Rational Maps of Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
7.2 Blowing up a Point in A
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.3 Blowing up Points in P
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.4 Quadratic Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.5 Nonsingular Models of Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
8 Riemann-Roch Theorem 97
8.1 Divisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
8.2 The Vector Spaces L(D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
8.3 Riemann’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
8.4 Derivations and Differentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
8.5 Canonical Divisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
8.6 Riemann-Roch Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
A Nonzero Characteristic 113
B Suggestions for Further Reading 115
C Notation 117
Chapter 1
Affine Algebraic Sets
1.1 Algebraic Preliminaries
This section consists of a summary of some notation and facts from commuta-
tive algebra. Anyone familiar with the italicized terms and the statements made here
about them should have sufficient background to read the rest of the notes.
When we speak of a ring, we shall always mean a commutative ring with a mul-
tiplicative identity. A ring homomorphism from one ring to another must take the
multiplicative identity of the first ring to that of the second. A domain, or integral
domain, is a ring (with at least two elements) in which the cancellation law holds. A
field is a domain in which every nonzero element is a unit, i.e., has a multiplicative
inverse.
Z will denote the domain of integers, while Q, R, and C will denote the fields of
rational, real, complex numbers, respectively.
Any domain R has a quotient field K, which is a field containing R as a subring,
and any elements in K may be written (not necessarily uniquely) as a ratio of two
elements of R. Any one-to-one ring homomorphism from R to a field L extends
uniquely to a ring homomorphism from K to L. Any ring homomorphism from a
field to a nonzero ring is one-to-one.
For any ring R, R[X] denotes the ring of polynomials with coefficients in R. The
degree of a nonzero polynomial
¸
a
i
X
i
is the largest integer d such that a
d
=0; the
polynomial is monic if a
d
=1.
The ring of polynomials in n variables over R is written R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]. We often
write R[X, Y ] or R[X, Y, Z] when n =2 or 3. The monomials in R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] are the
polynomials X
i
1
1
X
i
2
2
· · · X
i
n
n
, i
j
nonnegative integers; the degree of the monomial is
i
1
+· · · +i
n
. Every F ∈ R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] has a unique expression F =
¸
a
(i )
X
(i )
, where the
X
(i )
are the monomials, a
(i )
∈ R. We call F homogeneous, or a form, of degree d, if all
coefficients a
(i )
are zero except for monomials of degree d. Any polynomial F has a
unique expression F =F
0
+F
1
+· · · +F
d
, where F
i
is a form of degree i ; if F
d
=0, d is
the degree of F, written deg(F). The terms F
0
, F
1
, F
2
, . . . are called the constant, lin-
ear, quadratic, . . . terms of F; F is constant if F =F
0
. The zero polynomial is allowed
1
2 CHAPTER 1. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS
to have any degree. If R is a domain, deg(FG) =deg(F)+deg(G). The ring R is a sub-
ring of R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], and R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] is characterized by the following property: if
ϕ is a ring homomorphism from R to a ring S, and s
1
, . . . , s
n
are elements in S, then
there is a unique extension of ϕ to a ring homomorphism ˜ ϕ from R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] to S
such that ˜ ϕ(X
i
) = s
i
, for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. The image of F under ˜ ϕ is written F(s
1
, . . . , s
n
).
The ring R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] is canonically isomorphic to R[X
1
, . . . , X
n−1
][X
n
].
An element a in a ring R is irreducible if it is not a unit or zero, and for any fac-
torization a =bc, b, c ∈ R, either b or c is a unit. A domain R is a unique factorization
domain, written UFD, if every nonzero element in R can be factored uniquely, up to
units and the ordering of the factors, into irreducible elements.
If R is a UFD with quotient field K, then (by Gauss) any irreducible element F ∈
R[X] remains irreducible when considered in K[X]; it follows that if F and G are
polynomials in R[X] with no common factors in R[X], they have no common factors
in K[X].
If R is a UFD, then R[X] is also a UFD. Consequently k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] is a UFD for
any field k. The quotient field of k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] is written k(X
1
, . . . , X
n
), and is called
the field of rational functions in n variables over k.
If ϕ: R →S is a ring homomorphism, the set ϕ
−1
(0) of elements mapped to zero
is the kernel of ϕ, written Ker(ϕ). It is an ideal in R. And ideal I in a ring R is proper
if I =R. A proper ideal is maximal if it is not contained in any larger proper ideal. A
prime ideal is an ideal I such that whenever ab ∈ I , either a ∈ I or b ∈ I .
A set S of elements of a ring R generates an ideal I = {
¸
a
i
s
i
| s
i
∈ S, a
i
∈ R}. An
ideal is finitely generated if it is generated by a finite set S ={ f
1
, . . . , f
n
}; we then write
I = ( f
1
, . . . , f
n
). An ideal is principal if it is generated by one element. A domain in
which every ideal is principal is called a principal ideal domain, written PID. The
ring of integers Z and the ring of polynomials k[X] in one variable over a field k are
examples of PID’s. Every PID is a UFD. A principal ideal I =(a) in a UFD is prime if
and only if a is irreducible (or zero).
Let I be an ideal in a ring R. The residue class ring of R modulo I is written R/I ;
it is the set of equivalence classes of elements in R under the equivalence relation:
a ∼b if a−b ∈ I . The equivalence class containing a may be called the I -residue of a;
it is often denoted by a. The classes R/I form a ring in such a way that the mapping
π: R →R/I taking each element to its I -residue is a ring homomorphism. The ring
R/I is characterized by the following property: if ϕ: R →S is a ring homomorphism
to a ring S, and ϕ(I ) = 0, then there is a unique ring homomorphism ϕ: R/I →S
such that ϕ=ϕ◦π. A proper ideal I in R is prime if and only if R/I is a domain, and
maximal if and only if R/I is a field. Every maximal ideal is prime.
Let k be a field, I a proper ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]. The canonical homomorphism
π from k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] to k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I restricts to a ring homomorphism from k
to k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I . We thus regard k as a subring of k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I ; in particular,
k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I is a vector space over k.
Let R be a domain. The characteristic of R, char(R), is the smallest integer p such
that 1+· · · +1 (p times) =0, if such a p exists; otherwise char(R) =0. If ϕ: Z→R is
the unique ring homomorphismfromZto R, thenKer(ϕ) =(p), so char(R) is a prime
number or zero.
If R is a ring, a ∈ R, F ∈ R[X], and a is a root of F, then F =(X −a)G for a unique
1.1. ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES 3
G ∈ R[X]. A field k is algebraically closed if any non-constant F ∈ k[X] has a root.
It follows that F = µ
¸
(X −λ
i
)
e
i
, µ, λ
i
∈ k, where the λ
i
are the distinct roots of F,
and e
i
is the multiplicity of λ
i
. A polynomial of degree d has d roots in k, counting
multiplicities. The field C of complex numbers is an algebraically closed field.
Let R be any ring. The derivative of a polynomial F =
¸
a
i
X
i
∈ R[X] is defined to
be
¸
i a
i
X
i −1
, and is written either
∂F
∂X
or F
X
. If F ∈ R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
],
∂F
∂X
i
=F
X
i
is defined
by considering F as a polynomial in X
i
withcoefficients inR[X
1
, . . . , X
i −1
, X
i +1
, . . . , X
n
].
The following rules are easily verified:
(1) (aF +bG)
X
=aF
X
+bG
X
, a, b ∈ R.
(2) F
X
=0 if F is a constant.
(3) (FG)
X
=F
X
G +FG
X
, and (F
n
)
X
=nF
n−1
F
X
.
(4) If G
1
, . . . ,G
n
∈ R[X], and F ∈ R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], then
F(G
1
, . . . ,G
n
)
X
=
n
¸
i =1
F
X
i
(G
1
, . . . ,G
n
)(G
i
)
X
.
(5) F
X
i
X
j
=F
X
j
X
i
, where we have written F
X
i
X
j
for (F
X
i
)
X
j
.
(6) (Euler’s Theorem) If F is a form of degree m in R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], then
mF =
n
¸
i =1
X
i
F
X
i
.
Problems
1.1.

Let R be a domain. (a) If F, G are forms of degree r , s respectively inR[X
1
, . . . , X
n
],
showthat FG is a formof degree r +s. (b) Showthat any factor of a forminR[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]
is also a form.
1.2.

Let R be a UFD, K the quotient field of R. Show that every element z of K may
be written z = a/b, where a, b ∈ R have no common factors; this representative is
unique up to units of R.
1.3.

Let R be a PID, Let P be a nonzero, proper, prime ideal in R. (a) Show that P is
generated by an irreducible element. (b) Show that P is maximal.
1.4.

Let k be an infinite field, F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]. Suppose F(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) = 0 for all
a
1
, . . . , a
n
∈ k. Show that F = 0. (Hint: Write F =
¸
F
i
X
i
n
, F
i
∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n−1
]. Use
induction on n, and the fact that F(a
1
, . . . , a
n−1
, X
n
) has only a finite number of roots
if any F
i
(a
1
, . . . , a
n−1
) =0.)
1.5.

Let k be any field. Show that there are an infinite number of irreducible monic
polynomials in k[X]. (Hint: Suppose F
1
, . . . , F
n
were all of them, and factor F
1
· · · F
n
+
1 into irreducible factors.)
1.6.

Showthat any algebraically closedfieldis infinite. (Hint: The irreducible monic
polynomials are X −a, a ∈ k.)
1.7.

Let k be a field, F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], a
1
, . . . , a
n
∈ k. (a) Show that
F =
¸
λ
(i )
(X
1
−a
1
)
i
1
. . . (X
n
−a
n
)
i
n
, λ
(i )
∈ k.
(b) If F(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) = 0, show that F =
¸
n
i =1
(X
i
−a
i
)G
i
for some (not unique) G
i
in
k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
].
4 CHAPTER 1. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS
1.2 Affine Space and Algebraic Sets
Let k be any field. By A
n
(k), or simply A
n
(if k is understood), we shall mean the
cartesian product of k with itself n times: A
n
(k) is the set of n-tuples of elements of
k. We call A
n
(k) affine n-space over k; its elements will be calledpoints. Inparticular,
A
1
(k) is the affine line, A
2
(k) the affine plane.
If F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], a point P =(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) in A
n
(k) is called a zero of F if F(P) =
F(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) =0. If F is not a constant, the set of zeros of F is called the hypersurface
defined by F, and is denoted by V (F). A hypersurface in A
2
(k) is called an affine
plane curve. If F is a polynomial of degree one, V (F) is called a hyperplane in A
n
(k);
if n =2, it is a line.
Examples. Let k =R.
a. V (Y
2
−X(X
2
−1)) ⊂A
2
b. V (Y
2
−X
2
(X +1)) ⊂A
2
c. V (Z
2
−(X
2
+Y
2
)) ⊂A
3
d. V (Y
2
−XY −X
2
Y +X
3
)) ⊂A
2
More generally, if S is any set of polynomials in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], we let V (S) = {P ∈
A
n
| F(P) =0 for all F ∈ S}: V (S) =
¸
F∈S
V (F). If S = {F
1
, . . . , F
r
}, we usually write
V (F
1
, . . . , F
r
) instead of V ({F
1
, . . . , F
r
}). A subset X ⊂ A
n
(k) is an affine algebraic set,
or simply an algebraic set, if X =V (S) for some S. The following properties are easy
to verify:
(1) If I is the ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] generated by S, then V (S) = V (I ); so every
algebraic set is equal to V (I ) for some ideal I .
(2) If {I
α
} is any collectionof ideals, thenV (
¸
α
I
α
) =
¸
α
V (I
α
); so the intersection
of any collection of algebraic sets is an algebraic set.
(3) If I ⊂ J, then V (I ) ⊃V (J).
1.3. THE IDEAL OF A SET OF POINTS 5
(4) V (FG) = V (F) ∪V (G) for any polynomials F,G; V (I ) ∪V (J) = V ({FG | F ∈
I ,G ∈ J}); so any finite union of algebraic sets is an algebraic set.
(5) V (0) = A
n
(k); V (1) = ; V (X
1
−a
1
, . . . , X
n
−a
n
) = {(a
1
, . . . , a
n
)} for a
i
∈ k. So
any finite subset of A
n
(k) is an algebraic set.
Problems
1.8.

Show that the algebraic subsets of A
1
(k) are just the finite subsets, together
with A
1
(k) itself.
1.9. If k is a finite field, show that every subset of A
n
(k) is algebraic.
1.10. Give an example of a countable collection of algebraic sets whose union is not
algebraic.
1.11. Show that the following are algebraic sets:
(a) {(t , t
2
, t
3
) ∈ A
3
(k) | t ∈ k};
(b) {(cos(t ), sin(t )) ∈ A
2
(R) | t ∈ R};
(c) the set of points in A
2
(R) whose polar coordinates (r, θ) satisfy the equation
r =sin(θ).
1.12. Suppose C is an affine plane curve, and L is a line in A
2
(k), L ⊂ C. Suppose
C =V (F), F ∈ k[X, Y ] a polynomial of degree n. Show that L ∩C is a finite set of no
more than n points. (Hint: Suppose L =V (Y −(aX +b)), and consider F(X, aX +b) ∈
k[X].)
1.13. Show that each of the following sets is not algebraic:
(a) {(x, y) ∈ A
2
(R) | y =sin(x)}.
(b) {(z, w) ∈ A
2
(C) | |z|
2
+|w|
2
=1}, where |x +i y|
2
=x
2
+y
2
for x, y ∈ R.
(c) {(cos(t ), sin(t ), t ) ∈ A
3
(R) | t ∈ R}.
1.14.

Let F be a nonconstant polynomial in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], k algebraically closed.
Showthat A
n
(k)V (F) is infinite if n ≥1, andV (F) is infinite if n ≥2. Conclude that
the complement of any proper algebraic set is infinite. (Hint: See Problem 1.4.)
1.15.

Let V ⊂A
n
(k), W ⊂A
m
(k) be algebraic sets. Show that
V ×W ={(a
1
, . . . , a
n
, b
1
, . . . , b
m
) | (a
1
, . . . , a
n
) ∈V, (b
1
, . . . , b
m
) ∈W}
is an algebraic set in A
n+m
(k). It is called the product of V and W.
1.3 The Ideal of a Set of Points
For any subset X of A
n
(k), we consider those polynomials that vanish on X; they
form an ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], called the ideal of X, and written I (X). I (X) = {F ∈
k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] | F(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) =0 for all (a
1
, . . . , a
n
) ∈ X}. The following properties show
some of the relations between ideals and algebraic sets; the verifications are left to
the reader (see Problems 1.4 and 1.7):
(6) If X ⊂Y , then I (X) ⊃ I (Y ).
6 CHAPTER 1. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS
(7) I () =k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]; I (A
n
(k)) =(0) if k is an infinite field;
I ({(a
1
, . . . , a
n
)}) =(X
1
−a
1
, . . . , X
n
−a
n
) for a
1
, . . . , a
n
∈ k.
(8) I (V (S)) ⊃S for any set S of polynomials; V (I (X)) ⊃ X for any set X of points.
(9) V (I (V (S))) =V (S) for any set S of polynomials, and I (V (I (X))) = I (X) for any
set X of points. So if V is an algebraic set, V = V (I (V )), and if I is the ideal of an
algebraic set, I = I (V (I )).
Anideal that is the ideal of analgebraic set has a property not shared by all ideals:
if I = I (X), and F
n
∈ I for some integer n >0, then F ∈ I . If I is any ideal in a ring R,
we define the radical of I , writtenRad(I ), to be {a ∈ R | a
n
∈ I for some integer n >0}.
Then Rad(I ) is an ideal (Problem 1.18 below) containing I . An ideal I is called a
radical ideal if I =Rad(I ). So we have property
(10) I (X) is a radical ideal for any X ⊂A
n
(k).
Problems
1.16.

Let V , W be algebraic sets in A
n
(k). Show that V = W if and only if I (V ) =
I (W).
1.17.

(a) Let V be an algebraic set in A
n
(k), P ∈ A
n
(k) a point not in V . Show that
there is a polynomial F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] such that F(Q) =0 for all Q ∈V , but F(P) =1.
(Hint: I (V ) = I (V ∪{P}).) (b) Let P
1
, . . . , P
r
be distinct points in A
n
(k), not in an
algebraic set V . Showthat there are polynomials F
1
, . . . , F
r
∈ I (V ) suchthat F
i
(P
j
) =0
if i = j , and F
i
(P
i
) = 1. (Hint: Apply (a) to the union of V and all but one point.)
(c) With P
1
, . . . , P
r
and V as in (b), and a
i j
∈ k for 1 ≤ i , j ≤ r , show that there are
G
i
∈ I (V ) with G
i
(P
j
) =a
i j
for all i and j . (Hint: Consider
¸
j
a
i j
F
j
.)
1.18.

Let I be an ideal in a ring R. If a
n
∈ I , b
m
∈ I , show that (a +b)
n+m
∈ I . Show
that Rad(I ) is an ideal, in fact a radical ideal. Show that any prime ideal is radical.
1.19. Show that I =(X
2
+1) ⊂R[X] is a radical (even a prime) ideal, but I is not the
ideal of any set in A
1
(R).
1.20.

Show that for any ideal I in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], V (I ) = V (Rad(I )), and Rad(I ) ⊂
I (V (I )).
1.21.

Showthat I =(X
1
−a
1
, . . . , X
n
−a
n
) ⊂k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] is a maximal ideal, and that
the natural homomorphism from k to k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I is an isomorphism.
1.4 The Hilbert Basis Theorem
Although we have allowed an algebraic set to be defined by any set of polynomi-
als, in fact a finite number will always do.
Theorem1. Every algebraic set is the intersection of a finite number of hypersurfaces
Proof. Let the algebraic set be V (I ) for some ideal I ⊂ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]. It is enough to
show that I is finitely generated, for if I =(F
1
, . . . , F
r
), then V (I ) =V (F
1
) ∩· · · ∩V (F
r
).
To prove this fact we need some algebra:
1.5. IRREDUCIBLE COMPONENTS OF ANALGEBRAIC SET 7
Aring is saidto be Noetherianif every ideal inthe ring is finitely generated. Fields
and PID’s are Noetherian rings. Theorem 1, therefore, is a consequence of the
HILBERTBASIS THEOREM. If R is a Noetherianring, thenR[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] is a Noethe-
rian ring.
Proof. Since R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] is isomorphic to R[X
1
, . . . , X
n−1
][X
n
], the theoremwill fol-
low by induction if we can prove that R[X] is Noetherian whenever R is Noetherian.
Let I be an ideal in R[X]. We must find a finite set of generators for I .
If F =a
1
+a
1
X +· · · +a
d
X
d
∈ R[X], a
d
=0, we call a
d
the leading coefficient of F.
Let J be the set of leading coefficients of all polynomials in I . It is easy to check that
J is an ideal in R, so there are polynomials F
1
, . . . , F
r
∈ I whose leading coefficients
generate J . Take an integer N larger than the degree of each F
i
. For each m ≤ N,
let J
m
be the ideal in R consisting of all leading coefficients of all polynomials F ∈ I
such that deg(F) ≤ m. Let {F
mj
} be a finite set of polynomials in I of degree ≤ m
whose leading coefficients generate J
m
. Let I

be the ideal generated by the F
i
’s and
all the F
mj
’s. It suffices to show that I = I

.
Suppose I

were smaller than I ; let G be an element of I of lowest degree that is
not in I

. If deg(G) >N, we can find polynomials Q
i
such that
¸
Q
i
F
i
andG have the
same leading term. But then deg(G −
¸
Q
i
F
i
) < degG, so G −
¸
Q
i
F
i
∈ I

, so G ∈ I

.
Similarly if deg(G) =m≤ N, we can lower the degree by subtracting off
¸
Q
j
F
mj
for
some Q
j
. This proves the theorem.
Corollary. k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] is Noetherian for any field k.
Problem
1.22.

Let I be an ideal in a ring R, π: R → R/I the natural homomorphism. (a)
Show that for every ideal J

of R/I , π
−1
(J

) = J is an ideal of R containing I , and
for every ideal J of R containing I , π(J) = J

is an ideal of R/I . This sets up a natural
one-to-one correspondence between {ideals of R/I } and {ideals of R that contain I }.
(b) Show that J

is a radical ideal if and only if J is radical. Similarly for prime and
maximal ideals. (c) Show that J

is finitely generated if J is. Conclude that R/I is
Noetherian if R is Noetherian. Any ring of the form k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I is Noetherian.
1.5 Irreducible Components of an Algebraic Set
An algebraic set may be the union of several smaller algebraic sets (Section 1.2
Example d). An algebraic set V ⊂ A
n
is reducible if V = V
1
∪V
2
, where V
1
, V
2
are
algebraic sets in A
n
, and V
i
=V , i =1, 2. Otherwise V is irreducible.
Proposition 1. An algebraic set V is irreducible if and only if I (V ) is prime.
Proof. If I (V ) is not prime, suppose F
1
F
2
∈ I (V ), F
i
∈ I (V ). Then V = (V ∩V (F
1
)) ∪
(V ∩V (F
2
)), and V ∩V (F
i
) V , so V is reducible.
Conversely if V =V
1
∪V
2
, V
i
V , then I (V
i
) I (V ); let F
i
∈ I (V
i
), F
i
∈ I (V ). Then
F
1
F
2
∈ I (V ), so I (V ) is not prime.
8 CHAPTER 1. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS
We want to show that an algebraic set is the union of a finite number of irre-
ducible algebraic sets. If V is reducible, we write V =V
1
∪V
2
; if V
2
is reducible, we
write V
2
=V
3
∪V
4
, etc. We need to know that this process stops.
Lemma. Let S be any nonempty collection of ideals in a Noetherian ring R. Then S
has a maximal member, i.e. there is an ideal I in S that is not contained in any other
ideal of S .
Proof. Choose (using the axiom of choice) an ideal from each subset of S . Let I
0
be
the chosen ideal for S itself. Let S
1
={I ∈ S | I I
0
}, and let I
1
be the chosen ideal
of S
1
. Let S
2
= {I ∈ S | I I
1
}, etc. It suffices to show that some S
n
is empty. If
not let I =
¸

n=0
I
n
, an ideal of R. Let F
1
, . . . , F
r
generate I ; each F
i
∈ I
n
if n is chosen
sufficiently large. But then I
n
= I , so I
n+1
= I
n
, a contradiction.
It follows immediately from this lemma that any collection of algebraic sets in
A
n
(k) has a minimal member. For if {V
α
} is such a collection, take a maximal mem-
ber I (V
α
0
) from {I (V
α
)}. Then V
α
0
is clearly minimal in the collection.
Theorem 2. Let V be an algebraic set in A
n
(k). Then there are unique irreducible
algebraic sets V
1
, . . . , V
m
such that V =V
1
∪· · · ∪V
m
and V
i
⊂V
j
for all i = j .
Proof. Let S = {algebraic sets V ⊂ A
n
(k) | V is not the union of a finite number
of irreducible algebraic sets}. We want to show that S is empty. If not, let V be
a minimal member of S . Since V ∈ S , V is not irreducible, so V = V
1
∪V
2
, V
i

V . Then V
i
∈ S , so V
i
= V
i 1
∪· · · ∪V
i m
i
, V
i j
irreducible. But then V =
¸
i , j
V
i j
, a
contradiction.
So any algebraic set V may be written as V = V
1
∪· · · ∪V
m
, V
i
irreducible. To
get the second condition, simply throw away any V
i
such that V
i
⊂V
j
for i = j . To
show uniqueness, let V =W
1
∪· · · ∪W
m
be another such decomposition. Then V
i
=
¸
j
(W
j
∩V
i
), so V
i
⊂W
j (i )
for some j (i ). Similarly W
j (i )
⊂V
k
for some k. But V
i
⊂V
k
implies i =k, so V
i
=W
j (i )
. Likewise each W
j
is equal to some V
i ( j )
.
The V
i
are called the irreducible components of V ; V =V
1
∪· · · ∪V
m
is the decom-
position of V into irreducible components.
Problems
1.23. Give an example of a collection S of ideals in a Noetherian ring such that no
maximal member of S is a maximal ideal.
1.24. Show that every proper ideal in a Noetherian ring is contained in a maximal
ideal. (Hint: If I is the ideal, apply the lemma to {proper ideals that contain I }.)
1.25. (a) Show that V (Y −X
2
) ⊂ A
2
(C) is irreducible; in fact, I (V (Y −X
2
)) = (Y −
X
2
). (b) Decompose V (Y
4
− X
2
, Y
4
− X
2
Y
2
+ XY
2
− X
3
) ⊂ A
2
(C) into irreducible
components.
1.26. Showthat F =Y
2
+X
2
(X −1)
2
∈ R[X, Y ] is an irreducible polynomial, but V (F)
is reducible.
1.6. ALGEBRAIC SUBSETS OF THE PLANE 9
1.27. Let V , W be algebraic sets in A
n
(k), with V ⊂W. Show that each irreducible
component of V is contained in some irreducible component of W.
1.28. If V = V
1
∪· · · ∪V
r
is the decomposition of an algebraic set into irreducible
components, show that V
i

¸
j =i
V
j
.
1.29.

Show that A
n
(k) is irreducible if k is infinite,.
1.6 Algebraic Subsets of the Plane
Before developing the general theory further, we will take a closer look at the
affine plane A
2
(k), and find all its algebraic subsets. By Theorem 2 it is enough to
find the irreducible algebraic sets.
Proposition2. Let F andG be polynomials in k[X, Y ] with no common factors. Then
V (F,G) =V (F) ∩V (G) is a finite set of points.
Proof. F and G have no common factors in k[X][Y ], so they also have no common
factors in k(X)[Y ] (see Section 1). Since k(X)[Y ] is a PID, (F,G) = (1) in k(X)[Y ], so
RF +SG =1 for some R, S ∈ k(X)[Y ]. There is a nonzero D ∈ k[X] such that DR = A,
DS = B ∈ k[X, Y ]. Therefore AF +BG = D. If (a, b) ∈ V (F,G), then D(a) = 0. But
D has only a finite number of zeros. This shows that only a finite number of X-
coordinates appear among the points of V (F,G). Since the same reasoning applies
to the Y -coordinates, there can be only a finite number of points.
Corollary 1. If F is an irreducible polynomial in k[X, Y ] such that V (F) is infinite,
then I (V (F)) =(F), and V (F) is irreducible.
Proof. If G ∈ I (V (F)), then V (F,G) is infinite, so F divides G by the proposition, i.e.,
G ∈ (F). Therefore I (V (F)) ⊃ (F), and the fact that V (F) is irreducible follows from
Proposition 1.
Corollary 2. Suppose k is infinite. Then the irreducible algebraic subsets of A
2
(k)
are: A
2
(k), , points, and irreducible plane curves V (F), where F is an irreducible
polynomial and V (F) is infinite.
Proof. Let V be an irreducible algebraic set in A
2
(k). If V is finite or I (V ) = (0), V
is of the required type. Otherwise I (V ) contains a nonconstant polynomial F; since
I (V ) is prime, some irreducible polynomial factor of F belongs to I (V ), so we may
assume F is irreducible. Then I (V ) =(F); for if G ∈ I (V ), G ∈ (F), then V ⊂V (F,G) is
finite.
Corollary 3. Assume k is algebraically closed, F a nonconstant polynomial ink[X, Y ].
Let F = F
n
1
1
· · · F
n
r
r
be the decomposition of F into irreducible factors. Then V (F) =
V (F
1
) ∪· · · ∪V (F
r
) is the decomposition of V (F) into irreducible components, and
I (V (F)) =(F
1
· · · F
r
).
Proof. No F
i
divides any F
j
, j = i , so there are no inclusion relations among the
V (F
i
). And I (
¸
i
V (F
i
)) =
¸
i
I (V (F
i
)) =
¸
i
(F
i
). Since any polynomial divisible by
eachF
i
is alsodivisible by F
1
· · · F
r
,
¸
i
(F
i
) =(F
1
· · · F
r
). Note that theV (F
i
) are infinite
since k is algebraically closed (Problem 1.14).
10 CHAPTER 1. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS
Problems
1.30. Let k =R. (a) Show that I (V (X
2
+Y
2
+1)) =(1). (b) Show that every algebraic
subset of A
2
(R) is equal to V (F) for some F ∈ R[X, Y ].
This indicates why we usually require that k be algebraically closed.
1.31. (a) Find the irreducible components of V (Y
2
−XY −X
2
Y +X
3
) in A
2
(R), and
also in A
2
(C). (b) Do the same for V (Y
2
−X(X
2
−1)), and for V (X
3
+X −X
2
Y −Y ).
1.7 Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz
If we are givenanalgebraic set V , Proposition2 gives a criterionfor telling whether
V is irreducible or not. What is lacking is a way to describe V in terms of a given set
of polynomials that define V . The preceding paragraph gives a beginning to this
problem, but it is the Nullstellensatz, or Zeros-theorem, which tells us the exact re-
lationship between ideals and algebraic sets. We begin with a somewhat weaker
theorem, and show how to reduce it to a purely algebraic fact. In the rest of this sec-
tion we show how to deduce the main result from the weaker theorem, and give a
few applications.
We assume throughout this section that k is algebraically closed.
WEAKNULLSTELLENSATZ. If I is a proper ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], then V (I ) =.
Proof. We may assume that I is a maximal ideal, for there is a maximal ideal J con-
taining I (Problem1.24), and V (J) ⊂V (I ). So L =k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I is a field, and k may
be regarded as a subfield of L (cf. Section 1).
Suppose we knew that k = L. Then for each i there is an a
i
∈ k such that the I -
residue of X
i
is a
i
, or X
i
−a
i
∈ I . But (X
1
−a
1
, . . . , X
n
−a
n
) is a maximal ideal (Problem
1.21), so I =(X
1
−a
1
, . . . , X
n
−a
n
), and V (I ) ={(a
1
, . . . , a
n
)} =.
Thus we have reduced the problem to showing:
(∗) If an algebraically closed field k is a subfield of a field L, and there is a
ring homomorphism from k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] onto L (that is the identity on k),
then k =L.
The algebra needed to prove this will be developed in the next two sections; (∗)
will be proved in Section 10.
HILBERT’S NULLSTELLENSATZ. Let I be an ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] (k algebraically
closed). Then I (V (I )) =Rad(I ).
Note. In concrete terms, this says the following: if F
1
, F
2
, . . . , F
r
and G are in
k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], and G vanishes wherever F
1
, F
2
, . . . , F
r
vanish, then there is an equa-
tion G
N
= A
1
F
1
+A
2
F
2
+· · · +A
r
F
r
, for some N >0 and some A
i
∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
].
Proof. That Rad(I ) ⊂ I (V (I )) is easy (Problem 1.20). Suppose that G is in the ideal
I (V (F
1
, . . . , F
r
)), F
i
∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]. Let J =(F
1
, . . . , F
r
, X
n+1
G−1) ⊂k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
, X
n+1
].
1.7. HILBERT’S NULLSTELLENSATZ 11
Then V (J) ⊂ A
n+1
(k) is empty, since G vanishes wherever all that F
i
’s are zero. Ap-
plying the Weak Nullstellensatz to J, we see that 1 ∈ J , so there is an equation 1 =
¸
A
i
(X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
)F
i
+B(X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
)(X
n+1
G −1). Let Y =1/X
n+1
, and multiply the
equation by a high power of Y , so that an equation Y
N
=
¸
C
i
(X
1
, . . . , X
n
, Y )F
i
+
D(X
1
, . . . , X
n
, Y )(G −Y ) in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
, Y ] results. Substituting G for Y gives the re-
quired equation.
The above proof is due to Rabinowitsch. The first three corollaries are immediate
consequences of the theorem.
Corollary 1. If I is a radical ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], then I (V (I )) = I . So there is a
one-to-one correspondence between radical ideals and algebraic sets.
Corollary 2. If I is a prime ideal, then V (I ) is irreducible. There is a one-to-one cor-
respondence between prime ideals and irreducible algebraic sets. The maximal ideals
correspond to points.
Corollary 3. Let F be a nonconstant polynomial in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], F = F
n
1
1
· · · F
n
r
r
the
decomposition of F into irreducible factors. Then V (F) = V (F
1
) ∪· · · ∪V (F
r
) is the
decomposition of V (F) into irreducible components, and I (V (F)) = (F
1
· · · F
r
). There
is a one-to-one correspondence between irreducible polynomials F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] (up
to multiplication by a nonzero element of k) and irreducible hypersurfaces in A
n
(k).
Corollary 4. Let I be an ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]. Then V (I ) is a finite set if and only if
k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I is a finite dimensional vector space over k. If this occurs, the number
of points in V (I ) is at most dim
k
(k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I ).
Proof. Let P
1
, . . . , P
r
∈ V (I ). Choose F
1
, . . . , F
r
∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] such that F
i
(P
j
) = 0 if
i = j , and F
i
(P
i
) =1 (Problem1.17); let F
i
be the I -residue of F
i
. If
¸
λ
i
F
i
=0, λ
i
∈ k,
then
¸
λ
i
F
i
∈ I , so λ
j
=(
¸
λ
i
F
i
)(P
j
) =0. Thus the F
i
are linearly independent over
k, so r ≤dim
k
(k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I ).
Conversely, if V (I ) = {P
1
, . . . , P
r
} is finite, let P
i
= (a
i 1
, . . . , a
i n
), and define F
j
by
F
j
=
¸
r
i =1
(X
j
−a
i j
), j = 1, . . . , n. Then F
j
∈ I (V (I )), so F
N
j
∈ I for some N > 0 (Take
N large enough to work for all F
j
). Taking I -residues, F
N
j
= 0, so X
r N
j
is a k-linear
combination of 1, X
j
, . . . , X
r N−1
j
. It follows by induction that X
s
j
is a k-linear combi-
nation of 1, X
j
, . . . , X
r N−1
j
for all s, and hence that the set {X
m
1
1
, · · · · · X
m
n
n
| m
i
<r N}
generates k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I as a vector space over k.
Problems
1.32. Show that both theorems and all of the corollaries are false if k is not alge-
braically closed.
1.33. (a) Decompose V (X
2
+Y
2
−1, X
2
−Z
2
−1) ⊂ A
3
(C) into irreducible compo-
nents. (b) Let V = {(t , t
2
, t
3
) ∈ A
3
(C) | t ∈ C}. Find I (V ), and show that V is irre-
ducible.
12 CHAPTER 1. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS
1.34. Let R be a UFD. (a) Show that a monic polynomial of degree two or three in
R[X] is irreducible if and only if it has no roots inR. (b) The polynomial X
2
−a ∈ R[X]
is irreducible if and only if a is not a square inR.
1.35. Show that V (Y
2
−X(X −1)(X −λ)) ⊂ A
2
(k) is an irreducible curve for any al-
gebraically closed field k, and any λ∈ k.
1.36. Let I =(Y
2
−X
2
, Y
2
+X
2
) ⊂C[X, Y ]. Find V (I ) and dim
C
(C[X, Y ]/I ).
1.37.

Let K be any field, F ∈ K[X] a polynomial of degree n > 0. Show that the
residues 1, X, . . . , X
n−1
form a basis of K[X]/(F) over K.
1.38.

Let R = k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], k algebraically closed, V = V (I ). Show that there is a
natural one-to-one correspondence between algebraic subsets of V and radical ide-
als in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I , and that irreducible algebraic sets (resp. points) correspond to
prime ideals (resp. maximal ideals). (See Problem 1.22.)
1.39. (a) Let R be a UFD, and let P = (t ) be a principal, proper, prime ideal. Show
that there is no prime ideal Q such that 0 ⊂Q ⊂P, Q =0, Q =P. (b) Let V =V (F) be
an irreducible hypersurface in A
n
. Show that there is no irreducible algebraic set W
such that V ⊂W ⊂A
n
, W =V , W =A
n
.
1.40. Let I =(X
2
−Y
3
, Y
2
−Z
3
) ⊂k[X, Y, Z]. Define α: k[X, Y, Z] →k[T] by α(X) =
T
9
, α(Y ) = T
6
, α(Z) = T
4
. (a) Show that every element of k[X, Y, Z]/I is the residue
of an element A +XB +Y C +XY D, for some A, B,C, D ∈ k[Z]. (b) If F = A +XB +
Y C +XY D, A, B,C, D ∈ k[Z], and α(F) = 0, compare like powers of T to conclude
that F =0. (c) Showthat Ker(α) = I , so I is prime, V (I ) is irreducible, and I (V (I )) = I .
1.8 Modules; Finiteness Conditions
Let R be a ring. An R-module is a commutative group M (the group law on M is
written +; the identity of the group is 0, or 0
M
) together with a scalar multiplication,
i.e., a mapping fromR×M to M (denote the image of (a, m) by a·m or am) satisfying:
(i) (a +b)m=am+bm for a, b ∈ R, m∈ M.
(ii) a · (m+n) =am+an for a ∈ R, m, n ∈ M.
(iii) (ab) · m=a · (bm) for a, b ∈ R, m∈ M.
(iv) 1
R
· m=m for m∈ M, where 1
R
is the multiplicative identity in R.
Exercise. Show that 0
R
· m=0
M
for all m∈ M.
Examples. (1) A Z-module is just a commutative group, where (±a)m is ±(m+
· · · +m) (a times) for a ∈ Z, a ≥0.
(2) If R is a field, an R-module is the same thing as a vector space over R.
(3) The multiplication in R makes any ideal of R into an R-module.
(4) If ϕ: R →S is a ring homomorphism, we define r · s for r ∈ R, s ∈ S, by the
equation r · s = ϕ(r )s. This makes S into an R-module. In particular, if a ring R is a
subring of a ring S, then S is an R-module.
A subgroup N of an R-module M is called a submodule if am ∈ N for all a ∈ R,
m ∈ N; N is then an R-module. If S is a set of elements of an R-module M, the
1.8. MODULES; FINITENESS CONDITIONS 13
submodule generated by S is defined to be {
¸
r
i
s
i
| r
i
∈ R, s
i
∈ S}; it is the smallest
submodule of M that contains S. If S ={s
1
, . . . , s
n
} is finite, the submodule generated
by S is denoted by
¸
Rs
i
. The module M is said to be finitely generated if M =
¸
Rs
i
for some s
1
, . . . , s
n
∈ M. Note that this concept agrees with the notions of finitely gen-
erated commutative groups and ideals, and with the notion of a finite-dimensional
vector space if R is a field.
Let R be a subring of a ring S. There are several types of finiteness conditions for
S over R, depending on whether we consider S as an R-module, a ring, or (possibly)
a field.
(A) S is said to be module-finite over R, if S is finitely generated as an R-module.
If R and S are fields, and S is module finite over R, we denote the dimension of S
over R by [S : R].
(B) Let v
1
, . . . , v
n
∈ S. Let ϕ: R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] →S be the ring homomorphismtaking
X
i
to v
i
. The image of ϕ is written R[v
1
, . . . , v
n
]. It is a subring of S containing R and
v
1
, . . . , v
n
, and it is the smallest such ring. Explicitly, R[v
1
, . . . , v
n
] ={
¸
a
(i )
v
i
1
1
· · · v
i
n
n
|
a
(i )
∈ R}. The ring S is ring-finite over R if S =R[v
1
, . . . , v
n
] for some v
1
, . . . , v
n
∈ S.
(C) Suppose R =K, S =L are fields. If v
1
, . . . , v
n
∈ L, let K(v
1
, . . . , v
n
) be the quo-
tient field of K[v
1
, . . . , v
n
]. We regard K(v
1
, . . . , v
n
) as a subfield of L; it is the smallest
subfield of L containing K and v
1
, . . . , v
n
. The field L is said to be a finitely generated
field extension of K if L =K(v
1
, . . . , v
n
) for some v
1
, . . . , v
n
∈ L.
Problems
1.41.

If S is module-finite over R, then S is ring-finite over R.
1.42. Show that S =R[X] (the ring of polynomials in one variable) is ring-finite over
R, but not module-finite.
1.43.

If L is ring-finite over K (K, L fields) then L is a finitely generated field exten-
sion of K.
1.44.

Showthat L =K(X) (the field of rational functions in one variable) is a finitely
generated field extension of K, but L is not ring-finite over K. (Hint: If L were ring-
finite over K, a common denominator of ring generators would be an element b ∈
K[X] such that for all z ∈ L, b
n
z ∈ K[X] for some n; but let z = 1/c, where c doesn’t
divide b (Problem 1.5).)
1.45.

Let R be a subring of S, S a subring of T.
(a) If S =
¸
Rv
i
, T =
¸
Sw
j
, show that T =
¸
Rv
i
w
j
.
(b) If S =R[v
1
, . . . , v
n
], T =S[w
1
, . . . , w
m
], show that T =R[v
1
, . . . , v
n
, w
1
, . . . , w
m
].
(c) If R, S, T are fields, and S = R(v
1
, . . . , v
n
), T = S(w
1
, . . . , w
m
), show that T =
R(v
1
, . . . , v
n
, w
1
, . . . , w
m
).
So each of the three finiteness conditions is a transitive relation.
14 CHAPTER 1. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS
1.9 Integral Elements
Let R be a subring of a ring S. An element v ∈ S is said to be integral over R if
there is a monic polynomial F = X
n
+a
1
X
n−1
+· · · +a
n
∈ R[X] such that F(v) =0. If
R and S are fields, we usually say that v is algebraic over R if v is integral over R.
Proposition 3. Let R be a subring of a domain S, v ∈ S. Then the following are equiv-
alent:
(1) v is integral over R.
(2) R[v] is module-finite over R.
(3) There is a subring R

of S containing R[v] that is module-finite over R.
Proof. (1) implies (2): If v
n
+a
1
v
n−1
+· · · +a
n
=0, then v
n

¸
n−1
i =0
Rv
i
. It follows that
v
m

¸
n−1
i =0
Rv
i
for all m, so R[v] =
¸
n−1
i =0
Rv
i
.
(2) implies (3): Let R

=R[v].
(3) implies (1): If R

=
¸
n
i =1
Rw
i
, then vw
i
=
¸
n
j =1
a
i j
w
j
for some a
i j
∈ R. Then
¸
n
j =1

i j
v −a
i j
)w
j
= 0 for all i , where δ
i j
= 0 if i = j and δ
i i
= 1. If we consider
these equations in the quotient field of S, we see that (w
1
, . . . , w
n
) is a nontrivial
solution, so det(δ
i j
v −a
i j
) = 0. Since v appears only in the diagonal of the matrix,
this determinant has the form v
n
+a
1
v
n−1
+· · · +a
n
, a
i
∈ R. So v is integral over R.
Corollary. The set of elements of S that are integral over R is a subring of S containing
R.
Proof. If a, b are integral over R, thenb is integral over R[a] ⊃R, so R[a, b] is module-
finite over R (Problem 1.45(a)). And a ±b, ab ∈ R[a, b], so they are integral over R by
the proposition.
We say that S is integral over R if every element of S is integral over R. If R and
S are fields, we say S is an algebraic extension of R if S is integral over R. The propo-
sition and corollary extend to the case where S is not a domain, with essentially the
same proofs, but we won’t need that generality.
Problems
1.46.

Let R be a subring of S, S a subring of (a domain) T. If S is integral over R,
and T is integral over S, show that T is integral over R. (Hint: Let z ∈ T, so we have
z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+· · · +a
n
=0, a
i
∈ S. Then R[a
1
, . . . , a
n
, z] is module-finite over R.)
1.47.

Suppose (a domain) S is ring-finite over R. Show that S is module-finite over
R if and only if S is integral over R.
1.48.

Let L be a field, k an algebraically closed subfield of L. (a) Show that any
element of L that is algebraic over k is already in k. (b) An algebraically closed field
has no module-finite field extensions except itself.
1.49.

Let K be a field, L =K(X) the field of rational functions in one variable over K.
(a) Show that any element of L that is integral over K[X] is already in K[X]. (Hint: If
z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+· · · =0, write z =F/G, F,G relatively prime. Then F
n
+a
1
F
n−1
G+· · · =0,
1.10. FIELDEXTENSIONS 15
so G divides F.) (b) Show that there is no nonzero element F ∈ K[X] such that for
every z ∈ L, F
n
z is integral over K[X] for some n >0. (Hint: See Problem 1.44.)
1.50.

Let K be a subfield of a field L. (a) Show that the set of elements of L that are
algebraic over K is a subfield of L containing K. (Hint: If v
n
+a
1
v
n−1
+· · · +a
n
= 0,
and a
n
= 0, then v(v
n−1
+· · · ) = −a
n
.) (b) Suppose L is module-finite over K, and
K ⊂R ⊂L. Show that R is a field.
1.10 Field Extensions
Suppose K is a subfield of a field L, and suppose L = K(v) for some v ∈ L. Let
ϕ: K[X] →L be the homomorphism taking X to v. Let Ker(ϕ) =(F), F ∈ K[X] (since
K[X] is a PID). Then K[X]/(F) is isomorphic to K[v], so (F) is prime. Two cases may
occur:
Case 1. F = 0. Then K[v] is isomorphic to K[X], so K(v) = L is isomorphic to
K(X). In this case L is not ring-finite (or module-finite) over K (Problem 1.44).
Case 2. F =0. We may assume F is monic. Then (F) is prime, so F is irreducible
and (F) is maximal (Problem 1.3); therefore K[v] is a field, so K[v] = K(v). And
F(v) =0, so v is algebraic over K and L =K[v] is module-finite over K.
To finish the proof of the Nullstellensatz, we must prove the claim (∗) of Section
7; this says that if a field L is a ring-finite extension of an algebraically closed field
k, then L = k. In view of Problem 1.48, it is enough to show that L is module-finite
over k. The above discussion indicates that a ring-finite field extension is already
module-finite. The next proposition shows that this is always true, and completes
the proof of the Nullstellensatz.
Proposition 4 (Zariski). If a field L is ring-finite over a subfield K, then L is module-
finite (and hence algebraic) over K.
Proof. Suppose L = K[v
1
, . . . , v
n
]. The case n = 1 is taken care of by the above dis-
cussion, so we assume the result for all extensions generated by n −1 elements. Let
K
1
= K(v
1
). By induction, L = K
1
[v
2
, . . . , v
n
] is module-finite over K
1
. We may as-
sume v
1
is not algebraic over K (otherwise Problem 1.45(a) finishes the proof ).
Each v
i
satisfies an equation v
n
i
i
+a
i 1
v
n
i
−1
i
+· · · =0, a
i j
∈ K
1
. If we take a ∈ K[v
1
]
that is a multiple of all the denominators of the a
i j
, we get equations (av
i
)
n
i
+
aa
i 1
(av
1
)
n
i
−1
+· · · = 0. It follows from the Corollary in §1.9 that for any z ∈ L =
K[v
1
, . . . , v
n
], there is an N such that a
N
z is integral over K[v
1
]. In particular this
must hold for z ∈ K(v
1
). But since K(v
1
) is isomorphic to the field of rational func-
tions in one variable over K, this is impossible (Problem 1.49(b)).
Problems
1.51.

Let K be a field, F ∈ K[X] an irreducible monic polynomial of degree n > 0.
(a) Show that L =K[X]/(F) is a field, and if x is the residue of X in L, then F(x) =0.
(b) Suppose L

is a field extension of K, y ∈ L

such that F(y) = 0. Show that the
16 CHAPTER 1. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS
homomorphism from K[X] to L

that takes X to Y induces an isomorphism of L
with K(y). (c) With L

, y as in (b), suppose G ∈ K[X] and G(y) = 0. Show that F
divides G. (d) Show that F =(X −x)F
1
, F
1
∈ L[X].
1.52.

Let K be a field, F ∈ K[X]. Show that there is a field L containing K such that
F =
¸
n
i =1
(X −x
i
) ∈ L[X]. (Hint: Use Problem 1.51(d) and induction on the degree.) L
is called a splitting field of F.
1.53.

Suppose K is a field of characteristic zero, F an irreducible monic polynomial
in K[X] of degree n > 0. Let L be a splitting field of F, so F =
¸
n
i =1
(X −x
i
), x
i
∈ L.
Show that the x
i
are distinct. (Hint: Apply Problem 1.51(c) to G = F
X
; if (X −x)
2
divides F, then G(x) =0.)
1.54.

Let R be a domain with quotient field K, and let L be a finite algebraic exten-
sion of K. (a) For any v ∈ L, showthat there is a nonzero a ∈ R such that av is integral
over R. (b) Show that there is a basis v
1
, . . . , v
n
for L over K (as a vector space) such
that each v
i
is integral over R.
Chapter 2
Affine Varieties
From now on k will be a fixed algebraically closed field. Affine algebraic sets will
be in A
n
= A
n
(k) for some n. An irreducible affine algebraic set is called an affine
variety.
All rings and fields will contain k as a subring. By a homomorphismϕ: R →S of
such rings, we will mean a ring homomorphism such that ϕ(λ) =λ for all λ∈ k.
In this chapter we will be concerned only with affine varieties, so we call them
simply varieties.
2.1 Coordinate Rings
Let V ⊂ A
n
be a nonempty variety. Then I (V ) is a prime ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
],
so k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I (V ) is a domain. We let Γ(V ) = k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I (V ), and call it the
coordinate ring of V .
For any (nonempty) set V , we let F(V, k) be the set of all functions fromV to k.
F(V, k) is made into a ring in the usual way: if f , g ∈ F(V, k), ( f +g)(x) = f (x)+g(x),
( f g)(x) = f (x)g(x), for all x ∈ V . It is usual to identify k with the subring of F(V, k)
consisting of all constant functions.
If V ⊂ A
n
is a variety, a function f ∈ F(V, k) is called a polynomial function if
there is a polynomial F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] such that f (a
1
, . . . , a
n
) = F(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) for all
(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) ∈ V . The polynomial functions form a subring of F(V, k) containing k.
Two polynomials F,G determine the same function if and only if (F −G)(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) =
0 for all (a
1
, . . . , a
n
) ∈ V , i.e., F −G ∈ I (V ). We may thus identify Γ(V ) with the sub-
ring of F(V, k) consisting of all polynomial functions on V . We have two important
ways to view an element of Γ(V ) — as a function on V , or as an equivalence class of
polynomials.
Problems
2.1.

Show that the map that associates to each F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] a polynomial func-
tion in F(V, k) is a ring homomorphism whose kernel is I (V ).
17
18 CHAPTER 2. AFFINE VARIETIES
2.2.

Let V ⊂A
n
be a variety. A subvariety of V is a variety W ⊂A
n
that is contained
in V . Show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between algebraic
subsets (resp. subvarieties, resp. points) of V and radical ideals (resp. prime ideals,
resp. maximal ideals) of Γ(V ). (See Problems 1.22, 1.38.)
2.3.

Let W be a subvariety of a variety V , and let I
V
(W) be the ideal of Γ(V ) cor-
responding to W. (a) Show that every polynomial function on V restricts to a poly-
nomial function on W. (b) Show that the map from Γ(V ) to Γ(W) defined in part
(a) is a surjective homomorphism with kernel I
V
(W), so that Γ(W) is isomorphic to
Γ(V )/I
V
(W).
2.4.

Let V ⊂ A
n
be a nonempty variety. Show that the following are equivalent:
(i) V is a point; (ii) Γ(V ) =k; (iii) dim
k
Γ(V ) <∞.
2.5. Let F be an irreducible polynomial in k[X, Y ], and suppose F is monic in Y :
F = Y
n
+a
1
(X)Y
n−1
+· · · , with n > 0. Let V = V (F) ⊂ A
2
. Show that the natural
homomorphismfromk[X] to Γ(V ) =k[X, Y ]/(F) is one-to-one, so that k[X] may be
regarded as a subring of Γ(V ); show that the residues 1, Y , . . . , Y
n−1
generate Γ(V )
over k[X] as a module.
2.2 Polynomial Maps
Let V ⊂ A
n
, W ⊂ A
m
be varieties. A mapping ϕ: V → W is called a polyno-
mial map if there are polynomials T
1
, . . . , T
m
∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] such that ϕ(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) =
(T
1
(a
1
, . . . , a
n
), . . . , T
m
(a
1
, . . . , a
n
)) for all (a
1
, . . . , a
n
) ∈V .
Any mapping ϕ: V →W induces a homomorphisms ˜ ϕ: F(W, k) →F(V, k), by
setting ˜ ϕ( f ) = f ◦ϕ. If ϕis a polynomial map, then ˜ ϕ(Γ(W)) ⊂Γ(V ), so ˜ ϕrestricts to a
homomorphism (also denoted by ˜ ϕ) fromΓ(W) to Γ(V ); for if f ∈ Γ(W) is the I (W)-
residue of a polynomial F, then ˜ ϕ( f ) = f ◦ ϕ is the I (V )-residue of the polynomial
F(T
1
, . . . , T
m
).
If V = A
n
, W = A
m
, and T
1
, . . . , T
m
∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] determine a polynomial map
T : A
n
→A
m
, the T
i
are uniquely determined by T (see Problem 1.4), so we often
write T =(T
1
, . . . , T
m
).
Proposition 1. Let V ⊂A
n
, W ⊂A
m
be affine varieties. There is a natural one-to-one
correspondence between the polynomial maps ϕ: V →W and the homomorphisms
˜ ϕ: Γ(W) →Γ(V ). Any such ϕ is the restriction of a polynomial map fromA
n
to A
m
.
Proof. Suppose α: Γ(W) → Γ(V ) is a homomorphism. Choose T
i
∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]
such that α(I (W)-residue of X
i
) = (I (V )-residue of T
i
), for i = 1, . . . , m. Then T =
(T
1
, . . . , T
m
) is a polynomial mapfromA
n
toA
m
, inducing
˜
T : Γ(A
m
) =k[X
1
, . . . , X
m
] →
Γ(A
n
) =k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]. It is easy to check that
˜
T(I (W)) ⊂ I (V ), and hence that T(V ) ⊂
W, and so T restricts to a polynomial map ϕ: V →W. It is also easy to verify that
˜ ϕ=α. Since we know how to construct ˜ ϕ fromϕ, this completes the proof.
A polynomial map ϕ: V →W is an isomorphism if there is a polynomial map
ψ: W →V such that ψ◦ ϕ = identity on V , ϕ◦ ψ = identity on W. Proposition 1
shows that two affine varieties are isomorphic if and only if their coordinate rings
are isomorphic (over k).
2.3. COORDINATE CHANGES 19
Problems
2.6.

Let ϕ: V →W, ψ: W →Z. Showthat ¯ ψ◦ϕ= ˜ ϕ◦ ˜ ψ. Showthat the composition
of polynomial maps is a polynomial map.
2.7.

If ϕ: V →W is a polynomial map, and X is an algebraic subset of W, showthat
ϕ
−1
(X) is an algebraic subset of V . If ϕ
−1
(X) is irreducible, and X is contained in the
image of ϕ, show that X is irreducible. This gives a useful test for irreducibility.
2.8. (a) Showthat {(t , t
2
, t
3
) ∈ A
3
(k) | t ∈ k} is an affine variety. (b) Showthat V (X Z −
Y
2
, Y Z −X
3
, Z
2
−X
2
Y ) ⊂A
3
(C) is a variety. (Hint:: Y
3
−X
4
, Z
3
−X
5
, Z
4
−Y
5
∈ I (V ).
Find a polynomial map fromA
1
(C) onto V .)
2.9.

Let ϕ: V →W be a polynomial map of affine varieties, V

⊂V , W

⊂W subva-
rieties. Suppose ϕ(V

) ⊂W

. (a) Show that ˜ ϕ(I
W
(W

)) ⊂ I
V
(V

) (see Problems 2.3).
(b) Show that the restriction of ϕ gives a polynomial map fromV

to W

.
2.10.

Show that the projection map pr: A
n
→A
r
, n ≥r , defined by pr(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) =
(a
1
, . . . , a
r
) is a polynomial map.
2.11. Let f ∈ Γ(V ), V a variety ⊂A
n
. Define
G( f ) ={(a
1
, . . . , a
n
, a
n+1
) ∈ A
n+1
| (a
1
, . . . , a
n
) ∈V and a
n+1
= f (a
1
, . . . , a
n
)},
the graph of f . Show that G( f ) is an affine variety, and that the map (a
1
, . . . , a
n
) →
(a
1
, . . . , a
n
, f (a
1
, . . . , a
n
)) defines an isomorphism of V with G( f ). (Projection gives
the inverse.)
2.12. (a)] Let ϕ: A
1
→V =V (Y
2
−X
3
) ⊂A
2
be defined by ϕ(t ) =(t
2
, t
3
). Show that
although ϕ is a one-to-one, onto polynomial map, ϕ is not an isomorphism. (Hint::
˜ ϕ(Γ(V )) = k[T
2
, T
3
] ⊂ k[T] = Γ(A
1
).) (b) Let ϕ: A
1
→V =V (Y
2
−X
2
(X +1)) be de-
fined by ϕ(t ) = (t
2
−1, t (t
2
−1)). Show that ϕ is one-to-one and onto, except that
ϕ(±1) =(0, 0).
2.13. Let V =V (X
2
−Y
3
, Y
2
−Z
3
) ⊂A
3
as in Problem 1.40, α: Γ(V ) →k[T] induced
by the homomorphism α of that problem. (a) What is the polynomial map f from
A
1
to V such that
˜
f =α? (b) Show that f is one-to-one and onto, but not an isomor-
phism.
2.3 Coordinate Changes
If T =(T
1
, . . . , T
m
) is a polynomial map fromA
n
to A
m
, and F is a polynomial in
k[X
1
, . . . , X
m
], we let F
T
=
˜
T(F) = F(T
1
, . . . , T
m
). For ideals I and algebraic sets V in
A
m
, I
T
will denote the ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] generated by {F
T
| F ∈ I } and V
T
the
algebraic set T
−1
(V ) =V (I
T
), where I = I (V ). If V is the hypersurface of F, V
T
is the
hypersurface of F
T
(if F
T
is not a constant).
Anaffine change of coordinates onA
n
is a polynomial mapT =(T
1
, . . . , T
n
) : A
n

A
n
such that each T
i
is a polynomial of degree 1, and such that T is one-to-one
and onto. If T
i
=
¸
a
i j
X
j
+a
i 0
, then T = T

◦ T

, where T

is a linear map (T

i
=
¸
a
i j
X
j
) and T

is a translation (T

i
= X
i
+a
i 0
). Since any translation has an inverse
(also a translation), it follows that T will be one-to-one (and onto) if and only if T

is
20 CHAPTER 2. AFFINE VARIETIES
invertible. If T andU are affine changes of coordinates on A
n
, then so are T ◦U and
T
−1
; T is an isomorphism of the variety A
n
with itself.
Problems
2.14.

A set V ⊂ A
n
(k) is called a linear subvariety of A
n
(k) if V = V (F
1
, . . . , F
r
) for
some polynomials F
i
of degree 1. (a) Show that if T is an affine change of coordi-
nates on A
n
, then V
T
is also a linear subvariety of A
n
(k). (b) If V = , show that
there is an affine change of coordinates T of A
n
such that V
T
= V (X
m+1
, . . . , X
n
).
(Hint:: use induction on r .) So V is a variety. (c) Show that the m that appears in
part (b) is independent of the choice of T. It is called the dimension of V . Then
V is then isomorphic (as a variety) to A
m
(k). (Hint:: Suppose there were an affine
change of coordinates T such that V (X
m+1
, . . . , X
n
)
T
=V (X
s+1
, . . . , X
n
), m< s; show
that T
m+1
, . . . , T
n
would be dependent.)
2.15.

Let P =(a
1
, . . . , a
n
), Q =(b
1
, . . . , b
n
) be distinct points of A
n
. The line through
P andQ is defined to be {a
1
+t (b
1
−a
1
), . . . , a
n
+t (b
n
−a
n
)) | t ∈ k}. (a) Showthat if L is
the line through P and Q, and T is an affine change of coordinates, then T(L) is the
line through T(P) and T(Q). (b) Show that a line is a linear subvariety of dimension
1, and that a linear subvariety of dimension1 is the line throughany two of its points.
(c) Showthat, in A
2
, a line is the same thing as a hyperplane. (d) Let P, P

∈ A
2
, L
1
, L
2
two distinct lines through P, L

1
, L

2
distinct lines through P

. Show that there is an
affine change of coordinates T of A
2
such that T(P) =P

and T(L
i
) =L

i
, i =1, 2.
2.16. Let k =C. Give A
n
(C) =C
n
the usual topology (obtained by identifying C with
R
2
, and hence C
n
with R
2n
). Recall that a topological space X is path-connected if for
any P,Q ∈ X, there is a continuous mapping γ: [0, 1] →X such that γ(0) =P, γ(1) =Q.
(a) Show that CS is path-connected for any finite set S. (b) Let V be an algebraic
set in A
n
(C). Show that A
n
(C) V is path-connected. (Hint:: If P,Q ∈ A
n
(C) V , let
L be the line through P and Q. Then L ∩V is finite, and L is isomorphic to A
1
(C).)
2.4 Rational Functions and Local Rings
Let V be a nonempty variety in A
n
, Γ(V ) its coordinate ring. Since Γ(V ) is a do-
main, we may formits quotient field. This fieldis calledthe field of rational functions
on V , and is written k(V ). An element of k(V ) is a rational function on V .
If f is a rational function onV , and P ∈V , we say that f is defined at P if for some
a, b ∈ Γ(V ), f = a/b, and b(P) = 0. Note that there may be many different ways to
write f as a ratio of polynomial functions; f is defined at P if it is possible to find a
“denominator” for f that doesn’t vanish at P. If Γ(V ) is a UFD, however, there is an
essentially unique representation f = a/b, where a and b have no common factors
(Problem 1.2), and then f is defined at P if and only if b(P) =0.
Example. V =V (XW−Y Z) ⊂A
4
(k). Γ(V ) =k[X, Y, Z, W]/(XW−Y Z). Let X, Y , Z, W
be the residues of X, Y, Z, W in Γ(V ). Then X/Y = Z/W = f ∈ k(V ) is defined at
P =(x, y, z, w) ∈V if y =0 or w =0 (see Problem 2.20).
2.4. RATIONAL FUNCTIONS ANDLOCAL RINGS 21
Let P ∈ V . We define O
P
(V ) to be the set of rational functions on V that are
defined at P. It is easy to verify that O
P
(V ) forms a subring of k(V ) containing Γ(V ) :
k ⊂Γ(V ) ⊂O
P
(V ) ⊂k(V ). The ring O
P
(V ) is called the local ring of V at P.
The set of points P ∈ V where a rational function f is not defined is called the
pole set of f .
Proposition 2. (1) The pole set of a rational function is an algebraic subset of V .
(2) Γ(V ) =
¸
P∈V
O
P
(V ).
Proof. Suppose V ⊂ A
n
. For G ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], denote the residue of G in Γ(V ) by
G. Let f ∈ k(V ). Let J
f
= {G ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] | Gf ∈ Γ(V )}. Note that J
f
is an ideal
in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] containing I (V ), and the points of V (J
f
) are exactly those points
where f is not defined. This proves (1). If f ∈
¸
P∈V
O
P
(V ), V (J
f
) = , so 1 ∈ J
f
(Nullstellensatz!), i.e., 1· f = f ∈ Γ(V ), which proves (2).
Suppose f ∈ O
P
(V ). We can then define the value of f at P, written f (P), as fol-
lows: write f = a/b, a, b ∈ Γ(V ), b(P) =0, and let f (P) = a(P)/b(P) (one checks that
this is independent of the choice of a and b.) The ideal m
P
(V ) ={ f ∈ O
P
(V ) | f (P) =
0} is called the maximal ideal of V at P. It is the kernel of the evaluation homomor-
phism f → f (P) of O
P
(V ) onto k, so O
P
(V )/m
P
(V ) is isomorphic to k. An element
f ∈ O
P
(V ) is a unit in O
P
(V ) if and only if f (P) =0, so m
P
(V ) ={non-units of O
P
(V )}.
Lemma. The following conditions on a ring R are equivalent:
(1) The set of non-units in R forms an ideal.
(2) R has a unique maximal ideal that contains every proper ideal of R.
Proof. Let m = {non-units of R}. Clearly every proper ideal of R is contained in m;
the lemma is an immediate consequence of this.
A ring satisfying the conditions of the lemma is called a local ring; the units are
those elements not belonging to the maximal ideal. We have seen that O
P
(V ) is a
local ring, and m
P
(V ) is its unique maximal ideal. These local rings play a promi-
nent role in the modern study of algebraic varieties. All the properties of V that
depend only on a “neighborhood” of P (the “local” properties) are reflected in the
ring O
P
(V ). See Problem 2.18 for one indication of this.
Proposition 3. O
P
(V ) is a Noetherian local domain.
Proof. We must show that any ideal I of O
P
(V ) is finitely generated. Since Γ(V ) is
Noetherian (Problem1.22), choose generators f
1
, . . . , f
r
for the ideal I ∩Γ(V ) of Γ(V ).
We claim that f
1
, . . . , f
r
generate I as an ideal in O
P
(V ). For if f ∈ I ⊂O
P
(V ), there is
a b ∈ Γ(V ) with b(P) =0 and bf ∈ Γ(V ); then bf ∈ Γ(V ) ∩I , so bf =
¸
a
i
f
i
, a
i
∈ Γ(V );
therefore f =
¸
(a
i
/b) f
i
, as desired.
Problems
2.17. Let V = V (Y
2
− X
2
(X +1)) ⊂ A
2
, and X, Y the residues of X, Y in Γ(V ); let
z =Y /X ∈ k(V ). Find the pole sets of z and of z
2
.
22 CHAPTER 2. AFFINE VARIETIES
2.18. Let O
P
(V ) be the local ring of a variety V at a point P. Show that there is a nat-
ural one-to-one correspondence between the prime ideals in O
P
(V ) and the subva-
rieties of V that pass through P. (Hint:: If I is prime in O
P
(V ), I ∩Γ(V ) is prime in
Γ(V ), and I is generated by I ∩Γ(V ); use Problem 2.2.)
2.19. Let f be a rational function on a variety V . Let U = {P ∈ V | f is defined at
P}. Then f defines a function from U to k. Show that this function determines f
uniquely. So a rational function may be considered as a type of function, but only
on the complement of an algebraic subset of V , not on V itself.
2.20. Inthe example giveninthis section, showthat it is impossible to write f =a/b,
where a, b ∈ Γ(V ), and b(P) = 0 for every P where f is defined. Show that the pole
set of f is exactly {(x, y, z, w) | y =0 and w =0}.
2.21.

Let ϕ: V →W be a polynomial map of affine varieties, ˜ ϕ: Γ(W) →Γ(V ) the
induced map on coordinate rings. Suppose P ∈ V , ϕ(P) =Q. Show that ˜ ϕ extends
uniquely to a ring homomorphism(also written ˜ ϕ) fromO
Q
(W) to O
P
(V ). (Note that
˜ ϕ may not extend to all of k(W).) Show that ˜ ϕ(m
Q
(W)) ⊂m
P
(V ).
2.22.

Let T : A
n
→ A
n
be an affine change of coordinates, T(P) = Q. Show that
˜
T : O
Q
(A
n
) → O
P
(A
n
) is an isomorphism. Show that
˜
T induces an isomorphism
fromO
Q
(V ) to O
P
(V
T
) if P ∈V
T
, for V a subvariety of A
n
.
2.5 Discrete Valuation Rings
Our study of plane curves will be made easier if we have at our disposal several
concepts and facts of an algebraic nature. They are put into the next few sections to
avoid disrupting later geometric arguments.
Proposition 4. Let R be a domain that is not a field. Then the following are equiva-
lent:
(1) R is Noetherian and local, and the maximal ideal is principal.
(2) There is an irreducible element t ∈ R such that every nonzero z ∈ R may be
written uniquely in the form z =ut
n
, u a unit in R, n a nonnegative integer.
Proof. (1) implies (2): Let m be the maximal ideal, t a generator for m. Suppose
ut
n
= vt
m
, u, v units, n ≥ m. Then ut
n−m
= v is a unit, so n = m and u = v. Thus
the expression of any z =ut
n
is unique. To show that any z has such an expression,
we may assume z is not a unit, so z = z
1
t for some z
1
∈ R. If z
1
is a unit we are
finished, so assume z
1
= z
2
t . Continuing in this way, we find an infinite sequence
z
1
, z
2
, . . . with z
i
= z
i +1
t . Since R is Noetherian, the chain of ideals (z
1
) ⊂ (z
2
) ⊂ · · ·
must have a maximal member (Chapter 1, Section 5), so (z
n
) = (z
n+1
) for some n.
Then z
n+1
=vz
n
for some v ∈ R, so z
n
=vt z
n
and vt =1. But t is not a unit.
(2) implies (1): (We don’t really need this part.) m= (t ) is clearly the set of non-
units. It is not hard to see that the only ideals in R are the principal ideals (t
n
), n a
nonnegative integer, so R is a PID.
A ring R satisfying the conditions of Proposition 4 is called a discrete valuation
ring, written DVR. An element t as in (2) is called a uniformizing parameter for R;
2.5. DISCRETE VALUATIONRINGS 23
any other uniformizing parameter is of the form ut , u a unit in R. Let K be the
quotient field of R. Then (when t is fixed) any nonzero element z ∈ K has a unique
expression z =ut
n
, u a unit in R, n ∈ Z (see Problem 1.2). The exponent n is called
the order of z, and is written n =ord(z); we define ord(0) =∞. Note that R ={z ∈ K |
ord(z) ≥0}, and m={z ∈ K | ord(z) >0} is the maximal ideal in R.
Problems
2.23.

Showthat the order function on K is independent of the choice of uniformiz-
ing parameter.
2.24.

Let V = A
1
, Γ(V ) = k[X], K = k(V ) = k(X). (a) For each a ∈ k =V , show that
O
a
(V ) is a DVR with uniformizing parameter t = X −a. (b) Show that O

= {F/G ∈
k(X) | deg(G) ≥deg(F)} is also a DVR, with uniformizing parameter t =1/X.
2.25. Let p ∈ Z be a prime number. Show that {r ∈ Q | r = a/b, a, b ∈ Z, p doesn’t
divide b} is a DVR with quotient field Q.
2.26.

Let R be a DVR with quotient field K; let m be the maximal ideal of R. (a)
Show that if z ∈ K, z ∈ R, then z
−1
∈ m. (b) Suppose R ⊂S ⊂K, and S is also a DVR.
Suppose the maximal ideal of S contains m. Show that S =R.
2.27. Show that the DVR’s of Problem 2.24 are the only DVR’s with quotient field
k(X) that contain k. Show that those of Problem 2.25 are the only DVR’s with quo-
tient field Q.
2.28.

An order function on a field K is a function ϕ from K onto Z∪{∞}, satisfying:
(i) ϕ(a) =∞if and only if a =0.
(ii) ϕ(ab) =ϕ(a) +ϕ(b).
(iii) ϕ(a +b) ≥min(ϕ(a), ϕ(b)).
Show that R = {z ∈ K | ϕ(z) ≥ 0} is a DVR with maximal ideal m= {z | ϕ(z) > 0}, and
quotient field K. Conversely, show that if R is a DVR with quotient field K, then the
function ord: K →Z∪{∞} is an order function on K. Giving a DVR with quotient
field K is equivalent to defining an order function on K.
2.29.

Let R be a DVR with quotient field K, ord the order function on K. (a) If
ord(a) < ord(b), show that ord(a +b) = ord(a). (b) If a
1
, . . . , a
n
∈ K, and for some
i , ord(a
i
) <ord(a
j
) (all j =i ), then a
1
+· · · +a
n
=0.
2.30.

Let R be a DVR with maximal ideal m, and quotient field K, and suppose a
field k is a subring of R, and that the composition k →R →R/m is an isomorphism
of k with R/m (as for example in Problem 2.24). Verify the following assertions:
(a) For any z ∈ R, there is a unique λ∈ k such that z −λ∈ m.
(b) Let t be a uniformizing parameter for R, z ∈ R. Then for any n ≥ 0 there are
unique λ
0
, λ
1
, . . . , λ
n
∈ k and z
n
∈ R such that z =λ
0

1
t +λ
2
t
2
+· · ·+λ
n
t
n
+z
n
t
n+1
.
(Hint:: For uniqueness use Problem 2.29; for existence use (a) and induction.)
2.31. Let k be a field. The ring of formal power series over k, written k[[X]], is de-
fined to be {
¸

i =0
a
i
X
i
| a
i
∈ k}. (As with polynomials, a rigorous definition is best
given in terms of sequences (a
0
, a
1
, . . . ) of elements in k; here we allow an infinite
24 CHAPTER 2. AFFINE VARIETIES
number of nonzero terms.) Define the sum by
¸
a
i
X
i
+
¸
b
i
X
i
=
¸
(a
i
+b
i
)X
i
, and
the product by (
¸
a
i
X
i
)(
¸
b
i
X
i
) =
¸
c
i
X
i
, where c
i
=
¸
j +k=i
a
j
b
k
. Showthat k[[X]]
is a ring containing k[X] as a subring. Show that k[[X]] is a DVR with uniformizing
parameter X. Its quotient field is denoted k((X)).
2.32. Let R be a DVR satisfying the conditions of Problem 2.30. Any z ∈ R then de-
termines a power series λ
i
X
i
, if λ
0
, λ
1
, . . . are determined as in Problem 2.30(b). (a)
Showthat the map z →
¸
λ
i
X
i
is a one-to-one ring homomorphismof R into k[[X]].
We often write z =
¸
λ
i
t
i
, and call this the power series expansion of z in terms of t .
(b) Show that the homomorphism extends to a homomorphism of K into k((X)),
and that the order function on k((X)) restricts to that on K. (c) Let a =0 in Problem
2.24, t = X. Find the power series expansion of z =(1−X)
−1
and of (1−X)(1+X
2
)
−1
in terms of t .
2.6 Forms
Let R be a domain. If F ∈ R[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] is a form, we define F

∈ R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]
by setting F

= F(X
1
, . . . , X
n
, 1). Conversely, for any polynomial f ∈ R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] of
degree d, write f = f
0
+ f
1
+· · · + f
d
, where f
i
is a form of degree i , and define f


R[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] by setting
f

= X
d
n+1
f
0
+X
d−1
n+1
f
1
+· · · + f
d
= X
d
n+1
f (X
1
/X
n+1
, . . . , X
n
/X
n+1
);
f

is a formof degree d. (These processes are often described as “dehomogenizing”
and “homogenizing” polynomials with respect to X
n+1
.) The proof of the following
proposition is left to the reader:
Proposition 5. (1) (FG)

=F

G

; ( f g)

= f

g

.
(2) If F =0 and r is the highest power of X
n+1
that divides F, then X
r
n+1
(F

)

=F;
( f

)

= f .
(3) (F +G)

= F

+G

; X
t
n+1
( f +g)

= X
r
n+1
f

+X
s
n+1
g

, where r = deg(g), s =
deg( f ), and t =r +s −deg( f +g).
Corollary. Up to powers of X
n+1
, factoring a form F ∈ R[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] is the same as
factoring F

∈ R[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]. In particular, if F ∈ k[X, Y ] is a form, k algebraically
closed, then F factors into a product of linear factors.
Proof. The first claim follows directly from (1) and (2) of the proposition. For the
second, write F =Y
r
G, where Y doesn’t divide G. Then F

=G

=
¸
(X −λ
i
) since
k is algebraically closed, so F =Y
r
¸
(X −λ
i
Y ).
Problems
2.33. Factor Y
3
−2XY
2
+2X
2
Y +X
3
into linear factors in C[X, Y ].
2.34. Suppose F,G ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] are forms of degree r , r +1 respectively, with no
common factors (k a field). Show that F +G is irreducible.
2.7. DIRECT PRODUCTS OF RINGS 25
2.35.

(a) Show that there are d +1 monomials of degree d in R[X, Y ], and 1 +2 +
· · · +(d +1) =(d +1)(d +2)/2 monomials of degree d in R[X, Y, Z]. (b) Let V (d, n) =
{forms of degree d in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]}, k a field. Showthat V (d, n) is a vector space over
k, and that the monomials of degree d forma basis. So dimV (d, 1) =1; dimV (d, 2) =
d +1; dimV (d, 3) = (d +1)(d +2)/2. (c) Let L
1
, L
2
, . . . and M
1
, M
2
, . . . be sequences
of nonzero linear forms in k[X, Y ], and assume no L
i
= λM
j
, λ ∈ k. Let A
i j
=
L
1
L
2
. . . L
i
M
1
M
2
. . . M
j
, i , j ≥ 0 (A
00
= 1). Show that {A
i j
| i + j = d} forms a basis
for V (d, 2).
2.36. With the above notation, show that dimV (d, n) =
¸
d+n−1
n−1
¸
, the binomial coef-
ficient.
2.7 Direct Products of Rings
If R
1
, . . . , R
n
are rings,the cartesian product R
1
×· · · ×R
n
is made into a ring as
follows: (a
1
, . . . , a
n
) +(b
1
, . . . , b
n
) =(a
1
+b
1
, . . . , a
n
+b
n
), and (a
1
, . . . , a
n
)(b
1
, . . . , b
n
) =
(a
1
b
1
, . . . , a
n
b
n
). This ring is called the direct product of R
1
, . . . , R
n
, and is written
¸
n
i =1
R
i
. The natural projection maps π
i
:
¸
n
j =1
R
j
→R
i
taking (a
1
, . . . , a
n
) to a
i
are
ring homomorphisms.
The direct product is characterized by the following property: given any ring R,
and ring homomorphisms ϕ
i
: R →R
i
, i =1, . . . , n, there is a unique ring homomor-
phismϕ: R →
¸
n
i =1
R
i
such that π
i
◦ϕ = ϕ
i
. In particular, if a field k is a subring of
each R
i
, k may be regarded as a subring of
¸
n
i =1
R
i
.
Problems
2.37. What are the additive and multiplicative identities in
¸
R
i
? Is the map fromR
i
to
¸
R
j
taking a
i
to (0, . . . , a
i
, . . . , 0) a ring homomorphism?
2.38.

Showthat if k ⊂R
i
, andeachR
i
is finite-dimensional over k, thendim(
¸
R
i
) =
¸
dimR
i
.
2.8 Operations with Ideals
Let I , J be ideals in a ring R. The ideal generated by {ab | a ∈ I , b ∈ J } is denoted
I J. Similarly if I
1
, . . . , I
n
are ideals, I
1
· · · I
n
is the ideal generated by {a
1
a
2
· · · a
n
| a
i

I
i
}. We define I
n
to be I I · · · I (n times). Note that while I
n
contains all nth powers of
elements of I , it may not be generated by them. If I is generated by a
1
, . . . , a
r
, then
I
n
is generated by {a
i
1
i
· · · a
i
r
r
|
¸
i
j
=n}. And R = I
0
⊃ I
1
⊃ I
2
⊃· · · .
Example. R =k[X
1
, . . . , X
r
], I =(X
1
, . . . , X
r
). Then I
n
is generated by the monomials
of degree n, so I
n
consists of those polynomials with no terms of degree <n. It fol-
lows that the residues of the monomials of degree <n forma basis of k[X
1
, . . . , X
r
]/I
n
over k.
26 CHAPTER 2. AFFINE VARIETIES
If R is a subring of a ring S, I S denotes the ideal of S generated by the elements
of I . It is easy to see that I
n
S =(I S)
n
.
Let I , J be ideals in a ring R. Define I +J = {a +b | a ∈ I , b ∈ J}. Then I +J is an
ideal; in fact, it is the smallest ideal in R that contains I and J.
Two ideals I , J in R are said to be comaximal if I + J = R, i.e., if 1 = a +b, a ∈ I ,
b ∈ J . For example, two distinct maximal ideals are comaximal.
Lemma. (1) I J ⊂ I ∩J for any ideals I and J.
(2) If I and J are comaximal, I J = I ∩J .
Proof. (1) is trivial. If I +J =R, then I ∩J =(I ∩J)R =(I ∩J)(I +J) =(I ∩J)I +(I ∩J)J ⊂
J I +I J = I J, proving (2). (See Problem 2.39.)
Problems
2.39.

Prove the following relations among ideals I
i
, J, in a ring R:
(a) (I
1
+I
2
)J = I
1
J +I
2
J .
(b) (I
1
· · · I
N
)
n
= I
n
1
· · · I
n
N
.
2.40.

(a) Suppose I , J are comaximal ideals in R. Show that I + J
2
= R. Show that
I
m
and J
n
are comaximal for all m, n. (b) Suppose I
1
, . . . , I
N
are ideals in R, and
I
i
and J
i
=
¸
j =i
I
j
are comaximal for all i . Show that I
n
1
∩· · · ∩I
n
N
= (I
1
· · · I
N
)
n
=
(I
1
∩· · · ∩I
N
)
n
for all n.
2.41.

Let I , J be ideals in a ring R. Suppose I is finitely generated and I ⊂ Rad(J).
Show that I
n
⊂ J for some n.
2.42.

(a) Let I ⊂ J be ideals in a ring R. Show that there is a natural ring homomor-
phism from R/I onto R/J. (b) Let I be an ideal in a ring R, R a subring of a ring S.
Show that there is a natural ring homomorphism from R/I to S/I S.
2.43.

Let P = (0, . . . , 0) ∈ A
n
, O = O
P
(A
n
), m= m
P
(A
n
). Let I ⊂ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] be the
ideal generated by X
1
, . . . , X
n
. Show that I O =m, so I
r
O =m
r
for all r .
2.44.

Let V be a variety in A
n
, I = I (V ) ⊂k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], P ∈ V , and let J be an ideal
of k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] that contains I . Let J

be the image of J in Γ(V ). Show that there is
a natural homomorphismϕ fromO
P
(A
n
)/JO
P
(A
n
) to O
P
(V )/J

O
P
(V ), and that ϕ is
an isomorphism. In particular, O
P
(A
n
)/I O
P
(A
n
) is isomorphic to O
P
(V ).
2.45.

Show that ideals I , J ⊂k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] (k algebraically closed) are comaximal if
and only if V (I ) ∩V (J ) =.
2.46.

Let I =(X, Y ) ⊂k[X, Y ]. Show that dim
k
(k[X, Y ]/I
n
) =1+2+· · · +n =
n(n+1)
2
.
2.9 Ideals with a Finite Number of Zeros
The proposition of this section will be used to relate local questions (in terms of
the local rings O
P
(V )) with global ones (in terms of coordinate rings).
2.10. QUOTIENT MODULES ANDEXACT SEQUENCES 27
Proposition6. Let I be an ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] (k algebraically closed), and suppose
V (I ) ={P
1
, . . . , P
N
} is finite. Let O
i
=O
P
i
(A
n
). Then there is a natural isomorphism of
k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I with
¸
N
i =1
O
i
/I O
i
.
Proof. Let I
i
= I ({P
i
}) ⊂ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] be the distinct maximal ideals that contain
I . Let R = k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I , R
i
= O
i
/I O
i
. The natural homomorphisms (Problem
2.42(b)) ϕ
i
from R to R
i
induce a homomorphismϕ from R to
¸
N
i =1
R
i
.
By the Nullstellensatz, Rad(I ) = I ({P
1
, . . . , P
N
}) =
¸
N
i =1
I
i
, so (
¸
I
i
)
d
⊂ I for some d
(Problem 2.41). Since
¸
j =i
I
j
and I
i
are comaximal (Problem 2.45), it follows (Prob-
lem 2.40) that
¸
I
d
j
=(I
1
· · · I
N
)
d
=(
¸
I
j
)
d
⊂ I .
Now choose F
i
∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] such that F
i
(P
j
) = 0 if i = j , F
i
(P
i
) = 1 (Problem
1.17). Let E
i
= 1 −(1 −F
d
i
)
d
. Note that E
i
= F
d
i
D
i
for some D
i
, so E
i
∈ I
d
j
if i = j ,
and 1−
¸
i
E
i
= (1−E
j
) −
¸
i =j
E
i

¸
I
d
j
⊂ I . In addition, E
i
−E
2
i
= E
i
(1−F
d
i
)
d
is in
¸
j =i
I
d
j
· I
d
i
⊂ I . If we let e
i
be the residue of E
i
in R, we have e
2
i
=e
i
, e
i
e
j
=0 if i = j ,
and
¸
e
i
=1.
Claim. If G ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], and G(P
i
) =0, then there is a t ∈ R such that t g =e
i
,
where g is the I -residue of G.
Assuming the claim for the moment, we show how to conclude that ϕ is an iso-
morphism:
ϕ is one-to-one: If ϕ( f ) = 0, then for each i there is a G
i
with G
i
(P
i
) = 0 and
G
i
F ∈ I ( f = I -residue of F). Let t
i
g
i
=e
i
. Then f =
¸
e
i
f =
¸
t
i
g
i
f =0.
ϕ is onto: Since E
i
(P
i
) =1, ϕ
i
(e
i
) is a unit in R
i
; since ϕ
i
(e
i

i
(e
j
) =ϕ
i
(e
i
e
j
) =0
if i = j , ϕ
i
(e
j
) = 0 for i = j . Therefore ϕ
i
(e
i
) = ϕ
i
(
¸
e
j
) = ϕ
i
(1) = 1. Now suppose
z = (a
1
/s
1
, . . . , a
N
/s
N
) ∈
¸
R
i
. By the claim, we may find t
i
so that t
i
s
i
= e
i
; then
a
i
/s
i
=a
i
t
i
in R
i
, so ϕ
i
(
¸
t
j
a
j
e
j
) =ϕ
i
(t
i
a
i
) =a
i
/s
i
, and ϕ(
¸
t
j
a
j
e
j
) =z.
To prove the claim, we may assume that G(P
i
) =1. Let H =1−G. It follows that
(1−H)(E
i
+HE
i
+· · · +H
d−1
E
i
) = E
i
−H
d
E
i
. Then H ∈ I
i
, so H
d
E
i
∈ I . Therefore
g(e
i
+he
i
+· · · +h
d−1
e
i
) =e
i
, as desired.
Corollary 1. dim
k
(k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I ) =
¸
N
i =1
dim
k
(O
i
/I O
i
).
Corollary 2. If V (I ) ={P}, then k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I is isomorphic to O
P
(A
n
)/I O
P
(A
n
).
Problem
2.47. Suppose R is a ring containing k, and R is finite dimensional over k. Showthat
R is isomorphic to a direct product of local rings.
2.10 Quotient Modules and Exact Sequences
Let R be a ring, M, M

R-modules. A homomorphism ϕ: M → M

of abelian
groups is called an R-module homomorphism if ϕ(am) = aϕ(m) for all a ∈ R, m ∈
M. It is an R-module isomorphism if it is one-to-one and onto.
If N is a submodule of anR-module M, the quotient group M/N of cosets of N in
M is made into an R-module in the following way: if m is the coset (or equivalence
28 CHAPTER 2. AFFINE VARIETIES
class) containing m, and a ∈ R, define am= am. It is easy to verify that this makes
M/N into an R-module in such a way that the natural map from M to M/N is an
R-module homomorphism. This M/N is called the quotient module of M by N.
Let ψ: M

→ M, ϕ: M → M

be R-module homomorphisms. We say that the
sequence (of modules and homomorphisms)
M

ψ
−→M
ϕ
−→M

is exact (or exact at M) if Im(ψ) = Ker(ϕ). Note that there are unique R-module
homomorphismfromthe zero-module 0 to any R-module M, andfromM to 0. Thus
M
ϕ
−→M

−→0 is exact if and only if ϕ is onto, and 0 −→M

ψ
−→M is exact if and
only if ψis one-to-one.
If ϕ
i
: M
i
→M
i +1
are R-module homomorphisms, we say that the sequence
M
1
ϕ
1
−→M
2
ϕ
2
−→ · · ·
ϕ
n
−→M
n+1
is exact if Im(ϕ
i
) =Ker(ϕ
i +1
) for each i =1, . . . , n. Thus 0 −→M

ψ
−→M
ϕ
−→M

−→0
is exact if and only if ϕ is onto, and ψmaps M

isomorphically onto the kernel of ϕ.
Proposition 7. (1) Let 0 −→V

ψ
−→V
ϕ
−→V

−→0 be an exact sequence of finite-
dimensional vector spaces over a field k. Then dimV

+dimV

=dimV .
(2) Let
0 −→V
1
ϕ
1
−→V
2
ϕ
2
−→V
3
ϕ
3
−→V
4
−→0
be an exact sequence of finite-dimensional vector spaces. Then
dimV
4
=dimV
3
−dimV
2
+dimV
1
.
Proof. (1) is just an abstract version of the rank-nullity theoremfor a linear transfor-
mation ϕ: V →V

of finite-dimensional vector spaces.
(2) follows from (1) by letting W =Im(ϕ
2
) =Ker(ϕ
3
). For then 0 −→V
1
ϕ
1
−→V
2
ϕ
2
−→
W −→0 and 0 −→W
ψ
−→V
3
ϕ
3
−→V
4
−→0 are exact, where ψis the inclusion, and the
result follows by subtraction.
Problems
2.48.

Verify that for any R-module homomorphismϕ: M →M

, Ker(ϕ) and Im(ϕ)
are submodules of M and M

respectively. Show that
0 −→Ker(ϕ) −→M
ϕ
−→Im(ϕ) −→0
is exact.
2.49.

(a) Let N be a submodule of M, π: M →M/N the natural homomorphism.
Suppose ϕ: M →M

is a homomorphism of R-modules, and ϕ(N) = 0. Show that
there is a unique homomorphismϕ: M/N →M

such that ϕ◦π =ϕ. (b) If N and P
2.11. FREE MODULES 29
are submodules of a module M, with P ⊂N, then there are natural homomorphisms
from M/P onto M/N and from N/P into M/P. Show that the resulting sequence
0 −→N/P −→M/P −→M/N −→0
is exact (“Second Noether Isomorphism Theorem”). (c) Let U ⊂ W ⊂ V be vector
spaces, with V /U finite-dimensional. Then dimV /U =dimV /W +dimW/U. (d) If
J ⊂ I are ideals in a ring R, there is a natural exact sequence of R-modules:
0 −→I /J −→R/J −→R/I −→0.
(e) If O is a local ring with maximal ideal m, there is a natural exact sequence of
O-modules
0 −→m
n
/m
n+1
−→O/m
n+1
−→O/m
n
−→0.
2.50.

Let R be a DVRsatisfying the conditions of Problem2.30. Then m
n
/m
n+1
is an
R-module, and so also a k-module, since k ⊂ R. (a) Show that dim
k
(m
n
/m
n+1
) = 1
for all n ≥ 0. (b) Show that dim
k
(R/m
n
) = n for all n > 0. (c) Let z ∈ R. Show that
ord(z) =n if (z) =m
n
, and hence that ord(z) =dim
k
(R/(z)).
2.51. Let 0 −→V
1
−→· · · −→V
n
−→0 be an exact sequence of finite-dimensional
vector spaces. Show that
¸
(−1)
i
dim(V
i
) =0.
2.52.

Let N, P be submodules of a module M. Show that the subgroup N +P =
{n +p | n ∈ N, p ∈ P} is a submodule of M. Show that there is a natural R-module
isomorphism of N/N ∩P onto N +P/P (“First Noether Isomorphism Theorem”).
2.53.

Let V be a vector space, W a subspace, T : V →V a one-to-one linear map
such that T(W) ⊂ W, and assume V /W and W/T(W) are finite-dimensional. (a)
Show that T induces an isomorphism of V /W with T(V )/T(W). (b) Construct an
isomorphism between T(V )/(W ∩T(V )) and (W +T(V ))/W, and an isomorphism
between W/(W ∩T(V )) and (W +T(V ))/T(V ). (c) Use Problem 2.49(c) to show that
dimV /(W +T(V )) =dim(W ∩T(V ))/T(W). (d) Conclude finally that dimV /T(V ) =
dimW/T(W).
2.11 Free Modules
Let R be a ring, X any set. Let M
X
={mapping s ϕ: X →R | ϕ(x) =0 for all but a
finite number of x ∈ X}. This M
X
is made into an R-module as follows: (ϕ+ψ)(x) =
ϕ(x) +ψ(x), and (aϕ)(x) = aϕ(x) for ϕ, ψ ∈ M
X
, a ∈ R, x ∈ X. The module M
X
is
called the free R-module on the set X. If we define ϕ
x
∈ M
X
by the rules: ϕ
x
(y) = 0
if y = x, ϕ
x
(x) = 1, then every ϕ ∈ M
X
has a unique expression ϕ =
¸
a
x
ϕ
x
, where
a
x
∈ R (in fact, a
x
= ϕ(x)). Usually we write x instead of ϕ
x
, and consider X as a
subset of M
X
. We say that X is a basis for M
X
: the elements of M
X
are just “formal
sums”
¸
a
x
x.
M
X
is characterized by the following property: If α: X →M is any mapping from
the set X to an R-module M, then αextends uniquely to a homomorphismfromM
X
to M.
30 CHAPTER 2. AFFINE VARIETIES
An R-module M is said to be free with basis m
1
, . . . , m
n
∈ M if for X the set
{m
1
, . . . , m
n
} with n elements, the natural homomorphism from M
X
to M is an iso-
morphism.
If R =Z, a free Z-module on X is called the free abelian group on X.
Problems
2.54. What does M being free on m
1
, . . . , m
n
say in terms of the elements of M?
2.55. Let F = X
n
+a
1
X
n−1
+· · · +a
n
be a monic polynomial in R[X]. Show that
R[X]/(F) is a free R-module with basis 1, X, . . . , X
n−1
, where X is the residue of X.
2.56. Show that a subset X of a module M generates M if and only if the homomor-
phism M
X
→M is onto. Every module is isomorphic to a quotient of a free module.
Chapter 3
Local Properties of Plane Curves
3.1 Multiple Points and Tangent Lines
We have seen that affine plane curves correspond to nonconstant polynomials
F ∈ k[X, Y ] without multiple factors, where F is determined up to multiplication by
a nonzero constant (Chapter 1, Section 6). For some purposes it is useful to allow F
to have multiple factors, so we modify our definition slightly:
We say that two polynomials F,G ∈ k[X, Y ] are equivalent if F = λG for some
nonzero λ ∈ k. We define an affine plane curve to be an equivalence class of non-
constant polynomials under this equivalence relation. We often slur over this equiv-
alence distinction, and say, e.g., “the plane curve Y
2
−X
3
”, or even “the plane curve
Y
2
= X
3
”. The degree of a curve is the degree of a defining polynomial for the curve.
A curve of degree one is a line; so we speak of “the line aX +bY +c”, or “the line
aX +bY +c = 0”. If F =
¸
F
e
i
i
, where the F
i
are the irreducible factors of F, we say
that the F
i
are the components of F and e
i
is the multiplicity of the component F
i
. F
i
is a simple component if e
i
=1, and multiple otherwise. Note that the components
F
i
of F can be recovered (up to equivalence) fromV (F), but the multiplicities of the
components cannot.
If F is irreducible, V (F) is a variety in A
2
. We will usually write Γ(F), k(F), and
O
P
(F) instead of Γ(V (F)), k(V (F)), and O
P
(V (F)).
Let F be a curve, P =(a, b) ∈ F. The point P is called a simple point of F if either
derivative F
X
(P) =0 or F
Y
(P) =0. Inthis case the line F
X
(P)(X−a)+F
Y
(P)(Y −b) =0
is called the tangent line to F at P. A point that isn’t simple is called multiple (or
singular). A curve with only simple points is called a nonsingular curve.
We sketch some examples. Since R ⊂ C, A
2
(R) ⊂ A
2
(C). If F is a curve in A
2
(C),
we can only sketch the real part of F, ı.e. F ∩A
2
(R). While the pictures are an aid to
the imagination, they should not be relied upon too heavily.
31
32 CHAPTER 3. LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES
Examples.
A =Y −X
2
B =Y
2
−X
3
+X
C =Y
2
−X
3
D =Y
2
−X
3
−X
2
E =(X
2
+Y
2
)
2
+3X
2
Y −Y
3
F =(X
2
+Y
2
)
3
−4X
2
Y
2
A calculation with derivatives shows that A and B are nonsingular curves, and
that P =(0, 0) is the only multiple point on C, D, E, and F. In the first two examples,
the linear term of the equation for the curve is just the tangent line to the curve at
(0, 0). The lowest terms inC, D, E, andF respectively are Y
2
, Y
2
−X
2
=(Y −X)(Y +X),
3X
2
Y −Y
3
=Y (

3X−Y )(

3X+Y ), and−4X
2
Y
2
. Ineachcase, the lowest order form
picks out those lines that can best be called tangent to the curve at (0, 0).
Let F be any curve, P =(0, 0). Write F =F
m
+F
m+1
+· · · +F
n
, where F
i
is a formin
k[X, Y ] of degree i , F
m
=0. We define m to be the multiplicity of F at P =(0, 0), write
m=m
P
(F). Note that P ∈ F if and only if m
P
(F) >0. Using the rules for derivatives,
it is easy to check that P is a simple point on F if and only if m
P
(F) = 1, and in this
case F
1
is exactly the tangent line to F at P. If m = 2, P is called a double point; if
m=3, a triple point, etc.
3.1. MULTIPLE POINTS ANDTANGENT LINES 33
Since F
m
is a form in two variables, we can write F
m
=
¸
L
r
i
i
where the L
i
are
distinct lines (Corollary in §2.6). The L
i
are called the tangent lines to F at P =(0, 0);
r
i
is the multiplicity of the tangent. The line L
i
is a simple (resp. double, etc.) tangent
if r
i
= 1 (resp. 2, etc.). If F has m distinct (simple) tangents at P, we say that P is
an ordinary multiple point of F. An ordinary double point is called a node. (The
curve D has a node at (0, 0), E has an ordinary triple point, while C and F have a
nonordinary multiple point at (0, 0).) For convenience, we call a line through P a
tangent of multiplicity zero if it is not tangent to F at P.
Let F =
¸
F
e
i
i
be the factorizationof F intoirreducible components. Thenm
P
(F) =
¸
e
i
m
P
(F
i
); and if L is a tangent line to F
i
with multiplicity r
i
, then L is tangent to
F with multiplicity
¸
e
i
r
i
. (This is a consequence of the fact that the lowest degree
term of F is the product of the lowest degree terms of its factors.)
In particular, a point P is a simple point of F if and only if P belongs to just one
component F
i
of F, F
i
is a simple component of F, and P is a simple point of F
i
.
To extend these definitions to a point P =(a, b) =(0, 0), Let T be the translation
that takes (0, 0) to P, i.e., T(x, y) = (x +a, y +b). Then F
T
= F(X +a, Y +b). Define
m
P
(F) to be m
(0,0)
(F
T
), i.e., write F
T
= G
m
+G
m+1
+· · · , G
i
forms, G
m
= 0, and let
m=m
P
(F). If G
m
=
¸
L
r
i
i
, L
i

i
X +β
i
Y , the lines α
i
(X −a)+β
i
(Y −b) are defined
to be the tangent lines to F at P, and r
i
is the multiplicity of the tangent, etc. Note
that T takes the points of F
T
to the points of F, and the tangents to F
T
at (0, 0) to the
tangents to F at P. Since F
X
(P) = F
T
X
(0, 0) and F
Y
(P) = F
T
Y
(0, 0), P is a simple point
on F if and only if m
P
(F) = 1, and the two definitions of tangent line to a simple
point coincide.
Problems
3.1. Prove that in the above examples P = (0, 0) is the only multiple point on the
curves C, D, E, and F.
3.2. Find the multiple points, and the tangent lines at the multiple points, for each
of the following curves:
(a) Y
3
−Y
2
+X
3
−X
2
+3XY
2
+3X
2
Y +2XY
(b) X
4
+Y
4
−X
2
Y
2
(c) X
3
+Y
3
−3X
2
−3Y
2
+3XY +1
(d) Y
2
+(X
2
−5)(4X
4
−20X
2
+25)
Sketch the part of the curve in (d) that is contained in A
2
(R) ⊂A
2
(C).
3.3. If a curve F of degree n has a point P of multiplicity n, show that F consists of
n lines through P (not necessarily distinct).
3.4. Let P be a double point on a curve F. Show that P is a node if and only if
F
XY
(P)
2
=F
X X
(P)F
Y Y
(P).
3.5. (char(k) =0) Show that m
P
(F) is the smallest integer m such that for some i +
j = m,

m
F
∂x
i
∂y
j
(P) = 0. Find an explicit description for the leading form for F at P in
terms of these derivatives.
34 CHAPTER 3. LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES
3.6. Irreducible curves with given tangent lines L
i
of multiplicity r
i
may be con-
structed as follows: if
¸
r
i
= m, let F =
¸
L
r
i
i
+F
m+1
, where F
m+1
is chosen to make
F irreducible (see Problem 2.34).
3.7. (a) Show that the real part of the curve E of the examples is the set of points in
A
2
(R) whose polar coordinates (r, θ) satisfy the equationr =−sin(3θ). Findthe polar
equation for the curve F. (b) If n is an odd integer ≥ 1, show that the equation r =
sin(nθ) defines the real part of a curve of degree n+1 with an ordinary n-tuple point
at (0, 0). (Use the fact that sin(nθ) =Im(e
i nθ
) to get the equation; note that rotation
by π/n is a linear transformation that takes the curve into itself.) (c) Analyze the
singularities that arise by looking at r
2
=sin
2
(nθ), n even. (d) Show that the curves
constructed in (b) and (c) are all irreducible in A
2
(C). (Hint:: Make the polynomials
homogeneous with respect to a variable Z, and use §2.1.)
3.8. Let T : A
2
→ A
2
be a polynomial map, T(Q) = P. (a) Show that m
Q
(F
T
) ≥
m
P
(F). (b) Let T =(T
1
, T
2
), and define J
Q
T =(∂T
i
/∂X
j
(Q)) to be the Jacobian matrix
of T at Q. Showthat m
Q
(F
T
) =m
P
(F) if J
Q
T is invertible. (c) Showthat the converse
of (b) is false: let T =(X
2
, Y ), F =Y −X
2
, P =Q =(0, 0).
3.9. Let F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] define a hypersurface V (F) ⊂ A
n
. Let P ∈ A
n
. (a) Define
the multiplicity m
P
(F) of F at P. (b) If m
P
(F) = 1, define the tangent hyperplane
to F at P. (c) Examine F = X
2
+Y
2
−Z
2
, P = (0, 0). Is it possible to define tangent
hyperplanes at multiple points?
3.10. Show that an irreducible plane curve has only a finite number of multiple
points. Is this true for hypersurfaces?
3.11. Let V ⊂ A
n
be an affine variety, P ∈ V . The tangent space T
P
(V ) is defined
to be {(v
1
, . . . , v
n
) ∈ A
n
| for all G ∈ I (V ),
¸
G
X
i
(P)v
i
=0}. If V = V (F) is a hypersur-
face, F irreducible, show that T
P
(V ) = {(v
1
, . . . , v
n
) |
¸
F
X
i
(P)v
i
= 0}. How does the
dimension of T
P
(V ) relate to the multiplicity of F at P?
3.2 Multiplicities and Local Rings
Let F be an irreducible plane curve, P ∈ F. In this section we find the multiplicity
of P on F in terms of the local ring O
P
(F). The following notation will be useful: for
any polynomial G ∈ k[X, Y ], denote its image (residue) in Γ(F) =k[X, Y ]/(F) by g.
Theorem 1. P is a simple point of F if and only if O
P
(F) is a discrete valuation ring.
In this case, if L =aX +bY +c is any line through P that is not tangent to F at P, then
the image l of L in O
P
(F) is a uniformizing parameter for O
P
(F).
Proof. Suppose P is a simple point on F, and L is a line through P, not tangent to F
at P. By making an affine change of coordinates, we may assume that P =(0, 0), that
Y is the tangent line, and that L = X (Problems 2.15(d) and 2.22). By Proposition 4
of §2.5, it suffices to show that m
P
(F) is generated by x.
First note that m
P
(F) =(x, y), whether P is simple or not (Problems 2.43, 2.44).
Nowwiththe above assumptions, F =Y +higher terms. Grouping together those
terms with Y , we can write F = Y G −X
2
H, where G = 1+ higher terms, H ∈ k[X].
3.2. MULTIPLICITIES ANDLOCAL RINGS 35
Then yg =x
2
h ∈ Γ(F), so y =x
2
hg
−1
∈ (x), since g(P) =0. Thus m
P
(F) =(x, y) =(x),
as desired.
The converse will follow from Theorem 2.
Suppose P is a simple point on an irreducible curve F. We let ord
F
P
be the order
function on k(F) defined by the DVR O
P
(F); when F is fixed, we may write simply
ord
P
. If G ∈ k[X, Y ], and g is the image of G in Γ(F), we write ord
F
P
(G) instead of
ord
F
P
(g).
If P is a simple point on a reducible curve F, we write ord
F
P
instead of ord
F
i
P
,
where F
i
is the component of F containing P.
Suppose P is a simple point on F, and L is any line through P. Then ord
F
P
(L) =1
if L is not tangent to F at P, and ord
F
P
(L) > 1 if L is tangent to F at P. For we may
assume the conditions are as inthe proof of Theorem1; Y is the tangent, y =x
2
hg
−1
,
so ord
P
(y) =ord
P
(x
2
) +ord
P
(hg
−1
) ≥2.
The proof of the next theorem introduces a technique that will reappear at sev-
eral places in our study of curves. It allows us to calculate the dimensions of certain
vector spaces of the type O
P
(V )/I , where I is an ideal in O
P
(V ).
Theorem2. Let P be a point on an irreducible curve F. Then for all sufficiently large
n,
m
P
(F) =dim
k
(m
P
(F)
n
/m
P
(F)
n+1
).
In particular, the multiplicity of F at P depends only on the local ring O
P
(F).
Proof. Write O, m for O
P
(F), m
P
(F) respectively. From the exact sequence
0 −→m
n
/m
n+1
−→O/m
n+1
−→O/m
n
−→0
it follows that it is enoughtoprove that dim
k
(O/m
n
) =nm
P
(F)+s, for some constant
s, and all n ≥ m
P
(F) (Problem 2.49(e) and Proposition 7 of §2.10). We may assume
that P =(0, 0), so m
n
= I
n
O, where I =(X, Y ) ⊂k[X, Y ] (Problem2.43). Since V (I
n
) =
{P}, k[X, Y ]/(I
n
, F)

= O
P
(A
2
)/(I
n
, F)O
P
(A
2
)

= O
P
(F)/I
n
O
P
(F) = O/m
n
(Corollary 2
of §2.9 and Problem 2.44).
Sowe are reducedtocalculating the dimensionof k[X, Y ]/(I
n
, F). Let m=m
P
(F).
Then FG ∈ I
n
whenever G ∈ I
n−m
. There is a natural ring homomorphism ϕ from
k[X, Y ]/I
n
to k[X, Y ]/(I
n
, F), and a k-linear map ψfromk[X, Y ]/I
n−m
to k[X, Y ]/I
n
defined by ψ(G) = FG (where the bars denote residues). It is easy to verify that the
sequence
0 −→k[X, Y ]/I
n−m
ψ
−→k[X, Y ]/I
n
ϕ
−→k[X, Y ]/(I
n
, F) −→0
is exact. Applying Problem 2.46 and Proposition 7 of §2.10 again, we see that
dim
k
(k[X, Y ]/(I
n
, F)) =nm−
m(m−1)
2
for all n ≥m, as desired.
36 CHAPTER 3. LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES
Note that if O
P
(F) is a DVR, then Theorem 2 implies that m
P
(F) = 1 (Problem
2.50) so P is simple. This completes the proof of Theorem 1.
It should at least be remarked that the function χ(n) = dim
k
(O/m
n
), which is a
polynomial in n (for large n) is called the Hilbert-Samuel polynomial of the local
ring O; it plays an important role in the modern study of the multiplicities of local
rings.
Problems
3.12. A simple point P on a curve F is called a flex if ord
F
P
(L) ≥ 3, where L is the
tangent to F at P. The flex is called ordinary if ord
P
(L) = 3, a higher flex otherwise.
(a) Let F =Y −X
n
. For which n does F have a flex at P =(0, 0), and what kind of flex?
(b) Suppose P = (0, 0), L = Y is the tangent line, F = Y +aX
2
+· · · . Show that P is
a flex on F if and only if a = 0. Give a simple criterion for calculating ord
F
P
(Y ), and
therefore for determining if P is a higher flex.
3.13.

With the notation of Theorem2, and m=m
P
(F), showthat dim
k
(m
n
/m
n+1
) =
n+1 for 0 ≤n <m
P
(F). In particular, P is a simple point if and only if dim
k
(m/m
2
) =
1; otherwise dim
k
(m/m
2
) =2.
3.14. Let V =V (X
2
−Y
3
, Y
2
−Z
3
) ⊂A
3
, P =(0, 0, 0), m=m
P
(V ). Find dim
k
(m/m
2
).
(See Problem 1.40.)
3.15. (a) Let O =O
P
(A
2
) for some P ∈ A
2
, m=m
P
(A
2
). Calculate χ(n) =dim
k
(O/m
n
).
(b) Let O =O
P
(A
r
(k)). Show that χ(n) is a polynomial of degree r in n, with leading
coefficient 1/r ! (see Problem 2.36).
3.16. Let F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] define a hypersurface in A
r
. Write F = F
m
+F
m+1
+· · · ,
and let m=m
P
(F) where P =(0, 0). Suppose F is irreducible, and let O =O
P
(V (F)),
m its maximal ideal. Show that χ(n) = dim
k
(O/m
n
) is a polynomial of degree r −1
for sufficiently large n, and that the leading coefficient of χ is m
P
(F)/(r −1)!.
Can you find a definition for the multiplicity of a local ring that makes sense in
all the cases you know?
3.3 Intersection Numbers
Let F and G be plane curves, P ∈ A
2
. We want to define the intersection number
of F and G at P; it will be denoted by I (P, F ∩G). Since the definition is rather unin-
tuitive, we shall first list seven properties we want this intersection number to have.
We then prove that there is only one possible definition, and at the same time we
find a simple procedure for calculating I (P, F ∩G) in a reasonable number of steps.
We say that F and G intersect properly at P if F and G have no common compo-
nent that passes through P. Our first requirements are:
(1) I (P, F ∩G) is a nonnegative integer for any F, G, and P such that F and G
intersect properly at P. I (P, F ∩G) =∞if F and G do not intersect properly at P.
3.3. INTERSECTIONNUMBERS 37
(2) I (P, F ∩G) = 0 if and only if P ∈ F ∩G. I (P, F ∩G) depends only on the com-
ponents of F and G that pass through P. And I (P, F ∩G) = 0 if F or G is a nonzero
constant.
(3) If T is an affine change of coordinates on A
2
, and T(Q) =P, then I (P, F ∩G) =
I (Q, F
T
∩G
T
).
(4) I (P, F ∩G) = I (P,G ∩F).
Two curves F and G are said to intersect transversally at P if P is a simple point
both on F and onG, and if the tangent line to F at P is different fromthe tangent line
to G at P. We want the intersection number to be one exactly when F and G meet
transversally at P. More generally, we require
(5) I (P, F ∩G) ≥m
P
(F)m
P
(G), with equality occurring if and only if F andG have
not tangent lines in common at P.
The intersection numbers should add when we take unions of curves:
(6) If F =
¸
F
r
i
i
, and G =
¸
G
s
j
j
, then I (P, F ∩G) =
¸
i , j
r
i
s
j
I (P, F
i
∩G
j
).
The last requirement is probably the least intuitive. If F is irreducible, it says that
I (P, F ∩G) should depend only on the image of G in Γ(F). Or, for arbitrary F,
(7) I (P, F ∩G) = I (P, F ∩(G +AF)) for any A ∈ k[X, Y ].
Theorem 3. There is a unique intersection number I (P, F ∩G) defined for all plane
curves F, G, and all points P ∈ A
2
, satisfying properties (1)–(7). It is given by the
formula
I (P, F ∩G) =dim
k
(O
P
(A
2
)/(F,G)).
Proof of Uniqueness. Assume we have a number I (P, F ∩G) defined for all F, G, and
P, satisfying (1)-(7). We will give a constructive procedure for calculating I (P, F ∩G)
using only these seven properties, that is stronger than the required uniqueness.
We may suppose P = (0, 0) (by (3)), and that I (P, F ∩G) is finite (by (1)). The case
when I (P, F ∩G) =0 is taken care of by (2), so we may proceed by induction; assume
I (P, F ∩G) = n > 0, and I (P, A ∩B) can be calculated whenever I (P, A ∩B) < n. Let
F(X, 0),G(X, 0) ∈ k[X] be of degree r , s respectively, where r or s is taken to be zero
if the polynomial vanishes. We may suppose r ≤s (by (4)).
Case 1: r =0. Then Y divides F, so F =Y H, and
I (P, F ∩G) = I (P, Y ∩G) +I (P, H ∩G)
(by (6)). If G(X, 0) = X
m
(a
0
+a
1
X +· · · ), a
0
=0, then I (P, Y ∩G) = I (P, Y ∩G(X, 0)) =
I (P, Y ∩X
m
) =m (by (7), (2), (6), and (5)). Since P ∈G, m>0, so I (P, H ∩G) <n, and
we are done by induction.
Case 2: r >0. We may multiply F andG by constants to make F(X, 0) andG(X, 0)
monic. Let H =G−X
s−r
F. Then I (P, F ∩G) = I (P, F ∩H) (by (7)), and deg(H(X, 0)) =
t < s. Repeating this process (interchanging the order of F and H if t < r ) a finite
number of times we eventually reach a pair of curves A, B that fall under Case 1, and
with I (P, F ∩G) = I (P, A∩B). This concludes the proof.
Proof of Existence. Define I (P, F ∩G) to be dim
k
(O
P
(A
2
)/(F,G)). We must show that
properties (1)–(7) are satisfied. Since I (P, F ∩G) depends only on the ideal in O
P
(A
2
)
38 CHAPTER 3. LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES
generated by F andG, properties (2), (4), and (7) are obvious. Since an affine change
of coordinates gives an isomorphism of local rings (Problem 2.22), (3) is also clear.
We may thus assume that P = (0, 0), and that all the components of F and G pass
through P. Let O =O
P
(A
2
).
If F and G have no common components, I (P, F ∩G) is finite by Corollary 1 of
§2.9. If F andG have a common component H, then (F,G) ⊂(H), so there is a homo-
morphism fromO/(F,G) onto O/(H) (Problem 2.42), and I (P, F ∩G) ≥dim
k
(O/(H)).
But O/(H) is isomorphic to O
P
(H) (Problem 2.44), and O
P
(H) ⊃ Γ(H), with Γ(H)
infinite-dimensional by Corollary 4 to the Nullstellensatz. This proves (1).
To prove (6), it is enough to show that I (P, F ∩GH) = I (P, F ∩G) +I (P, F ∩H) for
any F,G, H. We may assume F and GH have no common components, since the
result is clear otherwise. Let ϕ: O/(F,GH) →O/(F,G) be the natural homomorphism
(Problem2.42), and define a k-linear map ψ: O/(F, H) →O/(F,GH) by letting ψ(z) =
Gz, z ∈ O (the bar denotes residues). By Proposition 7 of §2.10, it is enough to show
that the sequence
0 −→O/(F, H)
ψ
−→O/(F,GH)
ϕ
−→O/(F,G) −→0
is exact.
We will verify that ψ is one-to-one; the rest (which is easier) is left to the reader.
If ψ(z) = 0, then Gz = uF +vGH where u, v ∈ O. Choose S ∈ k[X, Y ] with S(P) = 0,
and Su = A, Sv = B, and Sz =C ∈ k[X, Y ]. Then G(C −BH) = AF in k[X, Y ]. Since
F and G have no common factors, F must divide C −BH, so C −BH = DF. Then
z =(B/S)H +(D/S)F, or z =0, as claimed.
Property (5) is the hardest. Let m = m
P
(F), n = m
P
(G). Let I be the ideal in
k[X, Y ] generated by X and Y . Consider the following diagram of vector spaces and
linear maps:
k[X, Y ]/I
n
×k[X, Y ]/I
m
ψ
//
k[X, Y ]/I
m+n
ϕ
//
k[X, Y ]/(I
m+n
, F,G)
//
α

0
O/(F,G)
π
//
O/(I
m+n
, F,G)
//
0
where ϕ, π, and α are the natural ring homomorphisms, and ψ is defined by letting
ψ(A, B) = AF +BG.
Nowϕand πare clearly surjective, and, since V (I
m+n
, F,G) ⊂{P}, αis an isomor-
phism by Corollary 2 in §2.9. It is easy to check that the top row is exact. It follows
that
dim(k[X, Y ]/I
n
) +dim(k[X, Y ]/I
m
) ≥dim(Ker(ϕ)),
with equality if and only if ψis one-to-one, and that
dim(k[X, Y ]/(I
m+n
, F,G)) =dim(k[X, Y ]/I
m+n
) −dim(Ker(ϕ)).
3.3. INTERSECTIONNUMBERS 39
Putting all this together, we get the following string of inequalities:
I (P, F ∩G) =dim(O/(F,G)) ≥dim(O/(I
m+n
, F,G))
=dim(k[X, Y ]/(I
m+n
, F,G))
≥dim(k[X, Y ]/I
m+n
) −dim(k[X, Y ]/I
n
) −dim(k[X, Y ]/I
m
)
=mn
(by Problem 2.46 and arithmetic).
This shows that I (P, F ∩G) ≥ mn, and that I (P, F ∩G) = mn if and only if both
inequalities in the above string are equalities. The first such inequality is an equality
if π is an isomorphism, i.e., if I
m+n
⊂(F,G)O. The second is an equality if and only if
ψis one-to-one. Property (5) is therefore a consequence of:
Lemma. (a) If F and G have no common tangents at P, then I
t
⊂(F,G)O for
t ≥m+n −1.
(b) ψis one-to-one if and only if F and G have distinct tangents at P.
Proof of (a). Let L
1
, . . . , L
m
be the tangents to F at P, M
1
, . . . , M
n
the tangents to G.
Let L
i
= L
m
if i > m, M
j
= M
n
if j > n, and let A
i j
= L
1
· · · L
i
M
1
· · · M
j
for all i , j ≥ 0
(A
00
= 1). The set {A
i j
| i + j = t } forms a basis for the vector space of all forms of
degree t in k[X, Y ] (Problem 2.35(c)).
To prove (a), it therefore suffices to showthat A
i j
∈ (F,G)O for all i +j ≥m+n−1.
But i + j ≥ m+n −1 implies that either i ≥ m or j ≥ n. Say i ≥ m, so A
i j
= A
m0
B,
where B is a formof degree t =i +j −m. Write F = A
m0
+F

, where all terms of F

are
of degree ≥m+1. Then A
i j
=BF−BF

, where each termof BF

has degree ≥i +j +1.
We will be finished, then, if we can show that I
t
⊂(F,G)O for all sufficiently large t .
This fact is surely a consequence of the Nullstellensatz: let V (F,G) ={P,Q
1
, . . . ,Q
s
},
and choose a polynomial H so that H(Q
i
) = 0, H(P) = 0 (Problem 1.17). Then HX
and HY are in I (V (F,G)), so (HX)
N
, (HY )
N
∈ (F,G) ⊂k[X, Y ] for some N. Since H
N
is a unit in O, X
N
and Y
N
are in (F,G)O, and therefore I
2N
⊂(F,G)O, as desired.
Proof of (b). Suppose the tangents are distinct, and that
ψ(A, B) = AF +BG =0,
i.e., AF +BG consists entirely of terms of degree ≥ m+n. Suppose r < m or s < n.
Write A = A
r
+ higher terms, B = B
s
+· · · , so AF +BG = A
r
F
m
+B
s
G
n
+· · · . Then
we must have r +m = s +n and A
r
F
m
= −B
s
G
n
. But F
m
and G
n
have no common
factors, so F
m
divides B
s
, andG
n
divides A
r
. Therefore s ≥m, r ≥n, so (A, B) =(0, 0).
Conversely, if L were a common tangent to F and G at P, write F
m
=LF

m−1
and
G
n
= LG

n−1
. Then ψ(G

n−1
, −F

m−1
) = 0, so ψ is not one-to-one. This completes the
proof of the lemma, and also of Theorem 3.
Two things should be noticed about the uniqueness part of the above proof.
First, it shows that, as axioms, Properties (1)–(7) are exceedingly redundant; for ex-
ample, the only part of Property (5) that is needed is that I ((0, 0), X ∩Y ) = 1. (The
reader might try to find a minimal set of axioms that characterizes the intersection
40 CHAPTER 3. LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES
number.) Second, the proof shows that the calculation of intersection numbers is a
very easy matter. Making imaginative use of (5) and (7) can save much time, but the
proof shows that nothing more is needed than some arithmetic with polynomials.
Example. Let us calculate I (P, E ∩F), where E =(X
2
+Y
2
)
2
+3X
2
Y −Y
3
, F =(X
2
+
Y
2
)
3
−4X
2
Y
2
, and P = (0, 0), as in the examples of Section 1. We can get rid of the
worst part of F by replacing F by F −(X
2
+Y
2
)E =Y ((X
2
+Y
2
)(Y
2
−3X
2
) −4X
2
Y ) =
Y G. Since no obvious method is available to find I (P, E ∩G), we apply the process
of the uniqueness proof to get rid of the X-terms: Replace G by G +3E, which is
Y (5X
2
−3Y
2
+4Y
3
+4X
2
Y ) = Y H. Then I (P, E ∩F) = 2I (P, E ∩Y ) +I (P, E ∩H). But
I (P, E ∩Y ) = I (P, X
4
∩Y ) =4 (by (7), (6)), and I (P, E ∩H) =m
P
(E)m
P
(H) =6 (by (5)).
So I (P, E ∩F) =14.
Two more properties of the intersection number will be useful later; the first of
these can also be used to simplify calculations.
(8) If P is a simple point on F, then I (P, F ∩G) =ord
F
P
(G).
Proof. We may assume F is irreducible. If g is the image of G inO
P
(F), thenord
F
P
(G) =
dim
k
(O
P
(F)/(g)) (Problem 2.50(c)). Since O
P
(F)/(g) is isomorphic to O
P
(A
2
)/(F,G)
(Problem 2.44), this dimension is I (P, F ∩G).
(9) If F and G have no common components, then
¸
P
I (P, F ∩G) =dim
k
(k[X, Y ]/(F,G)).
Proof. This is a consequence of Corollary 1 in §2.9.
Problems
3.17. Find the intersection numbers of various pairs of curves from the examplse of
Section 1, at the point P =(0, 0).
3.18. Give a proof of Property (8) that uses only Properties (1)–(7).
3.19.

A line L is tangent to a curve F at a point P if and only if I (P, F ∩L) >m
P
(F).
3.20. If P is a simple point on F, then I (P, F ∩(G+H)) ≥min(I (P, F ∩G), I (P, F ∩H)).
Give an example to show that this may be false if P is not simple on F.
3.21. Let F be an affine plane curve. Let L be a line that is not a component of F.
Suppose L ={(a +t b, c +t d) | t ∈ k}. Define G(T) =F(a +Tb, c +Td). Factor G(T) =

¸
(T −λ
i
)
e
i
, λ
i
distinct. Show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence
between the λ
i
and the points P
i
∈ L ∩F. Show that under this correspondence,
I (P
i
, L ∩F) =e
i
. In particular,
¸
I (P, L ∩F) ≤deg(F).
3.22. Suppose P is a double point on a curve F, and suppose F has only one tangent
L at P. (a) Show that I (P, F ∩L) ≥ 3. The curve F is said to have an (ordinary) cusp
at P if I (P, F ∩L) =3. (b) Suppose P =(0, 0), and L =Y . Show that P is a cusp if and
only if F
X X X
(P) = 0. Give some examples. (c) Show that if P is a cusp on F, then F
has only one component passing through P.
3.3. INTERSECTIONNUMBERS 41
3.23. A point P on a curve F is called a hypercusp if m
P
(F) >1, F has only one tan-
gent line L at P, and I (P, L ∩F) =m
P
(F) +1. Generalize the results of the preceding
problem to this case.
3.24.

The object of this problem is to find a property of the local ring O
P
(F) that
determines whether or not P is an ordinary multiple point on F.
Let F be anirreducible plane curve, P =(0, 0), m=m
P
(F) >1. Let m=m
P
(F). For
G ∈ k[X, Y ], denote its residue in Γ(F) by g; and for g ∈ m, denote its residue in m/m
2
by g. (a) Show that the map from {forms of degree 1 in k[X, Y ]} to m/m
2
taking aX +
bY to ax +by is an isomorphism of vector spaces (see Problem 3.13). (b) Suppose
P is an ordinary multiple point, with tangents L
1
, . . . , L
m
. Show that I (P, F ∩L
i
) >m
and l
i
= λl
j
for all i = j , all λ ∈ k. (c) Suppose there are G
1
, . . . ,G
m
∈ k[X, Y ] such
that I (P, F ∩G
i
) > m and g
i
= λg
j
for all i = j , and all λ ∈ k. Show that P is an
ordinary multiple point on F. (Hint:: Write G
i
= L
i
+ higher terms. l
i
= g
i
= 0, and
L
i
is the tangent to G
i
, so L
i
is tangent to F by Property (5) of intersection numbers.
Thus F has m tangents at P.) (d) Show that P is an ordinary multiple point on F
if and only if there are g
1
, . . . , g
m
∈ m such that g
i
= λg
j
for all i = j , λ ∈ k, and
dimO
P
(F)/(g
i
) >m.
42 CHAPTER 3. LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES
Chapter 4
Projective Varieties
4.1 Projective Space
Suppose we want to study all the points of intersection of two curves; consider
for example the curve Y
2
= X
2
+1 andthe line Y =αX, α∈ k. If α=±1, they intersect
in two points. When α=±1, they no not intersect, but the curve is asymptotic to the
line. We want to enlarge the plane in such a way that two such curves intersect “at
infinity”.
One way toachieve this is toidentify eachpoint (x, y) ∈ A
2
withthe point (x, y, 1) ∈
A
3
. Every point (x, y, 1) determines a line in A
3
that passes through (0, 0, 0) and
(x, y, 1). Every line through (0, 0, 0) except those lying in the plane z =0 corresponds
to exactly one such point. The lines through (0, 0, 0) inthe plane z =0 canbe thought
of as corresponding to the “points at infinity”. This leads to the following definition:
Let k be any field. Projective n-space over k, written P
n
(k), or simply P
n
, is
defined to be the set of all lines through (0, 0, . . . , 0) in A
n+1
(k). Any point (x) =
(x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
) = (0, 0, . . . , 0) determines a unique such line, namely {(λx
1
, . . . , λx
n+1
) |
λ ∈ k}. Two such points (x) and (y) determine the same line if and only if there is
a nonzero λ ∈ k such that y
i
= λx
i
for i = 1, . . . , n +1; let us say that (x) and (y) are
equivalent if this is the case. Then P
n
may be identified with the set of equivalence
classes of points in A
n+1
{(0, . . . , 0)}.
Elements of P
n
will be called points. If a point P ∈ P
n
is determined as above by
some (x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
) ∈ A
n+1
, we say that (x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
) are homogeneous coordinates for
P. We often write P =[x
1
: . . . : x
n+1
] to indicate that (x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
) are homogeneous
coordinates for P. Note that the i th coordinate x
i
is not well-defined, but that it is a
well-defined notion to say whether the i th coordinate is zero or nonzero; and if x
i
=
0, the ratios x
j
/x
i
are well-defined (since they are unchanged under equivalence).
We let U
i
={[x
1
: . . . : x
n+1
] ∈ P
n
| x
i
=0}. Each P ∈U
i
can be written uniquely in
the form
P =[x
1
: . . . : x
i −1
: 1 : x
i +1
: . . . : x
n+1
].
The coordinates (x
1
, . . . , x
i −1
, x
i +1
, . . . , x
n+1
) are called the nonhomogeneous coordi-
nates for P withrespect toU
i
(or X
i
, or i ). If we define ϕ
i
: A
n
→U
i
by ϕ
i
(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) =
43
44 CHAPTER 4. PROJECTIVE VARIETIES
[a
1
: . . . : a
i −1
: 1 : a
i
: . . . : a
n
], then ϕ
i
sets up a one-to-one correspondence between
the points of A
n
and the points of U
i
. Note that P
n
=
¸
n+1
i =1
U
i
, so P
n
is covered by
n +1 sets each of which looks just like affine n-space.
For convenience we usually concentrate onU
n+1
. Let
H

=P
n
U
n+1
={[x
1
: . . . : x
n+1
] | x
n+1
=0};
H

is often called the hyperplane at infinity. The correspondence [x
1
: . . . : x
n
: 0] ↔
[x
1
: . . . : x
n
] shows that H

may be identified with P
n−1
. Thus P
n
=U
n+1
∪H

is
the union of an affine n-space and a set that gives all directions in affine n-space.
Examples. (0) P
0
(k) is a point.
(1) P
1
(k) = {[x : 1] | x ∈ k} ∪{[1 : 0]}. P
1
(k) is the affine line plus one point at
infinity. P
1
(k) is the projective line over k.
(2) P
2
(k) ={[x : y : 1] | (x, y) ∈ A
2
} ∪{[x : y : 0] | [x : y] ∈ P
1
}. Here H

is called the
line at infinity. P
2
(k) is called the projective plane over k.
(3) Consider a line Y = mX +b in A
2
. If we identify A
2
with U
3
⊂ P
2
, the points
on the line correspond to the points [x : y : z] ∈ P
2
with y = mx +bz and z = 0.
(We must make the equation homogeneous so that solutions will be invariant under
equivalence). The set {[x : y : z] ∈ P
2
| y = mx +bz} ∩H

= {[1 : m : 0]}. So all lines
with the same slope, when extended in this way, pass through the same point at
infinity.
(4) Consider again the curve Y
2
= X
2
+1. The corresponding set in P
2
is given
by the homogeneous equation Y
2
= X
2
+Z
2
, Z = 0. {[x : y : z] ∈ P
2
| y
2
= x
2
+z
2
}
intersects H

in the two points [1 : 1 : 0] and [1 : −1 : 0]. These are the points where
the lines Y = X and Y =−X intersect the curve.
Problems
4.1. What points in P
2
do not belong to two of the three sets U
1
,U
2
,U
3
?
4.2.

Let F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] (k infinite). Write F =
¸
F
i
, F
i
a form of degree i . Let
P ∈ P
n
(k), and suppose F(x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
) = 0 for every choice of homogeneous coor-
dinates (x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
) for P. Show that each F
i
(x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
) =0 for all homogeneous
coordinates for P. (Hint: consider G(λ) =F(λx
1
, . . . , λx
n+1
) =
¸
λ
i
F
i
(x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
) for
fixed (x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
).)
4.3. (a) Show that the definitions of this section carry over without change to the
case where k is an arbitrary field. (b) If k
0
is a subfield of k, show that P
n
(k
0
) may be
identified with a subset of P
n
(k).
4.2 Projective Algebraic Sets
In this section we develop the idea of algebraic sets in P
n
= P
n
(k). Since the
concepts and most of the proofs are entirely similar to those for affine algebraic sets,
many details will be left to the reader.
4.2. PROJECTIVE ALGEBRAIC SETS 45
A point P ∈ P
n
is said to be a zero of a polynomial F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] if
F(x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
) = 0
for every choice of homogeneous coordinates (x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
) for P; we then write
F(P) = 0. If F is a form, and F vanishes at one representative of P, then it vanishes
at every representative. If we write F as a sum of forms in the usual way, then each
form vanishes on any set of homogeneous coordinates for P (Problem 4.2).
For any set S of polynomials in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
], we let
V (S) ={P ∈ P
n
| P is a zero of each F ∈ S}.
If I is the ideal generated by S, V (I ) =V (S). If I =(F
(1)
, . . . , F
(r )
), where F
(i )
=
¸
F
(i )
j
,
F
(i )
j
a form of degree j , then V (I ) =V ({F
(i )
j
}), so V (S) =V ({F
(i )
j
}) is the set of zeros of
a finite number of forms. Such a set is called an algebraic set in P
n
, or a projective
algebraic set.
For any set X ⊂P
n
, we let I (X) ={F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] | every P ∈ X is a zero of F}.
The ideal I (X) is called the ideal of X.
An ideal I ⊂k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] is called homogeneous if for every F =
¸
m
i =0
F
i
∈ I , F
i
a form of degree i , we have also F
i
∈ I . For any set X ⊂ P
n
, I (X) is a homogeneous
ideal.
Proposition 1. An ideal I ⊂k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] is homogeneous if and only if it is gener-
ated by a (finite) set of forms.
Proof. If I =(F
(1)
, . . . , F
(r )
) is homogeneous, then I is generated by {F
(i )
j
}. Conversely,
let S ={F
(α)
} be a set of forms generating anideal I , withdeg(F
(α)
) =d
α
, andsuppose
F =F
m
+· · · +F
r
∈ I , deg(F
i
) =i . It suffices to show that F
m
∈ I , for then F −F
m
∈ I ,
and an inductive argument finishes the proof. Write F =
¸
A
(α)
F
(α)
. Comparing
terms of the same degree, we conclude that F
m
=
¸
A
(α)
m−d
α
F
(α)
, so F
m
∈ I .
Analgebraic set V ⊂P
n
is irreducible if it is not the unionof two smaller algebraic
sets. The same proof as in the affine case, but using Problem4.4 below, shows that V
is irreducible if and only if I (V ) is prime. An irreducible algebraic set in P
n
is called
a projective variety. Any projective algebraic set can be written uniquely as a union
of projective varieties, its irreducible components.
The operations
¸
homogeneous ideals in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
]
¸ V

I
¸
algebraic sets in P
n
(k)
¸
satisfy most of the properties we found in the corresponding affine situation (see
Problem 4.6). We have used the same notation in these two situations. In practice
it should always be clear which is meant; if there is any danger of confusion, we will
write V
p
, I
p
for the projective operations, V
a
, I
a
for the affine ones.
If V is an algebraic set in P
n
, we define
C(V ) = {(x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
∈ A
n+1
| [x
1
: . . . : x
n+1
] ∈V or (x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
) =(0, . . . , 0)}
46 CHAPTER 4. PROJECTIVE VARIETIES
to be the cone over V . If V = , then I
a
(C(V )) = I
p
(V ); and if I is a homogeneous
ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] such that V
p
(I ) = , then C(V
p
(I )) = V
a
(I ). This reduces
many questions about P
n
to questions about A
n+1
. For example
PROJECTIVENULLSTELLENSATZ. Let I be a homogeneous ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
].
Then
(1) V
p
(I ) = if and only if there is an integer N such that I contains all forms of
degree ≥N.
(2) If V
p
(I ) =, then I
p
(V
p
(I )) =Rad(I ).
Proof. (1) The following four conditions are equivalent: (i) V
p
(I ) = ; (ii) V
a
(I ) ⊂
{(0, . . . , 0)}; (iii) Rad(I ) = I
a
(V
a
(I )) ⊃(X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
) (by the affine Nullstellensatz); and
(iv) (X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
)
N
⊂ I (by Problem 2.41).
(2) I
p
(V
p
(I )) = I
a
(C(V
p
(I ))) = I
a
(V
a
(I )) =Rad(I ).
The usual corollaries of the Nullstellensatz go through, except that we must al-
ways make an exception with the ideal (X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
). In particular, there is a one-
to-one correspondence between projective hypersurfaces V = V (F) and the (non-
constant) forms F that define V provided F has no multiple factors (F is determined
up to multiplication by a nonzero λ ∈ k). Irreducible hypersurfaces correspond to
irreducible forms. A hyperplane is a hypersurface defined by a form of degree one.
The hyperplanes V (X
i
), i = 1, . . . , n +1, may be called the coordinate hyperplanes,
or the hyperplanes at infinity with respect to U
i
. If n = 2, the V (X
i
) are the three
coordinate axes.
Let V be a nonempty projective variety in P
n
. Then I (V ) is a prime ideal, so the
residue ring Γ
h
(V ) = k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
]/I (V ) is a domain. It is called the homogeneous
coordinate ring of V .
More generally, let I be any homogeneous ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
], and let Γ =
k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
]/I . An element f ∈ Γ will be called a formof degree d if there is a form
F of degree d in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] whose residue is f .
Proposition 2. Every element f ∈ Γ may be written uniquely as f = f
0
+· · · +f
m
, with
f
i
a form of degree i .
Proof. If f is the residue of F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
], write F =
¸
F
i
, and then f =
¸
f
i
,
where f
i
is the residue of F
i
. To show the uniqueness, suppose also f =
¸
g
i
, g
i
=
residue of G
i
. Then F −
¸
G
i
=
¸
(F
i
−G
i
) ∈ I , and since I is homogeneous, each
F
i
−G
i
∈ I , so f
i
=g
i
.
Let k
h
(V ) be the quotient field of Γ
h
(V ); it is called the homogeneous function
field of V . In contrast with the case of affine varieties, no elements of Γ
h
(V ) ex-
cept the constants determine functions on V ; likewise most elements of k
h
(V ) can-
not be regarded as functions. However, if f , g are both forms in Γ
h
(V ) of the same
degree d, then f /g does define a function, at least where g is not zero: in fact,
f (λx)/g(λx) = λ
d
f (x)/λ
d
g(x) = f (x)/g(x), so the value of f /g is independent of
the choice of homogeneous coordinates.
The function field of V , written k(V ), is defined to be {z ∈ k
h
(V ) | for some forms
f , g ∈ Γ
h
(V ) of the same degree, z = f /g}. It is not difficult to verify that k(V ) is a
4.2. PROJECTIVE ALGEBRAIC SETS 47
subfield of k
h
(V ). k ⊂ k(V ) ⊂ k
h
(V ), but Γ
h
(V ) ⊂ k(V ). Elements of k(V ) are called
rational functions on V .
Let P ∈ V , z ∈ k(V ). We say that z is defined at P if z can be written as z = f /g,
f , g forms of the same degree, and g(P) =0. We let
O
P
(V ) = {z ∈ k(V ) | z is defined at P};
O
P
(V ) is a subring of k(V ); it is a local ring, with maximal ideal
m
P
(V ) = {z | z = f /g, g(P) =0, f (P) =0}.
It is called the local ring of V at P. The value z(P) of a function z ∈ O
P
(V ) is well-
defined.
If T : A
n+1
→A
n+1
is a linear change of coordinates, then T takes lines through
the origin into lines through the origin (Problem 2.15). So T determines a map from
P
n
to P
n
, called a projective change of coordinates. If V is an algebraic set in P
n
, then
T
−1
(V ) is also an algebraic set in P
n
; we write V
T
for T
−1
(V ). If V = V (F
1
, . . . , F
r
),
and T = (T
1
, . . . , T
n+1
), T
i
forms of degree 1, then V
T
= V (F
T
1
, . . . , F
T
r
), where F
T
i
=
F
i
(T
1
, . . . , T
n+1
). Then V is a variety if and only if V
T
is a variety, and T induces
isomorphisms
˜
T : Γ
h
(V ) →Γ
h
(V
T
), k(V ) →k(V
T
), and O
P
(V ) →O
Q
(V
T
) if T(Q) =
P.
Problems
4.4.

Let I be a homogeneous ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
]. Show that I is prime if and
only if the following conditionis satisfied; for any forms F,G ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
], if FG ∈
I , then F ∈ I or G ∈ I .
4.5. If I is a homogeneous ideal, show that Rad(I ) is also homogeneous.
4.6. State and prove the projective analogues of properties (1)–(10) of Chapter 1,
Sections 2 and 3.
4.7. Show that each irreducible component of a cone is also a cone.
4.8. Let V = P
1
, Γ
h
(V ) = k[X, Y ]. Let t = X/Y ∈ k(V ), and show that k(V ) = k(t ).
Show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between the points of P
1
and the DVR’s with quotient field k(V ) that contain k (see Problem2.27); which DVR
corresponds to the point at infinity?
4.9.

Let I be a homogeneous ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
], and
Γ =k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
]/I .
Show that the forms of degree d in Γ form a finite-dimensional vector space over k.
4.10. Let R = k[X, Y, Z], F ∈ R an irreducible form of degree n, V =V (F) ⊂ P
2
, and
Γ = Γ
h
(V ). (a) Construct an exact sequence 0 −→R
ψ
−→R
ϕ
−→Γ −→0, where ψ is
multiplication by F. (b) Show that
dim
k
{forms of degree d in Γ} = dn −
n(n −3)
2
if d >n.
48 CHAPTER 4. PROJECTIVE VARIETIES
4.11.

A set V ⊂ P
n
(k) is called a linear subvariety of P
n
(k) if V = V (H
1
, . . . , H
r
),
where each H
i
is a form of degree 1. (a) Show that if T is a projective change of
coordinates, then V
T
= T
−1
(V ) is also a linear subvariety. (b) Show that there is a
projective change of coordinates T of P
n
such that V
T
=V (X
m+2
, . . . , X
n+1
), so V is
a variety. (c) Show that the m that appears in part (b) is independent of the choice
of T. It is called the dimension of V (m=−1 if V =).
4.12.

Let H
1
, . . . , H
m
be hyperplanes in P
n
, m≤n. Showthat H
1
∩H
2
∩· · ·∩H
m
=.
4.13.

Let P =[a
1
: . . . : a
n+1
], Q =[b
1
: . . . : b
n+1
] be distinct points of P
n
. The line L
through P and Q is defined by
L = {[λa
1
+µb
1
: . . . : λa
n+1
+µb
n+1
] | λ, µ∈ k, λ=0 or µ=0}.
Prove the projective analogue of Problem 2.15.
4.14.

Let P
1
, P
2
, P
3
(resp. Q
1
,Q
2
,Q
3
) be three points in P
2
not lying on a line. Show
that there is a projective change of coordinates T : P
2
→P
2
such that T(P
i
) = Q
i
,
i =1, 2, 3. Extend this to n +1 points in P
n
, not lying on a hyperplane.
4.15.

Show that any two distinct lines in P
2
intersect in one point.
4.16.

Let L
1
, L
2
, L
3
(resp. M
1
, M
2
, M
3
) be lines in P
2
(k) that do not all pass through
a point. Show that there is a projective change of coordinates: T : P
2
→P
2
such that
T(L
i
) =M
i
. (Hint:: Let P
i
=L
j
∩L
k
, Q
i
=M
j
∩M
k
, i , j , k distinct, and apply Problem
4.14.) Extend this to n +1 hyperplanes in P
n
, not passing through a point.
4.17.

Let z be a rational function on a projective variety V . Show that the pole set
of z is an algebraic subset of V .
4.18. Let H = V (
¸
a
i
X
i
) be a hyperplane in P
n
. Note that (a
1
, . . . , a
n+1
) is deter-
mined by H up to a constant. (a) Show that assigning [a
1
: . . . : a
n+1
] ∈ P
n
to H sets
up a natural one-to-one correspondence between {hyperplanes in P
n
} and P
n
. If
P ∈ P
n
, let P

be the corresponding hyperplane; if H is a hyperplane, H

denotes
the corresponding point. (b) Show that P
∗∗
= P, H
∗∗
= H. Show that P ∈ H if and
only if H

∈ P

.
This is the well-known duality of the projective space.
4.3 Affine and Projective Varieties
We consider A
n
as a subset of P
n
by means of the map ϕ
n+1
: A
n
→U
n+1
⊂ P
n
.
In this section we study the relations between the algebraic sets in A
n
and those in
P
n
.
Let V be an algebraic set in A
n
, I = I (V ) ⊂ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]. Let I

be the ideal in
k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] generated by {F

| F ∈ I } (see Chapter 2, Section 6 for notation). This
I

is a homogeneous ideal; we define V

to be V (I

) ⊂P
n
.
Conversely, let V be an algebraic set in P
n
, I = I (V ) ⊂k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]. Let I

be the
ideal in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] generated by {F

| F ∈ I }. We define V

to be V (I

) ⊂A
n
.
Proposition 3. (1) If V ⊂A
n
, then ϕ
n+1
(V ) =V

∩U
n+1
, and (V

)

=V .
(2) If V ⊂W ⊂A
n
, then V

⊂W

⊂P
n
. If V ⊂W ⊂P
n
, then V

⊂W

⊂A
n
.
4.3. AFFINE ANDPROJECTIVE VARIETIES 49
(3) If V is irreducible in A
n
, then V

is irreducible in P
n
.
(4) If V =
¸
i
V
i
is the irreducible decomposition of V in A
n
, thenV

=
¸
i
V

i
is the
irreducible decomposition of V

in P
n
.
(5) If V ⊂A
n
, then V

is the smallest algebraic set in P
n
that contains ϕ
n+1
(V ).
(6) If V A
n
is not empty, then no component of V

lies in or contains H

=
P
n
U
n+1
.
(7) If V ⊂ P
n
, and no component of V lies in or contains H

, then V

A
n
and
(V

)

=V .
Proof. (1) follows from Proposition 5 of §2.6. (2) is obvious. If V ⊂A
n
, I = I (V ), then
a form F belongs to I

if and only if F

∈ I . If I is prime, it follows readily that I

is
also prime, which proves (3).
To prove (5), suppose W is an algebraic set in P
n
that contains ϕ
n+1
(V ). If F ∈
I (W), then F

∈ I (V ), so F = X
r
n+1
(F

)

∈ I (V )

. Therefore I (W) ⊂ I (V )

, so W ⊃V

,
as desired.
(4) follows from (2), (3), and (5). To prove (6), we may assume V is irreducible.
V

⊂ H

by (1). If V

⊃ H

, then I (V )

⊂ I (V

) ⊂ I (H

) = (X
n+1
). But if 0 = F ∈
I (V ), then F

∈ I (V )

, with F

∈ (X
n+1
). So V

⊃ H

.
(7): We may assume V ⊂ P
n
is irreducible. Since ϕ
n+1
(V

) ⊂ V , it suffices to
show that V ⊂(V

)

, or that I (V

)

⊂ I (V ). Let F ∈ I (V

). Then F
N
∈ I (V )

for some
N (Nullstellensatz), so X
t
n+1
(F
N
)

∈ I (V ) for some t (Proposition 5 (3) of §2.6). But
I (V ) is prime, and X
n+1
∈ I (V ) since V ⊂ H

, so F

∈ I (V ), as desired.
If V is an algebraic set in A
n
, V

⊂ P
n
is called the projective closure of V . If
V = V (F) is an affine hypersurface, then V

= V (F

) (see Problem 4.19). Except
for projective varieties lying in H

, there is a natural one-to-one correspondence
between nonempty affine and projective varieties (see Problem 4.22).
Let V be an affine variety, V

⊂P
n
its projective closure. If f ∈ Γ
h
(V

) is a formof
degree d, we may define f

∈ Γ(V ) as follows: take a form F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] whose
I
p
(V

)-residue is f , and let f

= I (V )-residue of F

(one checks that this is indepen-
dent of the choice of F). We then define a natural isomorphismα: k(V

) →k(V ) as
follows: α( f /g) = f

/g

, where f , g are forms of the same degree on V

. If P ∈ V ,
we may consider P ∈V

(by means of ϕ
n+1
) and then α induces an isomorphism of
O
P
(V

) with O
P
(V ). We usually use α to identify k(V ) with k(V

), and O
P
(V ) with
O
P
(V

).
Any projective variety V ⊂ P
n
is covered by the n +1 sets V ∩U
i
. If we form
V

with respect to U
i
(as with U
n+1
), the points on V ∩U
i
correspond to points on
V

, and the local rings are isomorphic. Thus questions about V near a point P can
be reduced to questions about an affine variety V

(at least if the question can be
answered by looking at O
P
(V )).
Problems
4.19.

If I =(F) is the ideal of an affine hypersurface, show that I

=(F

).
4.20. Let V =V (Y −X
2
, Z −X
3
) ⊂A
3
. Prove:
50 CHAPTER 4. PROJECTIVE VARIETIES
(a) I (V ) =(Y −X
2
, Z −X
3
).
(b) ZW −XY ∈ I (V )

⊂k[X, Y, Z, W], but ZW −XY ∈ ((Y −X
2
)

, (Z −X
3
)

).
So if I (V ) =(F
1
, . . . , F
r
), it does not follow that I (V )

=(F

1
, . . . , F

r
).
4.21. Show that if V ⊂W ⊂P
n
are varieties, and V is a hypersurface, then W =V or
W =P
n
(see Problem 1.30).
4.22.

Suppose V is a variety in P
n
and V ⊃ H

. Show that V = P
n
or V = H

. If
V =P
n
, V

=A
n
, while if V = H

, V

=.
4.23.

Describe all subvarieties in P
1
and in P
2
.
4.24.

Let P =[0 : 1 : 0] ∈ P
2
(k). Show that the lines through P consist of the follow-
ing:
(a) The “vertical” lines L
λ
=V (X −λZ) ={[λ: t : 1] | t ∈ k} ∪{P}.
(b) The line at infinity L

=V (Z) ={[x : y : 0] | x, y ∈ k}.
4.25.

Let P = [x : y : z] ∈ P
2
. (a) Show that {(a, b, c) ∈ A
3
| ax +by +cz = 0} is a
hyperplane in A
3
. (b) Show that for any finite set of points in P
2
, there is a line not
passing through any of them.
4.4 Multiprojective Space
We want to make the cartesian product of two varieties into a variety. Since A
n
×
A
m
may be identified with A
n+m
, this is not difficult for affine varieties. The product
P
n
×P
m
requires some discussion, however.
Write k[X, Y ] for k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
, Y
1
, . . . , Y
m+1
]. A polynomial F ∈ k[X, Y ] is called
a biform of bidegree (p, q) if F is a form of degree p (resp. q) when considered as
a polynomial in X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
(resp. Y
1
, . . . , Y
m+1
) with coefficients in k[Y
1
, . . . , Y
m+1
]
(resp. k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
]). Every F ∈ k[X, Y ] may be written uniquely as F =
¸
p,q
F
p,q
,
where F
p,q
is a biform of bidegree (p, q).
If S is any set of biforms in k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
, Y
1
, . . . , Y
m+1
], we let V (S) or V
b
(S) be
{(x, y) | P
n
×P
m
| F(x, y) =0 for all F ∈ S}. A subset V of P
n
×P
m
will be called al-
gebraic if V = V (S) for some S. For any V ⊂ P
n
×P
m
, define I (V ), or I
b
(V ), to be
{F ∈ k[X, Y ] | F(x, y) =0 for all (x, y) ∈V }.
We leave it to the reader to define a bihomogeneous ideal, show that I
b
(V ) is bi-
homogeneous, and likewise to carry out the entire development for algebraic sets
and varieties in P
n
×P
m
as was done for P
n
in Section 2. If V ⊂ P
n
×P
m
is a vari-
ety (i.e., irreducible), Γ
b
(V ) = k[X, Y ]/I
b
(V ) is the bihomogeneous coordinate ring,
k
b
(V ) its quotient field, and
k(V ) ={z ∈ k
h
(V ) | z = f /g, f , g biforms of the same bidegree in Γ
b
(V )}
is the function field of V . The local rings O
P
(V ) are defined as before.
We likewise leave it to the reader to develop the theory of multiprojective vari-
eties in P
n
1
×P
n
2
×· · · ×P
n
r
.
If, finally, the reader develops the theory of algebraic subsets and varieties in
mixed, or “multispaces” P
n
1
×P
n
2
×· · · ×P
n
r
×A
m
(here a polynomial should be ho-
mogeneous in each set of variables that correspond to a projective space P
n
i
, but
4.4. MULTIPROJECTIVE SPACE 51
there is no restriction on those corresponding to A
m
), he or she will have the most
general theory needed for the rest of this text. If we define A
0
to be a point, then
all projective, multiprojective, and affine varieties are special cases of varieties in
P
n
1
×· · · ×P
n
r
×A
m
.
Problems
4.26.

(a) Define maps ϕ
i , j
: A
n+m
→U
i
×U
j
⊂P
n
×P
m
. Using ϕ
n+1,m+1
, define the
“biprojective closure” of an algebraic set in A
n+m
. Prove an analogue of Proposition
3 of §4.3. (b) Generalize part (a) to maps ϕ: A
n
1
×A
n
r
×A
m
→P
n
1
×P
n
r
×A
m
. Show
that this sets up a correspondence between {nonempty affine varieties in A
n
1
+···+m
}
and {varieties in P
n
1
×· · · ×A
m
that intersect U
n
1
+1
×· · · ×A
m
}. Show that this corre-
spondence preserves function fields and local rings.
4.27.

Show that the pole set of a rational function on a variety in any multispace is
an algebraic subset.
4.28.

For simplicity of notation, in this problemwe let X
0
, . . . , X
n
be coordinates for
P
n
, Y
0
, . . . , Y
m
coordinates for P
m
, and T
00
, T
01
, . . . , T
0m
, T
10
, . . . , T
nm
coordinates for
P
N
, where N =(n +1)(m+1) −1 =n +m+nm.
Define S : P
n
×P
m
→P
N
by the formula:
S([x
0
: . . . : x
n
], [y
0
: . . . : y
m
]) =[x
0
y
0
: x
0
y
1
: . . . : x
n
y
m
].
S is called the Segre embedding of P
n
×P
m
in P
n+m+nm
.
(a) Show that S is a well-defined, one-to-one mapping. (b) Show that if W is
an algebraic subset of P
N
, then S
−1
(W) is an algebraic subset of P
n
×P
m
. (c) Let
V =V ({T
i j
T
kl
−T
i l
T
k j
| i , k =0, . . . , n; j , l =0, . . . , m}) ⊂P
N
. Showthat S(P
n
×P
m
) =V .
In fact, S(U
i
×U
j
) =V ∩U
i j
, where U
i j
={[t ] | t
i j
=0}. (d) Show that V is a variety.
52 CHAPTER 4. PROJECTIVE VARIETIES
Chapter 5
Projective Plane Curves
5.1 Definitions
Aprojective plane curve is a hypersurface inP
2
, except that, as withaffine curves,
we want to allow multiple components: We say that two nonconstant forms F, G ∈
k[X, Y, Z] are equivalent if there is a nonzero λ ∈ k such that G = λF. A projective
plane curve is an equivalence class of forms. The degree of a curve is the degree of
a defining form. Curves of degree 1, 2, 3 and 4 are called lines, conics, cubic, and
quartics respectively. The notations and conventions regarding affine curves carry
over to projective curves (see §3.1): thus we speak of simple and multiple com-
ponents, and we write O
P
(F) instead of O
P
(V (F)) for an irreducible F, etc. Note
that when P = [x : y : 1], then O
P
(F) is canonically isomorphic to O
(x,y)
(F

), where
F

=F(X, Y, 1) is the corresponding affine curve.
The results of Chapter 3 assure us that the multiplicity of a point on an affine
curve depends only on the local ring of the curve at that point. So if F is a projec-
tive plane curve, P ∈ U
i
(i = 1, 2 or 3), we can dehomogenize F with respect to X
i
,
and define the multiplicity of F at P, m
P
(F), to be m
P
(F

). The multiplicity is inde-
pendent of the choice of U
i
, and invariant under projective change of coordinates
(Theorem 2 of §3.2).
The following notation will be useful. If we are considering a finite set of points
P
1
, . . . , P
n
∈ P
2
, we canalways find a line L that doesn’t pass through any of the points
(Problem4.25). If F is a curve of degree d, we let F

=F/L
d
∈ k(P
2
). This F

depends
on L, but if L

were another choice, then F/(L

)
d
= (L/L

)
d
F

and L/L

is a unit in
each O
P
i
(P
2
). Note also that we may always find a projective change of coordinates
so that the line L becomes the line Z at infinity: then, under the natural identifica-
tion of k(A
2
) with k(P
2
) (§4.3), this F

is the same as the old F

=F(X, Y, 1).
If P is a simple point on F (i.e., m
P
(F) =1), and F is irreducible, then O
P
(F) is a
DVR. We let ord
F
P
denote the corresponding order function on k(F). If G is a form in
k[X, Y, Z], and G

∈ O
P
(P
2
) is determined as in the preceding paragraph, and G

is
the residue of G

in O
P
(F), we define ord
F
P
(G) to be ord
F
P
(G

). Equivalently, ord
F
P
(G)
is the order at P of G/H, where H is any formof the same degree as G with H(P) =0.
53
54 CHAPTER 5. PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES
Let F, G be projective plane curves, P ∈ P
2
. We define the intersection number
I (P, F ∩G) to be dim
k
(O
P
(P
2
)/(F

,G

)). This is independent of the way F

andG

are
formed, and it satisfies Properties (1)–(8) of Section 3 of Chapter 3: in (3), however,
T should be a projective change of coordinates, and in (7), A should be a form with
deg(A) =deg(G) −deg(F).
We can define a line L to be tangent to a curve F at P if I (P, F ∩L) > m
P
(F) (see
Problem 3.19). A point P in F is an ordinary multiple point of F if F has m
P
(F)
distinct tangents at P.
Two curves F and G are said to be projectively equivalent if there is a projective
change of coordinates T such that G =F
T
. Everything we will say about curves will
be the same for two projectively equivalent curves.
Problems
5.1.

Let F be a projective plane curve. Show that a point P is a multiple point of F
if and only if F(P) =F
X
(P) =F
Y
(P) =F
Z
(P) =0.
5.2. Show that the following curves are irreducible; find their multiple points, and
the multiplicities and tangents at the multiple points.
(a) XY
4
+Y Z
4
+X Z
4
.
(b) X
2
Y
3
+X
2
Z
3
+Y
2
Z
3
.
(c) Y
2
Z −X(X −Z)(X −λZ), λ∈ k.
(d) X
n
+Y
n
+Z
n
, n >0.
5.3. Find all points of intersection of the following pairs of curves, and the intersec-
tion numbers at these points:
(a) Y
2
Z −X(X −2Z)(X +Z) and Y
2
+X
2
−2X Z.
(b) (X
2
+Y
2
)Z +X
3
+Y
3
and X
3
+Y
3
−2XY Z.
(c) Y
5
−X(Y
2
−X Z)
2
and Y
4
+Y
3
Z −X
2
Z
2
.
(d) (X
2
+Y
2
)
2
+3X
2
Y Z −Y
3
Z and (X
2
+Y
2
)
3
−4X
2
Y
2
Z
2
.
5.4.

Let P be a simple point on F. Show that the tangent line to F at P has the
equation F
X
(P)X +F
Y
(P)Y +F
Z
(P)Z =0.
5.5.

Let P = [0 : 1 : 0], F a curve of degree n, F =
¸
F
i
(X, Z)Y
n−i
, F
i
a form of de-
gree i . Show that m
P
(F) is the smallest m such that F
m
= 0, and the factors of F
m
determine the tangents to F at P.
5.6.

For any F, P ∈ F, show that m
P
(F
X
) ≥m
P
(F) −1.
5.7.

Show that two plane curves with no common components intersect in a finite
number of points.
5.8.

Let F be an irreducible curve. (a) Show that F
X
, F
Y
, or F
Z
=0. (b) Show that F
has only a finite number of multiple points.
5.9. (a) Let F be an irreducible conic, P = [0 : 1 : 0] a simple point on F, and Z = 0
the tangent line to F at P. Show that F = aY Z −bX
2
−cX Z −dZ
2
, a, b = 0. Find a
projective change of coordinates T so that F
T
=Y Z −X
2
−c

X Z −d

Z
2
. Find T

so
that (F
T
)
T

= Y Z −X
2
. (T

= (X, Y +c

X +d

Z, Z).) (b) Show that, up to projective
5.2. LINEAR SYSTEMS OF CURVES 55
equivalence, there is only one irreducible conic: Y Z = X
2
. Any irreducible conic is
nonsingular.
5.10. Let F be an irreducible cubic, P =[0 : 0 : 1] a cusp on F, Y =0 the tangent line
to F at P. Showthat F =aY
2
Z −bX
3
−cX
2
Y −dXY
2
−eY
3
. Find projective changes
of coordinates (i) to make a =b =1; (ii) to make c =0 (change X to X −
c
3
Y ); (iii) to
make d =e =0 (Z to Z +dX +eY ).
Up to projective equivalence, there is only one irreducible cubic with a cusp:
Y
2
Z = X
3
. It has no other singularities.
5.11. Up to projective equivalence, there is only one irreducible cubic with a node:
XY Z = X
3
+Y
3
. It has no other singularities.
5.12. (a) Assume P =[0 : 1 : 0] ∈ F, F a curve of degree n. Show that
¸
P
I (P, F ∩X) =
n. (b) Show that if F is a curve of degree n, L a line not contained in F, then
¸
I (P, F ∩L) =n.
5.13. Prove that an irreducible cubic is either nonsingular or has at most one double
point (a node or a cusp). (Hint: Use Problem 5.12, where L is a line through two
multiple points; or use Problems 5.10 and 5.11.)
5.14.

Let P
1
, . . . , P
n
∈ P
2
. Show that there are an infinite number of lines passing
through P
1
, but not through P
2
, . . . , P
n
. If P
1
is a simple point on F, we may take
these lines transversal to F at P
1
.
5.15.

Let C be an irreducible projective plane curve, P
1
, . . . , P
n
simple points on C,
m
1
, . . . , m
n
integers. Show that there is a z ∈ k(C) with ord
P
i
(z) = m
i
for i = 1, . . . , n.
(Hint: Take lines L
i
as in Problem 5.14 for P
i
, and a line L
0
not through any P
j
, and
let z =
¸
L
m
i
i
L
0

¸
m
i
.)
5.16.

Let F be an irreducible curve in P
2
. Suppose I (P, F ∩Z) =1, and P =[1 : 0 : 0].
Show that F
X
(P) =0. (Hint: If not, use Euler’s Theorem to show that F
Y
(P) =0; but
Z is not tangent to F at P.)
5.2 Linear Systems of Curves
We oftenwishtostudy all curves of a givendegree d ≥1. Let M
1
, . . . , M
N
be a fixed
ordering of the set of monomials in X, Y, Z of degree d, where N is
1
2
(d +1)(d +2) (Problem 2.35). Giving a curve F of degree d is the same thing as
choosing a
1
, . . . , a
N
∈ k, not all zero, and letting F =
¸
a
i
M
i
, except that (a
1
, . . . , a
N
)
and (λa
1
, . . . , λa
N
) determine the same curve. Inother words, each curve F of degree
d corresponds to a unique point in P
N−1
=P
d(d+3)/2
and each point of P
d(d+3)/2
rep-
resents a unique curve. We often identify F with its corresponding point inP
d(d+3)/2
,
and say e.g. “the curves of degree d forma projective space of dimension d(d+3)/2”.
Examples. (1) d =1. Each line aX +bY +cZ corresponds to the point [a : b : c] ∈
P
2
. The lines in P
2
form a P
2
(see Problem 4.18).
(2) d =2. The conic aX
2
+bXY +cX Z +dY
2
+eY Z +f Z
2
corresponds the point
[a : b : c : d : e : f ] ∈ P
5
. The conics form a P
5
.
56 CHAPTER 5. PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES
(3) The cubics form a P
9
, the quartics a P
14
, etc.
If we put conditions on the set of all curves of degree d, the curves that satisfy the
conditions form a subset of P
d(d+3)/2
. If this subset is a linear subvariety (Problem
4.11), it is called a linear system of plane curves.
Lemma. (1) Let P ∈ P
2
be a fixed point. The set of curves of degree d that contain
P forms a hyperplane in P
d(d+3)/2
.
(2) If T : P
2
→ P
2
is a projective change of coordinates, then the map F → F
T
from{curves of degree d} to {curves of degree d} is a projective change of coordinates
on P
d(d+3)/2
.
Proof. If P =[x : y : z], thenthe curve corresponding to(a
1
, . . . , a
N
) ∈ P
d(d+3)/2
passes
through P if and only if
¸
a
i
M
i
(x, y, z) = 0. Since not all M
i
(x, y, z) are zero, those
[a
1
: . . . : a
N
] satisfying this equation form a hyperplane. The proof that F →F
T
is
linear is similar; it is invertible since F →F
T
−1
is its inverse.
It follows that for any set of points, the curves of degree d that contain them
form a linear subvariety of P
d(d+3)/2
. Since the intersection of n hyperplanes of P
n
is not empty (Problem 4.12), there is a curve of degree d passing through any given
d(d +3)/2 points.
Suppose nowwe fix a point P and an integer r ≤d+1. We claimthat the curves F
of degree d suchthat m
P
(F) ≥r forma linear subvariety of dimension
d(d+3)
2

r (r +1)
2
.
By (2) of the Lemma, we may assume P = [0 : 0 : 1]. Write F =
¸
F
i
(X, Y )Z
d−i
, F
i
a
form of degree i . Then m
P
(F) ≥ r if and only if F
0
= F
1
= · · · = F
r −1
= 0, i.e., the
coefficients of all monomials X
i
Y
j
Z
k
with i + j < r are zero (Problem 5.5). And
there are 1+2+· · · +r =
r (r +1)
2
such coefficients.
Let P
1
, . . . , P
n
be distinct points in P
2
, r
1
, . . . , r
n
nonnegative integers. We set
V (d; r
1
P
1
, . . . , r
n
P
n
) = {curves F of degree d | m
P
i
(F) ≥r
i
, 1 ≤i ≤n}.
Theorem1. (1) V (d; r
1
P
1
, . . . , r
n
P
n
) is a linear subvariety of P
d(d+3)/2
of dimen-
sion ≥
d(d+3)
2

¸
r
i
(r
i
+1)
2
.
(2) If d ≥(
¸
r
i
) −1, then dimV (d; r
1
P
1
, . . . , r
n
P
n
) =
d(d+3)
2

¸
r
i
(r
i
+1)
2
.
Proof. (1) follows from the above discussion. We prove (2) by induction on m =
(
¸
r
i
) −1. We may assume that m>1, d >1, since otherwise it is trivial.
Case 1: Each r
i
= 1: Let V
i
= V (d; P
1
, . . . , P
i
). By induction it is enough to show
that V
n
=V
n−1
. Choose lines L
i
passing through P
i
but not through P
j
, j =i (Prob-
lem 5.14), and a line L
0
not passing through any P
i
. Then F = L
1
· · · L
n−1
L
d−n+1
0

V
n−1
, F ∈V
n
.
Case 2: Some r
i
>1: Say r =r
1
>1, and P =P
1
=[0 : 0 : 1]. Let
V
0
=V (d; (r −1)P, r
2
P
2
, . . . , r
n
P
n
).
For F ∈V
0
let F

=
¸
r −1
i =0
a
i
X
i
Y
r −1−i
+higher terms. Let V
i
={F ∈V
0
| a
j
=0 for j <i }.
Then V
0
⊃ V
1
⊃ · · · ⊃ V
r
= V (d; r
1
P
1
, r
2
P
2
, . . . , r
n
P
n
), so it is enough to show that
V
i
=V
i +1
, i =0, 1, . . . , r −1.
5.3. BÉZOUT’S THEOREM 57
Let W
0
=V (d −1; (r −2)P, r
2
P
2
, . . . , r
n
P
n
). For F ∈ W
0
, F

= a
i
X
i
Y
r −2−i
+· · · . Set
W
i
={F ∈W
0
| a
j
=0 for j <i }. By induction,
W
0
W
1
· · · W
r −1
=V (d −1; (r −1)P, r
2
P
2
, . . . , r
n
P
n
).
If F
i
∈W
i
, F
i
∈W
i +1
, then Y F
i
∈V
i
, Y F
i
∈V
i +1
, and XF
r −2
∈V
r −1
, XF
r −2
∈V
r
. Thus
V
i
=V
i +1
for i =0, . . . , r −1, and this completes the proof.
Problems
5.17. Let P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, P
4
∈ P
2
. Let V be the linear system of conics passing through
these points. Show that dim(V ) = 2 if P
1
, . . . , P
4
lie on a line, and dim(V ) = 1 other-
wise.
5.18. Show that there is only one conic passing through the five points [0 : 0 : 1],
[0 : 1 : 0], [1 : 0 : 0], [1 : 1 : 1], and [1 : 2 : 3]; show that it is nonsingular.
5.19. Consider the nine points [0 : 0 : 1], [0 : 1 : 1], [1 : 0 : 1], [1 : 1 : 1], [0 : 2 : 1],
[2 : 0 : 1], [1 : 2 : 1], [2 : 1 : 1], and [2 : 2 : 1] ∈ P
2
(Sketch). Showthat there are an infinite
number of cubics passing through these points.
5.3 Bézout’s Theorem
The projective plane was constructed so that any two distinct lines would inter-
sect at one point. The famous theorem of Bézout tells us that much more is true:
BÉZOUT’S THEOREM. Let F and G be projective plane curves of degree m and n
respectively. Assume F and G have no common component. Then
¸
P
I (P, F ∩G) =mn
Proof. Since F ∩G is finite (Problem 5.7), we may assume, by a projective change
of coordinates if necessary, that none of the points in F ∩G is on the line at infinity
Z =0.
Then
¸
P
I (P, F ∩G) =
¸
P
I (P, F

∩G

) =dim
k
k[X, Y ]/(F

,G

), by Property (9) for
intersection numbers. Let
Γ

=k[X, Y ]/(F

,G

), Γ =k[X, Y, Z]/(F,G), R =k[X, Y, Z],
and let Γ
d
(resp. R
d
) be the vector space of forms of degree d in Γ (resp. R). The
theorem will be proved if we can show that dimΓ

= dimΓ
d
and dimΓ
d
= mn for
some large d.
Step 1: dimΓ
d
= mn for all d ≥ m+n: Let π: R → Γ be the natural map, let
ϕ: R ×R →R be defined by ϕ(A, B) = AF +BG, and let ψ: R →R ×R be defined by
ψ(C) = (GC, −FC). Using the fact that F and G have no common factors, it is not
difficult to check the exactness of the following sequence:
0 −→R
ψ
−→R ×R
ϕ
−→R
π
−→Γ −→0.
58 CHAPTER 5. PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES
If we restrict these maps to the forms of various degrees, we get the following exact
sequences:
0 −→R
d−m−n
ψ
−→R
d−m
×R
d−n
ϕ
−→R
d
π
−→Γ
d
−→0.
Since dimR
d
=
(d+1)(d+2)
2
, it follows from Proposition 7 of §2.10 (with a calculation)
that dimΓ
d
=mn if d ≥m+n.
Step 2: The map α: Γ → Γ defined by α(H) = ZH (where the bar denotes the
residue modulo (F,G)) is one-to-one:
We must show that if ZH = AF +BG, then H = A

F +B

G for some A

, B

. For
any J ∈ k[X, Y, Z], denote (temporarily) J(X, Y, 0) by J
0
. Since F,G, and Z have no
common zeros, F
0
and G
0
are relatively prime forms in k[X, Y ].
If ZH = AF +BG, then A
0
F
0
= −B
0
G
0
, so B
0
= F
0
C and A
0
= −G
0
C for some
C ∈ k[X, Y ]. Let A
1
= A+CG, B
1
=B−CF. Since (A
1
)
0
=(B
1
)
0
=0, we have A
1
= Z A

,
B
1
= ZB

for some A

, B

; and since ZH = A
1
F +B
1
G, it follows that H = A

F +B

G,
as claimed.
Step 3: Let d ≥ m+n, and choose A
1
, . . . , A
mn
∈ R
d
whose residues in Γ
d
form a
basis for Γ
d
. Let A
i ∗
= A
i
(X, Y, 1) ∈ k[X, Y ], and let a
i
be the residue of A
i ∗
in Γ

.
Then a
1
, . . . , a
mn
form a basis for Γ

:
First notice that the map α of Step 2 restricts to an isomorphism from Γ
d
onto
Γ
d+1
, if d ≥ m+n, since a one-to-one linear map of vector spaces of the same di-
mension is an isomorphism. It follows that the residues of Z
r
A
1
, . . . , Z
r
A
mn
form a
basis for Γ
d+r
for all r ≥0.
The a
i
generate Γ

: if h = H ∈ Γ

, H ∈ k[X, Y ], some Z
N
H

is a form of degree
d +r , so Z
N
H

=
¸
mn
i =1
λ
i
Z
r
A
i
+BF +CG for some λ
i
∈ k, B,C ∈ k[X, Y, Z]. Then
H =(Z
N
H

)

=
¸
λ
i
A
i ∗
+B

F

+C

G

, so h =
¸
λ
i
a
i
, as desired.
The a
i
are independent: For if
¸
λ
i
a
i
= 0, then
¸
λ
i
A
i ∗
= BF

+CG

. There-
fore (by Proposition 5 of §2.6) Z
r
¸
λ
i
A
i
= Z
s
B

F +Z
t
C

G for some r, s, t . But then
¸
λ
i
Z
r
A
i
= 0 in Γ
d+r
, and the Z
r
A
i
form a basis, so each λ
i
= 0. This finishes the
proof.
Combining Property (5) of the intersection number (§3.3) with Bézout’s Theo-
rem, we deduce
Corollary 1. If F and G have no common component, then
¸
P
m
P
(F)m
P
(G) ≤ deg(F) · deg(G).
Corollary 2. If F and G meet in mn distinct points, m = deg(F), n = deg(G), then
theses points are all simple points on F and on G.
Corollary 3. If two curves of degrees m and n have more than mn points in common,
then they have a common component.
Problems
5.20. Check your answers of Problem 5.3 with Bézout’s Theorem.
5.4. MULTIPLE POINTS 59
5.21.

Show that every nonsingular projective plane curve is irreducible. Is this true
for affine curves?
5.22.

Let F be an irreducible curve of degree n. Assume F
X
= 0. Apply Corollary 1
to F and F
X
, and conclude that
¸
m
P
(F)(m
P
(F) −1) ≤n(n −1). In particular, F has
at most
1
2
n(n −1) multiple points. (See Problems 5.6, 5.8.)
5.23. A problem about flexes (see Problem 3.12): Let F be a projective plane curve
of degree n, and assume F contains no lines.
Let F
i
=F
X
i
and F
i j
=F
X
i
X
j
, forms of degree n−1 and n−2 respectively. Form a
3×3 matrix with the entry in the (i , j )th place being F
i j
. Let H be the determinant
of this matrix, a form of degree 3(n −2). This H is called the Hessian of F. Problems
5.22 and 6.47 show that H = 0, for F irreducible. The following theorem shows the
relationship between flexes and the Hessian.
Theorem. (char(k) = 0) (1) P ∈ H ∩F if and only if P is either a flex or a multiple
point of F. (2) I (P, H ∩F) =1 if and only if P is an ordinary flex.
Outline of proof. (a) Let T be a projective change of coordinates. Then the Hessian
of F
T
= (det(T))
2
(H
T
). So we can assume P = [0 : 0 : 1]; write f (X, Y ) = F(X, Y, 1)
and h(X, Y ) = H(X, Y, 1).
(b) (n −1)F
j
=
¸
i
X
i
F
i j
. (Use Euler’s Theorem.)
(c) I (P, f ∩h) = I (P, f ∩g) where g = f
2
y
f
xx
+f
2
x
f
y y
−2f
x
f
y
f
xy
. (Hint: Performrow
and column operations on the matrix for h. Add x times the first row plus y times
the second row to the third row, then apply part (b). Do the same with the columns.
Then calculate the determinant.)
(d) If P is a multiple point on F, then I (P, f ∩g) >1.
(e) Suppose P is a simple point, Y = 0 is the tangent line to F at P, so f = y +
ax
2
+bxy +c y
2
+dx
3
+ex
2
y +. . .. Then P is a flex if and only if a = 0, and P is
an ordinary flex if and only if a = 0 and d = 0. A short calculation shows that g =
2a +6dx +(8ac −2b
2
+2e)y+ higher terms, which concludes the proof.
Corollary. (1) A nonsingular curve of degree >2 always has a flex. (2) A nonsingular
cubic has nine flexes, all ordinary.
5.24. (char(k) = 0) (a) Let [0 : 1 : 0] be a flex on an irreducible cubic F, Z = 0 the
tangent line to F at [0 : 1 : 0]. Show that F = ZY
2
+bY Z
2
+cY X Z+ terms in X, Z.
Find a projective change of coordinates (using Y →Y −
b
2
Z−
c
2
X) to get F to the form
ZY
2
= cubic in X, Z. (b) Show that any irreducible cubic is projectively equivalent
to one of the following: Y
2
Z = X
3
, Y
2
Z = X
2
(X +Z), or Y
2
Z = X(X −Z)(X −λZ),
λ∈ k, λ=0, 1. (See Problems 5.10, 5.11.)
5.4 Multiple Points
In Problem 5.22 of the previous section we saw one easy application of Bézout’s
Theorem: If F is an irreducible curve of degree n, and m
P
denotes the multiplicity
of F at P, then
¸
m
P
(m
P
−1)
2

n(n−1)
2
.
An examination of the cases n = 2, 3 however, indicates that this is not the best
possible result (Problems 5.9, 5.13). In fact:
60 CHAPTER 5. PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES
Theorem2. If F is an irreducible curve of degree n, then
¸
m
P
(m
P
−1)
2

(n−1)(n−2)
2
.
Proof. Since r :=
(n−1)(n−1+3)
2

¸
(m
P
−1)(m
P
)
2

(n−1)n
2

¸
(m
P
−1)m
P
2
≥0, we may choose
simple points Q
1
, . . . ,Q
r
∈ F. Then Theorem 1 of §5.2 (for d = n −1) guarantees
the existence of a curve G of degree n −1 such that m
P
(G) ≥ m
P
−1 for all P, and
m
Q
i
(G) ≥1.
Now apply Corollary 1 of Bézout’s Theorem to F and G (since F is irreducible,
there are no common components): n(n −1) ≥
¸
m
P
(m
P
−1) +r . The theorem fol-
lows by substituting the value for r into this inequality.
For small n this gives us some results we have seen in the problems: lines and
irreducible conics are nonsingular, and an irreducible cubic can have at most one
double point. Letting n = 4 we see that an irreducible quartic has at most three
double points or one triple point, etc. Note that the curve X
n
+Y
n−1
Z has the point
[0 : 0 : 1] of multiplicity n −1, so the result cannot be strengthened.
Problems
5.25. Let F be a projective plane curve of degree n with no multiple components,
and c simple components. Show that
¸
m
P
(m
P
−1)
2

(n −1)(n −2)
2
+c −1 ≤
n(n −1)
2
(Hint: Let F =F
1
F
2
; consider separately the points on one F
i
or on both.)
5.26.

(char(k) =0) Let F be an irreducible curve of degree n in P
2
. Suppose P ∈ P
2
,
with m
P
(F) =r ≥0. Then for all but a finite number of lines L through P, L intersects
F in n −r distinct points other than P. We outline a proof:
(a) We may assume P = [0 : 1 : 0]. If L
λ
= {[λ : t : 1] | t ∈ k} ∪{P}, we need only
consider the L
λ
. Then F = A
r
(X, Z)Y
n−r
+· · ·+A
n
(X, Z), A
r
=0. (See Problems 4.24,
5.5).
(b) Let G
λ
(t ) = F(λ, t , 1). It is enough to show that for all but a finite number of
λ, G
λ
has n −r distinct points.
(c) Show that G
λ
has n−r distinct roots if A
r
(λ, 1) =0, and F ∩F
Y
∩L
λ
={P} (see
Problem 1.53).
5.27. Show that Problem 5.26 remains true if F is reducible, provided it has no mul-
tiple components.
5.28. (char(k) = p > 0) F = X
p+1
−Y
p
Z, P = [0 : 1 : 0]. Find L ∩F for all lines L
passing through P. Show that every line that is tangent to F at a simple point passes
through P!
5.5 Max Noether’s Fundamental Theorem
A zero-cycle on P
2
is a formal sum
¸
P∈P
2 n
P
P, where n
P
’s are integers, and all
but a finite number of n
P
’s are zero. The set of all zero-cycles on P
2
form an abelian
5.5. MAX NOETHER’S FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM 61
group — in fact, it is the free abelian group with basis X =P
2
, as defined in Chapter
2, Section 11.
The degree of a zero cycle
¸
n
P
P is defined to be
¸
n
P
. The zero cycle is positive
if each n
P
≥0. We say that
¸
n
P
P is bigger than
¸
m
P
P, and write
¸
n
P
P ≥
¸
m
P
P,
if each n
P
≥m
P
.
Let F, G be projective plane curves of degrees m, n respectively, withno common
components. We define the intersection cycle F•G by
F•G =
¸
P∈P
2
I (P, F ∩G)P.
Bézout’s Theorem says that F•G is a positive zero-cycle of degree mn.
Several properties of intersection numbers translate nicely into properties of the
intersection cycle. For example: F•G =G•F; F•GH = F•G +F•H; and F•(G + AF) =
F•G if A is a form and deg(A) =deg(G) −deg(F).
Max Noether’s Theoremis concerned with the following situation: Suppose F, G,
and H are curves, and H•F ≥G•F, i.e., H intersects F in a bigger cycle than G does.
When is there a curve B so that B•F = H•F −G•F? Note that necessarily deg(B) =
deg(H) −deg(G).
To find such a B, it suffices to find forms A, B such that H = AF +BG. For then
H•F =BG•F =B•F +G•F.
Let P ∈ P
2
, F, G curves with no common component through P, H another
curve. We say that Noether’s Conditions are satisfied at P (with respect to F, G, and
H), if H

∈ (F

,G

) ⊂O
P
(P
2
), i.e., if there are a, b ∈ O
P
(P
2
) such that H

=aF

+bG

(see §5.1 for notation). Noether’s Theorem relates the local and global conditions.
MAXNOETHER’SFUNDAMENTALTHEOREM. Let F,G, H be projective plane curves.
Assume F and G have no common components. Then there is an equation H = AF +
BG (with A, B forms of degree deg(H) −deg(F), deg(H) −deg(G) respectively) if and
only if Noether’s conditions are satisfied at every P ∈ F ∩G.
Proof. If H = AF +BG, then H

= A

F

+B

G

at any P. To prove the converse,
we assume, as in the proof of Bézout’s Theorem, that V (F,G, Z) = . We may take
F

= F(X, Y, 1), G

= G(X, Y, 1), H

= H(X, Y, 1). Noether’s conditions say that the
residue of H

in O
P
(P
2
)/(F

,G

) is zero for each P ∈ F ∩G. It follows from Propo-
sition 6 of §2.9 that the residue of H

in k[X, Y ]/(F

,G

) is zero, i.e., H

= aF

+
bG

, a, b ∈ k[X, Y ]. Then Z
r
H = AF +BG for some r, A, B (Proposition 7 of §2.10).
But in the proof of Step 2 of Bézout’s Theorem we saw that multiplication by Z
on k[X, Y, Z]/(F,G) is one-to-one, so H = A

F +B

G for some A

, B

. If A

=
¸
A

i
,
B

=
¸
B

i
, A

i
, B

i
forms of degree i , then H = A

s
F +B

t
G, s = deg(H) −deg(F), t =
deg(H) −deg(G).
Of course, the usefulness of this theorem depends on finding criteria that assure
that Noether’s conditions hold at P:
Proposition 1. Let F, G, H be plane curves, P ∈ F ∩G. Then Noether’s conditions are
satisfied at P if any of the following are true:
(1) F and G meet transversally at P, and P ∈ H.
62 CHAPTER 5. PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES
(2) P is a simple point on F, and I (P, H ∩F) ≥ I (P,G ∩F).
(3) F and G have distinct tangents at P, and m
P
(H) ≥m
P
(F) +m
P
(G) −1.
Proof. (2): I (P, H ∩F) ≥ I (P,G ∩F) implies that ord
F
P
(H) ≥ ord
F
P
(G), so H

∈ (G

) ⊂
O
P
(F). Since O
P
(F)/(G

)

= O
P
(P
2
)/(F

,G

) (Problem 2.44), the residue of H

in
O
P
(P
2
)/(F

,G

) is zero, as desired.
(3): We may assume P = [0 : 0 : 1], and m
P
(H

) ≥ m
P
(F

) +m
P
(G

) −1. In the
notation of the lemma used to prove Property (5) of the intersection number (§3.3),
this says that H

∈ I
t
, t ≥ m+n −1. And in that lemma, we showed precisely that
I
t
⊂(F

,G

) ⊂O
P
(P
2
) if t ≥m
P
(F) +m
P
(G) −1.
(1) is a special case both of (2) and of (3) (and is easy by itself ).
Corollary. If either
(1) F and G meet in deg(F) deg(G) distinct points, and H passes through these
points, or
(2) All the points of F ∩G are simple points of F, and H•F ≥G•F,
then there is a curve B such that B•F = H•F −G•F.
In §7.5 we will find a criterion that works at all ordinary multiple points of F.
Problems
5.29. Fix F, G, and P. Show that in cases (1) and (2) — but not (3) — of Proposition
1 the conditions on H are equivalent to Noether’s conditions.
5.30. Let F be an irreducible projective plane curve. Suppose z ∈ k(F) is defined at
every P ∈ F. Show that z ∈ k. (Hint: Write z = H/G, and use Noether’s Theorem).
5.6 Applications of Noether’s Theorem
We indicate inthis sectiona fewof the many interesting consequences of Noether’s
Theorem. Since they will not be needed in later Chapters, the proofs will be brief.
Proposition 2. Let C, C

be cubics, C

•C =
¸
9
i =1
P
i
; suppose Q is a conic, and Q•C =
¸
6
i =1
P
i
. Assume P
1
, . . . , P
6
are simple points onC. ThenP
7
, P
8
, and P
9
lie ona straight
line.
Proof. Let F =C, G =Q, H =C

in (2) of the Corollary to Proposition 1.
Corollary 1 (Pascal). If a hexagon is inscribed in an irreducible conic, then the oppo-
site sides meet in collinear points.
Proof. Let C be three sides, C

the three opposite sides, Q the conic, and apply
Proposition 2.
Corollary 2 (Pappus). Let L
1
, L
2
be two lines; P
1
, P
2
, P
3
∈ L
1
, Q
1
, Q
2
, Q
3
∈ L
2
(none
of these points in L
1
∩L
2
). Let L
i j
be the line between P
i
and Q
j
. For each i , j , k with
{i , j , k} ={1, 2, 3}, let R
k
=L
i j
.L
j i
. Then R
1
, R
2
, and R
3
are collinear.
5.6. APPLICATIONS OF NOETHER’S THEOREM 63
Proof. The two lines form a conic, and the proof is the same as in Corollary 1.
Pascal’s Theorem Pappus’ Theorem
Proposition 3. Let C be an irreducible cubic, C

, C

cubics. Suppose C

•C =
¸
9
i =1
P
i
,
where the P
i
are simple (not necessarily distinct) points on C, and suppose C

•C =
¸
8
i =1
P
i
+Q. Then Q =P
9
.
Proof. Let L be a line through P
9
that doesn’t pass throughQ; L•C =P
9
+R+S. Then
LC

•C =C

•C +Q +R +S, so there is a line L

such that L

•C =Q +R +S. But then
L

=L and so P
9
=Q.
Addition on a cubic. Let C be a nonsingular cubic. For any two points P, Q ∈ C,
there is a unique line L such that L•C = P +Q +R, for some R ∈ C. (If P = Q, L is
the tangent to C at P). Define ϕ: C ×C →C by setting ϕ(P,Q) =R. This ϕ is like an
addition on C, but there is no identity. To remedy this, choose a point O on C. Then
define an addition ⊕ on C as follows: P ⊕Q =ϕ(O, ϕ(P,Q)).
Proposition 4. C, with the operation ⊕, forms an abelian group, with the point O
being the identity.
O
P
Q
R
S
S

U
U

T

=T

Proof. Only the associativity is difficult: Suppose P,Q, R ∈ C. Let L
1
•C = P +Q +S

,
M
1
•C =O+S

+S, L
2
•C =S +R +T

.
64 CHAPTER 5. PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES
Let M
2
•C =Q+R+U

, L
3
•C =O+U

+U, M
3
•C =P +U+T

. Since (P ⊕Q)⊕R =
ϕ(O, T

), and P ⊕(Q⊕R) =ϕ(O, T

), it suffices to show that T

=T

.
Let C

=L
1
L
2
L
3
, C

=M
1
M
2
M
3
, and apply Proposition 3.
Problems
5.31. If in Pascal’s Theorem we let some adjacent vertices coincide (the side being a
tangent), we get many new theorems:
(a) State and sketch what happens if P
1
=P
2
, P
3
=P
4
, P
5
=P
6
.
(b) Let P
1
=P
2
, the other four distinct.
(c) From(b) deduce a rule for constructing the tangent to a given conic at a given
point, using only a straight-edge.
5.32. Suppose the intersections of the opposite sides of a hexagon lie on a straight
line. Show that the vertices lie on a conic.
5.33. Let C be an irreducible cubic, L a line such that L•C =P
1
+P
2
+P
3
, P
i
distinct.
Let L
i
be the tangent line toC at P
i
: L
i
•C =2P
i
+Q
i
for someQ
i
. Showthat Q
1
,Q
2
,Q
3
lie on a line. (L
2
is a conic!)
5.34. Show that a line through two flexes on a cubic passes through a third flex.
5.35. Let C be any irreducible cubic, or any cubic without multiple components,
C

the set of simple points of C, O ∈ C

. Show that the same definition as in the
nonsingular case makes C

into an abelian group.
5.36. Let C be an irreducible cubic, O a simple point onC giving rise to the addition
⊕on the set C

of simple points. Suppose another O

gives rise to an addition ⊕

. Let
Q = ϕ(O, O

), and define α: (C, O, ⊕) →(C, O

, ⊕

) by α(P) = ϕ(Q, P). Show that α is
a group isomorphism. So the structure of the group is independent of the choice of
O.
5.37. In Proposition 4, suppose O is a flex on C. (a) Show that the flexes form a
subgroup of C; as an abelian group, this subgroup is isomorphic to Z/(3) ×Z/(3).
(b) Show that the flexes are exactly the elements of order three in the group. (i.e.,
exactly those elements P such that P ⊕P ⊕P = O). (c) Show that a point P is of
order two in the group if and only if the tangent to C at P passes through O. (d) Let
C =Y
2
Z −X(X −Z)(X −λZ), λ=0, 1, O =[0 : 1 : 0]. Find the points of order two. (e)
Show that the points of order two on a nonsingular cubic form a group isomorphic
to Z/(2) ×Z/(2). (f ) Let C be a nonsingular cubic, P ∈C. How many lines through P
are tangent to C at some point Q =P? (The answer depends on whether P is a flex.)
5.38. Let C be a nonsingular cubic givenby the equationY
2
Z = X
3
+aX
2
Z+bX Z
2
+
cZ
3
, O =[0 : 1 : 0]. Let P
i
=[x
i
: y
i
: 1], i =1, 2, 3, and suppose P
1
⊕P
2
=P
3
. If x
1
=x
2
,
let λ = (y
1
− y
2
)/(x
1
−x
2
); if P
1
= P
2
and y
1
= 0, let λ = (3x
2
1
+2ax
1
+b)/(2y
1
). Let
µ= y
i
−λx
i
, i =1, 2. Show that x
3

2
−a−x
1
−x
2
, and y
3
=−λx
3
−µ. This gives an
explicit method for calculating in the group.
5.39. (a) Let C = Y
2
Z −X
3
−4X Z
2
, O = [0 : 1 : 0], A = [0 : 0 : 1], B = [2 : 4 : 1], and
C = [2 : −4 : 1]. Show that {0, A, B,C} form a subgroup of C that is cyclic of order 4.
5.6. APPLICATIONS OF NOETHER’S THEOREM 65
(b) Let C =Y
2
Z −X
3
−43X Z
2
−166Z
3
. Let O =[0 : 1 : 0], P =[3 : 8 : 1]. Show that P is
an element of order 7 in C.
5.40. Let k
0
be a subfield of k. If V is an affine variety, V ⊂ A
n
(k), a point P =
(a
1
, . . . , a
n
) ∈ V is rational over k
0
, if each a
i
∈ k
0
. If V ⊂ P
n
(k) is projective, a point
P ∈ V is rational over k
0
if for some homogeneous coordinates (a
1
, . . . , a
n+1
) for P,
each a
i
∈ k
0
.
A curve F of degree d is said to be emphrational over k
0
if the corresponding
point in P
d(d+3)/2
is rational over k
0
.
Suppose a nonsingular cubic C is rational over k
0
. Let C(k
0
) be the set of points
of C that are rational over k
0
. (a) If P, Q ∈ C(k
0
), show that ϕ(P,Q) is in C(k
0
). (b)
If O ∈ C(k
0
), show that C(k
0
) forms a subgroup of C. (If k
0
= Q, k = C, this has
important applications to number theory.)
5.41. Let C be a nonsingular cubic, O a flex on C. Let P
1
, . . . , P
3m
∈ C. Show that
P
1
⊕· · ·⊕P
3m
=O if and only if there is a curve F of degree m such that F•C =
¸
3m
i =1
P
i
.
(Hint: Use induction on m. Let L•C =P
1
+P
2
+Q, L

•C =P
3
+P
4
+R, L

•C =Q+R+S,
and apply induction to S, P
5
, . . . , P
3m
; use Noether’s Theorem.)
5.42. Let C be a nonsingular cubic, F, F

curves of degree m such that F•C =
¸
3m
i =1
P
i
,
F

•C =
¸
3m−1
i =1
P
i
+Q. Show that P
3m
=Q.
5.43. For which points P on a nonsingular cubic C does there exist a nonsingular
conic that intersects C only at P?
66 CHAPTER 5. PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES
Chapter 6
Varieties, Morphisms, and
Rational Maps
This chapter begins the study of intrinsic properties of a variety — properties
that do not depend on its embedding in affine or projective spaces (or products
of these). Making this transition from extrinsic to intrinsic geometry has not been
easy historically; the abstract language required demands some fortitude from the
reader.
6.1 The Zariski Topology
One of the purposes of considering a topology on a set is to be able to restrict
attention to a “neighborhood” of a point in the set. Often this means simply that
we throw away a set (not containing the point) on which something we don’t like
happens. For example, if z is a rational function on a variety V , and z is defined at
P ∈V , there should be a neighborhood of P where z is a function — we must throw
away the pole set of z. We want to be able to discard an algebraic subset from an
affine or projective variety, and still think of what is left as some kind of variety.
We first recall some notions from topology. A topology on a set X is a collection
of subsets of X, called the open subsets of X, satisfying:
(1) X and the empty set are open.
(2) The union of any family of open subsets of X is open.
(3) The intersection of any finite number of open sets is open.
A topological space is a set X together with a topology on X. A set C in X is
closed if X C is open. If Y ⊂ X, any open set of X that contains Y will be called
a neighborhood of Y . (Sometimes any set containing an open set containing Y is
called a neighborhood of Y , but we will consider only open neighborhoods.)
If Y is a subset of a topological space X, the induced topology on Y is defined
as follows: a set W ⊂ Y is open in Y if there is an open subset U of X such that
W =Y ∩U.
67
68 CHAPTER 6. VARIETIES, MORPHISMS, ANDRATIONAL MAPS
For any subset Y of a topological space X, the closure of Y in X is the intersection
of all closed subsets of X that contain Y . The set Y is said to be dense in X if X is the
closure of Y in X; equivalently, for every nonempty open subset U of X, U ∩Y =.
If X and X

are topological spaces, a mapping f : X

→ X is called continuous
if for every open set U of X, f
−1
(U) = {x ∈ X

| f (x) ∈ U} is an open subset of X

;
equivalently, for every closed subset C of X, f
−1
(C) is closed in X

. If, in addition, f
is one-to-one and onto X, and f
−1
is continuous, f is said to be homeomorphism.
Let X = P
n
1
×· · · ×P
n
r
×A
m
. The Zariski topology on X is defined as follows: a
set U ⊂ X is open if X U is an algebraic subset of X. That this is a topology follows
from the properties of algebraic sets proved in Chapter 1 (see also §4.4). Any subset
V of X is given the induced topology. In particular, if V is a variety in X, a subset of
V is closed if and only if it is algebraic.
If X = A
1
or P
1
, the proper closed subsets of X are just the finite subsets. If
X =A
2
or P
2
, proper closed subsets are finite unions of points and curves.
Note that for any two nonempty open sets U
1
,U
2
in a variety V , U
1
∩U
2
= (for
otherwise V = (V U
1
) ∪(V U
2
) would be reducible). So if P and Q are distinct
points of V , there are never disjoint neighborhoods containing them. And every
nonempty open subset of a variety V is dense in V .
Problems
6.1.

Let Z ⊂Y ⊂ X, X a topological space. Give Y the induced topology. Show that
the topology induced by Y on Z is the same as that induced by X on Z.
6.2.

(a) Let X be a topological space, X =
¸
α∈A
U
α
, U
α
open in X. Show that a
subset W of X is closed if and only if eachW∩U
α
is closed (in the induced topology)
in U
α
. (b) Suppose similarly Y =
¸
α∈A
V
α
, V
α
open in Y , and suppose f : X →Y
is a mapping such that f (U
α
) ⊂ V
α
. Show that f is continuous if and only if the
restriction of f to eachU
α
is a continuous mapping fromU
α
to V
α
.
6.3.

(a) Let V be an affine variety, f ∈ Γ(V ). Considering f as a mapping from V
to k = A
1
, show that f is continuous. (b) Show that any polynomial map of affine
varieties is continuous.
6.4.

Let U
i
⊂ P
n
, ϕ
i
: A
n
→U
i
as in Chapter 4. Give U
i
the topology induced from
P
n
. (a) Show that ϕ
i
is a homeomorphism. (b) Show that a set W ⊂ P
n
is closed if
and only if each ϕ
−1
i
(W) is closed in A
n
, i =1, . . . , n +1. (c) Show that if V ⊂A
n
is an
affine variety, then the projective closure V

of V is the closure of ϕ
n+1
(V ) in P
n
.
6.5. Any infinite subset of a plane curve V is dense in V . Any one-to-one mapping
from one irreducible plane curve onto another is a homeomorphism.
6.6.

Let X be a topological space, f : X →A
n
a mapping. Then f is continuous if
and only if for each hypersurface V =V (F) of A
n
, f
−1
(V ) is closed in X. A mapping
f : X →k =A
1
is continuous if and only if f
−1
(λ) is closed for any λ∈ k.
6.7.

Let V be an affine variety, f ∈ Γ(V ). (a)] Show that V ( f ) ={P ∈V | f (P) =0} is a
closed subset of V , and V ( f ) =V unless f =0. (b) Suppose U is a dense subset of V
and f (P) =0 for all P ∈U. Then f =0.
6.2. VARIETIES 69
6.8.

Let U be an open subset of a variety V , z ∈ k(V ). Suppose z ∈ O
P
(V ) for all
P ∈ U. Show that U
z
= {P ∈ U | z(P) = 0} is open, and that the mapping from U to
k =A
1
defined by P →z(P) is continuous.
6.2 Varieties
Let V be a nonempty irreducible algebraic set in P
n
1
×· · · ×A
m
. Any open subset
X of V will be called a variety. It is given the topology induced fromV ; this topology
is called the Zariski topology on X.
We define k(X) =k(V ) to be the field of rational functions on X, and if P ∈ X, we
define O
P
(X) to be O
P
(V ), the local ring of X at P.
If U is an open subset of X, then U is also open in V , so U is also a variety. We
say that U is an open subvariety of X.
If Y is a closed subset of X, we say that Y is irreducible if Y is not the union of
two proper closed subsets. Then Y is then also a variety, for if Y is the closure of Y
in V , it is easy to verify that Y is irreducible in V and that Y =Y ∩X, so Y is open in
Y (see Problem 6.10). Such a Y is called a closed subvariety of X.
Let X be a variety, U a nonempty open subset of X. We define Γ(U, O
X
), or sim-
ply Γ(U), to be the set of rational functions on X that are defined at each P ∈ U:
Γ(U) =
¸
P∈U
O
P
(X). The ring Γ(U) is a subring of k(X), and if U

⊂U, then Γ(U

) ⊃
Γ(U). Note that if U = X is an affine variety, then Γ(X) is the coordinate ring of X
(Proposition 2 of §2.4), so this notation is consistent.
If z ∈ Γ(U), z determines a k-valued function on U: for if P ∈U, z ∈ O
P
(X), and
z(P) is well-defined. Let F(U, k) be the ring of all k-valued functions onU. The map
that associates a function to each z ∈ Γ(U) is a ring homomorphism fromΓ(U) into
F(U, k). As in §2.1 we want to identify Γ(U) with its image in F(U, k), so that we
may consider Γ(U) as a ring of functions onU. For this we need the map fromΓ(U)
to F(U, k) to be one-to-one, i.e.,
Proposition1. Let U be an open subset of a variety X. Suppose z ∈ Γ(U), and z(P) =0
for all P ∈U. Then z =0.
Proof. Note first that we may replaceU by any nonempty open subset U

of U, since
Γ(U) ⊂Γ(U

).
If X ⊂P
n
×· · ·×A
m
, we may replace X by its closure, so assume X is closed. Then
if X ∩(U
i
1
×U
i
2
×· · · ×A
m
) =, we may replace X andU by the corresponding affine
variety ϕ
−1
(X) and the open set ϕ
−1
(U) in A
n
×· · · ×A
m
, where ϕ: A
n
×· · · ×A
m

U
i
1
×· · · ×A
m
is as in Problem 4.26.
Thus we may assume U is open in an affine variety X ⊂ A
N
. Write z = f /g,
f , g ∈ Γ(X). Replacing U by {P ∈U | g(P) =0}, we may assume g(P) =0 for all P ∈U
(Problem 6.8). Then f (P) =0 for all P ∈U, so f =0 (Problem 6.7), and z =0.
Problems
6.9. Let X =A
2
{(0, 0)}, anopensubvariety of A
2
. Showthat Γ(X) =Γ(A
2
) =k[X, Y ].
70 CHAPTER 6. VARIETIES, MORPHISMS, ANDRATIONAL MAPS
6.10.

Let U be an open subvariety of a variety X, Y a closed subvariety of U. Let Z
be the closure of Y in X. Show that
(a) Z is a closed subvariety of X.
(b) Y is an open subvariety of Z.
6.11. (a) Show that every family of closed subsets of a variety has a minimal mem-
ber. (b) Show that if a variety is a union of a collection of open subsets, it is a union
of a finite number of theses subsets. (All varieties are “quasi-compact”.)
6.12.

Let X be a variety, z ∈ k(X). Show that the pole set of z is closed. If z ∈ O
P
(X),
there is a neighborhood U of z such that z ∈ Γ(U); so O
P
(X) is the union of all Γ(U),
where U runs through all neighborhoods of P.
6.3 Morphisms of Varieties
If ϕ: X →Y is any mapping between sets, composition with ϕgives a homomor-
phism of rings ˜ ϕ: F(Y, k) →F(X, k); i.e., ˜ ϕ( f ) = f ◦ϕ.
Let X and Y be varieties. A morphism from X to Y is a mapping ϕ: X →Y such
that
(1) ϕ is continuous;
(2) For every openset U of Y , if f ∈ Γ(U, O
Y
), then ˜ ϕ( f ) = f ◦ϕis inΓ(ϕ
−1
(U), O
X
).
An isomorphism of X with Y is a one-to-one morphism ϕ from X onto Y such
that ϕ
−1
is a morphism.
A variety that is isomorphic to a closed subvariety of some A
n
(resp. P
n
) is called
an affine variety (resp. a projective variety). When we write “X ⊂ A
n
is an affine
variety”, we mean that X is a closed subvariety of A
n
(as in Chapter 2), while if we
say only “X is an affine variety” we mean that X is a variety in the general sense of
Section2, but that there exists anisomorphismof X witha closed subvariety of some
A
n
. A similar nomenclature is used for projective varieties.
Proposition 2. Let X and Y be affine varieties. There is a natural one-to-one corre-
spondence between morphisms ϕ: X →Y and homomorphisms ˜ ϕ: Γ(Y ) →Γ(X). If
X ⊂ A
n
, Y ⊂ A
m
, a morphism from X to Y is the same thing as a polynomial map
from X to Y .
Proof. We may assume X ⊂A
n
, Y ⊂A
m
are closed subvarieties of affine spaces. The
propositionfollows fromthe following facts: (i) a polynomial mapis a morphism; (ii)
a morphismϕ induces a homomorphism ˜ ϕ: Γ(Y ) →Γ(X); (iii) any ˜ ϕ: Γ(Y ) →Γ(X)
is induced by a unique polynomial map from X to Y (Proposition 1 of §2.2); and (iv)
all these operations are compatible. The details are left to the reader.
Proposition 3. Let V be a closed subvariety of P
n
, ϕ
i
: A
n
→U
i
⊂ P
n
as in Chapter
4, Section 1. Then V
i
= ϕ
−1
i
(V ) is a closed subvariety of A
n
, and ϕ
i
restricts to an
isomorphism of V
i
with V ∩U
i
. A projective variety is a union of a finite number of
open affine varieties.
Proof. The proof, together with the natural generalization to multispace (see Prob-
lem 4.26), is left to the reader.
6.3. MORPHISMS OF VARIETIES 71
Proposition 4. Any closed subvariety of P
n
1
×· · · ×P
n
r
is a projective variety. Any
variety is isomorphic to an open subvariety of a projective variety.
Proof. The second statement follows from the first, since P
n
1
×· · · ×P
n
r
×A
m
is iso-
morphic to an open subvariety of P
n
1
×· · · ×P
n
r
×P
m
. By induction, it is enough to
prove that P
n
×P
m
is a projective variety.
In Problem4.28, we defined the Segre imbedding S : P
n
×P
m
→P
n+m+nm
, which
mapped P
n
×P
m
one-to-one onto a projective variety V . We use the notations of
that problem.
It suffices toshowthat the restrictionof S toU
0
×U
0
→V ∩U
00
is anisomorphism.
These are affine varieties, so it is enough to show that the induced map on coordi-
nate rings is an isomorphism. We identify Γ(U
0
×U
0
) with k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
, Y
1
, . . . , Y
m
],
and Γ(V ∩U
00
) may be identified with k[T
10
, . . . , T
nm
]/({T
j k
−T
j 0
T
0k
| j , k >0}). The
homomorphismfromk[X
1
, . . . , X
n
, Y
1
, . . . , Y
m
] to this ring that takes X
i
to the residue
of T
i 0
, Y
j
to that of T
0j
, is easily checked to be an isomorphism. Since this isomor-
phism is the one induced by S
−1
, the proof is complete.
Note. It is possible to define more general varieties than those we have considered
here. If this were done, the varieties we have defined would be called the “quasi-
projective” varieties.
A closed subvariety of an affine variety is also an affine variety. What is more
surprising is that an open subvariety of an affine variety may also be affine.
Proposition 5. Let V be an affine variety, and let f ∈ Γ(V ), f = 0. Let V
f
= {P ∈ V |
f (P) =0}, an open subvariety of V . Then
(1) Γ(V
f
) =Γ(V )[1/f ] ={a/f
n
∈ k(V ) | a ∈ Γ(V ), n ∈ Z}.
(2) V
f
is an affine variety.
Proof. We may assume V ⊂ A
n
; let I = I (V ), so Γ(V ) = k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]/I . Choose F ∈
k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] whose I -residue F is f .
(1): Let z ∈ Γ(V
f
). The pole set of z is V (J), where J = {G ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] | Gz ∈
Γ(V )} (proof of Proposition 2 of §2.4). Since V (J ) ⊂V (F), F
N
∈ J for some N, by the
Nullstellensatz. Then f
N
z = a ∈ Γ(V ), so z = a/f
N
∈ Γ(V )[1/f ]. The other inclusion
is obvious.
(2): We must “push the zeros of F off to infinity” (compare with the proof of the
Nullstellensatz). Let I

be the ideal ink[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] generatedby I andby X
n+1
F−1,
V

=V (I

) ⊂A
n+1
.
Let α: k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
] →Γ(V
f
) be definedby letting α(X
i
) = X
i
if i ≤n, α(X
n+1
) =
1/f . Then α is onto by (1), and it is left to the reader to check that Ker(α) = I

. (See
Problem 6.13.) In particular, I

is prime, so V

is a variety, and α induces an isomor-
phismα: Γ(V

) →Γ(V
f
).
The projection(X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
) →(X
1
, . . . , X
n
) fromA
n+1
toA
n
induces a morphism
ϕ: V

→V
f
(Problem 6.16). This ϕ is one-to-one and onto, and ˜ ϕ = (α)
−1
. If W is
closed in V , defined by the vanishing of polynomials G
β
(X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
), then ϕ(W) is
closed in V
f
, defined by polynomials F
N
G
β
(X
1
, . . . , X
n
, 1/F), with N ≥deg(G
β
); from
this it follows that ϕ
−1
is continuous. We leave it to the reader to complete the proof
that ϕ
−1
is a morphism, and hence ϕ is an isomorphism.
72 CHAPTER 6. VARIETIES, MORPHISMS, ANDRATIONAL MAPS
Corollary. Let X be a variety, U a neighborhood of a point P in X. Then there is a
neighborhood V of P, V ⊂U, such that V is an affine variety.
Proof. If X is open in a projective variety X

⊂P
n
, and P ∈U
i
, we may replace X by
X

∩U
i
, U by U ∩U
i
. So we may assume X ⊂A
n
is affine.
Since X U is an algebraic subset of A
n
, there is a polynomial F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
]
such that F(P) =0, and F(Q) =0 for all Q ∈ X U (Problem1.17). Let f be the image
of F in Γ(X). Then P ∈ X
f
⊂U, and X
f
is affine by the proposition.
Problems
6.13.

Let R be a domain with quotient field K, f = 0 in R. Let R[1/f ] = {a/f
n
|
a ∈ R, n ∈ Z}, a subring of K. (a) Show that if ϕ: R →S is any ring homomorphism
such that ϕ( f ) is a unit in S, then ϕextends uniquely to a ring homomorphismfrom
R[1/f ] to S. (b) Show that the ring homomorphism from R[X]/(X f −1) to R[1/f ]
that takes X to 1/f is an isomorphism.
6.14.

Let X, Y be varieties, f : X →Y a mapping. Let X =
¸
α
U
α
, Y =
¸
α
V
α
, with
U
α
, V
α
open subvarieties, and suppose f (U
α
) ⊂ V
α
for all α. (a) Show that f is a
morphism if and only if each restriction f
α
: U
α
→V
α
of f is a morphism. (b) If each
U
α
, V
α
is affine, f is a morphism if and only if each
˜
f (Γ(V
α
)) ⊂Γ(U
α
).
6.15.

(a) If Y is an open or closed subvariety of X, the inclusion i : Y →X is a mor-
phism. (b) The composition of morphisms is a morphism.
6.16.

Let f : X →Y be a morphism of varieties, X

⊂ X, Y

⊂ Y subvarieties (open
or closed). Assume f (X

) ⊂ Y

. Then the restriction of f to X

is a morphism from
X

to Y

. (Use Problems 6.14 and 2.9.)
6.17. (a) Show that A
2
{(0, 0)} is not an affine variety (see Problem 6.9). (b) The
union of two open affine subvarieties of a variety may not be affine.
6.18. Show that the natural map π from A
n+1
{(0, . . . , 0)} to P
n
is a morphism of
varieties, and that a subset U of P
n
is open if and only if π
−1
(U) is open.
6.19.

Let X be a variety, f ∈ Γ(X). Let ϕ: X →A
1
be the mapping defined by ϕ(P) =
f (P) for P ∈ X. (a) Show that for λ ∈ k, ϕ
−1
(λ) is the pole set of z = 1/( f −λ). (b)
Show that ϕ is a morphism of varieties.
6.20.

Let A =P
n
1
×· · · ×A
n
, B =P
m
1
×· · · ×A
m
. Let y ∈ B, V a closed subvariety of
A. Show that V ×{y} ={(x, y) ∈ A×B | x ∈V } is a closed subvariety of A×B, and that
the map V →V ×{y} taking x to (x, y) is an isomorphism.
6.21. Any variety is the union of a finite number of open affine subvarieties.
6.22.

Let X be a projective variety in P
n
, and let H be a hyperplane in P
n
that
doesn’t contain X. (a) Show that X (H ∩X) is isomorphic to an affine variety X


A
n
. (b) If L is the linear formdefining H, and l is its image in Γ
h
(X) =k[x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
],
then Γ(X

) may be identified with k[x
1
/l , . . . , x
n+1
/l ]. (Hint: Change coordinates so
L = X
n+1
.)
6.23.

Let P, Q ∈ X, X a variety. Show that there is an affine open set V on X that
contains P and Q. (Hint: See the proof of the Corollary to Proposition 5, and use
6.4. PRODUCTS ANDGRAPHS 73
Problem 1.17(c).)
6.24.

Let X be a variety, P,Q two distinct points of X. Showthat there is an f ∈ k(X)
that is defined at P and at Q, with f (P) = 0, f (Q) = 0 (Problems 6.23, 1.17). So f ∈
m
P
(X), 1/f ∈ O
Q
(X). The local rings O
P
(X), as P varies in X, are distinct.
6.25.

Show that [x
1
: . . . : x
n
] →[x
1
: . . . : x
n
: 0] gives an isomorphism of P
n−1
with
H

⊂ P
n
. If a variety V in P
n
is contained in H

, V is isomorphic to a variety in
P
n−1
. Any projective variety is isomorphic to a closed subvariety V ⊂ P
n
(for some
n) such that V is not contained in any hyperplane in P
n
.
6.4 Products and Graphs
Let A =P
n
1
×· · ·×A
n
, B =P
m
1
×· · ·×A
m
be mixed spaces, as in Chapter 4, Section
4. Then A ×B = P
n
1
×· · · ×P
m
1
×· · · ×A
n+m
is also a mixed space. If U
i 1
×· · · ×A
n
and U
j 1
×· · · ×A
m
are the usual affine open subvarieties that cover A and B, then
U
i 1
×· · · ×A
n+m
are affine open subvarieties that cover A×B.
Proposition 6. Let V ⊂ A, W ⊂ B be closed subvarieties. Then V ×W is a closed
subvariety of A×B.
Proof. The only difficulty is in showing that V ×W is irreducible. Suppose V ×W =
Z
1
∪Z
2
, Z
i
closed in A×B. Let U
i
={y ∈W | V ×{y} ⊂ Z
i
}. Since V ×{y} is irreducible
(Problem 6.20), U
1
∩U
2
=. It suffices to show that each U
i
is open, for then, since
W is a variety, one of theU
i
(sayU
1
) must be empty, and thenV ×W ⊂ Z
1
, as desired.
Let F
α
(X, Y ) be the “multiforms” defining Z
1
. If y ∈ U
1
, then for some α and
some x ∈V , F
α
(x, y) =0. Let G
α
(Y ) =F
α
(x, Y ). Then {y

∈W | G
α
(y

) =0} is an open
neighborhood of y inU
1
. A set that contains a neighborhood of each of its points is
open, soU
1
(and likewise U
2
) is open.
If X and Y are any varieties, say X is open in V ⊂ A, Y open in W ⊂B, V, W, A, B
as above. Then X ×Y is open in V ×W, so X ×Y is a variety. Note that the product
of two affine varieties is an affine variety, and the product of two projective varieties
is a projective variety.
Proposition 7. (1) The projections pr
1
: X ×Y →X and pr
2
: X ×Y →Y are mor-
phisms.
(2) If f : Z → X, g : Z → Y are morphisms, then ( f , g) : Z → X ×Y defined by
( f , g)(z) =( f (z), g(z)) is a morphism.
(3) If f : X

→X, g : Y

→Y are morphisms, then f ×g : X

×Y

→X ×Y defined
by ( f ×g)(x

, y

) =( f (x

), g(y

)) is a morphism.
(4) The diagonal ∆
X
={(x, y) ∈ X ×X | y = x} is a closed subvariety of X ×X, and
the diagonal map δ
X
: X →∆
X
defined by δ
X
(x) =(x, x) is an isomorphism.
Proof. (1) is left to the reader.
(2): We may reduce first to the case where X = A, Y = B (Problem 6.16). Since
being a morphism is local (Problem 6.14), we may cover A and B by the open affine
spaces U
i 1
×· · · ×A
r
. This reduces it to the case where X = A
n
, Y = A
m
. We may
74 CHAPTER 6. VARIETIES, MORPHISMS, ANDRATIONAL MAPS
also assume Z is affine, since Z is a union of open affine subvarieties. But this case
is trivial, since the product of polynomial maps is certainly a polynomial map.
(3): Apply (2) to the morphism ( f ◦pr
1
, g ◦pr
2
).
(4): The diagonal in P
n
×P
n
is clearly an algebraic subset, so ∆
X
is closed in any
X (Proposition 4 of §6.3). The restriction of pr
1
: X ×X →X is inverse to δ
X
, so δ
X
is
an isomorphism.
Corollary. If f , g : X →Y are morphisms of varieties, then {x ∈ X | f (x) = g(x)} is
closed in X. If f and g agree on a dense set of X, then f =g.
Proof. {x | f (x) =g(x)} =( f , g)
−1
(∆
Y
).
If f : X → Y is a morphism of varieties, the graph of f , G( f ), is defined to be
{(x, y) ∈ X ×Y | y = f (x)}.
Proposition 8. G( f ) is a closed subvariety of X ×Y . The projection of X ×Y onto X
restricts to an isomorphism of G( f ) with X.
Proof. We haveG( f ) =( f ×i )
−1
(∆
Y
), i =identity onY . Now( j , f ) : X →X ×Y , where
j = identity on X, maps X onto G( f ), and this is inverse to the projection.
Problems
6.26.

(a) Let f : X →Y be a morphism of varieties such that f (X) is dense in Y .
Show that the homomorphism
˜
f : Γ(Y ) → Γ(X) is one-to-one. (b) If X and Y are
affine, show that f (X) is dense in Y if and only if
˜
f : Γ(Y ) →Γ(X) is one-to-one. Is
this true if Y is not affine?
6.27. Let U, V be open subvarieties of a variety X. (a) Showthat U∩V is isomorphic
to (U×V )∩∆
X
. (b) If U andV are affine, showthat U∩V is affine. (Compare Problem
6.17.)
6.28. Let d ≥1, N =
(d+1)(d+2)
2
, and let M
1
, . . . , M
N
be the monomials of degree d in
X, Y, Z (in some order). Let T
1
, . . . , T
N
be homogeneous coordinates for P
N−1
. Let
V = V
¸
¸
N
i =1
M
i
(X, Y, Z)T
i
¸
⊂ P
2
×P
N−1
, and let π: V →P
N−1
be the restriction of
the projection map. (a) Show that V is an irreducible closed subvariety of P
2
×P
N−1
,
and π is a morphism. (b) For each t =(t
1
, . . . , t
N
) ∈ P
N−1
, let C
t
be the corresponding
curve (§5.2). Show that π
−1
(t ) =C
t
×{t }.
We may thus think of π: V →P
N−1
as a “universal family” of curves of degree d.
Every curve appears as a fibre π
−1
(t ) over some t ∈ P
N−1
.
6.29. Let V be a variety, and suppose V is also a group, i.e., there are mappings
ϕ: V ×V →V (multiplication or addition), and ψ: V →V (inverse) satisfying the
group axioms. If ϕ and ψ are morphisms, V is said to be an algebraic group. Show
that each of the following is an algebraic group:
(a) A
1
=k, with the usual addition on k; this group is often denoted G
a
.
(b) A
1
{(0)} =k {(0)}, with the usual multiplication on k: this is denoted G
m
.
(c) A
n
(k) with addition: likewise M
n
(k) ={n by n matrices} under addition may
be identified with A
n
2
(k).
6.5. ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONFIELDS ANDDIMENSIONOF VARIETIES 75
(d) GL
n
(k) = {invertible n ×n matrices} is an affine open subvariety of M
n
(k),
and a group under multiplication.
(e) C a nonsingular plane cubic, O ∈ C, ⊕ the resulting addition (see Problem
5.38).
6.30. (a) Let C =V (Y
2
Z −X
3
) be a cubic with a cusp, C

=C {[0 : 0 : 1]} the simple
points, a group with O = [0 : 1 : 0]. Show that the map ϕ: G
a
→C

given by ϕ(t ) =
[t : 1 : t
3
] is an isomorphism of algebraic groups. (b) Let C =V (X
3
+Y
3
−XY Z) be a
cubic with a node, C

=C {[0 : 0 : 1]}, O =[1 : 1 : 0]. Show that ϕ: G
m
→C

defined
by ϕ(t ) =[t : t
2
: 1−t
3
] is an isomorphism of algebraic groups.
6.5 Algebraic Function Fields and Dimension of Vari-
eties
Let K be a finitely generated field extension of k. The transcendence degree of K
over k, written tr. deg
k
K is defined to be the smallest integer n such that for some
x
1
, . . . , x
n
∈ K, K is algebraic over k(x
1
, . . . , x
n
). We say then that K is an algebraic
function field in n variables over k.
Proposition 9. Let K be an algebraic function field in one variable over k, and let
x ∈ K, x ∈ k. Then
(1) K is algebraic over k(x).
(2) (char(k) =0) There is an element y ∈ K such that K =k(x, y).
(3) If R is a domain with quotient field K, k ⊂ R, and p is a prime ideal in R,
0 =p =R, then the natural homomorphism from k to R/p is an isomorphism.
Proof. (1) Take any t ∈ K so that K is algebraic over k(t ). Since x is algebraic over
k(t ), there is a polynomial F ∈ k[T, X] such that F(t , x) = 0 (clear denominators if
necessary). Since x is not algebraic over k (Problem 1.48), T must appear in F, so
t is algebraic over k(x). Then k(x, t ) is algebraic over k(x) (Problem 1.50), so K is
algebraic over k(x) (Problem 1.46).
(2) Since char(k(x)) = 0, this is an immediate consequence of the “Theorem of
the Primitive Element.” We have outlined a proof of this algebraic fact in Problem
6.31 below.
(3) Suppose there is an x ∈ R whose residue x in R/p is not in k, and let y ∈ p, y =
0. Choose F =
¸
a
i
(X)Y
i
∈ k[X, Y ] so that F(x, y) =0. If we choose F of lowest pos-
sible degree, then a
0
(X) =0. But then a
0
(x) ∈ P, so a
0
(x) =0. But x is not algebraic
over k (Problem 1.48), so there is no such x.
If X is a variety, k(X) is a finitely generated extension of k. Define the dimen-
sion of X, dim(X), to be tr. deg
k
k(X). A variety of dimension one is called a curve, of
dimension two a surface, etc. Part (5) of the next proposition shows that, for subvari-
eties of A
2
or P
2
, this definition agrees with the one given in Chapters 3 and 5. Note,
however, that a “curve” is assumed to be a variety, while a “plane curve” is allowed
to have several (even multiple) components.
Proposition 10. (1) If U is an open subvariety of X, then dimU =dimX.
76 CHAPTER 6. VARIETIES, MORPHISMS, ANDRATIONAL MAPS
(2) If V

is the projective closure of an affine variety V , then dimV =dimV

.
(3) A variety has dimension zero if and only if it is a point.
(4) Every proper closed subvariety of a curve is a point.
(5) A closed subvariety of A
2
(resp. P
2
) has dimension one if and only if it is an
affine (resp. projective) plane curve.
Proof. (1) and (2) follow from the fact that the varieties have the same function
fields.
(3): Suppose dimV =0. We may suppose V is affine by (1) and (2). Then k(V ) is
algebraic over k, so k(V ) =k, so Γ(V ) =k. Then Problem 2.4 gives the result.
(4): Again we may assume V is affine. If W is a closed subvariety of V , let R =
Γ(V ), p the prime ideal of R corresponding to W; then Γ(W) = R/Pp (Problem 2.3).
Apply Proposition 9 (3).
(5): Assume V ⊂A
2
. Since k(V ) =k(x, y), dimV must be 0, 1, or 2. So V is either
a point, a plane curve V (F), or V =A
2
(§1.6). If F(x, y) =0, tr. deg
k
k(x, y) ≤1. Then
the result follows from (3) and (4). Use (2) if V ⊂P
2
.
Problems
6.31.

(Theorem of the Primitive Element) Let K be a field of a characteristic zero, L
a finite (algebraic) extension of K. Then there is a z ∈ L such that L =K(z).
Outline of Proof. Step (i): Suppose L =K(x, y). Let F and G be monic irreducible
polynomials in K[T] such that F(x) = 0, G(y) = 0. Let L

be a field in which F =
¸
n
i =1
(T−x
i
), G =
¸
m
j =1
(T−y
i
), x =x
1
, y = y
1
, L

⊃L (see Problems 1.52, 1.53). Choose
λ = 0 in K so that λx +y = λx
i
+y
j
for all i = 1, j = 1. Let z = λx +y, K

= K(z). Set
H(T) = G(z −λT) ∈ K

[T]. Then H(x) = 0, H(x
i
) = 0 if i > 0. Therefore (H, F) =
(T −x) ∈ K

[T]. Then x ∈ K

, so y ∈ K

, so L =K

.
Step (ii): If L = K(x
1
, . . . , x
n
), use induction on n to find λ
1
, . . . , λ
n
∈ k such that
L =K(
¸
λ
i
x
i
).
6.32.

Let L = K(x
1
, . . . , x
n
) as in Problem 6.31. Suppose k ⊂ K is an algebraically
closed subfield, and V A
n
(k) is an algebraic set. Showthat L =K(
¸
λ
i
x
i
) for some

1
, . . . , λ
n
) ∈ A
n
V .
6.33. The notion of transcendence degree is analogous to the idea of the dimension
of a vector space. If k ⊂ K, we say that x
1
, . . . , x
n
∈ K are algebraically independent
if there is no nonzero polynomial F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] such that F(x
1
, . . . , x
n
) = 0. By
methods entirely analogous to those for bases of vector spaces, one can prove:
(a) Let x
1
, . . . , x
n
∈ K, K a finitely generated extension of k. Then x
1
, . . . , x
n
is a
minimal set such that K is algebraic over k(x
1
, . . . , x
n
) if and only if x
1
, . . . , x
n
is a
maximal set of algebraically independent elements of K. Such {x
1
, . . . , x
n
} is called a
transcendence basis of K over k.
(b) Any algebraically independent set may be completed to a transcendence ba-
sis. Any set {x
1
, . . . , x
n
} such that K is algebraic over k(x
1
, . . . , x
n
) contains a tran-
scendence basis.
(c) tr. deg
k
K is the number of elements in any transcendence basis of K over k.
6.6. RATIONAL MAPS 77
6.34. Show that dimA
n
=dimP
n
=n.
6.35. Let Y be a closed subvariety of a variety X. Then dimY ≤dimX, with equality
if and only if Y = X.
6.36. Let K = k(x
1
, . . . , x
n
) be a function field in r variables over k. (a) Show that
there is an affine variety V ⊂A
n
with k(V ) =K. (b) Show that we may find V ⊂A
r +1
with k(V ) =K, r =dimV . (Assume char(k) =0 if you wish.)
6.6 Rational Maps
Let X, Y be varieties. Two morphisms f
i
: U
i
→Y from open subvarieties U
i
of
X to Y are said to be equivalent if their restrictions to U
1
∩U
2
are the same. Since
U
1
∩U
2
is dense in X, each f
i
is determined by its restriction toU
1
∩U
2
(Corollary to
Proposition 7 in §6.4). An equivalence class of such morphisms is called a rational
map from X to Y .
The domain of a rational map is the union of all open subvarieties U
α
of X such
that some f
α
: U
α
→Y belongs to the equivalence class of the rational map. If U is
the domain of a rational map, the mapping f : U →Y defined by f
|U
α
= f
α
is a mor-
phism belonging to the equivalence class of the map; every equivalent morphism is
a restriction of f . Thus a rational map from X to Y may also be defined as a mor-
phism f from an open subvariety U of X to Y such that f cannot be extended to a
morphism from any larger open subset of X to Y . For any point P in the domain of
f , the value f (P) is well-defined in k.
A rational map from X to Y is said to be dominating if f (U) is dense in Y , where
f : U →Y is any morphism representing the map (it is easy to see that this is inde-
pendent of U).
If A and B are local rings, and A is a subring of B, we say that B dominates A if
the maximal ideal of B contains the maximal ideal of A.
Proposition11. (1) Let F be a dominating rational map from X to Y . Let U ⊂ X, V ⊂
Y be affine open sets, f : U →V a morphismthat represents F. Then the induced map
˜
f : Γ(V ) → Γ(U) is one-to-one, so
˜
f extends to a one-to-one homomorphism from
k(Y ) = k(V ) into k(X) = k(U). This homomorphism is independent of the choice of
f , and is denoted by
˜
F.
(2) If P belongs to the domainof F, andF(P) =Q, thenO
P
(X) dominates
˜
F(O
Q
(Y )).
Conversely, if P ∈ X, Q ∈ Y , and O
P
(X) dominates
˜
F(O
Q
(Y )), then P belongs to the do-
main of F, and F(P) =Q.
(3) Any homomorphism from k(Y ) into k(X) is induced by a unique dominating
rational map from X to Y .
Proof. (1) is left to the reader (Problem 6.26), as is the first part of (2).
If O
P
(X) dominates
˜
F(O
Q
(Y )), take affine neighborhoods V of P, W of Q. Let
Γ(W) = k[y
1
, . . . , y
n
]. Then
˜
F(y
i
) = a
i
/b
i
, a
i
, b
i
∈ Γ(V ), and b
i
(P) = 0. If we let b =
b
1
· · · b
n
, then
˜
F(Γ(W)) ⊂Γ(V
b
) (Proposition 5 of §6.3) so
˜
F : Γ(W) →Γ(V
b
) is induced
by a unique morphism f : V
b
→W (Proposition 2 of §6.3). If g ∈ Γ(W) vanishes at Q,
then
˜
F(g) vanishes at P, from which it follows easily f (P) =Q.
78 CHAPTER 6. VARIETIES, MORPHISMS, ANDRATIONAL MAPS
(3) We may assume X and Y are affine. Then, as in (2), if ϕ: k(Y ) → k(X),
ϕ(Γ(Y )) ⊂ Γ(X
b
) for some b ∈ Γ(X), so ϕ is induced by a morphism f : X
b
→ Y .
Therefore f (X
b
) is dense in Y since
˜
f is one-to-one (Problem 6.26).
A rational map F from X to Y is said to be birational if there are open sets U ⊂ X,
V ⊂ Y , and an isomorphism f : U → V that represents F. We say that X and Y
are birationally equivalent if there is a birational map from X to Y (This is easily
seen to be an equivalence relation). A variety is birationally equivalent to any open
subvariety of itself. The varieties A
n
and P
n
are birationally equivalent.
Proposition12. Two varieties are birationally equivalent if and only if their function
fields are isomorphic.
Proof. Since k(U) = k(X) for any open subvariety U of X, birationally equivalent
varieties have isomorphic function fields.
Conversely, suppose ϕ: k(X) →k(Y ) is an isomorphism. We may assume X and
Y are affine. Then ϕ(Γ(X)) ⊂ Γ(Y
b
) for some b ∈ Γ(Y ), and ϕ
−1
(Γ(Y )) ⊂ Γ(X
d
) for
some d ∈ Γ(X), as in the proof of Proposition 11. Then ϕrestricts to an isomorphism
of Γ((X
d
)
ϕ
−1
(b)
) onto Γ((Y
b
)
ϕ(d)
), so (X
d
)
ϕ
−1
(b)
is isomorphic to (Y
b
)
ϕ(d)
, as desired.
Corollary. Every curve is birationally equivalent to a plane curve.
Proof. If V is a curve, k(V ) =k(x, y) for some x, y ∈ k(V ) (Proposition 9 (2) of §6.5).
Let I be the kernel of the natural homomorphism from k[X, Y ] onto k[x, y] ⊂k(V ).
Then I is prime, so V

=V (I ) ⊂A
2
is a variety. Since Γ(V

) =k[X, Y ]/I is isomorphic
to k[x, y], it follows that k(V

) is isomorphic to k(x, y) = k(V ). So dimV

= 1, and
V

is a plane curve (Proposition 10 (5) of §6.5). (See Appendix A for the case when
char(k) =p.)
Avariety is said to be rational if it is birationally equivalent to A
n
(or P
n
) for some
n.
Problems
6.37. Let C =V (X
2
+Y
2
−Z
2
) ⊂ P
2
. For each t ∈ k, let L
t
be the line between P
0
=
[−1 : 0 : 1] and P
t
= [0 : t : 1]. (Sketch this.) (a) If t = ±1, show that L
t
•C = P
0
+Q
t
,
where Q
t
=[1−t
2
: 2t : 1+t
2
]. (b) Showthat the map ϕ: A
1
{±1} →C taking t to Q
t
extends to an isomorphism of P
1
with C. (c) Any irreducible conic in P
2
is rational;
in fact, a conic is isomorphic to P
1
. (d) Give a prescription for finding all integer
solutions (x, y, z) to the Pythagorean equation X
2
+Y
2
= Z
2
.
6.38. An irreducible cubic with a multiple point is rational (Problems 6.30, 5.10,
5.11).
6.39. P
n
×P
m
is birationally equivalent to P
n+m
. Showthat P
1
×P
1
is not isomorphic
to P
2
. (Hint: P
1
×P
1
has closed subvarieties of dimension one that do not intersect.)
6.40. If there is a dominating rational map from X to Y , then dim(Y ) ≤dim(X).
6.6. RATIONAL MAPS 79
6.41. Every n-dimensional variety is birationally equivalent to a hypersurface in
A
n+1
(or P
n+1
).
6.42. Suppose X, Y varieties, P ∈ X, Q ∈ Y , with O
P
(X) isomorphic (over k) to
O
Q
(Y ). Then there are neighborhoods U of P on X, V of Q on Y , such that U is
isomorphic to V . This is another justification for the assertion that properties of X
near P should be determined by the local ring O
P
(X).
6.43.

Let C be a projective curve, P ∈C. Thenthere is a birational morphism f : C →
C

, C

a projective plane curve, such that f
−1
( f (P)) ={P}. We outline a proof:
(a) We can assume: C ⊂ P
n+1
Let T, X
1
, . . . , X
n
, Z be coordinates for P
n+1
; Then
C ∩V (T) is finite; C ∩V (T, Z) =; P =[0 : . . . : 0 : 1]; and k(C) is algebraic over k(u),
where u =T/Z ∈ k(C).
(b) For each λ=(λ
1
, . . . , λ
n
) ∈ k
n
, let ϕ
λ
: C →P
2
be defined by the formula ϕ([t :
x
1
: . . . : x
n
: z]) = [t :
¸
λ
i
x
i
: z]. Then ϕ
λ
is a well-defined morphism, and ϕ
λ
(P) =
[0 : 0 : 1]. Let C

be the closure of ϕ
λ
(C).
(c) The variable λ can be chosen so ϕ
λ
is a birational morphism from C to C

,
and ϕ
−1
λ
([0 : 0 : 1]) ={P}. (Use Problem 6.32 and the fact that C ∩V (T) is finite).
6.44. Let V =V (X
2
−Y
3
, Y
2
−Z
3
) ⊂A
3
, f : A
1
→V as in Problem2.13. (a) Showthat
f is birational, so V is a rational curve. (b) Show that there is no neighborhood of
(0, 0, 0) onV that is isomorphic to an open subvariety of a plane curve. (See Problem
3.14.)
6.45.

Let C, C

be curves, F a rational map from C

to C. Prove: (a) Either F is
dominating, or F is constant (i.e., for some P ∈ C, F(Q) = P, all Q ∈ C

). (b) If F is
dominating, then k(C

) is a finite algebraic extension of
˜
F(k(C)).
6.46. Let k(P
1
) = k(T), T = X/Y (Problem 4.8). For any variety V , and f ∈ k(V ),
f ∈ k, the subfield k( f ) generated by f is naturally isomorphic to k(T). Thus a non-
constant f ∈ k(V ) corresponds a homomorphism from k(T) to k(V ), and hence to
the a dominating rational map fromV to P
1
. The corresponding map is usually de-
noted also by f . If this rational map is a morphism, show that the pole set of f is
f
−1
([1 : 0]).
6.47. (The dual curve) Let F be an irreducible projective plane curve of degree n >
1. Let Γ
h
(F) = k[X, Y, Z]/(F) = k[x, y, z], and let u, v, w ∈ Γ
h
(F) be the residues of
F
X
, F
Y
, F
Z
, respectively. Define α: k[U, V, W] →Γ
h
(F) by setting α(U) =u, α(V ) =v,
α(W) = w. Let I be the kernel of α. (a) Show that I is a homogeneous prime ideal
in k[U, V, W], so V (I ) is a closed subvariety of P
2
. (b) Show that for any simple point
P on F, [F
X
(P) : F
Y
(P) : F
Z
(P)] is in V (I ), so V (I ) contains the points corresponding
to tangent lines to F at simple points. (c) If V (I ) ⊂ {[a : b : c]}, use Euler’s Theorem
to show that F divides aX +bY +cZ, which is impossible. Conclude that V (I ) is
a curve. It is called the dual curve of F. (d) Show that the dual curve is the only
irreducible curve containing all the points of (b). (See Walker’s “Algebraic Curves”
for more about dual curves when char(k) =0.)
80 CHAPTER 6. VARIETIES, MORPHISMS, ANDRATIONAL MAPS
Chapter 7
Resolution of Singularities
7.1 Rational Maps of Curves
A point P on an arbitrary curve C is called a simple point if O
P
(C) is a discrete
valuation ring. If C is a plane curve, this agrees with our original definition (The-
orem1 of §3.2). We let ord
C
P
, or ord
P
denote the order function on k(C) defined by
O
P
(C). The curve C is said to be nonsingular if every point on C is simple.
Let K be a field containing k. We say that a local ring A is a local ring of K if A
is a subring of K, K is the quotient field of A, and A contains k. For example, if V is
any variety, P ∈ V , then O
P
(V ) is a local ring of k(V ). Similarly, a discrete valuation
ring of K is a DVR that is a local ring of K.
Theorem1. Let C be a projective curve, K =k(C). Suppose L is a field containing K,
and R is a discrete valuation ring of L. Assume that R ⊃ K. Then there is a unique
point P ∈C such that R dominates O
P
(C).
Proof. Uniqueness: If R dominates O
P
(C) andO
Q
(C), choose f ∈ m
P
(C), 1/f ∈ O
Q
(C)
(Problem 6.24). Then ord( f ) >0 and ord(1/f ) ≥0, a contradiction.
Existence: We may assume C is a closed subvariety of P
n
, and that C ∩U
i
= ,
i =1, . . . , n+1 (Problem 6.25). Then in Γ
h
(C) =k[X
1
, . . . , X
n+1
]/I (C) =k[x
1
, . . . , x
n+1
],
each x
i
= 0. Let N = max
i , j
ord(x
i
/x
j
). Assume that ord(x
j
/x
n+1
) = N for some j
(changing coordinates if necessary). Then for all i ,
ord(x
i
/x
n+1
) = ord((x
j
/x
n+1
)(x
i
/x
j
)) = N −ord(x
j
/x
i
) ≥ 0.
If C

is the affine curve corresponding toC∩U
n+1
, then Γ(C

) may be identified with
k[x
1
/x
n+1
, . . . , x
n
/x
n+1
], so R ⊃Γ(C

).
Let m be the maximal ideal of R, J = m∩Γ(C

). Then J is a prime ideal, so J
corresponds to a closed subvariety W of C

(Problem 2.2). If W = C

, then J = 0,
and every nonzero element of Γ(C

) is a unit in R; but then K ⊂R, which is contrary
to our assumption. So W = {P} is a point (Proposition 10 of §6.5). It is then easy to
check that R dominates O
P
(C

) =O
P
(C).
81
82 CHAPTER 7. RESOLUTIONOF SINGULARITIES
Corollary 1. Let f be a rational map froma curve C

to a projective curve C. Then the
domain of f includes every simple point of C

. If C

is nonsingular, f is a morphism.
Proof. If F is not dominating, it is constant (Problem 6.45), and hence its domain is
all of C

. So we may assume
˜
F imbeds K = k(C) as a subfield of L = k(C

). Let P be
a simple point of C

, R = O
P
(C

). By Proposition 11 of §6.5 and the above Theorem
1, it is enough to show that R ⊃ K. Suppose K ⊂ R ⊂ L; then L is a finite algebraic
extension of K (Problem 6.45), so R is a field (Problem 1.50). But a DVR is not a
field.
Corollary 2. If C is a projective curve, C

a nonsingular curve, then there is a natural
one-to-one correspondence between dominant morphisms f : C

→C and homomor-
phisms
˜
f : k(C) →k(C

).
Corollary 3. Two nonsingular projective curves are isomorphic if and only if their
function fields are isomorphic.
Corollary 4. Let C be a nonsingular projective curve, K = k(C). Then there is a nat-
ural one-to-one correspondence between the points of C and the discrete valuation
rings of K. If P ∈C, O
P
(C) is the corresponding DVR.
Proof. Each O
P
(C) is certainly a DVR of K. If R is any such DVR, then R dominates
a unique O
P
(C). Since R and O
P
(C) are both DVR’s of K, it follows that R = O
P
(C)
(Problem 2.26).
Let C, K be as in Corollary 4. Let X be the set of all discrete valuation rings of K
over k. Give a topology to X as follows: a nonempty set U of X is open if X U is
finite. Then the correspondence P →O
P
(C) fromC to X is a homeomorphism. And
if U is open inC, Γ(U, O
C
) =
¸
P∈U
O
P
(C), so all the rings of functions onC may be re-
covered from X. Since X is determined by K alone, this means that C is determined
up to isomorphism by K alone (proving Corollary 3 again). In Chevalley’s “Algebraic
Functions of One Variable”, the reader may find a treatment of these functions fields
that avoids the concept of a curve entirely.
Problem
7.1. Show that any curve has only a finite number of multiple points.
7.2 Blowing up a Point in A
2
To “resolve the singularities” of a projective curve C means to construct a non-
singular projective curve X and a birational morphism f : X →C. A rough idea of
the procedure we will follow is this:
If C ⊂ P
2
, and P is a multiple point on C, we will remove the point P from P
2
and replace it by a projective line L. The points of L will correspond to the tangent
directions at P. This can be done in such a way that the resulting “blown up” plane
7.2. BLOWING UP A POINT INA
2
83
B = (P
2
{P}) ∪L is still a variety, and, in fact, a variety covered by open sets iso-
morphic to A
2
. The curve C will be birationally equivalent to a curve C

on B, with
C

(C

∩L) isomorphic to C {P}; but C

will have “better” multiple points on L
than C has at P.
In this section we blowup a point in the affine plane, replacing it by an affine line
L. In this case the equations are quite simple, and easy to relate to the geometry. In
the following two sections we consider projective situations; the equations become
more involved, but we will see that, locally, everything looks like what is done in this
section. Throughout, many mappings between varieties will be defined by explicit
formulas; we will leave it to the reader to verify that they are morphisms, using the
general techniques of Chapter 6.
Let P =(0, 0) ∈ A
2
. Let U ={(x, y) ∈ A
2
| x =0}. Define a morphism f : U →A
1
=k
by f (x, y) = y/x. Let G ⊂U ×A
1
⊂A
2
×A
1
=A
3
be the graph of f , so G ={(x, y, z) ∈
A
3
| y =xz, x =0}.
Let B = {(x, y, z) ∈ A
3
| y = xz}. Since Y −X Z is irreducible, B is a variety. Let
π: B →A
2
be the restriction of the projection fromA
3
to A
2
: π(x, y, z) =(x, y). Then
π(B) =U ∪{P}. Let L =π
−1
(P) ={(0, 0, z) | z ∈ k}. Since π
−1
(U) =G, π restricts to an
isomorphism of π
−1
(U) ontoU. We see that B is the closure of G in A
3
, G is an open
subvariety of B, while L is a closed subvariety of B.
For k = C, the real part of this can be visualized in R
3
. The next figure is an
attempt. The curve C =V (Y
2
−X
2
(X +1)) is sketched. It appears that if we remove P
fromC, take π
−1
(C{P}), and take the closure of this in B, we arrive at a nonsingular
curve C

with two points lying over the double point of C — we have “resolved the
singularity”.
If we take the side view of B, (projecting B onto the (x, z)-plane) we see that B is
isomorphic to an affine plane, and that C

becomes a parabola.
Let ϕ: A
2
→ B be defined by ϕ(x, z) = (x, xz, z). This ϕ is an isomorphism of
A
2
onto B (projection to (x, z)-plane gives the inverse). Let ψ = π◦ ϕ : A
2
→ A
2
;
ψ(x, z) =(x, xz). Let E =ψ
−1
(P) =ϕ
−1
(L) ={(x, z) ∈ A
2
| x =0}. Then ψ: A
2
E →U
is an isomorphism; ψis a birational morphism of the plane to itself.
84 CHAPTER 7. RESOLUTIONOF SINGULARITIES
x
,,
y
66
z
OO
x
,,
z
PP
x
,,
y
99
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
66 ϕ
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

π
//
ψ
Let C = V (X) be a curve in A
2
. Write C
0
= C ∩U, an open subvariety of C; let
C

0

−1
(C
0
), and let C

be the closure of C

0
in A
2
. Let f : C

→C be the restriction
of ψtoC

. Then f is a birational morphismof C

toC. By means of
˜
f we may identify
k(C) =k(x, y) with k(C

) =k(x, z); y =xz.
(1). Let C =V (F), F =F
r
+F
r +1
+· · · +F
n
, F
i
a formof degree i in k[X, Y ], r =m
P
(C),
n =deg(C). Then C

=V (F

), where F

=F
r
(1, Z) +XF
r +1
(1, Z) +· · · +X
n−r
F
n
(1, Z).
Proof. F(X, X Z) = X
r
F
r
(1, Z) + X
r +1
F
r +1
(1, Z) +· · · = X
r
F

. Since F
r
(1, Z) = 0, X
doesn’t divide F

.
If F

= GH, then F = X
r
G(X, Y /X)H(X, Y /X) would be reducible. Thus F

is
irreducible, and since V (F

) ⊃C

0
, V (F

) =C

.
Assumption. X is not tangent to C at P. By multiplying F by a constant, we may
assume that F
r
=
¸
s
i =1
(Y −α
i
X)
r
i
, where Y −α
i
X are the tangents to F at P.
(2). With F as above, f
−1
(P) ={P
1
, . . . , P
s
}. where P
i
=(0, α
i
), and
m
P
i
(C

) ≤ I (P
i
,C

∩E) = r
i
.
If P is an ordinary multiple point on C, then each P
i
is a simple point on C

, and
ord
C

P
i
(x) =1.
Proof. f
−1
(P) =C

∩E ={(0, α) | F
r
(1, α) =0}. And
m
P
i
(C

) ≤ I (P
i
, F

∩X) = I (P
i
,
s
¸
i =1
(Z −α
i
)
r
i
∩X) = r
i
by properties of the intersection number.
7.2. BLOWING UP A POINT INA
2
85
(3). There is an affine neighborhood W of P on C such that W

= f
−1
(W) is an
affine open subvariety on C

, f (W

) = W, Γ(W

) is module finite over Γ(W), and
x
r −1
Γ(W

) ⊂Γ(W).
Proof. Let F =
¸
i +j ≥r
a
i j
X
i
Y
j
. Let H =
¸
j ≥r
a
0j
Y
j −r
, and let h be the image of
H in Γ(C). Since H(0, 0) = 1, W = C
h
is an affine neighborhood of P in C. Then
W

= f
−1
(W) =C

h
is also an affine open subvariety of C

.
To prove the last two claims it suffices to find anequation z
r
+b
1
z
r −1
+· · ·+b
r
=0,
b
i
∈ Γ(W). In fact, Γ(W

) =Γ(W)[z], so it will follow that 1, z, . . . , z
r −1
generate Γ(W

)
as a module over Γ(W) (see Proposition 3 of §1.9); and x
r −1
z
i
∈ Γ(W) if i ≤r −1.
To find the equation, notice that
F

(x, z) =
¸
a
i j
x
i +j −r
z
j
=
¸
a
i j
y
i +j −r
z
r −i
,
so we have an equation z
r
+b
1
z
r −1
+· · · +b
r
= 0, where b
i
= (
¸
j
a
i j
y
i +j −r
)/h for
i <r , and b
r
=
¸
i ≥r, j
a
i j
x
i −r
y
j
/h.
Remarks. (1) We can take the neighborhoods W and W

arbitrarily small; i.e., if
P ∈U, U

⊃{P
1
, . . . , P
s
} are any open sets on C and C

, we may take W ⊂U, W

⊂U

.
Starting with W as in (3), we may choose g ∈ Γ(W) such that g(P) = 0, but g(Q) =
0 for all Q ∈ (W U) ∪ f (W

U

) (Problem 1.17). Then W
g
, W

g
are the required
neighborhoods.
(2) By taking a linear change of coordinates if necessary, we may also assume
that W includes any finite set of points on C we wish. For the points on the Y -axis
can be moved intoW by a change of coordinates (X, Y ) →(X +αY, Y ). And the zeros
of H can be moved by (X, Y ) →(X, Y +βX).
Problems
7.2. (a) For each of the curves F in §3.1, find F

; show that F

is nonsingular in the
first five examples, but not in the sixth. (b) Let F =Y
2
−X
5
. What is F

? What is (F

)

?
What must be done to resolve the singularity of the curve Y
2
= X
2n+1
?
7.3. Let F be any plane curve with no multiple components. Generalize the results
of this section to F.
7.4.

Suppose P is an ordinary multiple point on C, f
−1
(P) = {P
1
, . . . , P
r
}. With the
notation of Step (2), show that F
Y
=
¸
i
¸
j =i
(Y −α
j
X) +(F
r +1
)
Y
+ . . . , so F
Y
(x, y) =
x
r −1
(
¸
j =i
(z −α
j
) +x +. . . ). Conclude that ord
C

P
i
(F
Y
(x, y)) =r −1 for i =1, . . . , r .
7.5.

Let P be an ordinary multiple point on C, f
−1
(P) = {P
1
, . . . , P
r
}, L
i
= Y −α
i
X
the tangent line corresponding to P
i
= (0, α
i
). Let G be a plane curve with image g
in Γ(C) ⊂Γ(C

). (a) Show that ord
C

P
i
(g) ≥m
P
(G), with equality if L
i
is not tangent to
G at P. (b) If s ≤r , and ord
C

R
i
(g) ≥ s for each i =1, . . . , r , show that m
P
(G) ≥ s. (Hint:
How many tangents would G have otherwise?)
7.6. If P is an ordinary cusp on C, show that f
−1
(P) = {P
1
}, where P
1
is a simple
point on C

.
86 CHAPTER 7. RESOLUTIONOF SINGULARITIES
7.3 Blowing up Points in P
2
Let P
1
, . . . , P
t
∈ P
2
. We are going to blow up all of these points, replacing each by
a projective line. We assume for simplicity that P
i
=[a
i 1
: a
i 2
: 1], leaving the reader
to make the necessary changes if P
i
∈U
3
.
Let U =P
2
{P
1
, . . . , P
t
}. Define morphisms f
i
: U →P
1
by the formula
f
i
[x
1
: x
2
: x
3
] = [x
1
−a
i 1
x
3
: x
2
−a
i 2
x
3
].
Let f =( f
1
, . . . , f
t
) : U →P
1
×· · · ×P
1
(t times) be the product (Proposition 7 of §6.4),
and let G ⊂U ×P
1
×· · · ×P
1
be the graph of f .
Let X
1
, X
2
, X
3
be homogeneous coordinates for P
2
, Y
i 1
, Y
i 2
homogeneous coor-
dinates for the i
th
copy of P
1
. Let
B =V ({Y
i 1
(X
2
−a
i 2
X
3
) −Y
i 2
(X
1
−a
i 1
X
3
| i =1, . . . , t }) ⊂P
2
×P
1
×· · · ×P
1
.
Then B ⊃G, and we will soon see that B is the closure of G in P
2
×· · · ×P
1
, so B is a
variety. Let π: B →P
2
be the restriction of the projection fromP
2
×· · · ×P
1
to P
2
. Let
E
i

−1
(P
i
).
(1). E
i
={P
i
} ×{ f
1
(P
i
)} ×· · · ×P
1
×· · · ×{ f
t
(P
i
)}, where P
1
appears in the i th place. So
each E
i
is canonically isomorphic to P
1
.
(2). B
¸
t
i =1
E
i
= B ∩(U ×P
1
×· · · ×P
1
) = G, so π restricts to an isomorphism of
B
¸
t
i =1
E
i
withU.
(3). If T is any projective change of coordinates of P
2
, with T(P
i
) = P

i
, and
f

i
: P
2
{P

1
, . . . , P

t
} →P
1
are defined using P

i
instead of the P
i
, thenthere are unique
projective changes of coordinates T
i
of P
1
such that T
i
◦ f
i
= f

i
◦T (see Problem 7.7
below). If f

=( f

i
, . . . , f

t
), then (T
1
×· · · ×T
t
) ◦ f = f

◦T, and T ×T
1
×· · · ×T
t
maps G,
B and E
i
isomorphically onto the corresponding G

, B

and E

i
constructed from f

.
(4). If T
i
is a projective change of coordinates of P
1
(for one i ), then there is a pro-
jective change of coordinates T of P
2
such that T(P
i
) = P
i
and f
i
◦ T = T
i
◦ f
i
(see
Problem 7.8 below).
(5). We want to study π in a neighborhood of a point Q in some E
i
. We may assume
i =1, and by (3) and (4) we may assume that P
1
=[0 : 0 : 1], and that Q corresponds
to [λ: 1] ∈ P
1
, λ∈ k (even λ=0 if desired).
Let ϕ
3
: A
2
→U
3
⊂ P
2
be the usual morphism: ϕ
3
(x, y) = [x : y : 1]. Let V =
U
3
{P
2
, . . . , P
t
}, W = ϕ
−1
3
(V ). Let ψ: A
2
→A
2
be as in Section 2: ψ(x, z) = (x, xz);
and let W


−1
(W).
Define ϕ: W

→P
2
×P
1
×· · · ×P
1
by setting
ϕ(x, z) =[x : xz : 1] ×[1 : z] × f
2
([x : xz : 1]) ×· · · × f
t
([x : xz : 1]).
Then ϕ is a morphism, and π◦ϕ = ϕ
3
◦ψ. Let V

= ϕ(W

) = B (
¸
i >1
E
i
∪V (X
3
) ∪
V (Y
12
)). This V

is a neighborhood of Q on B.
(6). B is the closure of G in P
2
×· · · ×P
1
, and hence B is a variety. For if S is any
closed set in P
2
×· · · ×P
1
that contains G, then ϕ
−1
(S) is closed in W

and contains
7.4. QUADRATIC TRANSFORMATIONS 87
ϕ
−1
(G) = W

V (X). Since W

V (X) is open in W

, it is dense, so ϕ
−1
(S) = W

.
Therefore Q ∈ S, and since Q was an arbitrary point of B G, S ⊃B.
(7). The morphism from P
2
×· · · ×P
1
V (X
3
Y
12
) to A
2
taking [x
1
: x
2
: x
3
] ×[y
11
:
y
12
] ×· · · to [x
1
/x
3
: y
11
/y
12
], when restricted to V

, is the inverse morphism to ϕ.
Thus we have the following diagram:
A
2
⊃W


ϕ
//
ψ

V

⊂B
π

A
2
⊃W
ϕ
3

//
V ⊂P
2
Locally, π: B →P
2
looks just like the map ψ: A
2
→A
2
of Section 2.
(8). Let C be an irreducible curve in P
2
. Let C
0
=C ∩U, C

0

−1
(C
0
) ⊂G, and let C

be the closure of C

0
in B. then π restricts to a birational morphism f : C

→C, which
is an isomorphism from C

0
to C
0
. By (7) we know that, locally, f looks just like the
corresponding affine map of Section 2.
Proposition 1. Let C be an irreducible projective plane curve, and suppose all the
multiple points of C are ordinary. Then there is a nonsingular projective curve C

and
a birational morphism f fromC

onto C.
Proof. Let P
1
, . . . , P
t
be the multiple points of C, and apply the above process. Step
(2) of Section 2, together with (8) above, guarantees that C

is nonsingular.
Problems
7.7.

Suppose P
1
=[0 : 0 : 1], P

1
=[a
11
: a
12
: 1], and
T =(aX +bY +a
11
z, cX +dY +a
12
Z, eX + f Y +Z).
Showthat T
1
=((a−a
11
e)X +(b−a
11
f )Y, (c −a
12
e)X +(d−a
12
f )Y ) satisfies T
1
◦ f
1
=
f

1
◦T. Use this to prove Step (3) above.
7.8.

Let P
1
=[0 : 0 : 1], T
1
=(aX +bY, cX +dY ). Showthat T =(aX +bY, cX +dY, Z)
satisfies f
1
◦T =T
1
◦ f
1
. Use this to prove Step (4).
7.9. Let C =V (X
4
+Y
4
−XY Z
2
). Write down equations for a nonsingular curve X
in some P
N
that is birationally equivalent to C. (Use the Segre imbedding.)
7.4 Quadratic Transformations
A disadvantage of the procedure in Section 7.3 is that the newcurve C

, although
having better singularities than C, is no longer a plane curve. The facts we have
learned about plane curves don’t apply to C

, and it is difficult to repeat the process
to C

, getting a better curve C

. (The latter can be done, but it requires more tech-
nique than we have developed here.) If we want C

to be a plane curve, we must
88 CHAPTER 7. RESOLUTIONOF SINGULARITIES
allow it acquire some new singularities. These new singularities can be taken to be
ordinary multiple points, while the old singularities of C become better on C

.
Let P = [0 : 0 : 1], P

= [0 : 1 : 0], P

= [1 : 0 : 0] in P
2
; call these three points the
fundamental points. Let L =V (Z), L

=V (Y ), L

=V (X); call these the exceptional
lines. Note that the lines L

and L

intersect in P, and L is the line through P

and
P

. Let U =P
2
V (XY Z).
Define Q: P
2
{P, P

, P

} →P
2
by the formula Q([x : y : z] = [yz : xz : xy]. This
Q is a morphism fromP
2
{P, P

, P

} onto U ∪{P, P

, P

}. And Q
−1
(P) =L −{P

, P

}.
(By the symmetry of Q, it is enough to write one such equality; the results for the
other fundamental points and exceptional lines are then clear — and we usually
omit writing them.)
If [x : y : z] ∈ U, then Q(Q([x : y : z])) = [xzxy : yzxy : yzxz] = [x : y : z]. So Q
maps U one-to-one onto itself, andQ =Q
−1
onU, soQ is an isomorphismof U with
itself. In particular, Q is a birational map of P
2
with itself. It is called the standard
quadratic transformation, or sometimes the standard Cremona transformation (a
Cremona transformation is any birational map of P
2
with itself ).
Let C be an irreducible curve in P
2
. Assume C is not an exceptional line. Then
C ∩U is open in C, and closed in U. Therefore Q
−1
(C ∩U) = Q(C ∩U) is a closed
curve inU. Let C

be the closure of Q
−1
(C ∩U) in P
2
. ThenQ restricts to a birational
morphismfromC

{P, P

, P

} to C. Note that (C

)

=C, since Q◦Q is the identity on
U.
Let F ∈ k[X, Y, Z] be the equation of C, n = deg(F). Let F
Q
= F(Y Z, X Z, XY ),
called the algebraic transform of F. So F
Q
is a form of degree 2n.
(1). If m
P
(C) =r , then Z
r
is the largest power of Z that divides F
Q
.
Proof. Write F = F
r
(X, Y )Z
n−r
+· · · +F
n
(X, Y ), F
i
a form of degree i (Problem 5.5).
Then
F
Q
=F
r
(Y Z, X Z)(XY )
n−r
+· · · = Z
r
(F
r
(Y, X)(XY )
n−r
+ZF
r +1
(Y, X)(XY )
n−r −1
+· · · ),
from which the result follows.
Let m
P
(C) = r , m
P
(C) = r

, m
P
(C) = r

. Then F
Q
= Z
r
Y
r

X
r

F

, where X, Y ,
and Z do not divide F

. This F

is called the proper transform of F.
(2). deg(F

) =2n −r −r

−r

, (F

)

=F, F

is irreducible, and V (F

) =C

.
Proof. From (F
Q
)
Q
= (XY Z)
n
F, it follows that F

is irreducible and (F

)

= F. Since
V (F

) ⊃Q
−1
(C ∩U), V (F

) must be C

.
(3). m
P
(F

) =n −r

−r

. (Similarly for P

and P

.)
Proof. F

=
¸
n−r
i =0
F
r +i
(Y, X)X
n−r −r

−i
Y
n−r −r

−i
Z
i
, so the leading form of F

at P =
[0 : 0 : 1] is F
n
(Y, X)X
−r

Y
−r

.
Let us say that C is in good position if no exceptional line is tangent to C at a
fundamental point.
(4). If C is in good position, so is C

.
7.4. QUADRATIC TRANSFORMATIONS 89
Proof. The line L is tangent to C

at P

if and only if I (P

, F

∩Z) > m
P
(C

). Equiv-
alently, I (P

, F
r
(Y, X)X
n−r −r

Y
n−r −r

∩Z) >n −r −r

, or I (P

, F
r
(Y, X) ∩ Z) >0, or
F
r
(1, 0) =0. But if Y is not tangent to F at P, then F
r
(1, 0) =0. By symmetry, the same
holds for the other lines and points.
Assume that C is in good position, and that P ∈C. Let C
0
=(C∩U)∪{P}, a neigh-
borhood of P on C. Let C

0
=C

V (XY ). Let f : C

0
→C
0
be the restriction of Q to
C

0
.
Let F

=F(X, Y, 1),C

=V (F

) ⊂A
2
. Define (F

)

=F(X, X Z, 1)X
−r
, C


=V (F


) ⊂
A
2
and f

: C


→C

by f

(x, z) =(x, xz), all as in Section 2.
(5). There is a neighborhood W of (0, 0) in C

, and there are isomorphisms ϕ: W →
C
0
and ϕ

: W

= f
−1

(W) →C

0
such that ϕf

= f ϕ

, i.e., the following diagram com-
mutes:
C


⊃W


ϕ

//
f


C

0
⊂C

f

C

⊃W
ϕ

//
C
0
⊂C
Proof. Take W =(C

V (XY )) ∪{(0, 0)}; ϕ(x, y) =[x : y : 1], and ϕ

(x, z) =[z : 1 : xz].
The inverse of ϕ

is given by [x : y : z] →(z/x, x/y). We leave the rest to the reader.
(6). If C is in good position, and P
1
, . . . , P
s
are the non-fundamental points onC

∩L,
then m
P
i
(C

) ≤ I (P
i
,C

∩L), and
¸
s
i =1
I (P
i
,C

∩Z) =r .
Proof. As in the proof of (4),
¸
I (P
i
, F

∩Z) =
¸
I (P
i
, F
r
(Y, X) ∩Z) =r .
Remark. If P ∈ C, the same argument shows that there are no non-fundamental
points on C

∩L.
Example. (See Problem 7.10)
X
Y
Z X Z
Y
90 CHAPTER 7. RESOLUTIONOF SINGULARITIES
Let us say that C is inexcellent positionif C is ingood position, and, inaddition, L
intersects C (transversally) inn distinct non-fundamental points, andL

andL

each
intersect C (transversally) in n−r distinct non-fundamental points. (This condition
is no longer symmetric in P, P

, P

.)
(7). If C is in excellent position, then C

has the following multiple points:
(a) Those onC

∩U correspond to multiple points onC ∩U, the correspondence
preserving multiplicity and ordinary multiple points.
(b) P, P

and P

are ordinary multiple points on C

with multiplicities n, n −r ,
and n −r respectively.
(c) There are no non-fundamental points onC

∩L

or onC

∩L

. Let P
1
, . . . , P
s
be
the non-fundamental points on C

∩L. Then m
P
i
(C

) ≤ I (P
i
,C

∩L) and
¸
I (P
i
,C


L) =r .
Proof. (a) follows fromthe fact that C

∩U andC ∩U are isomorphic, and fromThe-
orem 2 of §3.2 and Problem 3.24. (c) follows from (6), and (b) follows by applying (6)
to the curves C

and (C

)

=C (observing by (4) that C

is in good position).
For any irreducible projective plane curve C of degree n, with multiple points of
multiplicity r
P
=m
P
(C), let
g

(C) =
(n −1)(n −2)
2

¸
r
P
(r
P
−1)
2
.
We know that g

(C) is a nonnegative integer. (Theorem 2 of §5.4).
(8). If C is in excellent position, then g

(C

) = g

(C) −
¸
s
i =1
r
i
(r
i
−1)
2
, where r
i
=
m
P
i
(C

), and P
1
, . . . , P
s
are the non-fundamental points on C

∩L.
Proof. A calculation, using (2) and (7).
The special notation used in (1)–(8) regarding fundamental points and excep-
tional lines has served its purpose; from now on P, P

, etc. may be any points, L, L

,
etc. any lines.
Lemma 1. (char(k) =0) Let F be an irreducible projective plane curve, P a point of F.
Thenthere is a projective change of coordinates T such that F
T
is inexcellent position,
and T([0 : 0 : 1]) =P.
Proof. Let deg(F) =n, m
P
(F) =r . By Problem4.16, it is enough to find lines L, L

, L

suchthat L

•C =r P+P

r +1
+· · ·+P

n
, L

•C =r P+P

r +1
+· · ·+P

n
, and L•C =P
1
+· · ·+P
n
,
with all these points distinct; then there is a change of coordinates T with L
T
= Z,
L
T
=Y , L
T
= X. The existence of such lines follows from Problem 5.26 (Take L

, L

first, then L).
If T is any projective change of coordinates, Q ◦ T is called a quadratic trans-
formation, and (F
T
)

is called a quadratic transformation of F. If F
T
is in excellent
position, and T([0 : 0 : 1]) = P, we say that the quadratic transformation is centered
at P. If F = F
1
, F
2
, . . . , F
m
= G are curves, and each F
i
is a quadratic transforma-
tion of F
i −1
, we say that F is transformed into G by a finite sequence of quadratic
transformations.
7.4. QUADRATIC TRANSFORMATIONS 91
Theorem 2. By a finite sequence of quadratic transformations, any irreducible pro-
jective plane curve may be transformed into a curve whose only singularities are or-
dinary multiple points.
Proof. Take successive quadratic transformations, centering each one at a non-
ordinary multiple point.
From (7) and (8) we see that at each step, either C

has one less non-ordinary
multiple point than C, or g

(C

) = g

(C) −
¸
r
i
(r
i
−1)
2
< g

(C). If the original curve C
has N non-ordinary multiple points, we reach the desired curve after at most N +
g

(C) steps. (See the Appendix for a proof in characteristic p.)
Problems
7.10. Let F =8X
3
Y +8X
3
Z +4X
2
Y Z −10XY
3
−10XY
2
Z −3Y
3
Z. Show that F is in
good position, and that F

=8Y
2
Z +8Y
3
+4XY
2
−10X
2
Z −10X
2
Y −3X
3
. Showthat
F and F

have singularities as in the example sketched, and find the multiple points
of F and F

.
7.11. Find a change of coordinates T so that (Y
2
Z −X
3
)
T
is in excellent position,
and T([0 : 0 : 1]) =[0 : 0 : 1]. Calculate the quadratic transformation.
7.12. Find a quadratic transformationof Y
2
Z
2
−X
4
−Y
4
with only ordinary multiple
points. Do the same with Y
4
+Z
4
−2X
2
(Y −Z)
2
.
7.13.

(a) Show that in the lemma, we may choose T in such a way that for a given
finite set S of points of F, with P ∈ S, T
−1
(S) ∩V (XY Z) = . Then there is a neigh-
borhood of S on F that is isomorphic to an open set on (F
T
)

. (b) If S is a finite set
of simple points on a plane curve F, there is a curve F

with only ordinary multiple
points, and a neighborhoodU of S on F, and an open set U

on F

consisting entirely
of simple points, such that U is isomorphic toU

.
7.14.

(a) What happens to the degree, and to g

(F), when a quadratic transforma-
tion is centered at: (i) an ordinary multiple point; (ii) a simple point; (iii) a point
not on F? (b) Show that the curve F

of Problem 7.13(b) may be assumed to have
arbitrarily large degree.
7.15. Let F = F
1
, . . . , F
m
be a sequence of quadratic transformations of F, such that
F
m
has only ordinary multiple points. Let P
i 1
, P
i 2
, . . . be the points on F
i
introduced,
as in (7) (c), in going from F
i −1
to F
i
. (These are called “neighboring singularities”;
see Walker’s “Algebraic Curves”, Chap. III, §7.6, §7.7). If n =deg(F), show that
(n −1)(n −2) ≥
¸
P∈F
m
P
(F)(m
P
(F) −1) +
¸
i >1, j
m
P
i j
(F
i
)(m
P
i j
(F
i
) −1).
7.16. (a) Showthat everything in this section, including Theorem2, goes through for
any plane curve with no multiple components. (b) If F and G are two curves with
no common components, and no multiple components, apply (a) to the curve FG.
Deduce that there are sequences of quadratic transformations F = F
1
, . . . , F
S
= F

and G =G
1
, . . . , G
s
=G

, where F

and G

have only ordinary multiple points, and no
92 CHAPTER 7. RESOLUTIONOF SINGULARITIES
tangents in common at points of intersection. Show that
deg(F) deg(G) =
¸
m
P
(F)m
P
(G) +
¸
i >1, j
m
P
i j
(F
i
)m
P
i j
(G
i
),
where the P
i j
are the neighboring singularities of FG, determined as in Problem
7.15.
7.5 Nonsingular Models of Curves
Theorem3. Let C be a projective curve. Then there is a nonsingular projective curve
X and a birational morphism f from X onto C. If f

: X

→C is another, then there is
a unique isomorphism g : X →X

such that f

g = f .
Proof. The uniqueness follows fromCorollary 2 of §7.1. For the existence, the Corol-
lary in §6.6 says C is birationally equivalent to a plane curve. By Theorem 2 of §7.4,
this plane curve can be taken to have only ordinary multiple points as singularities,
and Proposition 1 of §7.3 replaces this curve by a nonsingular curve X. That the
birational map from X to C is a morphism follows from Corollary 1 of §7.1.
If C is a plane curve, the fact that f maps X ontoC follows fromthe construction
of X from C; indeed, if P ∈ C, we may find C

with ordinary multiple points so that
the rational map from C

to C is defined at some point P

and maps P

to P (see
Problem 7.13); and the map from X to C

is onto (Proposition 1 of §7.3).
If C ⊂ P
n
, and P ∈ C, choose a morphism g : C →C
1
from C to a plane curve
C
1
such that {P} = g
−1
(g(P)) (Problem 6.43). Then if g f (x) = g(P), it follows that
f (x) =P.
Corollary. There is a natural one-to-one correspondence between nonsingular pro-
jective curves X and algebraic function fields in one variable K over k: K =k(X). If X
and X

are two such curves, dominant morphisms from X

to X correspond to homo-
morphisms from k(X) into k(X

).
We will see later that a dominant morphism between projective curves must be
surjective (Problem 8.18).
Let C be any projective curve, f : X →C as in Theorem 3. We say that X is the
nonsingular model of C, or of K =k(C). We identify k(X) with K by means of
˜
f .
The points Q of X are in one-to-one correspondence with the discrete valuation
rings O
Q
(X) of K (Corollary 4 of §7.1). Then f (Q) =P exactly whenO
Q
(X) dominates
O
P
(C). The points of X will be called places of C, or of K. A place Q is centered at P if
f (Q) =P.
Lemma 2. Let C be a projective plane curve, P ∈C. Then there is an affine neighbor-
hoodU of P such that:
(1) f
−1
(U) =U

is an affine open subvariety of X.
(2) Γ(U

) is module-finite over Γ(U).
(3) For some 0 =t ∈ Γ(U), t Γ(U

) ⊂Γ(U).
(4) The vector space Γ(U

)/Γ(U) is finite dimensional over k.
7.5. NONSINGULAR MODELS OF CURVES 93
The neighborhoodU may be taken to exclude any finite set S of points in C, if P ∈ S.
Proof. We will choose successive quadratic transformations C =C
1
, . . . , C
n
so that
C
n
has only ordinary multiple points, and open affine sets W
i
⊂C
i
, so that (i) P ∈W
1
and S ∩W
1
= ; (ii) the birational map from C
i +1
to C
i
is represented by a mor-
phism f
i
: W
i +1
→W
i
; (iii) f
i
: W
i +1
→W
i
satisfies all the conditions of Section 2,
Step (3). These quadratic transformations and neighborhoods are chosen induc-
tively. At each stage it may be necessary to shrink the previous neighborhoods; the
remarks in Section 2, together with Problem 7.13, show that there is no difficulty in
doing this.
Likewise let f
n
: X →C
n
be the nonsingular model of C
n
(Proposition 1 of §7.3),
and let W
n+1
= f
−1
n
(W
n
) (shrinking again if necessary); this time Section 3, Step (7)
guarantees that the same conditions hold.
Let U =W
1
, U

=W
n+1
. That Γ(U

) is module-finite over Γ(U) follows fromProb-
lem 1.45. Suppose Γ(U

) =
¸
m
i =1
Γ(U)z
i
. Since Γ(U) and Γ(U

) have the same quo-
tient field, there is a t ∈ Γ(U) with t z
i
∈ Γ(U), t =0. This t satisfies (3).
Define ϕ: Γ(U

)/Γ(U) →Γ(U)/(t ) by ϕ(z) = t z. Since ϕ is a one-to-one k-linear
map, it is enoughtoshowthat Γ(U)/(t ) is finite-dimensional. Since t has only finitely
many zeros inU, this follows from Corollary 4 to the Nullstellensatz in §1.7.
Notation. Let f : X →C as above Q ∈ X, f (Q) = P ∈ C. Suppose C is a plane curve.
For any plane curveG (possibly reducible), formG

∈ O
P
(P
2
) as inChapter 5, Section
1; let g be the image of G

in O
P
(C) ⊂k(C) =k(X). Define ord
Q
(G) to be ord
Q
(g). As
usual, this is independent of the choice of G

.
Proposition 2. Let C be an irreducible projective plane curve, P ∈ C, f : X →C as
above. Let G be a (possibly reducible) plane curve. Then I (P,C∩G) =
¸
Q∈f
−1
(P)
ord
Q
(G).
Proof. Let g be the image of G

inO
P
(C). ChooseU as inLemma 2, and so small that
g is a unit in all O
P
(C), P

∈ U, P

= P. Then I (P,C ∩G) = dim
k
(O
P
(P
2
)/(F

,G

)) =
dim
k
(O
P
(C)/(g)) (Problem 2.44) = dim
k
(Γ(U)/(g)) (Corollary 1 of §2.9). Let V =
Γ(U), V

=Γ(U

), and let T : V →V

be defined by T(z) =g z. Since V

/V is finite di-
mensional, Problem 2.53 applies: dimV /T(V ) =dimV

/T(V

), so dim
k
(Γ(U)/(g)) =
dim(Γ(U

)/(g)). By Corollary 1 of §2.9 again,
dimΓ(U

)/(g) =
¸
Q∈f
−1
(P)
dim(O
Q
(X)/(g)) =
¸
ord
Q
(g),
as desired (see Problem 2.50).
Lemma3. Suppose P is anordinary multiple point onC of multiplicity r . Let f
−1
(P) =
{P
1
, . . . , P
r
}. If z ∈ k(C), and ord
P
i
(z) ≥r −1, then z ∈ O
P
(C).
Proof. Take a small neighborhood U of P so that z ∈ O
P
(C) for all P

∈ U, P

= P
(The pole set is an algebraic subset, hence finite), and so that f : U

= f
−1
(U) →U
looks like Section 2 Step (3). By Step (2) of Section 2, we know that ord
P
i
(x) = 1.
Therefore zx
1−r
∈ Γ(U

). But x
r −1
Γ(U

) ⊂ Γ(U), so z = x
r −1
(zx
1−r
) ∈ Γ(U) ⊂ O
P
(C),
as desired.
94 CHAPTER 7. RESOLUTIONOF SINGULARITIES
Proposition3. Let F be an irreducible projective plane curve, P an ordinary multiple
point of multiplicity r onF. Let P
1
, . . . , P
r
be the places centeredat P. Let G, H be plane
curves, possibly reducible. Then Noether’s conditions are satisfied at P (with respect
to F,G, H) if ord
P
i
(H) ≥ord
P
i
(G) +r −1 for i =1, . . . , r .
Proof. H

∈ (F

,G

) ⊂ O
P
(P
2
) is equivalent with H

∈ (G

) ⊂ O
P
(F), or with z =
H

/G

∈ O
P
(F). Applying Lemma 3 to z gives the result.
Problems
7.17. (a) Show that for any irreducible curve C (projective or not) there is a nonsin-
gular curve X and a birational morphism f from X onto C. What conditions on X
will make it unique? (b) Let f : X →C as in (a), and let C

be the set of simple points
of C. Showthat the restriction of f to f
−1
(C

) gives an isomorphismof f
−1
(C

) with
C

.
7.18. Showthat for any place P of a curveC, and choice t of uniformizing parameter
for O
P
(X), there is a homomorphism ϕ: k(X) →k((T)) taking t to T (see Problem
2.32). Show how to recover the place fromϕ. (In many treatments of curves, a place
is defined to be a suitable equivalence class of “power series expansions”.)
7.19.

Let f : X →C as above, C a projective plane curve. Suppose P is an ordinary
multiple point of multiplicity r on C, Q
1
, . . . ,Q
r
the places on X centered at P. Let
G be any projective plane curve, and let s ≤ r . Show that m
P
(G) ≥ s if and only if
ord
Q
i
(G) ≥s for i =1, . . . , r . (See Problem 7.5.)
7.20. Let R be a domain with quotient field K. The integral closure R

of R is {z ∈ k |
z is integral over R}. Prove:
(a) If R is a DVR, then R

=R.
(b) If R

α
=R
α
, then (
¸
R
α
)

=(
¸
R
α
).
(c) With f : X →C as in Lemma 2, show that Γ( f
−1
(U)) =Γ(U)

for all open sets
U of C. This gives another algebraic characterization of X.
7.21.

Let X be a nonsingular projective curve, P
1
, . . . , P
s
∈ X. (a) Show that there is
projective plane curve C with only ordinary multiple points, and a birational mor-
phism f : X →C such that f (P
i
) is simple on C for each i . (Hint: if f (P
i
) is multiple,
do a quadratic transform centered at f (P
i
).) (b) For any m
1
, . . . , m
r
∈ Z, show that
there is a z ∈ k(X) such that ord
P
i
(z) =m
i
(Problem 5.15). (c) Show that the curve C
of Part (a) may be found with arbitrarily large degree (Problem 7.14).
7.22. Let P be a node on an irreducible plane curve F, and let L
1
, L
2
be the tangents
to F at P. F is called a simple node if I (P, L
i
∩F) =3 for i =1, 2. Let H be the Hessian
of F. (a) If P is a simple node on F, show that I (P, F ∩H) = 6. (Hint: We may take
P = [0 : 0 : 1], F

= xy +· · · , and use Proposition 2 to show that all monomials of
degree ≥ 4 may be ignored — see Problem 5.23). (b) If P is an ordinary cusp on
F, show that I (P, F ∩H) =8 (see Problem 7.6). (c) Use (a) and (b) to show that every
cubic has one, three, or nine flexes; then Problem5.24 gives another proof that every
cubic is projectively equivalent to one of the type Y
2
Z = cubic in X and Z. (d) If the
7.5. NONSINGULAR MODELS OF CURVES 95
curve F has degree n, and i flexes (all ordinary), and δ simple nodes, and k cusps,
and no other singularities, then
i +6δ+8k = 3n(n −2).
This is one of “Plücker’s formulas” (see Walker’s “Algebraic Curves” for the others).
96 CHAPTER 7. RESOLUTIONOF SINGULARITIES
Chapter 8
Riemann-Roch Theorem
Throughout this chapter, C will be an irreducible projective curve, f : X →C the
birational morphism from the nonsingular model X onto C, K = k(C) = k(X) the
function field, as in Chapter 7, Section 5. The points P ∈C will be identified with the
places of K; ord
P
denotes the corresponding order function on K.
8.1 Divisors
A divisor on X is a formal sum D =
¸
P∈X
n
P
P, n
P
∈ Z, and n
P
= 0 for all but a
finite number of P. The divisors on X form an abelian group — it is the free abelian
group on the set X (Chapter 2, Section 11).
The degree of a divisor is the sum of its coefficients: deg(
¸
n
P
P) =
¸
n
P
. Clearly
deg(D+D

) =deg(D) +deg(D

). A divisor D =
¸
n
P
P is said to be effective (or posi-
tive) if each n
P
≥0, and we write
¸
n
P
P ≥
¸
m
P
P if each n
P
≥m
P
.
SupposeC is a plane curve of degree n, andG is a plane curve not containingC as
a component. Define the divisor of G, div(G), to be
¸
P∈X
ord
P
(G)P, where ord
P
(G)
is defined as in Chapter 7, Section 5. By Proposition 2 of §7.5,
¸
P∈X
ord
P
(G) =
¸
Q∈C
I (Q,C ∩G). By Bézout’s theorem, div(G) is a divisor of degree mn, where m
is the degree of G. Note that div(G) contains more information than the intersection
cycle G•C.
For any nonzero z ∈ K, define the divisor of z, div(z), to be
¸
P∈X
ord
P
(z)P. Since
z has only a finite number of poles and zeros (Problem4.17), div(z) is a well-defined
divisor. If we let (z)
0
=
¸
ord
P
(z)>0
ord
P
(z)P, the divisor of zeros of z, and (z)

=
¸
ord
P
(z)<0
−ord
P
(z)P, the divisor of poles of z, then div(z) = (z)
0
−(z)

. Note that
div(zz

) =div(z) +div(z

), and div(z
−1
) =−div(z).
Proposition 1. For any nonzero z ∈ K, div(z) is a divisor of degree zero. A rational
function has the same number of zeros as poles, if they are counted properly.
Proof. Take C to be a plane curve of degree n. Let z = g/h, g, h forms of the same
degree in Γ
h
(C); say g, h are residues of forms G, H of degree m in k[X, Y, Z]. Then
div(z) =div(G) −div(H), and we have seen that div(G) and div(H) have same degree
mn.
97
98 CHAPTER 8. RIEMANN-ROCHTHEOREM
Corollary 1. Let 0 =z ∈ K. Then the following are equivalent: (i) div(z) ≥0; (ii) z ∈ k;
(iii) div(z) =0.
Proof. If div(z) ≥ 0, z ∈ O
P
(X) for all P ∈ X. If z(P
0
) = λ
0
for some P
0
, then div(z −
λ
0
) ≥0 and deg(div(z −λ
0
)) >0, a contradiction, unless z −λ
0
=0, i.e., z ∈ k.
Corollary 2. Let z, z

∈ K, both nonzero. Then div(z) = div(z

) if and only if z

= λz
for some λ∈ k.
Two divisors D, D

are said to be linearly equivalent if D

= D +div(z) for some
z ∈ K, in which case we write D

≡D.
Proposition 2. (1) The relation ≡ is an equivalence relation.
(2) D ≡0 if and only if D =div(z), z ∈ K.
(3) If D ≡D

, then deg(D) =deg(D

).
(4) If D ≡D

, and D
1
≡D

1
, then D+D
1
≡D

+D

1
.
(5) Let C be a plane curve. Then D ≡D

if and only if there are two curves G,G

of
the same degree with D+div(G) =D

+div(G

).
Proof. (1)–(4) are left to the reader. For (5) it suffices to write z =G/G

, since div(z) =
div(G) −div(G

) in this case.
The criterion proved in Chapter 7, Section 5 for Noether’s conditions to hold
translates nicely into the language of divisors:
Assume C is a plane curve with only ordinary multiple points. For eachQ ∈ X, let
r
Q
= m
f (Q)
(C). Define the divisor E =
¸
Q∈X
(r
Q
−1)Q. This E is effective; its degree
is
¸
m
P
(C)(m
P
(C) −1). Any plane curve G such that div(G) ≥ E is called an adjoint
of C. From Problem 7.19 it follows that a curve G is an adjoint to C if and only if
m
P
(G) ≥m
P
(C) −1 for every (multiple) point P ∈C. If C is nonsingular, every curve
is an adjoint.
RESIDUE THEOREM. Let C, E be as above. Suppose D and D

are effective divisors
on X, with D

≡D. Suppose G is an adjoint of degree m such that div(G) =D+E +A,
for some effective divisor A. Thenthere is anadjoint G

of degree m suchthat div(G

) =
D

+E +A.
Proof. Let H, H

be curves of the same degree such that D +div(H) = D

+div(H

).
Then div(GH) = div(H

) +D

+E + A ≥ div(H

) +E. Let F be the form defining C.
Applying the criterionof Proposition3 of §7.5 toF, H

, andGH, we see that Noether’s
conditions are satisfied at all P ∈C. By Noether’s theorem, GH =F

F+G

H

for some
F

,G

, where deg(G

) =m. Thendiv(G

) =div(GH)−div(H

) =D

+E+A, as desired.
Problems
8.1. Let X =C =P
1
, k(X) =k(t ), where t = X
1
/X
2
, X
1
, X
2
homogeneous coordinates
on P
1
. (a) Calculate div(t ). (b) Calculate div( f /g), f , g relatively prime in k[t ]. (c)
Prove Proposition 1 directly in this case.
8.2. THE VECTOR SPACES L(D) 99
8.2. Let X = C = V (Y
2
Z − X(X − Z)(X −λZ)) ⊂ P
2
, λ ∈ k, λ = 0, 1. Let x = X/Z,
y =Y /Z ∈ K; K =k(x, y). Calculate div(x) and div(y).
8.3. Let C = X be a nonsingular cubic. (a) Let P, Q ∈ C. Show that P ≡ Q if and
only if P =Q. (Hint: Lines are adjoints of degree 1.) (b) Let P,Q, R, S ∈ C. Show that
P+Q ≡R+S if and only if the line through P andQ intersects the line through R and
S in a point onC (if P =Q use the tangent line). (c) Let P
0
be a fixed point onC, thus
defining an addition ⊕ on C (Chapter 5, Section 6). Show that P ⊕Q =R if and only
if P +Q =R +P
0
. Use this to give another proof of Proposition 4 of §5.6.
8.4. Let C be a cubic with a node. Show that for any two simple points P,Q on C,
P ≡Q.
8.5. Let C be a nonsingular quartic, P
1
, P
2
, P
3
∈C. Let D =P
1
+P
2
+P
3
. Let L and L

be lines such that L.•C = P
1
+P
2
+P
4
+P
5
, L

•C = P
1
+P
3
+P
6
+P
7
. Suppose these
sevenpoints are distinct. Showthat D is not linearly equivalent to any other effective
divisor. (Hint: Apply the residue theorem to the conic LL

.) Investigate in a similar
way other divisors of small degree on quartics with various types of multiple points.
8.6. Let D(X) be the group of divisors on X, D
0
(X) the subgroup consisting of divi-
sors of degree zero, and P(X) the subgroup of D
0
(X) consisting of divisors of ratio-
nal functions. Let C
0
(X) = D
0
(X)/P(X) be the quotient group. It is the divisor class
group on X. (a) If X = P
1
, then C
0
(X) = 0. (b) Let X = C be a nonsingular cubic.
Pick P
0
∈C, defining ⊕onC. Show that the map fromC to C
0
(X) that sends P to the
residue class of the divisor P −P
0
is an isomorphism from (C, ⊕) onto C
0
(X).
8.7. When do two curves G, H have the same divisor (C and X are fixed)?
8.2 The Vector Spaces L(D)
Let D =
¸
n
P
P be a divisor on X. Each D picks out a finite number of points, and
assigns integers to them. We want to determine when there is a rational function
with poles only at the chosen points, and with poles no “worse” than order n
P
at P;
if so, how many such functions are there?
Define L(D) to be { f ∈ K | ord
P
( f ) ≥−n
P
for all P ∈ X}, where D =
¸
n
P
P. Thus a
rational function f belongs to L(D) if div( f ) +D ≥0, or if f =0. L(D) forms a vector
space over k. Denote the dimension of L(D) by l (D); the next proposition shows that
l (D) is finite.
Proposition 3. (1) If D ≤D

, then L(D) ⊂L(D

), and
dim
k
(L(D

)/L(D)) ≤ deg(D

−D).
(2) L(0) =k; L(D) =0 if deg(D) <0.
(3) L(D) is finite dimensional for all D. If deg(D) ≥0, then l (D) ≤deg(D) +1.
(4) If D ≡D

, then l (D) =l (D

).
Proof. (1): D

=D+P
1
+· · · +P
s
, and L(D) ⊂L(D+P
1
) ⊂· · · ⊂L(D+P
1
+· · · +P
s
), so
it suffices to show that dim(L(D +P)/L(D)) ≤ 1 (Problem 2.49). To prove this, let t
be a uniformizing parameter in O
P
(X), and let r = n
P
be the coefficient of P in D.
100 CHAPTER 8. RIEMANN-ROCHTHEOREM
Define ϕ: L(D +P) →k by letting ϕ( f ) = (t
r +1
f )(P); since ord
P
( f ) ≥ −r −1, this is
well-defined; ϕ is a linear map, and Ker(ϕ) =L(D), so ϕ induces a one-to-one linear
map ϕ: L(D+P)/L(D) →k, which gives the result.
(2): This follows from Corollary 1 and Proposition 2 (3) of §8.1.
(3): If deg(D) = n ≥ 0, choose P ∈ X, and let D

= D −(n +1)P. Then L(D

) = 0,
and by (1), dim(L(D)/L(D

)) ≤n +1, so l (D) ≤n +1.
(4): Suppose D

=D+div(g). Define ψ: L(D) →L(D

) by setting ψ( f ) = f g. Since
ψis an isomorphism of vector spaces, l (D) =l (D

).
More generally, for any subset S of X, and any divisor D =
¸
n
P
P on X, define
deg
S
(D) =
¸
P∈S
n
P
, and L
S
(D) ={ f ∈ K | ord
P
( f ) ≥−n
P
for all P ∈ S}.
Lemma 1. If D ≤ D

, then L
S
(D) ⊂ L
S
(D

). If S is finite, then dim(L
S
(D

)/L
S
(D)) =
deg
S
(D

−D).
Proof. Proceeding as in Proposition 3, we assume D

=D+P, and define ϕ: L
S
(D+
P) →k the same way. We must show that ϕ maps L
S
(D +P) onto k, i.e., ϕ = 0, for
then ϕis an isomorphism. Thus we need to find an f ∈ K with ord
P
( f ) =−r −1, and
with ord
Q
( f ) ≥−n
Q
for all Q ∈ S. But this is easy, since S is finite (Problem7.21(b)).
The next proposition is an important first step in calculating the dimension l (D).
The proof (see Chevalley’s “Algebraic Functions of One Variable”, Chap. I.) involves
only the field of rational functions.
Proposition 4. Let x ∈ K, x ∈ k. Let Z = (x)
0
be the divisor of zeros of x, and let
n =[K : k(x)]. Then
(1) Z is an effective divisor of degree n.
(2) There is a constant τ such that l (r Z) ≥r n −τ for all r .
Proof. Let Z =(x)
0
=
¸
n
P
P, and let m=deg(Z). We show first that m≤n.
Let S ={P ∈ X | n
P
>0}. Choose v
1
, . . . , v
m
∈ L
S
(0) so that the residues v
1
, . . . , v
m

L
S
(0)/L
S
(−Z) forma basis for this vector space (Lemma 1). We will showthat v
1
, . . . , v
m
are linearly independent over k(x). If not (by clearing denominators and multiply-
ing by a power of x), there would be polynomials g
i
= λ
i
+xh
i
∈ k[x] with λ
i
∈ k,
¸
g
i
v
i
= 0, not all λ
i
= 0. But then
¸
λ
i
v
i
= −x
¸
h
i
v
i
∈ L
S
(−Z), so
¸
λ
i
v
i
= 0, a
contradiction. So m≤n. Next we prove (2).
Let w
1
, . . . , w
n
be a basis of K over k(x) (Proposition 9 of §6.5). We may as-
sume that each w
i
satisfies an equation w
n
i
i
+a
i 1
w
n
i
−1
i
+· · · =0, a
i j
∈ k[x
−1
] (Prob-
lem 1.54). Then ord
P
(a
i j
) ≥ 0 if P ∈ S. If ord
P
(w
i
) < 0, P ∈ S, then ord
P
(w
n
i
i
) <
ord
P
(a
i j
w
n
i
−j
i
), which is impossible (Problem 2.29). It follows that for some t > 0,
div(w
i
) +t Z ≥ 0, i = 1, . . . , n. Then w
i
x
−j
∈ L((r +t )Z) for i = 1, . . . , n, j = 0, 1, . . . , r .
Since the w
i
are independent over k(x), and 1, x
−1
, . . . , x
−r
are independent over k,
{w
i
x
−j
| i = 1, . . . , n, j = 0, . . . , r } are independent over k. So l ((r +t )Z) ≥ n(r +1).
But l ((r +t )Z) = l (r Z) +dim(L((r +t )Z)/L(r Z)) ≤ l (r Z) +t m by Proposition 3 (1).
Therefore l (r Z) ≥n(r +1) −t m=r n −τ, as desired.
Lastly, since r n −τ ≤ l (r Z) ≤ r m+1 (Proposition 3 (3)), if we let r get large, we
see that n ≤m.
8.3. RIEMANN’S THEOREM 101
Corollary. The following are equivalent:
(1) C is rational.
(2) X is isomorphic to P
1
.
(3) There is an x ∈ K with deg((x
0
)) =1.
(4) For some P ∈ X, l (P) >1.
Proof. (4) says that there is nonconstant x ∈ L(P), so (x)

= P. Then deg((x)
0
) =
deg((x)

) =1, so [K : k(x)] =1, i.e., K =k(x) is rational. The rest is easy (see Problem
8.1).
Problems
8.8.

If D ≤D

, then l (D

) ≤l (D) +deg(D

−D), i.e., deg(D) −l (D) ≤deg(D

) −l (D

).
8.9. Let X = P
1
, t as in Problem 8.1. Calculate L(r (t )
0
) explicitly, and show that
l (r (t )
0
) =r +1.
8.10. Let X =C be a cubic, x, y as in Problem 8.2. Let z = x
−1
. Show that L(r (z)
0
) ⊂
k[x, y], and show that l (r (z)
0
) =2r if r >0.
8.11.

Let D be a divisor. Show that l (D) >0 if and only if D is linearly equivalent to
an effective divisor.
8.12. Show that deg(D) =0 and l (D) >0 are true if and only if D ≡0.
8.13.

Suppose l (D) >0, and let f =0, f ∈ L(D). Show that f ∈ L(D−P) for all but a
finite number of P. So l (D−P) =l (D) −1 for all but a finite number of P.
8.3 Riemann’s Theorem
If D is a large divisor, L(D) should be large. Proposition 4 shows this for divisors
of a special form.
RIEMANN’S THEOREM. There is an integer g such that l (D) ≥deg(D) +1−g for all
divisors D. The smallest such g is called the genus of X (or of K, or C). The genus is a
nonnegative integer.
Proof. For each D, let s(D) = deg(D) +1−l (D). We want to find g so that s(D) ≤ g
for all D.
(1) s(0) =0, so g ≥0 if it exists.
(2) If D ≡D

, then s(D) =s(D

) (Propositions 2 and 3 of §8.2).
(3) If D ≤ D

, then s(D) ≤ s(D

) (Problem 8.8). Let x ∈ K, x ∈ k, let Z = (x)
0
, and
let τ be the smallest integer that works for Proposition 4 (2). Since s(r Z) ≤ τ+1 for
all r , and since r Z ≤(r +1)Z, we deduce from (3) that
(4) s(r Z) =τ+1 for all large r >0. Let g =τ+1. To finish the proof, it suffices (by
(2) and (3)) to show:
(5) For any divisor D, there is a divisor D

≡D, and an integer r ≥0 such that D


r Z. To prove this, let Z =
¸
n
P
P, D =
¸
m
P
P. We want D

=D−div( f ), so we need
m
P
−ord
P
( f ) ≤r n
P
for all P. Let y =x
−1
, andlet T ={P ∈ X | m
P
>0 and ord
P
(y) ≥0}.
102 CHAPTER 8. RIEMANN-ROCHTHEOREM
Let f =
¸
P∈T
(y−y(P))
m
P
. Then m
P
−ord
P
( f ) ≤0 whenever ord
P
(y) ≥0. If ord
P
(y) <
0, then n
P
>0, so a large r will take care of this.
Corollary 1. If l (D
0
) =deg(D
0
) +1−g, and D ≡D

≥D
0
, then l (D) =deg(D) +1−g.
Corollary 2. If x ∈ K, x ∈ k, then g =deg(r (x)
0
) −l (r (x)
0
) +1 for all sufficiently large
r .
Corollary 3. There is an integer N such that for all divisors D of degree > N, l (D) =
deg(D) +1−g.
Proofs. The first two corollaries were proved on the way to proving Riemann’s Theo-
rem. For the third, choose D
0
such that l (D
0
) =deg(D
0
)+1−g, and let N =deg(D
0
)+
g. Then if deg(D) ≥N, deg(D−D
0
)+1−g >0, so by Riemann’s Theorem, l (D−D
0
) >
0. ThenD−D
0
+div( f ) ≥0 for some f , i.e., D ≡D+div( f ) ≥D
0
, and the result follows
from Corollary 1.
Examples. (1) g = 0 if and only if C is rational. If C is rational, g = 0 by Corollary 2
and Problem8.9 (or Proposition 5 below). Conversely, if g =0, l (P) >1 for any P ∈ X,
and the result follows from the Corollary to Proposition 4 of §8.2.
(2) (char(k) =2) g =1 if and only if C is birationally equivalent to a nonsingular
cubic.
For if X is a nonsingular cubic, the result follows fromCorollary 2, Problems 8.10
and 5.24 (or Proposition 5 below). Conversely, if g =1, then l (P) ≥1 for all P. By the
Corollary of §8.2, l (P) =1, and by the above Corollary 1, l (r P) =r for all r >0.
Let 1, x be a basis for L(2P). Then (x)

= 2P since if (x)

= P, C would be
rational. So [K : k(x)] = 2. Let 1, x, y be a basis for L(3P). Then (y)

= 3P, so
y ∈ k(x), so K = k(x, y). Since 1, x, y, x
2
, xy, y
2
∈ L(6P), there is a relation of the
form ay
2
+(bx +c)y = Q(x), Q a polynomial of degree ≤ 3. By calculating ord
P
of
both sides, we see that a =0 and degQ =3, so we may assume a =1. Replacing y by
y+
1
2
(bx+c), we may assume y
2
=
¸
3
i =1
(x−α
i
). If α
1

2
, then (y/(x−α
1
))
2
=x−α
3
,
so x, y ∈ k(y/(x −α
1
)); but then X would be rational, which contradicts the first ex-
ample. So the α
i
are distinct.
It follows that K = k(C), where C = V (Y
2
Z −
¸
3
i =1
(X −α
i
Z)) is a nonsingular
cubic.
The usefulness of Riemann’s Theorem depends on being able to calculate the
genus of a curve. By its definitionthe genus depends only onthe nonsingular model,
or the function field, so two birationally equivalent curves have the same genus.
Since we have a method for finding a plane curve with only ordinary multiple points
that is birationally equivalent to a given curve, the following proposition is all that
we need:
Proposition 5. Let C be a plane curve with only ordinary multiple points. Let n be
the degree of C, r
P
=m
P
(C). Then the genus g of C is given by the formula
g =
(n −1)(n −2)
2

¸
P∈C
r
P
(r
P
−1)
2
.
8.3. RIEMANN’S THEOREM 103
Proof. By the above Corollary 3, we need to find some “large” divisors D for which
we can calculate l (D). The Residue Theorem allows us to find all effective divisors
linearly equivalent to certain divisors D. These two observations lead to the calcu-
lation of g.
We may assume that the line Z =0 intersect C in n distinct points P
1
, . . . , P
n
. Let
F be the form defining C.
Let E =
¸
Q∈X
(r
Q
−1)Q, r
Q
=r
f (Q)
=m
f (Q)
(C) as in Section 1. Let
E
m
= m
n
¸
i =1
P
i
−E.
So E
m
is a divisor of degree mn −
¸
P∈C
r
P
(r
P
−1).
Let V
m
= {forms G of degree m such that G is adjoint to C}. Since G is adjoint if
and only if m
P
(G) ≥r
P
−1 for all P ∈C, we may apply Theorem 1 of §5.2 to calculate
the dimension of V
m
. We find that
dimV
m

(m+1)(m+2)
2

¸
r
P
(r
P
−1)
2
,
with equality if m is large. (Note that V
m
is the vector space of forms, not the projec-
tive space of curves.)
Let ϕ: V
m
→L(E
m
) be defined by ϕ(G) = G/Z
m
. Then ϕ is a linear map, and
ϕ(G) =0 if and only if G is divisible by F.
We claim that ϕ is onto. For if f ∈ L(E
m
), write f = R/S, with R, S forms of the
same degree. Then div(RZ
m
) ≥ div(S) +E. By Proposition 3 of §7.5, there is an
equation RZ
m
= AS +BF. So R/S = A/Z
m
in k(F), and so ϕ(A) = f . (Note that
div(A) =div(RZ
m
) −div(S) ≥E, so A ∈V
m
.)
It follows that the following sequence of vector spaces is exact:
0 −→W
m−n
ψ
−→V
m
ϕ
−→L(E
m
) −→0,
where W
m−n
is the space of all forms of degree m−n, and ψ(H) =FH for H ∈W
m−n
.
By Proposition 7of §2.10, we may calculate dimL(E
m
), at least for m large. It
follows that
l (E
m
) = deg(E
m
) +1−
¸ (n −1)(n −2)
2

¸
r
P
(r
P
−1)
2
¸
for large m. But since deg(E
m
) increases as m increases, Corollary 3 of Riemann’s
Theorem applies to finish the proof.
Corollary 1. Let C be a plane curve of degree n, r
P
=m
P
(C), P ∈C. Then
g ≤
(n −1)(n −2)
2

¸
r
P
(r
P
−1)
2
.
Proof. The number on the right is what we called g

(C) in Chapter 7, Section 4. We
saw there that g

decreases under quadratic transformations, so Theorem 2 of §7.4
concludes the proof.
104 CHAPTER 8. RIEMANN-ROCHTHEOREM
Corollary 2. If
¸
r
P
(r
P
−1)
2
=
(n−1)(n−2)
2
, then C is rational.
Corollary 3. (a) With E
m
as in the proof of the proposition, any h ∈ L(E
m
) may be
written h = H/Z
m
, where H is an adjoint of degree m.
(b) deg(E
n−3
) =2g −2, and l (E
n−3
) ≥g.
Proof. This follows fromthe exact sequence constructed in proving the proposition.
Note that if m<n, then V
m
=L(E
m
).
Examples. Lines and conics are rational. Nonsingular cubics have genus one. Sin-
gular cubics are rational. Since a nonsingular curve of degree n has genus
(n−1)(n−2)
2
,
not every curve is birationally equivalent to a nonsingular plane curve. For example,
Y
2
X Z = X
4
+Y
4
has one node, so is of genus 2, and no nonsingular plane curve has
genus 2.
Problems
8.14. Calculate the genus of each of the following curves:
(a) X
2
Y
2
−Z
2
(X
2
+Y
2
).
(b) (X
3
+Y
3
)Z
2
+X
3
Y
2
−X
2
Y
3
.
(c) The two curves of Problem 7.12.
(d) (X
2
−Z
2
)
2
−2Y
3
Z −3Y
2
Z
2
.
8.15. Let D =
¸
n
P
P be an effective divisor, S = {P ∈ C | n
P
> 0}, U = X S. Show
that L(r D) ⊂Γ(U, O
X
) for all r ≥0.
8.16. Let U be any open set on X, =U = X. Then Γ(U, O
X
) is infinite dimensional
over k.
8.17. Let X, Y be nonsingular projective curves, f : : X → Y a dominating mor-
phism. Prove that f (X) = Y . (Hint: If P ∈ Y f (X), then
˜
f (Γ(Y {P})) ⊂ Γ(X) = k;
apply Problem 8.16.)
8.18. Show that a morphism from a projective curve X to a curve Y is either con-
stant or surjective; if it is surjective, Y must be projective.
8.19. If f : C →V is a morphism from a projective curve to a variety V , then f (C) is
a closed subvariety of V . (Hint: Consider C

= closure of f (C) in V .)
8.20. Let C be the curve of Problem 8.14(b), and let P be a simple point on C. Show
that there is a z ∈ Γ(C {P}) with ord
P
(z) ≥−12, z ∈ k.
8.21. Let C
0
(X) be the divisor class group of X. Show that C
0
(X) =0 if and only if X
is rational.
8.4 Derivations and Differentials
This section contains the algebraic background needed to study differentials on
a curve.
8.4. DERIVATIONS ANDDIFFERENTIALS 105
Let R be a ring containing k, and let M be an R-module. A derivation of R into M
over k is a k-linear map D: R →M such that D(xy) = xD(y) +yD(x) for all x, y ∈ R.
It follows that for any F ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
] and x
1
, . . . , x
n
∈ R,
D(F(X
1
, . . . , X
n
)) =
n
¸
i =1
F
X
i
(x
1
, . . . , x
n
)D(x
i
).
Since all rings will contain k, we will omit the phrase “over k”.
Lemma 2. If R is a domain with quotient field K, and M is a vector space over K, then
any derivation D: R →M extends uniquely to a derivation
˜
D: K →M.
Proof. If z ∈ K, and z = x/y, with x and y in R, then, since x = yz, we must have
Dx = y
˜
Dz +zDy. So
˜
D(z) = y
−1
(Dx −zDy), which shows the uniqueness. If we
define
˜
D by this formula, it is not difficult to verify that
˜
D is a well-defined derivation
from K to M.
We want to define differentials of R to be elements of the form
¸
x
i
dy
i
, x
i
, y
i

R; they should behave like the differentials of calculus. This is most easily done as
follows:
For each x ∈ R let [x] be a symbol. Let F be the free R-module on the set {[x] | x ∈
R}. Let N be the submodule of F generated by the following sets of elements:
(i) {[x +y] −[x] −[y] | x, y ∈ R}
(ii) {[λx] −λ[x] | x ∈ R, λ∈ k}
(iii) {[xy] −x[y] −y[x] | x, y ∈ R}
Let Ω
k
(R) =F/N be the quotient module. Let dx be the image of [x] in F/N, and let
d : R →Ω
k
(R) be the mapping that takes x to dx. Ω
k
(R) is an R-module, called the
module of differentials of R over k, and d : R →Ω
k
(R) is a derivation.
Lemma 3. For any R-module M, and any derivation D: R →M, there is a unique
homomorphism of R-module ϕ: Ω
k
(R) →M such that D(x) =ϕ(dx) for all x ∈ R.
Proof. If we define ϕ

: F → M by ϕ

(
¸
x
i
[y
i
]) =
¸
x
i
D(y
i
), then ϕ

(N) = 0, so ϕ

induces ϕ: Ω
k
(R) →M.
If x
1
, . . . , x
n
∈ R, and G ∈ k[X
1
, . . . , X
n
], then
d(G(x
1
, . . . , x
n
)) =
n
¸
i =1
G
X
i
(x
1
, . . . , x
n
)dx
i
.
It follows that if R = k[x
1
, . . . , x
n
], then Ω
k
(R) is generated (as an R-module) by the
differentials dx
1
, . . . , dx
n
.
Likewise, if R is a domain with quotient field K, and z = x/y ∈ K, x, y ∈ R, then
dz = y
−1
dx −y
−1
zdy. In particular, if K =k(x
1
, . . . , x
n
), then Ω
k
(K) is a vector space
of finite dimension over K, generated by dx
1
, . . . , dx
n
.
Proposition 6. (1) Let K be an algebraic function field in one variable over k. Then

k
(K) is a one-dimensional vector space over K.
(2) (char(k) =0) If x ∈ K, x ∈ k, then dx is a basis for Ω
k
(K) over K.
106 CHAPTER 8. RIEMANN-ROCHTHEOREM
Proof. Let F ∈ k[X, Y ] be an affine plane curve with function field K (Corollary of
§6.6). Let R = k[X, Y ]/(F) = k[x, y]; K = k(x, y). We may assume F
Y
= 0 (since
F is irreducible), so F doesn’t divide F
Y
, i.e., F
Y
(x, y) = 0. The above discussion
shows that dx and dy generate Ω
k
(K) over K. But 0 = d(F(x, y)) = F
X
(x, y)dx +
F
Y
(x, y)dy, so dy = udx, where u = −F
X
(x, y)/F
Y
(x, y). Therefore dx generates

k
(K), so dim
K
(Ω
k
(K)) ≤1.
So we must showthat Ω
k
(K) =0. By Lemmas 2 and 3, it suffices to find a nonzero
derivation D: R → M for some vector space M over K. Let M = K, and, for G ∈
k[X, Y ], G its image in R, let D(G) =G
X
(x, y) −uG
Y
(x, y), with u as in the preceding
paragraph. It is left to the reader to verify that D is a well-defined derivation, and
that D(x) =1, so D =0.
It follows (char(k) =0) that for any f , t ∈ K, t ∈ k, there is a unique element v ∈ K
such that d f = vdt . It is natural to write v =
d f
dt
, and call v the derivative of f with
respect to t .
Proposition 7. With K as in Proposition 6, let O be a discrete valuation ring of K,
and let t be a uniformizing parameter in O. If f ∈ O, then
d f
dt
∈ O.
Proof. Using the notation of the proof of Proposition 6, we may assume O =O
P
(F),
P =(0, 0) a simple point on F. For z ∈ K, write z

instead of
dz
dt
, t being fixed through-
out.
Choose N large enough that ord
P
(x

) ≥ −N, ord
P
(y

) ≥ −N. Then if f ∈ R =
k[x, y], ord
P
( f

) ≥−N, since f

= f
X
(x, y)x

+ f
Y
(x, y)y

.
If f ∈ O, write f =g/h, g, h ∈ R, h(P) =0. Then f

=h
−2
(hg

−gh

), so ord
P
( f

) ≥
−N.
We can now complete the proof. Let f ∈ O. Write f =
¸
i <N
λ
i
t
i
+t
N
g, λ
i
∈ k,
g ∈ O (Problem 2.30). Then f

=
¸
i λ
i
t
i −1
+g Nt
N−1
+t
N
g

. Since ord
P
(g

) ≥ −N,
each term belongs to O, so f

∈ O, as required.
Problems
8.22. Generalize Proposition 6 to function fields in n variables.
8.23. With O, t as in Proposition 7, let ϕ: O →k[[T]] be the corresponding homo-
morphism (Problem 2.32). Show that, for f ∈ O, ϕ takes the derivative of f to the
“formal derivative” of ϕ( f ). Use this to give another proof of Proposition 7, and of
the fact that Ω
k
(K) =0 in Proposition 6.
8.5 Canonical Divisors
Let C be a projective curve, X its nonsingular model, K their function field as
before. We let Ω = Ω
k
(K) be the space of differentials of K over k; elements ω ∈ Ω
may also be called differentials on X, or on C.
Let ω∈ Ω, ω=0, and let P ∈ X be a place. We define the order of ω at P, ord
P
(ω),
as follows: Choose a uniformizing parameter t in O
P
(X), write ω= f dt , f ∈ K, and
8.5. CANONICAL DIVISORS 107
set ord
P
(ω) =ord
P
( f ). To see that this is well-defined, suppose u were another uni-
formizing parameter, and f dt = gdu; then f /g =
du
dt
∈ O
P
(X) by Proposition 7, and
likewise g/f ∈ O
P
(X), so ord
P
( f ) =ord
P
(g).
If 0 =ω∈ Ω, the divisor of ω, div(ω), is defined to be
¸
P∈X
ord
P
(ω)P. In Proposi-
tion 8 we shall show that only finitely many ord
P
(ω) =0 for a given ω, so that div(ω)
is a well-defined divisor.
Let W = div(ω). W is called a canonical divisor. If ω

is another nonzero dif-
ferential in Ω, then ω

= f ω, f ∈ K, so div(ω

) =div( f ) +div(ω), and div(ω

) ≡div(ω).
Conversely if W

≡W, say W

=div( f )+W, thenW

=div( f ω). Sothe canonical divi-
sors form an equivalence class under linear equivalence. In particular, all canonical
divisors have the same degree.
Proposition8. Assume C is a plane curve of degree n ≥3 with only ordinary multiple
points. Let E =
¸
Q∈X
(r
Q
−1)Q, as in Section 1. Let G be any plane curve of degree
n −3. Then div(G) −E is a canonical divisor. (If n =3, div(G) =0.)
Proof. Choose coordinates X, Y, Z for P
2
in such a way that: Z•C =
¸
n
i =1
P
i
, P
i
dis-
tinct; [1 : 0 : 0] ∈C; and no tangent to C at a multiple point passes through [1 : 0 : 0].
Let x = X/Z, y = Y /Z ∈ K. Let F be the form defining C, and let f
x
= F
X
(x, y, 1),
f
y
=F
Y
(x, y, 1). Let E
m
=m
¸
n
i =1
P
i
−E.
Let ω = dx. Since divisors of the form div(G) −E, deg(G) = n −3, are linearly
equivalent, it suffices to show that div(ω) =E
n−3
+div( f
y
). Since f
y
=F
Y
/Z
n−1
, this
is the same as showing
div(dx) −div(F
Y
) = −2
n
¸
i =1
P
i
−E. (∗)
Note first that dx =−( f
y
/f
x
)dy =−(F
Y
/F
X
)dy, soord
Q
(dx)−ord
Q
(F
Y
) =ord
Q
(dy)−
ord
Q
(F
X
) for all Q ∈ X.
Suppose Q is a place centered at P
i
∈ Z ∩C. Then y
−1
= Z/Y is a uniformiz-
ing parameter in O
P
i
(X), and dy = −y
2
d(y
−1
), so ord
Q
(dy) = −2. Since F
X
(P
i
) = 0
(Problem 5.16), both sides of (∗) have order −2 at Q.
Suppose Q is a place centered at P =[a : b : 1] ∈C. We may assume P =[0 : 0 : 1],
since dx =d(x −a), and derivatives aren’t changed by translation.
Consider the case when Y is tangent toC at P. Then P is not a multiple point (by
hypothesis), so x is a uniformizing parameter, and F
Y
(P) =0. Therefore ord
Q
(dx) =
ord
Q
(F
Y
) =0, as desired.
If Y is not tangent, then y is a uniformizing parameter at Q (Step (2) in §7.2), so
ord
Q
(dy) =0, and ord
Q
( f
x
) =r
−1
Q
(Problem 7.4), as desired.
Corollary. Let W be a canonical divisor. Then deg(W) =2g −2 and l (W) ≥g.
Proof. We may assume W =E
n−3
. Then this is Corollary 3 (b) of §8.2.
Problems
8.24. Show that if g >0, then n ≥3 (notation as in Proposition 8).
108 CHAPTER 8. RIEMANN-ROCHTHEOREM
8.25. Let X = P
1
, K = k(t ) as in Problem 8.1. Calculate div(dt ), and show directly
that the above corollary holds when g =0.
8.26. Show that for any X there is a curve C birationally equivalent to X satisfying
conditions of Proposition 8 (see Problem 7.21).
8.27. Let X =C, x, y as in Problem 8.2. Let ω= y
−1
dx. Show that div(ω) =0.
8.28. Show that if g >0, there are effective canonical divisors.
8.6 Riemann-Roch Theorem
This celebrated theorem finds the missing term in Riemann’s Theorem. Our
proof follows the classical proof of Brill and Noether.
RIEMANN-ROCH THEOREM. Let W be a canonical divisor on X. Then for any di-
visor D,
l (D) =deg(D) +1−g +l (W −D).
Before proving the theorem, notice that we knowthe theoremfor divisors of large
enough degree. We can prove the general case if we can compare both sides of the
equation for D and D+P, P ∈ X; note that deg(D+P) =deg(D) +1, while the other
two nonconstant terms change either by 0 or 1. The heart of the proof is therefore
NOETHER’S REDUCTION LEMMA. If l (D) > 0, and l (W −D−P) = l (W −D), then
l (D+P) =l (D).
Proof. Choose C as before with ordinary multiple points, and such that P is a simple
point on C (Problem 7.21(a)), and so Z•C =
¸
n
i =1
P
i
, with P
i
distinct, and P ∉ Z. Let
E
m
=m
¸
P
i
−E. The terms in the statement of the lemma depend only on the linear
equivalence classes of the divisors involved, so we may assume W =E
n−3
, and D ≥0
(Proposition 8 and Problem 8.11). So L(W −D) ⊂L(E
n−3
).
Let h ∈ L(W −D), h ∈ L(W −D −P). Write h = G/Z
n−3
, G an adjoint of degree
n −3 (Corollary 3 of §8.3). Then div(G) =D+E +A, A ≥0, but A ≥P.
Take a line L such that L.C =P +B, where B consists of n −1 simple points of C,
all distinct from P. div(LG) =(D+P) +E +(A+B).
Now suppose f ∈ L(D+P); let div( f ) +D =D

. We must show that f ∈ L(D), i.e.,
D

≥0.
Since D+P ≡D

+P, and both these divisors are effective, the Residue Theorem
applies: There is a curve H of degree n −2 with div(H) =(D

+P) +E +(A+B).
But B contains n−1 distinct collinear points, and H is a curve of degree n−2. By
Bézout’s Theorem, H must contain L as a component. In particular, H(P) =0. Since
P does not appear in E +A+B, it follows that D

+P ≥P, or D

≥0, as desired.
We turn to the proof of the theorem. For each divisor D, consider the equation
l (D) =deg(D) +1−g +l (W −D). (∗)
D
Case 1: l (W −D) =0. We use induction on l (D). If l (D) =0, applying Riemann’s’
Theorem to D and W −D gives (∗)
D
. If l (D) = 1, we may assume D ≥ 0. Then g ≤
8.6. RIEMANN-ROCHTHEOREM 109
l (W) (Corollary of §8.5), l (W) ≤ l (W −D) +deg(D) (Problem 8.8), and deg(D) ≤ g
(Riemann’s Theorem), proving (∗)
D
.
If l (D) >1, choose P so that l (D−P) =l (D) −1 (Problem 8.13); then the Reduc-
tion Lemma implies that l (W −(D−P)) =0, and (∗)
D−P
, which is true by induction,
implies (∗)
D
.
Case 2: l (W −D) > 0. This case can only happen if deg(D) ≤ deg(W) = 2g −2
(Proposition 3 (2) of §8.2). So we can pick a maximal D for which (∗)
D
is false, i.e.,
(∗)
D+P
is true for all P ∈ X. Choose P so that l (W −D−P) =l (W −D) −1. If l (D) =0,
applying Case 1 to the divisor W −D proves it, so we may assume l (D) > 0. Then
the Reduction Lemma gives l (D+P) = l (D). Since (∗)
D+P
is true, l (D) = l (D+P) =
deg(D+P) +1−g +l (W −D−P) =deg(D) +1−g +l (W −D), as desired.
Corollary 1. l (W) =g if W is a canonical divisor.
Corollary 2. If deg(D) ≥2g −1, then l (D) =deg(D) +1−g.
Corollary 3. If deg(D) ≥2g, then l (D−P) =l (D) −1 for all P ∈ X.
Corollary 4 (Clifford’s Theorem). If l (D) >0, and l (W −D) >0, then
l (D) ≤
1
2
deg(D) +1.
Proofs. The first three are straight-forwardapplications of the theorem, using Propo-
sition 3 of §8.2. For Corollary 4, we may assume D ≥0, D

≥0, D+D

=W. And we
may assume l (D−P) =l (D) for all P, since otherwise we work with D−P and get a
better inequality.
Choose g ∈ L(D) such that g ∈ L(D−P) for each P ≤D

. Then it is easy to see that
the linear map ϕ: L(D

)/L(0) →L(W)/L(D) defined by ϕ( f ) = f g (the bars denoting
residues) is one-to-one. Therefore l (D

) −1 ≤ g −l (D). Applying Riemann-Roch to
D

concludes the proof.
The term l (W −D) may also be interpreted in terms of differentials. Let D be a
divisor. Define Ω(D) to be {ω ∈ Ω | div(ω) ≥ D}. It is a subspace of Ω (over k). Let
δ(D) =dim
k
Ω(D), the index of D. Differentials in Ω(0) are called differentials of the
first kind (or holomorphic differentials, if k =C).
Proposition 9. (1) δ(D) =l (W −D).
(2) There are g linearly independent differentials of the first kind on X.
(3) l (D) =deg(D) +1−g +δ(D).
Proof. Let W =div(ω). Define a linear map ϕ: L(W−D) →Ω(D) by ϕ( f ) = f ω. Then
ϕ is an isomorphism, which proves (1), and (2) and (3) follow immediately.
Problems
8.29. Let D be any divisor, P ∈ X. Then l (W −D −P) = l (W −D) if and only if
l (D+P) =l (D).
110 CHAPTER 8. RIEMANN-ROCHTHEOREM
8.30. (Reciprocity Theorem of Brill-Noether) Suppose D and D

are divisors, and
D+D

=W is a canonical divisor. Then l (D) −l (D

) =
1
2
(deg(D) −deg(D

)).
8.31. Let D be a divisor withdeg(D) =2g−2 andl (D) =g. Showthat D is a canonical
divisor. So these properties characterize canonical divisors.
8.32. Let P
1
, . . . , P
m
∈ P
2
, r
1
, . . . , r
m
nonnegative integers. Let V (d; r
1
P
1
, . . . , r
m
P
m
)
be the projective space of curves F of degree d with m
P
i
(F) ≥ r
i
. Suppose there is
a curve C of degree n with ordinary multiple points P
1
, . . . , P
m
, and m
P
i
(C) =r
i
+1;
and suppose d ≥n −3. Show that
dimV (d; r
1
P
1
, . . . , r
m
P
m
) =
d(d +3)
2

¸
(r
i
+1)r
i
2
.
Compare with Theorem 1 of §5.2.
8.33. (Linear Series) Let D be a divisor, and let V be a subspace of L(D) (as a vector
space). The set of effective divisors {div( f )+D | f ∈V, f =0} is called a linear series. If
f
1
, . . . , f
r +1
is a basis for V , then the correspondence div(
¸
λ
i
f
i
) +D →(λ
1
, . . . , λ
r +1
)
sets up a one-to-one correspondence between the linear series and P
r
. If deg(D) =
n, the series is often called a g
r
n
. The series is called complete if V =L(D), i.e., every
effective divisor linearly equivalent to D appears.
(a) Show that, with C, E as in Section 1, the series {div(G) −E | G is an adjoint
of degree n not containing C} is complete. (b) Assume that there is no P in X such
that div( f ) +D ≥P for all nonzero f in V . (This can always be achieved by replacing
D by a divisor D

≤ D.) For each P ∈ X, let H
P
= { f ∈ V | div( f ) +D ≥ P or f =
0}, a hyperplane in V . Show that the mapping P → H
P
is a morphism ϕ
V
from X
to the projective space P

(V ) of hyperplanes in V . (c) A hyperplane M in P

(V )
corresponds to a line m in V . Show that ϕ
−1
V
(M) is the divisor div( f ) +D, where f
spans the line m. Show that ϕ
V
(X) is not contained in any hyperplane of P

(V ).
(d) Conversely, if ϕ: X →P
r
is any morphism whose image is not contained in any
hyperplane, show that the divisors ϕ
−1
(M) form a linear system on X. (Hint: If D =
ϕ
−1
(M
0
), then ϕ
−1
(M) =div(M/M
0
) +D.) (e) If V =L(D) and deg(D) ≥2g +1, show
that ϕ
V
is one-to-one. (Hint: See Corollary 3.)
Linear systems are used to map curves to and embed curves in projective spaces.
8.34. Show that there are curves of every positive genus. (Hint: Consider affine
plane curves y
2
a(x) +b(x) =0, where deg(a) =g, deg(b) =g +2.)
8.35. (a) Use linear systems to reprove that every curve of genus 1 is birationally
equivalent to a plane cubic. (b) Show that every curve of genus 2 is birationally
equivalent to a plane curve of degree 4 with one double point. (Hint: Use a g
3
4
.)
8.36. Let f : X →Y be a nonconstant (therefore surjective) morphism of projective
nonsingular curves, corresponding to a homomorphism
˜
f of k(Y ) into k(X). The
integer n = [k(X) : k(Y )] is called the degree of f . If P ∈ X, f (P) =Q, let t ∈ O
Q
(Y )
be a uniformizing parameter. The integer e(P) = ord
P
(t ) is called the ramification
index of f at P.
(a) For each Q ∈ Y , show that
¸
f (P)=Q
e(P)P is an effective divisor of degree n
(see Proposition 4 of §8.2). (b) (char(k) = 0) With t as above, show that ord
P
(dt ) =
e(P) −1. (c) (char(k) = 0) If g
X
(resp. g
Y
) is the genus of X (resp. Y ), prove the
8.6. RIEMANN-ROCHTHEOREM 111
Hurwitz Formula
2g
X
−2 = (2g
Y
−2)n +
¸
P∈X
(e(P) −1).
(d) For all but a finite number of P ∈ X, e(P) = 1. The points P ∈ X (and f (P) ∈ Y )
where e(P) > 1 are called ramification points. If Y = P
1
and n > 1, show that there
are always some ramification points.
If k =C, a nonsingular projective curve has a natural structure of a one-dimensional
compact complex analytic manifold, andhence a two-dimensional real analytic man-
ifold. From the Hurwitz Formula (c) with Y = P
1
it is easy to prove that the genus
defined here is the same as the topological genus (the number of "handles") of this
manifold. (See Lang’s “Algebraic Functions” or my "Algebraic Topology", Part X.)
8.37. (Weierstrass Points; assume char(k) = 0) Let P be a point on a nonsingular
curve X of genus g. Let N
r
= N
r
(P) = l (r P). (a) Show that 1 = N
0
≤ N
1
≤ · · · ≤
N
2g−1
= g. So there are exactly g numbers 0 < n
1
< n
2
< · · · < n
g
< 2g such that
there is no z ∈ k(X) with pole only at P, and ord
P
(z) = −n
i
. These n
i
are called
the Weierstrass gaps, and (n
1
, . . . , n
g
) the gap sequence, at P. The point P is called
a Weierstrass point if the gap sequence at P is anything but (1, 2, . . . , g) that is, if
¸
g
i =1
(n
i
−i ) > 0. (b) The following are equivalent: (i) P is a Weierstrass point; (ii)
l (gP) > 1; (iii) l (W −gP) > 0; (iv) There is a differential ω on X with div(ω) ≥ gP.
(c) If r and s are not gaps at P, then r +s is not a gap at P. (d) If 2 is not a gap at
P, the gap sequence is (1, 3, . . . , 2g −1). Such a Weierstrass point (if g > 1) is called
hyperelliptic. The curve X has a hyperelliptic Weierstrass point if and only if there
is a morphism f : X → P
1
of degree 2. Such an X is called a hyperelliptic curve.
(e) An integer n is a gap at P if and only if there is a differential of the first kind ω
with ord(ω) =n −1.
8.38. (chark =0) Fix z ∈ K, z ∈ k. For f ∈ K, denote the derivative of f with respect
to z by f

; let f
(0)
= f , f
(1)
= f

, f
(2)
=( f

)

, etc. For f
1
, . . . , f
r
∈ K, let W
z
( f
1
, . . . , f
r
) =
det( f
(i )
j
), i = 0, . . . , r −1, j = 1, . . . , r (the “Wronskian”). Let ω
1
, . . . , ω
g
be a basis of
Ω(0). Write ω
i
= f
i
dz, and let h = W
z
( f
1
, . . . , f
g
). (a) h is independent of choice
of basis, up to multiplication by a constant. (b) If t ∈ K and ω
i
= e
i
dt , then h =
W
t
(e
1
, . . . , e
g
)(t

)
1+···+g
. (c) There is a basis ω
1
, . . . , ω
g
for Ω(0) such that ord
P

i
) =
n
i
−1, where (n
1
, . . . , n
g
) is the gap sequence at P. (d) Showthat ord
P
(h) =
¸
(n
i
−i )−
1
2
g(g +1) ord
P
(dz) (Hint: Let t be a uniformizing parameter at P and look at lowest
degree terms in the determinant.) (e) Prove the formula
¸
P,i
(n
i
(P) −i ) = (g −1)g(g +1),
so there are a finite number of Weierstrass points. Every curve of genus > 1 has
Weierstrass points.
More oncanonical divisors, differentials, adjoints, andtheir relationtoMax Noether’s
theoremandresolutionof singularities, canbe foundinmy "Adjoints andMax Noether’s
FundamentalSatz", which may be regarded as a ninth chapter to this book. It is
available on the arXiv, math.AG/0209203.
112 CHAPTER 8. RIEMANN-ROCHTHEOREM
Appendix A
Nonzero Characteristic
At several places, for simplicity, we have assumed that the characteristic of the
field k was zero. A reader with some knowledge of separable field extensions should
have little difficulty extending the results to the case where char(k) = p = 0. A few
remarks might be helpful.
Proposition 9 (2) of Chapter 6, Section 5 is not true as stated in characteristic p.
However, since k is algebraically closed (hence perfect), it is possible to choose x ∈ K
so that K is a finite separable extension of k(x), and then k =k(x, y) for some y ∈ K.
The same comment applies to the study of Ω
k
(K) in Chapter 8. The differential dx
will be nonzero provided K is separable over k(x). FromProblem8.23 one can easily
deduce that if x is a uniformizing parameter at any point P ∈ X, then dx =0.
A more serious difficulty is that encountered in Problem 5.26: Let F be an irre-
ducible projective plane curve of degree n, P ∈ P
2
, and r = m
P
(F) ≥ 0. Let us call
the point P terrible for F if there are an infinite number of lines L through P that
intersect F in fewer than n −r distinct points other than P. Note that P can only
be terrible if p divides n −r (see Problem 5.26). The point [0 : 1 : 0] is terrible for
F = X
p+1
−Y
p
Z (see Problem5.28). The point [1 : 0 : 0] is terrible for F = X
p
−Y
p−1
Z.
The set of lines that pass through P forms a hyperplane (i.e., a line) in the space
P
2
of all lines. If P is terrible for F, the dual curve to F contains an infinite number
of points on a line (see Problem 6.47). Since the dual curve is irreducible, it must be
a line. It follows that there can be at most one terrible point for F. In particular, one
can always find lines that intersect F in n distinct points.
Lemma 1 of Chapter 7, Section 4 is false in characteristic p. It may be impossible
to perform a quadratic transformation centered at P if P is terrible. Theorem 2 of
that section is still true, however. For if P is terrible for F, p must divide n −r . Take
a quadratic transformation centered at some point Q of multiplicity m, where m=0
or 1, and so that P is not on a fundamental line. Let F

be the quadratic transform
of F. Then n

=deg(F

) =2n −m. Since n

−r ≡n −m (mod p), one of the choices
m=0, 1 will insure that p doesn’t divide n−r . Then the point P

on F

corresponding
to P on F will not be terrible for F

, and we can proceed as before.
113
114 APPENDIX A. NONZEROCHARACTERISTIC
Appendix B
Suggestions for Further Reading
For algebraic background:
O. ZARISKI and P. SAMUEL. Commutative Algebra, Van Nostrand, Princeton, N. J.,
1958.
For more on the classical theory of plane curves:
R. WALKER. Algebraic Curves, Dover, New York, 1962.
A. SEIDENBERG. Elements of the Theory of Algebraic Curves, Addison-Wesley, 1968.
For the analytic study of curves over the field of complex numbers:
S. LANG. Algebraic Functions, W. A. Benjamin, New York, 1965.
R. GUNNING. Lectures on Riemann Surfaces, Princeton Mathematical Notes, 1966.
For a purely algebraic treatment of curves over any field:
C. CHEVALLEY. Introduction to the Theory of Algebraic Functions in One Variable,
Amer. Math. Soc., New York, 1952
For a classical treatment of general algebraic geometry:
S. LANG. Introduction to Algebraic Geometry, Interscience, New York, 1958.
A. WEIL. Foundations of Algebraic Geometry, Amer. Math. Soc., New York, 1946 and
1962.
B. L. VANDERWAERDEN. Einführung inder algebraische Geometrie, Springer, Berlin,
1939.
For an introduction to abstract algebraic geometry:
D. MUMFORD. Introduction to Algebraic Geometry, Harvard lecture notes, 1967.
J.-P. SERRE. Faisceaux Algébriques Cohérents, Annals of Math., vol. 61, 1955, pp.
197–278.
115
116 APPENDIX B. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING
For other proofs of the Riemann-Roch Theorem:
J. TATE. Residues of Differentials on Curves, Annales Sci. de l’Ecole Normals Sup.
4th Ser. vol. 1, 1958, pp. 149–159.
J.-P. SERRE. Groupes Algébriques et Corps de Classes, Hermann, Paris, 1959.
For a modern treatment of multiplicity and intersection theory:
J.-P. SERRE. Algèbre Locale · Multiplicités, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, 1965.
Appendix C
Notation
References are to page numbers.
Z, Q, R, C 1
UFD 2
PID 2
R/I 2
∂F
∂X
, F
X
, F
X
i
3
A
n
(k), A
n
4
V (F), V (S) 4, 45
I (X) 5, 45
Rad(I ) 6
F(V, k) 17
Γ(V ) 17, 69
˜ ϕ 18, 70
F
T
, I
T
, V
T
19
k(V ) 20, 47
O
P
(V ) 21, 47, 69
f (P) 21, 47, 69
m
P
(V ) 21, 47
DV R, ord 22
k[[X]] 23
F

, f

24, 53
I
n
25
m
P
(F) 32
ord
P
, ord
F
P
35, 53, 93
I (P, F ∩G) 36
P
n
(k), P
n
43
U
i
, ϕ
i
: A
n
→U
i
⊂P
n
43
H

44
V
p
, I
p
, V
a
, I
a
45
Γ
h
(V ) 46
I

, V

, I

, V

48
O
P
(F) 53
V (d; r
1
P
1
, . . . , r
n
P
n
) 56
¸
n
P
P 61
¸
n
P
P ≥
¸
m
P
P 61, 97
F•G 61
Γ(U), Γ(U, O
X
) 69
( f , g), f ×g 73

X
,G( f ) 74
tr. deg 75
dim(X) 75
g

(C) 90
deg(D) 97
div(G), div(z) 97
(z)
0
, (z)

97
D ≡D

98
E 98
L(D), l (D) 99
g 101

k
(R) 105
d, dx 105
d f
dt
106
ord
P
(w), div(w), W 107
δ(D) 109
117
118 APPENDIX C. NOTATION
Index
This index does not include the words definedinthe sections of general algebraic
preliminaries. References are to page numbers.
adjoint, 98, 108, 110, 111
affine
n-space, 4
algebraic set, 4
change of coordinates, 19
line, 4
plane, 4
plane curve, 4, 31
variety, 17, 70
algebraic
group, 74
set, 4
transform, 88
variety, 69
Bézout’s Theorem, 57
bidegree, 50
biform, 50
bihomogeneous, 50
birational equivalence, 78
blowing up a point, 82, 83, 86
canonical divisor, 107, 108, 111
Clifford’s Theorem, 109
cone, 45
conic, 53–55, 57, 62, 78
coordinate
axes, 46
hyperplane, 46
ring, 17
cubic, 53, 55, 57, 59, 62, 64, 75, 78, 94, 99,
101, 102, 110
addition on, 63
curve, 53, 75
cusp, 40, 55, 75, 94
degree
of a curve, 31, 53
of a divisor, 97
of a morphism, 110
of a zero cycle, 61
derivation, 105
derivative, 106
differential
of the first kind, 109
on a curve, 106
dimension, 20, 47, 75
direct product, 25
discrete valuation ring, 22
divisor, 97
class group, 99
degree of, 97
effective, 97
linear equivalence of, 98
of a curve, 97
of a differential, 107
of a function, 97
dominate a local ring, 77
dominating a rational map, 77
double point, 32, 33, 40, 55, 110
dual curve, 79, 113
duality, 48
exact, 28
excellent position, 90
exceptional line, 88
flex, 36, 59, 64, 65, 94
119
120 INDEX
form, 46
function field, 20, 46, 50, 76, 82, 92, 97,
102, 105
algebraic, 75
fundamental point, 88
genus, 101, 102, 110
good position, 88
graph, 19, 74, 83, 86
Hessian, 59, 94
homogeneous
coordinate ring, 46
coordinates, 43
function field, 46
ideal, 45
Hurwitz Formula, 110
hypercusp, 41
hyperelliptic, 111
hyperplane, 4, 46
at infinity, 44, 46
hypersurface, 4, 46
ideal of an algebraic set, 5, 45
index, 109
intersect
properly, 36
transversally, 37
intersection
cycle, 61
number, 36
irreducible
algebraic set, 7, 45, 69
components, 8, 31, 45
Jacobian matrix, 34
line, 20, 31, 48, 53
at infinity, 44
linear
equivalence, 98
series, 110
subvariety, 20, 47
system, 56
local ring, 21, 36, 47
of a field, 81
of a variety at a point, 21, 69
local ring of a variety at a point, 34, 35,
41, 47, 49, 50, 79
maximal ideal of a variety at a point, 21,
47
module of differentials, 105
morphism, 70
multiple
component, 31
point, 31
multiplicity
of a component, 31
of a point, 32, 53
of a tangent, 33
multiprojective space, 50
multispace, 50
node, 33, 55, 75, 94, 99, 104
Noether’s Conditions, 61, 94
Noether’s Fundamental Theorem, 61
Noether’s Reduction Lemma, 108
Noetherian ring, 7
nonsingular
curve, 31, 81
model, 92
Nullstellensatz, 10, 46
order, 23
function, 23
of a differential, 106
of a rational function, 35
ordinary multiple point, 33, 41, 54, 62,
84, 85, 88, 90, 91, 93, 94, 98, 102,
107, 108, 110
Pappus, 62
Pascal, 62
Plücker’s formula, 95
places, 92
pole set, 21
polynomial
function, 17
map, 18
polynomial map, 68, 70, 74
power series, 24
product, 5, 50, 51
INDEX 121
projective
n-space, 43
algebraic set, 45
change of coordinates, 47
closure, 49
equivalence, 54
line, 44
plane, 44
variety, 45, 70
quadratic transformation, 88, 90
centered at a point, 90
quartic, 53, 55, 60, 99
radical of an ideal, 6
ramification, 110
rational function, 20, 46
rational map, 77
domain of, 77
rational over a field, 65
rational variety, 78
Reciprocity Theoremof Brill-Noether, 109
Residue Theorem, 98
Riemann’s Theorem, 101
Riemann-Roch Theorem, 108
Segre embedding, 51, 71
simple
component, 31
node, 94
point, 31, 81
subvariety, 18, 69
surface, 75
tangent
line, 31, 33, 54
space, 34
transcendence degree, 75
uniformizing parameter, 22
value of a function, 21, 46, 47, 77
variety, 69
Weierstrass point, 111
Zariski topology, 68, 69
zero-cycle, 60

Preface
Third Preface, 2008
This text has been out of print for several years, with the author holding copyrights. Since I continue to hear from young algebraic geometers who used this as their first text, I am glad now to make this edition available without charge to anyone interested. I am most grateful to Kwankyu Lee for making a careful LaTeX version, which was the basis of this edition; thanks also to Eugene Eisenstein for help with the graphics. As in 1989, I have managed to resist making sweeping changes. I thank all who have sent corrections to earlier versions, especially Grzegorz Bobinski for the most ´ recent and thorough list. It is inevitable that this conversion has introduced some new errors, and I and future readers will be grateful if you will send any errors you find to me at wfulton@umich.edu.

Second Preface, 1989
When this book first appeared, there were few texts available to a novice in modern algebraic geometry. Since then many introductory treatises have appeared, including excellent texts by Shafarevich, Mumford, Hartshorne, Griffiths-Harris, Kunz, Clemens, Iitaka, Brieskorn-Knörrer, and Arbarello-Cornalba-Griffiths-Harris. The past two decades have also seen a good deal of growth in our understanding of the topics covered in this text: linear series on curves, intersection theory, and the Riemann-Roch problem. It has been tempting to rewrite the book to reflect this progress, but it does not seem possible to do so without abandoning its elementary character and destroying its original purpose: to introduce students with a little algebra background to a few of the ideas of algebraic geometry and to help them gain some appreciation both for algebraic geometry and for origins and applications of many of the notions of commutative algebra. If working through the book and its exercises helps prepare a reader for any of the texts mentioned above, that will be an added benefit. i

As in any modern treatment of algebraic geometry. The results of the starred problems are used freely in the text. He corrected many errors and improved the clarity of the text. The coordinate ring. The general study of affine and projective varieties is continued in Chapters 4 and 6. In the concluding chapter the algebraic approach of Chevalley is combined with the geometric reasoning of Brill and Noether to prove the Riemann-Roch Theorem. Professor Paul Monsky provided several helpful suggestions as I taught the course. often the equivalent of a year or more of graduate study. From Chapter 3 on. most books with a modern approach demand considerable background in algebra and topology. Chapter 3 considers affine plane curves. The classical definition of the multiplicity of a point on a curve is shown to depend only on the local ring of the curve at the point. The course was repeated (assuming all the algebra) to a group of graduate students during the intensive week at the end of the Spring semester. The intersection number of two plane curves at a point is characterized by its properties. . Thanks are due to Richard Weiss. (Anyone familiar with the cohomology of projective varieties will recognize that this cohomology is implicit in our proofs.) In Chapter 7 the nonsingular model of a curve is constructed by means of blowing up points. it is notoriously difficult for the beginner to make his way into the subject. but these do not prepare the student adequately for modern algebraic geometry. There are several texts on an undergraduate level that give an excellent treatment of the classical theory of plane curves. 1969 Although algebraic geometry is a highly developed and thriving field of mathematics. We have assumed that the reader is familiar with some basic properties of rings. k denotes a fixed algebraically closed field. and the correspondence between algebraic function fields on one variable and nonsingular projective curves is established. and local rings of an affine variety are studied in Chapter 2. Whenever convenient (including without comment many of the problems) we have assumed k to be of characteristic zero. a student in the course. function field. such as is often covered in a one-semester course in modern algebra. Chapter 1 begins with a summary of the facts we need from algebra. The rest of the chapter is concerned with basic properties of affine algebraic sets.ii PREFACE First Preface. while the others range from exercises to applications and extensions of the theory. These notes are from a course taught to Juniors at Brandeis University in 1967– 68. but without excessive prerequisites. we have given Zariski’s proof of the important Nullstellensatz. additional commutative algebra is developed in later sections. and polynomials. The minor adjustments necessary to extend the theory to arbitrary characteristic are discussed in an appendix. for sharing the task of writing the notes. and a definition in terms of a certain residue class ring of a local ring is shown to have these properties. but only as far as necessary for our study of curves. Bézout’s Theorem and Max Noether’s Fundamental Theorem are the subject of Chapter 5. ideals. The aim of these notes is to develop the theory of algebraic curves from the viewpoint of modern algebraic geometry. they play a fundamental role in our preparation. On the other hand. We have retained an essential feature of these courses by including several hundred problems.

iii “Je n’ai jamais été assez loin pour bien sentir l’application de l’algèbre à la géométrie. c’étoit jouer un air en tournant une manivelle. La premiere fois que je trouvai par le calcul que le carré d’un binôme étoit composé du carré de chacune de ses parties.-J. autrement je n’y comprenois plus rien. je n’en voulus rien croire jusqu’à ce que j’eusse fai la figure. Ce n’étoit pas que je n’eusse un grand goût pour l’algèbre en n’y considérant que la quantité abstraite. mais appliquée a l’étendue. et il me sembloit que résoudre un probleme de géométrie par les équations. Rousseau . malgré la justesse de ma multiplication. je voulois voir l’opération sur les lignes. et du double produit de l’une par l’autre. Je n’ai mois point cette manière d’opérer sans voir ce qu’on fait.” Les Confessions de J.

iv PREFACE .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Preface 1 Affine Algebraic Sets 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Algebraic Preliminaries . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Intersection Numbers . . .11 Free Modules . . . . . . . .2 Multiplicities and Local Rings . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . 31 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . .9 Ideals with a Finite Number of Zeros . . . . . . . . . .8 Modules. . . . . . . .1 Multiple Points and Tangent Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 v . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Coordinate Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. .6 Forms . . . . . . 1. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Hilbert Basis Theorem . . . . . . 1. . . . . . 3 Local Properties of Plane Curves 31 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Ideal of a Set of Points . .10 Field Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Quotient Modules and Exact Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Direct Products of Rings . . . . . . . . . .2 Affine Space and Algebraic Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .8 Operations with Ideals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . 1. . . . . . .2 Polynomial Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coordinate Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Rational Functions and Local Rings . . . . . . 2 Affine Varieties 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 1 1 4 5 6 7 9 10 12 14 15 17 17 18 19 20 22 24 25 25 26 27 29 . . . . .9 Integral Elements . . . . . . . . . . 2. 2. . . . 2. . . . . .5 Discrete Valuation Rings . . . . . . . . . . . Finiteness Conditions . . 2. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Irreducible Components of an Algebraic Set 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . .7 Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Algebraic Subsets of the Plane . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .4 Quadratic Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .6 Rational Maps . . . . .2 Projective Algebraic Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Linear Systems of Curves . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Rational Maps of Curves . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Canonical Divisors . . . . . . . . . .5 Algebraic Function Fields and Dimension of Varieties 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Rational Maps 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Bézout’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Varieties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Blowing up a Point in A2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Riemann’s Theorem . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . 5. . . .3 Blowing up Points in P2 . . .4 Multiprojective Space . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Projective Plane Curves 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Divisors . . . CONTENTS 43 43 44 48 50 53 53 55 57 59 60 62 67 67 69 70 73 75 77 81 81 82 86 87 92 97 97 99 101 104 106 108 113 115 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Vector Spaces L(D) . . . . . . . . . .2 Varieties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Applications of Noether’s Theorem . . A Nonzero Characteristic B Suggestions for Further Reading C Notation . . . . . .1 Projective Space . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Nonsingular Models of Curves 8 Riemann-Roch Theorem 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Resolution of Singularities 7. . . . . . . . . . 8. Morphisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .4 Multiple Points . . . . . . . .4 Products and Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi 4 Projective Varieties 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Riemann-Roch Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Morphisms of Varieties . . . . . .1 The Zariski Topology . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . 6. . . .1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Derivations and Differentials 8. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Max Noether’s Fundamental Theorem . . . . . . . 8. 4. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Affine and Projective Varieties 4. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

the degree of the monomial is i 1 +· · · +i n . A ring homomorphism from one ring to another must take the multiplicative identity of the first ring to that of the second.e. Z will denote the domain of integers.Chapter 1 Affine Algebraic Sets 1. A domain. d is the degree of F . Any ring homomorphism from a field to a nonzero ring is one-to-one. or a form. are called the constant. . . complex numbers. Any one-to-one ring homomorphism from R to a field L extends uniquely to a ring homomorphism from K to L. . . The monomials in R[X 1 . written deg(F ). . X n ] are the i i i polynomials X 11 X 22 · · · X nn . The degree of a nonzero polynomial a i X i is the largest integer d such that a d = 0. which is a field containing R as a subring. We often write R[X . . For any ring R. if F d = 0. or integral domain.1 Algebraic Preliminaries This section consists of a summary of some notation and facts from commutative algebra. The ring of polynomials in n variables over R is written R[X 1 . We call F homogeneous.. Y ] or R[X . Z ] when n = 2 or 3. . X n ] has a unique expression F = a (i ) X (i ) . if all coefficients a (i ) are zero except for monomials of degree d . The zero polynomial is allowed 1 . Anyone familiar with the italicized terms and the statements made here about them should have sufficient background to read the rest of the notes. . quadratic. . terms of F . . . we shall always mean a commutative ring with a multiplicative identity. is a ring (with at least two elements) in which the cancellation law holds. Every F ∈ R[X 1 . The terms F 0 . . R[X ] denotes the ring of polynomials with coefficients in R. A field is a domain in which every nonzero element is a unit. F is constant if F = F 0 . . . i j nonnegative integers. F 2 . of degree d . . where F i is a form of degree i . F 1 . and any elements in K may be written (not necessarily uniquely) as a ratio of two elements of R. while Q. When we speak of a ring. . . i. where the X (i ) are the monomials. the polynomial is monic if a d = 1. has a multiplicative inverse. . X n ]. Any polynomial F has a unique expression F = F 0 + F 1 + · · · + F d . real. Y . and C will denote the fields of rational. respectively. linear. Any domain R has a quotient field K . R. a (i ) ∈ R.

they have no common factors in K [X ]. An ideal is finitely generated if it is generated by a finite set S = { f 1 . . . A principal ideal I = (a) in a UFD is prime if and only if a is irreducible (or zero). F ∈ R[X ]. If ϕ : R → S is a ring homomorphism. If R is a UFD with quotient field K . . . . And ideal I in a ring R is proper if I = R. it follows that if F and G are polynomials in R[X ] with no common factors in R[X ]. The image of F under ϕ is written F (s 1 . we then write I = ( f 1 . X n ]/I restricts to a ring homomorphism from k to k[X 1 . An ideal is principal if it is generated by one element. in particular. char(R). k[X 1 . The ring R/I is characterized by the following property: if ϕ : R → S is a ring homomorphism to a ring S. The classes R/I form a ring in such a way that the mapping π : R → R/I taking each element to its I -residue is a ring homomorphism. either a ∈ I or b ∈ I . . . If R is a ring. . . . . deg(F G) = deg(F ) + deg(G). . written PID. it is often denoted by a. . . X n ] to S ˜ ˜ such that ϕ(X i ) = s i . . An element a in a ring R is irreducible if it is not a unit or zero. . X n ]. if every nonzero element in R can be factored uniquely. f n ). f n }. either b or c is a unit. then (by Gauss) any irreducible element F ∈ R[X ] remains irreducible when considered in K [X ]. then Ker(ϕ) = (p). s n are elements in S. . and a is a root of F . up to units and the ordering of the factors. A proper ideal I in R is prime if and only if R/I is a domain. then there is a unique ring homomorphism ϕ : R/I → S such that ϕ = ϕ ◦ π.2 CHAPTER 1. Every maximal ideal is prime. The canonical homomorphism π from k[X 1 . and s 1 . X n ]/I . . X n ]/I is a vector space over k. . for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. then F = (X − a)G for a unique . . X n ] is a UFD for any field k. if such a p exists. s n ). . The quotient field of k[X 1 . . . Every PID is a UFD. . Let R be a domain. and for any factorization a = bc. . is the smallest integer p such that 1 + · · · + 1 (p times) = 0. into irreducible elements. If R is a UFD. . . Consequently k[X 1 . . . X n−1 ][X n ]. . . . . written Ker(ϕ). X n ] is canonically isomorphic to R[X 1 . . AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS to have any degree. . X n ] is written k(X 1 . a ∈ R. . and ϕ(I ) = 0. . A set S of elements of a ring R generates an ideal I = { a i s i | s i ∈ S. and is called the field of rational functions in n variables over k. . The ring R is a subring of R[X 1 . . . . . . Let I be an ideal in a ring R. . . . . then R[X ] is also a UFD. it is the set of equivalence classes of elements in R under the equivalence relation: a ∼ b if a−b ∈ I . and maximal if and only if R/I is a field. written UFD. The ring R[X 1 . . . otherwise char(R) = 0. . and R[X 1 . . . A domain R is a unique factorization domain. X n ] is characterized by the following property: if ϕ is a ring homomorphism from R to a ring S. then ˜ there is a unique extension of ϕ to a ring homomorphism ϕ from R[X 1 . The ring of integers Z and the ring of polynomials k[X ] in one variable over a field k are examples of PID’s. The characteristic of R. X n ]/I . . . so char(R) is a prime number or zero. . A proper ideal is maximal if it is not contained in any larger proper ideal. A domain in which every ideal is principal is called a principal ideal domain. . The residue class ring of R modulo I is written R/I . . . If R is a domain. We thus regard k as a subring of k[X 1 . . . If ϕ : Z → R is the unique ring homomorphism from Z to R. . I a proper ideal in k[X 1 . X n ] to k[X 1 . It is an ideal in R. A prime ideal is an ideal I such that whenever ab ∈ I . . . b. . c ∈ R. the set ϕ−1 (0) of elements mapped to zero is the kernel of ϕ. . . . . X n ). Let k be a field. The equivalence class containing a may be called the I -residue of a. . X n ]. . . a i ∈ R}. .

Let R be a UFD. Let k be an infinite field. . . . a 1 . µ. where the λi are the distinct roots of F . . . . (b) If F (a 1 . .) ∗ 1. . a n ∈ k. . . . s respectively in R[X 1 . . . Show that there are an infinite number of irreducible monic polynomials in k[X ]. . . . X n ]. Use induction on n. . . . .) ∗ 1. . X n ]. . . (5) F X i X j = F X j X i . . show that F = k[X 1 . . ∗ 1. show that F G is a form of degree r +s. . Let R be any ring. (b) Show that P is maximal. . Let R be a PID. Let k be any field. . . . . K the quotient field of R. . The derivative of a polynomial F = a i X i ∈ R[X ] is defined to ∂F ∂F be i a i X i −1 . n i =1 (X i λ(i ) ∈ k. a ) = 0 for all 1 n 1 n i a 1 . . . X n ].3. b ∈ R have no common factors. . .7. counting multiplicities. F ∈ k[X 1 . and F ∈ R[X 1 . and is written either ∂X or F X . .G n ) X = i =1 F X i (G 1 . .2. where we have written F X i X j for (F X i ) X j . F n were all of them. . Let P be a nonzero. . . (a) If F . then n F (G 1 . Let k be a field. . . Suppose F (a . X n ]. (Hint: Suppose F 1 . X n ] is also a form. (2) F X = 0 if F is a constant. X n ) has only a finite number of roots if any F i (a 1 . . (6) (Euler’s Theorem) If F is a form of degree m in R[X 1 . . . . . a n ∈ k. . . G are forms of degree r . The field C of complex numbers is an algebraically closed field. Let R be a domain. − a i )G i for some (not unique) G i in . A polynomial of degree d has d roots in k. (X n − a n )i n . . . (Hint: The irreducible monic polynomials are X − a. Show that F = 0. .G n ∈ R[X ]. and (F n ) X = nF n−1 F X . . a n−1 . . ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES 3 G ∈ R[X ]. (a) Show that F= λ(i ) (X 1 − a 1 )i 1 . a n ) = 0. X i −1 . . and the fact that F (a 1 . ∗ 1. . this representative is unique up to units of R. where a. . and e i is the multiplicity of λi . .1.6. . X n ]. (4) If G 1 .G n )(G i ) X . . . X ]. Show that every element z of K may be written z = a/b. (3) (F G) X = F X G + F G X . a. Problems ∗ 1. . . . (b) Show that any factor of a form in R[X 1 . If F ∈ R[X 1 .4. F ∈ k[X . . . ∗ 1. F i ∈ k[X 1 .5. λi ∈ k. proper. Show that any algebraically closed field is infinite. and factor F 1 · · · F n + 1 into irreducible factors. . . ∂X = F X i is defined i by considering F as a polynomial in X i with coefficients in R[X 1 . . . . X i +1 . . a n−1 ) = 0. then n mF = i =1 X i F Xi . . (a) Show that P is generated by an irreducible element. b ∈ R. X n ]. . . (Hint: Write F = F i X n .1.1.) ∗ 1. a ∈ k. . . . . It follows that F = µ (X − λi )e i . . . . prime ideal in R. . X n ]. . A field k is algebraically closed if any non-constant F ∈ k[X ] has a root. The following rules are easily verified: (1) (aF + bG) X = aF X + bG X . . X n−1 ].

. By An (k).4 CHAPTER 1. or simply an algebraic set. . V (Z 2 − (X 2 + Y 2 )) ⊂ A3 d. F r }. . . . . A hypersurface in A2 (k) is called an affine plane curve. We call An (k) affine n-space over k. V (Y 2 − X Y − X 2 Y + X 3 )) ⊂ A2 More generally. F r ) instead of V ({F 1 . we shall mean the cartesian product of k with itself n times: An (k) is the set of n-tuples of elements of k. (3) If I ⊂ J . If F is not a constant. . . its elements will be called points. . and is denoted by V (F ). . . the set of zeros of F is called the hypersurface defined by F . . A1 (k) is the affine line. X n ]. if n = 2.2 Affine Space and Algebraic Sets Let k be any field. V (F ) is called a hyperplane in An (k). If F ∈ k[X 1 . . . then V (S) = V (I ). . AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS 1. If F is a polynomial of degree one. so the intersection of any collection of algebraic sets is an algebraic set. . A2 (k) the affine plane. Let k = R. . . it is a line. a n ) = 0. so every algebraic set is equal to V (I ) for some ideal I . The following properties are easy to verify: (1) If I is the ideal in k[X 1 . (2) If {I α } is any collection of ideals. then V (I ) ⊃ V (J ). V (Y 2 − X 2 (X + 1)) ⊂ A2 c. . . we usually write V (F 1 . . . then V ( α I α ) = α V (I α ). . X n ]. . . a n ) in An (k) is called a zero of F if F (P ) = F (a 1 . . a point P = (a 1 . . . A subset X ⊂ An (k) is an affine algebraic set. a. we let V (S) = {P ∈ An | F (P ) = 0 for all F ∈ S}: V (S) = F ∈S V (F ). . If S = {F 1 . . . Examples. . V (Y 2 − X (X 2 − 1)) ⊂ A2 b. if S is any set of polynomials in k[X 1 . . if X = V (S) for some S. In particular. or simply An (if k is understood). X n ] generated by S. F r }).

sin(t ). called the ideal of X . and V (F ) is infinite if n ≥ 2. k algebraically closed. . Show that each of the following sets is not algebraic: (a) (b) (c) ∗ 1. (c) the set of points in A2 (R) whose polar coordinates (r. . Show that L ∩ C is a finite set of no more than n points. w) ∈ A2 (C) | |z|2 + |w|2 = 1}. The following properties show some of the relations between ideals and algebraic sets. a n ) ∈ X }. . . Show that An (k) V (F ) is infinite if n ≥ 1. X n ]. 1. (5) V (0) = An (k). .) ∗ 1. a n )} for a i ∈ k. then I (X ) ⊃ I (Y ). b 1 . . Give an example of a countable collection of algebraic sets whose union is not algebraic.4 and 1. b m ) ∈ W } is an algebraic set in An+m (k). . they form an ideal in k[X 1 .1. . . If k is a finite field. F ∈ k[X . 1. t ) ∈ A3 (R) | t ∈ R}. X n − a n ) = {(a 1 . . . . Suppose C is an affine plane curve. . t 3 ) ∈ A3 (k) | t ∈ k}. . the verifications are left to the reader (see Problems 1.4. . Let V ⊂ An (k). THE IDEAL OF A SET OF POINTS 5 (4) V (F G) = V (F ) ∪ V (G) for any polynomials F. .10. Conclude that the complement of any proper algebraic set is infinite. V (1) = . . . . . . . {(cos(t ). show that every subset of An (k) is algebraic. . . . . . t 2 .12. (b 1 . y ∈ R. . . It is called the product of V and W . X n ]. .11. y) ∈ A2 (R) | y = sin(x)}.15. V (X 1 − a 1 . Show that V × W = {(a 1 . . . W ⊂ Am (k) be algebraic sets. L ⊂ C . a n ) = 0 for all (a 1 . V (I ) ∪ V (J ) = V ({F G | F ∈ I . (Hint: Suppose L = V (Y −(a X +b)). a X +b) ∈ k[X ]. . I (X ) = {F ∈ k[X 1 . and L is a line in A2 (k). {(z.3. we consider those polynomials that vanish on X . . . 1.14. Suppose C = V (F ). . sin(t )) ∈ A2 (R) | t ∈ R}. so any finite union of algebraic sets is an algebraic set. a n ) ∈ V. 1. So any finite subset of An (k) is an algebraic set. θ) satisfy the equation r = sin(θ).7): (6) If X ⊂ Y . a n . X n ] | F (a 1 . Let F be a nonconstant polynomial in k[X 1 . 1. Y ] a polynomial of degree n.G ∈ J }). .3 The Ideal of a Set of Points For any subset X of An (k). . (b) {(cos(t ). {(x. . .G.13. . . (Hint: See Problem 1. . Show that the following are algebraic sets: (a) {(t . b m ) | (a 1 .) 1. and consider F (X . where |x + i y|2 = x 2 + y 2 for x. . .9. and written I (X ). Problems ∗ 1.8. Show that the algebraic subsets of A1 (k) are just the finite subsets. together with A1 (k) itself.

.17. (a) Let V be an algebraic set in An (k). . . show that there are G i ∈ I (V ) with G i (P j ) = a i j for all i and j . I ({(a 1 . Show that I = (X 2 + 1) ⊂ R[X ] is a radical (even a prime) ideal. I (An (k)) = (0) if k is an infinite field. and Rad(I ) ⊂ 1 n I (V (I )). W be algebraic sets in An (k). X n ] is a maximal ideal.) (b) Let P 1 . . and a i j ∈ k for 1 ≤ i . Let I be an ideal in a ring R. . X n ]. . b m ∈ I . V (I (X )) ⊃ X for any set X of points. (Hint: Apply (a) to the union of V and all but one point. . X n ]. An ideal I is called a radical ideal if I = Rad(I ). and F n ∈ I for some integer n > 0. . to be {a ∈ R | a n ∈ I for some integer n > 0}. . . (9) V (I (V (S))) = V (S) for any set S of polynomials. Let the algebraic set be V (I ) for some ideal I ⊂ k[X 1 . . but I is not the ideal of any set in A1 (R). . V (I ) = V (Rad(I )). P r be distinct points in An (k). Show that V = W if and only if I (V ) = I (W ). a n )}) = (X 1 − a 1 . Show that any prime ideal is radical. .20. . Every algebraic set is the intersection of a finite number of hypersurfaces Proof. To prove this fact we need some algebra: . . F r ). . ∗ 1. . . . . 1. . P r and V as in (b). . . a n ∈ k.21. written Rad(I ). F r ∈ I (V ) such that F i (P j ) = 0 if i = j . . So we have property (10) I (X ) is a radical ideal for any X ⊂ An (k). Show that Rad(I ) is an ideal. . Show that for any ideal I in k[X . . then F ∈ I . . . . If I is any ideal in a ring R. . X n − a n ) for a 1 . Show that there is a polynomial F ∈ k[X 1 . I = I (V (I )). . .18 below) containing I .18. X n ]/I is an isomorphism. j ≤ r . . and that the natural homomorphism from k to k[X 1 . . . So if V is an algebraic set. and I (V (I (X ))) = I (X ) for any set X of points. . in fact a radical ideal. .4 The Hilbert Basis Theorem Although we have allowed an algebraic set to be defined by any set of polynomials. . 1. . AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS (7) I ( ) = k[X 1 . and F i (P i ) = 1. ∗ 1. in fact a finite number will always do. X n ] such that F (Q) = 0 for all Q ∈ V . X ]. for if I = (F 1 . It is enough to show that I is finitely generated. Show that I = (X 1 −a 1 . . P ∈ An (k) a point not in V . ∗ 1. Then Rad(I ) is an ideal (Problem 1. If a n ∈ I . An ideal that is the ideal of an algebraic set has a property not shared by all ideals: if I = I (X ). . . . Show that there are polynomials F 1 . show that (a + b)n+m ∈ I . Theorem 1. (8) I (V (S)) ⊃ S for any set S of polynomials. . V = V (I (V )). Let V .) (c) With P 1 . and if I is the ideal of an algebraic set. then V (I ) = V (F 1 ) ∩ · · · ∩V (F r ). but F (P ) = 1. .19. X n −a n ) ⊂ k[X 1 . we define the radical of I . . . . Problems ∗ 1.6 CHAPTER 1.16. . . . . . . not in an algebraic set V . (Hint: Consider j a i j F j .) ∗ 1. . (Hint: I (V ) = I (V ∪ {P }). .

X n ] is Noetherian for any field k.5 Irreducible Components of an Algebraic Set An algebraic set may be the union of several smaller algebraic sets (Section 1. we call a d the leading coefficient of F . π : R → R/I the natural homomorphism. . V2 are algebraic sets in An . . let F i ∈ I (Vi ). Then F 1 F 2 ∈ I (V ). . i = 1. suppose F 1 F 2 ∈ I (V ). Suppose I were smaller than I . IRREDUCIBLE COMPONENTS OF AN ALGEBRAIC SET 7 A ring is said to be Noetherian if every ideal in the ring is finitely generated. Proof. Let {F m j } be a finite set of polynomials in I of degree ≤ m whose leading coefficients generate J m . X n−1 ][X n ]. and Vi = V . Proof. For each m ≤ N . Any ring of the form k[X 1 . Theorem 1. X n ]/I is Noetherian. therefore. . Otherwise V is irreducible. . X n ] is isomorphic to R[X 1 . . . . . . Let I be an ideal in a ring R. Vi V . Conclude that R/I is Noetherian if R is Noetherian. a d = 0. where V1 . Similarly for prime and maximal ideals. so there are polynomials F 1 . .5. F r ∈ I whose leading coefficients generate J . Fields and PID’s are Noetherian rings. . .2 Example d). Take an integer N larger than the degree of each F i . X n ] is a Noetherian ring. we can lower the degree by subtracting off Q j F m j for some Q j . . But then deg(G − Q i F i ) < degG. Then V = (V ∩ V (F 1 )) ∪ (V ∩ V (F 2 )). Since R[X 1 . let G be an element of I of lowest degree that is not in I . Let I be the ideal generated by the F i ’s and all the F m j ’s. F i ∈ I (V ). . . An algebraic set V is irreducible if and only if I (V ) is prime. . so G ∈ I . and for every ideal J of R containing I . k[X 1 . 2. π(J ) = J is an ideal of R/I . let J m be the ideal in R consisting of all leading coefficients of all polynomials F ∈ I such that deg(F ) ≤ m. Problem ∗ 1. . If I (V ) is not prime. (a) Show that for every ideal J of R/I . then I (Vi ) I (V ). (c) Show that J is finitely generated if J is. If R is a Noetherian ring. so V is reducible. (b) Show that J is a radical ideal if and only if J is radical. . This proves the theorem. An algebraic set V ⊂ An is reducible if V = V1 ∪ V2 . π−1 (J ) = J is an ideal of R containing I . It suffices to show that I = I . . 1. If deg(G) > N . Conversely if V = V1 ∪V2 .1. then R[X 1 . Proposition 1. F i ∈ I (V ). Let J be the set of leading coefficients of all polynomials in I . We must find a finite set of generators for I . the theorem will follow by induction if we can prove that R[X ] is Noetherian whenever R is Noetherian. Corollary. so G − Q i F i ∈ I . we can find polynomials Q i such that Q i F i and G have the same leading term. Similarly if deg(G) = m ≤ N .22. Let I be an ideal in R[X ]. and V ∩ V (F i ) V . This sets up a natural one-to-one correspondence between {ideals of R/I } and {ideals of R that contain I }. . . is a consequence of the HILBERT BASIS THEOREM. . . so I (V ) is not prime. . If F = a 1 + a 1 X +· · ·+ a d X d ∈ R[X ]. It is easy to check that J is an ideal in R.

But then I n = I . and let I 1 be the chosen ideal of S 1 . Y 4 − X 2 Y 2 + X Y 2 − X 3 ) ⊂ A2 (C) into irreducible components. I (V (Y − X 2 )) = (Y − X 2 ). (a) Show that V (Y − X 2 ) ⊂ A2 (C) is irreducible. Problems 1. Show that F = Y 2 + X 2 (X −1)2 ∈ R[X . Vi V . Proof. It suffices to show that some S n is empty. To get the second condition. so I n+1 = I n . if V2 is reducible. Theorem 2. Let S = {algebraic sets V ⊂ An (k) | V is not the union of a finite number of irreducible algebraic sets}. each F i ∈ I n if n is chosen n=0 sufficiently large. . (b) Decompose V (Y 4 − X 2 . If not let I = ∞ I n . let V = W1 ∪ · · · ∪ Wm be another such decomposition. . 1. Choose (using the axiom of choice) an ideal from each subset of S . take a maximal member I (Vα0 ) from {I (Vα )}. But Vi ⊂ Vk implies i = k. For if {Vα } is such a collection. Vi j irreducible.23. .) 1. apply the lemma to {proper ideals that contain I }. . Likewise each W j is equal to some Vi ( j ) . Since V ∈ S . Show that every proper ideal in a Noetherian ring is contained in a maximal ideal. a contradiction. there is an ideal I in S that is not contained in any other ideal of S . etc. so Vi = W j (i ) .24. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS We want to show that an algebraic set is the union of a finite number of irreducible algebraic sets. Lemma. Then Vα0 is clearly minimal in the collection. If V is reducible. Then there are unique irreducible algebraic sets V1 . Let I 0 be the chosen ideal for S itself.8 CHAPTER 1. V = V1 ∪· · ·∪Vm is the decomposition of V into irreducible components. Proof.25. So any algebraic set V may be written as V = V1 ∪ · · · ∪ Vm . Let S 2 = {I ∈ S | I I 1 }. Then S has a maximal member. F r generate I . It follows immediately from this lemma that any collection of algebraic sets in An (k) has a minimal member. Similarly W j (i ) ⊂ Vk for some k. 1. so Vi = Vi 1 ∪ · · · ∪ Vi mi . If not. . Y ] is an irreducible polynomial. simply throw away any Vi such that Vi ⊂ V j for i = j . . in fact. Then Vi ∈ S .e.Vm such that V = V1 ∪ · · · ∪ Vm and Vi ⊂ V j for all i = j . We want to show that S is empty. To show uniqueness. etc. . The Vi are called the irreducible components of V . so V = V1 ∪ V2 . Let S be any nonempty collection of ideals in a Noetherian ring R.26. Let V be an algebraic set in An (k). i. Give an example of a collection S of ideals in a Noetherian ring such that no maximal member of S is a maximal ideal. j Vi j . Vi irreducible. Let S 1 = {I ∈ S | I I 0 }. but V (F ) is reducible. . let V be a minimal member of S . an ideal of R. . We need to know that this process stops. V is not irreducible. we write V2 = V3 ∪ V4 . Then Vi = j (W j ∩ Vi ). we write V = V1 ∪ V2 . But then V = i . Let F 1 . so Vi ⊂ W j (i ) for some j (i ). (Hint: If I is the ideal. a contradiction.

Let F and G be polynomials in k[X . If (a. Y ] with no common factors. show that Vi ⊂ j =i V j . Then V (F. i. so they also have no common factors in k(X )[Y ] (see Section 1). But D has only a finite number of zeros. If V is finite or I (V ) = (0). Then V (F ) = V (F 1 ) ∪ · · · ∪ V (F r ) is the decomposition of V (F ) into irreducible components. Corollary 3. then V (F. Proof. ∗ 1. n n Let F = F 1 1 · · · F r r be the decomposition of F into irreducible factors. where F is an irreducible polynomial and V (F ) is infinite. there can be only a finite number of points. 1. If G ∈ I (V (F )). and I (V (F )) = (F 1 · · · F r ). Y ].G) is infinite. Proof. i (F i ) = (F 1 · · · F r ).. then V ⊂ V (F. j = i . Since the same reasoning applies to the Y -coordinates. points. Note that the V (F i ) are infinite since k is algebraically closed (Problem 1. Then the irreducible algebraic subsets of A2 (k) are: A2 (k). with V ⊂ W . Assume k is algebraically closed. ALGEBRAIC SUBSETS OF THE PLANE 9 1. W be algebraic sets in An (k). G ∈ (F ). Since any polynomial divisible by each F i is also divisible by F 1 · · · F r . . S ∈ k(X )[Y ]. Let V be an irreducible algebraic set in A2 (k). and the fact that V (F ) is irreducible follows from Proposition 1. (F. Therefore I (V (F )) ⊃ (F ). F and G have no common factors in k[X ][Y ]. . If V = V1 ∪ · · · ∪ Vr is the decomposition of an algebraic set into irreducible components. Proof. No F i divides any F j .. and find all its algebraic subsets. and V (F ) is irreducible. Otherwise I (V ) contains a nonconstant polynomial F . Corollary 2. we will take a closer look at the affine plane A2 (k). Since k(X )[Y ] is a PID.29. G ∈ (F ).G). some irreducible polynomial factor of F belongs to I (V ). since I (V ) is prime. F a nonconstant polynomial in k[X . then I (V (F )) = (F ).6. Y ]. By Theorem 2 it is enough to find the irreducible algebraic sets. V is of the required type. so F divides G by the proposition. Let V . Then I (V ) = (F ). b) ∈ V (F. This shows that only a finite number of X coordinates appear among the points of V (F. And I ( i V (F i )) = i I (V (F i )) = i (F i ). Show that An (k) is irreducible if k is infinite.e.G) = (1) in k(X )[Y ]. Proposition 2. Therefore AF + BG = D.G). There is a nonzero D ∈ k[X ] such that DR = A. and irreducible plane curves V (F ).G) = V (F ) ∩ V (G) is a finite set of points.28.27. then D(a) = 0.G) is finite. Suppose k is infinite.14). 1.1. for if G ∈ I (V ). Show that each irreducible component of V is contained in some irreducible component of W .6 Algebraic Subsets of the Plane Before developing the general theory further. so RF + SG = 1 for some R. DS = B ∈ k[X . Proof. so there are no inclusion relations among the V (F i ). If F is an irreducible polynomial in k[X . Corollary 1. Y ] such that V (F ) is infinite. so we may assume F is irreducible.

10 CHAPTER 1. (a) Find the irreducible components of V (Y 2 − X Y − X 2 Y + X 3 ) in A2 (R). . . Proposition 2 gives a criterion for telling whether V is irreducible or not. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS Problems 1. and for V (X 3 + X − X 2 Y − Y ). F 2 . . X n ]/I is a field. X n − a n ). then k = L. X n ] onto L (that is the identity on k). . F i ∈ k[X 1 . . Then for each i there is an a i ∈ k such that the I residue of X i is a i . F 2 . . but it is the Nullstellensatz. and there is a ring homomorphism from k[X 1 . . . . .24). Thus we have reduced the problem to showing: (∗) If an algebraically closed field k is a subfield of a field L. then V (I ) = . . We may assume that I is a maximal ideal. . Let I be an ideal in k[X 1 . . That Rad(I ) ⊂ I (V (I )) is easy (Problem 1. X n ]. Then I (V (I )) = Rad(I ). . Let J = (F 1 . . . a n )} = . . then there is an equation G N = A 1 F 1 + A 2 F 2 + · · · + A r F r . . X n . But (X 1 −a 1 . . . . and V (J ) ⊂ V (I ). F r and G are in k[X 1 . F r vanish. and show how to reduce it to a purely algebraic fact. this says the following: if F 1 . . . In concrete terms. . . and G vanishes wherever F 1 .21). Proof. Proof. X n ]. . or X i −a i ∈ I . . The algebra needed to prove this will be developed in the next two sections. 1. . The preceding paragraph gives a beginning to this problem. and V (I ) = {(a 1 . F r . . . . . . 1. . for there is a maximal ideal J containing I (Problem 1. If I is a proper ideal in k[X 1 . . In the rest of this section we show how to deduce the main result from the weaker theorem.7 Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz If we are given an algebraic set V . . (∗) will be proved in Section 10. So L = k[X 1 . . F r )). which tells us the exact relationship between ideals and algebraic sets. . .31. . . . . Let k = R. . . Section 1). X n ]. . . X n ] (k algebraically closed). X n+1G −1) ⊂ k[X 1 . Suppose we knew that k = L. X n ]. and k may be regarded as a subfield of L (cf. . . Suppose that G is in the ideal I (V (F 1 . (b) Show that every algebraic subset of A2 (R) is equal to V (F ) for some F ∈ R[X . . We begin with a somewhat weaker theorem. . . X n −a n ) is a maximal ideal (Problem 1. WEAK NULLSTELLENSATZ. X n+1 ]. . (b) Do the same for V (Y 2 − X (X 2 − 1)).30. and also in A2 (C). .20). HILBERT’S NULLSTELLENSATZ. . . so I = (X 1 − a 1 . We assume throughout this section that k is algebraically closed. Note. (a) Show that I (V (X 2 + Y 2 + 1)) = (1). . Y ]. . . for some N > 0 and some A i ∈ k[X 1 . and give a few applications. . . What is lacking is a way to describe V in terms of a given set of polynomials that define V . This indicates why we usually require that k be algebraically closed. or Zeros-theorem.

t 3 ) ∈ A3 (C) | t ∈ C}. Substituting G for Y gives the required equation. Let Y = 1/X n+1 . . so there is an equation 1 = A i (X 1 . . Corollary 3. . t 2 .7. . so λ j = ( λi F i )(P j ) = 0. . . X 2 − Z 2 − 1) ⊂ A3 (C) into irreducible components. Corollary 1. . . . Let P 1 . . j N rN n n is a k-linear nation of 1. . . Find I (V ). . . and define F j by N F j = r=1 (X j − a i j ). X j for all generates k[X 1 . j = 1. . The maximal ideals correspond to points. P r } is finite. X n ]. and I (V (F )) = (F 1 · · · F r ). . . . Proof. X n . X n ]/I ). Then V (I ) is a finite set if and only if k[X 1 . . . . . . . if V (I ) = {P 1 . Let I be an ideal in k[X 1 . So there is a one-to-one correspondence between radical ideals and algebraic sets. λi ∈ k. . s It follows by induction that X j is a k-linear combim1 mn s. If this occurs.17). There is a one-to-one correspondence between prime ideals and irreducible algebraic sets. . . so X j combination of 1. If I is a radical ideal in k[X 1 . . . . . . X n ]/I as a vector space over k. The first three corollaries are immediate consequences of the theorem. . Show that both theorems and all of the corollaries are false if k is not algebraically closed. F j = 0. . . Corollary 4. Choose F 1 . The above proof is due to Rabinowitsch. . . X n ]/I is a finite dimensional vector space over k. Then V (F ) = V (F 1 ) ∪ · · · ∪ V (F r ) is the decomposition of V (F ) into irreducible components. X n . . so r ≤ dimk (k[X 1 . F = F 1 1 · · · F r r the decomposition of F into irreducible factors. . X n ] such that F i (P j ) = 0 if i = j . . (a) Decompose V (X 2 + Y 2 − 1. . 1.1. then λi F i ∈ I . P r ∈ V (I ). · · · · · X n | m i < r N } Problems 1. . and multiply the equation by a high power of Y . (b) Let V = {(t . X n+1 )F i + B (X 1 . . Y ] results. .32. X r N −1 r N −1 . Thus the F i are linearly independent over k. X n ]/I ). . . If λi F i = 0. . . Conversely. . Corollary 2. . . since G vanishes wherever all that F i ’s are zero. Let F be a nonconstant polynomial in k[X 1 . . so that an equation Y N = C i (X 1 . . . . . F r ∈ k[X 1 . Taking I -residues. Applying the Weak Nullstellensatz to J . Y )(G − Y ) in k[X 1 . . .33. X j . . . a i n ). . X n ] (up to multiplication by a nonzero element of k) and irreducible hypersurfaces in An (k). Y )F i + D(X 1 . . . . If I is a prime ideal. so F j ∈ I for some N > 0 (Take i N large enough to work for all F j ). then V (I ) is irreducible. . . . X n ]. HILBERT’S NULLSTELLENSATZ 11 Then V (J ) ⊂ An+1 (k) is empty. and show that V is irreducible. . . . . let F i be the I -residue of F i . and hence that the set {X 1 . Then F j ∈ I (V (I )). then I (V (I )) = I . . . X n . n. . . . . and F i (P i ) = 1 (Problem 1. . X j . X n+1 )(X n+1G − 1). . the number of points in V (I ) is at most dimk (k[X 1 . . . we see that 1 ∈ J . let P i = (a i 1 . . . There is a one-to-one correspondence between irreducible polynomials F ∈ k[X 1 . X n ]. . .

b ∈ R. a mapping from R×M to M (denote the image of (a. Find V (I ) and dimC (C[X . so I is prime. where 1R is the multiplicative identity in R. n−1 1. (iii) (ab) · m = a · (bm) for a. Show that there is no irreducible algebraic set W such that V ⊂ W ⊂ An . W = An . Let I = (Y 2 − X 2 . Show that 0R · m = 0M for all m ∈ M . and that irreducible algebraic sets (resp.37. . m ∈ M . D ∈ k[Z ]. s ∈ S. . if a ring R is a subring of a ring S. . Define α : k[X . (a) Show that a monic polynomial of degree two or three in R[X ] is irreducible if and only if it has no roots in R. (ii) a · (m + n) = am + an for a ∈ R.39. Show that there is no prime ideal Q such that 0 ⊂ Q ⊂ P .40.34. V (I ) is irreducible. by the equation r · s = ϕ(r )s. the identity of the group is 0. points) correspond to prime ideals (resp. Z ]. .e. (3) The multiplication in R makes any ideal of R into an R-module. V = V (I ). .22. Let I = (X 2 − Y 3 . X n ]/I . Z ] → k[T ] by α(X ) = T 9 . for some A. F ∈ K [X ] a polynomial of degree n > 0. a ≥ 0. maximal ideals). and any λ ∈ k. Y .35. Show that the residues 1.8 Modules. Let R be a UFD. Y ]. or 0M ) together with a scalar multiplication. prime ideal. i. (4) If ϕ : R → S is a ring homomorphism. Show that V (Y 2 − X (X − 1)(X − λ)) ⊂ A2 (k) is an irreducible curve for any algebraically closed field k. X form a basis of K [X ]/(F ) over K . compare like powers of T to conclude that F = 0. . an R-module is the same thing as a vector space over R. (2) If R is a field. n ∈ M . In particular. An R-module is a commutative group M (the group law on M is written +. (b) If F = A + X B + Y C + X Y D. . Y ]/I ). (b) The polynomial X 2 −a ∈ R[X ] is irreducible if and only if a is not a square inR. . W = V . and α(F ) = 0. m ∈ M . B. b ∈ R.C . ∗ Let R = k[X . 1. the . Exercise. Let K be any field. . Q = P .C . Examples. (See Problem 1. 1. This makes S into an R-module. α(Y ) = T 6 . 1 n natural one-to-one correspondence between algebraic subsets of V and radical ideals in k[X 1 . If S is a set of elements of an R-module M . m) by a·m or am) satisfying: (i) (a + b)m = am + bm for a. m ∈ N . .. (b) Let V = V (F ) be an irreducible hypersurface in An . Y 2 − Z 3 ) ⊂ k[X . (iv) 1R · m = m for m ∈ M . Z ]/I is the residue of an element A + X B + Y C + X Y D. A. m.36. then S is an R-module. D ∈ k[Z ]. and let P = (t ) be a principal. (1) A Z-module is just a commutative group. ∗ 1. Show that there is a 1. X .38. (c) Show that Ker(α) = I . (a) Let R be a UFD. Q = 0. Finiteness Conditions Let R be a ring.12 CHAPTER 1.) 1. B. proper. Y . and I (V (I )) = I . A subgroup N of an R-module M is called a submodule if am ∈ N for all a ∈ R. Y . X ]. . where (±a)m is ±(m + · · · + m) (a times) for a ∈ Z. 1. we define r · s for r ∈ R. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS 1. α(Z ) = T 4 . Y 2 + X 2 ) ⊂ C[X . N is then an R-module. . k algebraically closed. (a) Show that every element of k[X .

or (possibly) a field. . . v n ) be the quotient field of K [v 1 . . . . . If S is module-finite over R. v n ∈ S. . and S is module finite over R. v n ] for some v 1 . (B) Let v 1 . . . . v n . .8. v n ∈ S. It is a subring of S containing R and i i v 1 . we denote the dimension of S over R by [S : R]. . . w 1 . w m ]. the submodule generated by S is denoted by R s i . . show that T = R(v 1 .42. Problems ∗ 1. . . . v n . Show that S = R[X ] (the ring of polynomials in one variable) is ring-finite over R. . . . . R[v 1 . v n . . . . If S = {s 1 .) ∗ 1. b n z ∈ K [X ] for some n. s i ∈ S}. . . T = S[w 1 . but let z = 1/c. . v n ∈ L. There are several types of finiteness conditions for S over R. . . v n . and with the notion of a finite-dimensional vector space if R is a field. but not module-finite. Show that L = K (X ) (the field of rational functions in one variable) is a finitely generated field extension of K . Note that this concept agrees with the notions of finitely generated commutative groups and ideals. depending on whether we consider S as an R-module. T = S(w 1 . . w m ). . (A) S is said to be module-finite over R. let K (v 1 . T = Sw j . but L is not ring-finite over K . MODULES. . . Let ϕ : R[X 1 . s n } is finite. w 1 . (a) If S = R vi .5). (C) Suppose R = K . a ring. Explicitly. show that T = R vi w j . The field L is said to be a finitely generated field extension of K if L = K (v 1 . . . . T are fields. . show that T = R[v 1 . . .43. . If L is ring-finite over K (K . . . .44. then S is ring-finite over R. if S is finitely generated as an R-module. where c doesn’t divide b (Problem 1. ∗ 1. and S = R(v 1 . . . . . . FINITENESS CONDITIONS 13 submodule generated by S is defined to be { r i s i | r i ∈ R. . . . . ∗ 1. . . . . If v 1 . (c) If R. . S a subring of T . . . . . . So each of the three finiteness conditions is a transitive relation. . . . it is the smallest subfield of L containing K and v 1 . . Let R be a subring of S. . v n ]. v n ]. . Let R be a subring of a ring S. . .1. v n ) for some v 1 . . (Hint: If L were ringfinite over K . We regard K (v 1 . . . . v n ). w m ). S = L are fields.45. 1. a common denominator of ring generators would be an element b ∈ K [X ] such that for all z ∈ L. . The module M is said to be finitely generated if M = R s i for some s 1 . If R and S are fields. The ring S is ring-finite over R if S = R[v 1 . . . . . (b) If S = R[v 1 . . . . s n ∈ M . it is the smallest submodule of M that contains S. . v n ]. . . and it is the smallest such ring. . v n ∈ L. . w m ].41. v n ] = { a (i ) v 11 · · · v nn | a (i ) ∈ R}. . . The image of ϕ is written R[v 1 . L fields) then L is a finitely generated field extension of K . . S. . v n ) as a subfield of L. . . X n ] → S be the ring homomorphism taking X i to v i . . . . .

Proof. we see that (w 1 . so we have z n + a 1 z n−1 + · · · + a n = 0. An element v ∈ S is said to be integral over R if there is a monic polynomial F = X n + a 1 X n−1 + · · · + a n ∈ R[X ] such that F (v) = 0. Let L be a field. Then i j n j =1 (δi j v − a i j )w j = 0 for all i .45(a)). ∗ 1. L = K (X ) the field of rational functions in one variable over K . k an algebraically closed subfield of L. If R and S are fields. The proposition and corollary extend to the case where S is not a domain. Then R[a 1 . Proposition 3. a n . And a ± b. b are integral over R. Let K be a field. S a subring of (a domain) T . Proof.48. . so R[a. Show that S is module-finite over R if and only if S is integral over R. we usually say that v is algebraic over R if v is integral over R. this determinant has the form v n + a 1 v n−1 +· · ·+ a n . then b is integral over R[a] ⊃ R. (2) R[v] is module-finite over R. w n ) is a nontrivial solution. If S is integral over R. write z = F /G. (b) An algebraically closed field has no module-finite field extensions except itself. . Suppose (a domain) S is ring-finite over R. so det(δi j v − a i j ) = 0. Let R be a subring of S. It follows that i =0 v m ∈ n−1 R v i for all m. Then F n +a 1 F n−1G +· · · = 0. with essentially the same proofs. so they are integral over R by the proposition. (Hint: If z n +a 1 z n−1 +· · · = 0. If R and S are fields. Problems ∗ 1.47. ab ∈ R[a. v ∈ S. (3) There is a subring R of S containing R[v] that is module-finite over R. Since v appears only in the diagonal of the matrix. Let R be a subring of a domain S. . If a. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS 1. b]. F. z] is module-finite over R. b] is modulefinite over R (Problem 1. so R[v] = n−1 R v i . The set of elements of S that are integral over R is a subring of S containing R.9 Integral Elements Let R be a subring of a ring S.46. If we consider these equations in the quotient field of S. . Corollary. (Hint: Let z ∈ T . and T is integral over S. we say S is an algebraic extension of R if S is integral over R. a i ∈ R. (a) Show that any element of L that is integral over K [X ] is already in K [X ]. . but we won’t need that generality. We say that S is integral over R if every element of S is integral over R. then v w i = n=1 a i j w j for some a i j ∈ R. . (1) implies (2): If v n + a 1 v n−1 +· · ·+ a n = 0. . show that T is integral over R.14 CHAPTER 1.49. . a i ∈ S. (3) implies (1): If R = n=1 R w i . (a) Show that any element of L that is algebraic over k is already in k.) ∗ 1. i =0 i =0 (2) implies (3): Let R = R[v].G relatively prime. Then the following are equivalent: (1) v is integral over R. where δi j = 0 if i = j and δi i = 1. . then v n ∈ n−1 R v i . So v is integral over R. ∗ 1.

45(a) finishes the proof). Proof. . . In view of Problem 1. And F (v) = 0. FIELD EXTENSIONS 15 so G divides F . this says that if a field L is a ring-finite extension of an algebraically closed field k.10 Field Extensions Suppose K is a subfield of a field L.) (b) Suppose L is module-finite over K . then L = k. Let K be a field. and completes the proof of the Nullstellensatz. (Hint: If v n + a 1 v n−1 + · · · + a n = 0. F n z is integral over K [X ] for some n > 0. 1. n n −1 Each v i satisfies an equation v i i +a i 1 v i i +· · · = 0. L = K 1 [v 2 . and suppose L = K (v) for some v ∈ L. then v(v n−1 + · · · ) = −a n . then L is modulefinite (and hence algebraic) over K . (b) Suppose L is a field extension of K . Then K [X ]/(F ) is isomorphic to K [v]. v n ]. so we assume the result for all extensions generated by n − 1 elements. so K (v) = L is isomorphic to K (X ). . . a i j ∈ K 1 . . v n ]. Problems ∗ 1. The next proposition shows that this is always true. Then K [v] is isomorphic to K [X ]. . (a) Show that the set of elements of L that are algebraic over K is a subfield of L containing K . If we take a ∈ K [v 1 ] that is a multiple of all the denominators of the a i j . . so (F ) is prime. there is an N such that a N z is integral over K [v 1 ]. it is enough to show that L is module-finite over k. Proposition 4 (Zariski). then F (x) = 0. But since K (v 1 ) is isomorphic to the field of rational functions in one variable over K . we must prove the claim (∗) of Section 7. F ∈ K [X ] (since K [X ] is a PID). .48. . . F = 0. If a field L is ring-finite over a subfield K . We may assume v 1 is not algebraic over K (otherwise Problem 1.44). Let K be a subfield of a field L. Show that the . so F is irreducible and (F ) is maximal (Problem 1. and a n = 0. . so v is algebraic over K and L = K [v] is module-finite over K . v n ] is module-finite over K 1 . F ∈ K [X ] an irreducible monic polynomial of degree n > 0.51. so K [v] = K (v). Let K 1 = K (v 1 ). F = 0. Let ϕ : K [X ] → L be the homomorphism taking X to v. To finish the proof of the Nullstellensatz. By induction. Two cases may occur: Case 1. Case 2.) ∗ 1. The case n = 1 is taken care of by the above discussion. The above discussion indicates that a ring-finite field extension is already module-finite. It follows from the Corollary in §1. (Hint: See Problem 1.1. this is impossible (Problem 1. We may assume F is monic. we get equations (av i )ni + aa i 1 (av 1 )ni −1 + · · · = 0. and if x is the residue of X in L.3). y ∈ L such that F (y) = 0. . (a) Show that L = K [X ]/(F ) is a field. and K ⊂ R ⊂ L.50.10.) (b) Show that there is no nonzero element F ∈ K [X ] such that for every z ∈ L. In this case L is not ring-finite (or module-finite) over K (Problem 1. Suppose L = K [v 1 . In particular this must hold for z ∈ K (v 1 ).9 that for any z ∈ L = K [v 1 .44. Then (F ) is prime.49(b)). therefore K [v] is a field. Let Ker(ϕ) = (F ). Show that R is a field.

and let L be a finite algebraic extension of K . F an irreducible monic polynomial in K [X ] of degree n > 0.52. (d) Show that F = (X − x)F 1 . show that there is a nonzero a ∈ R such that av is integral over R. Suppose K is a field of characteristic zero. Let K be a field. Let R be a domain with quotient field K . Show that there is a field L containing K such that F = n=1 (X − x i ) ∈ L[X ]. Let L be a splitting field of F . i Show that the x i are distinct. v n for L over K (as a vector space) such that each v i is integral over R.16 CHAPTER 1.53. ∗ 1. (Hint: Use Problem 1. (c) With L . . (b) Show that there is a basis v 1 . .51(c) to G = F X . . F ∈ K [X ]. AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SETS homomorphism from K [X ] to L that takes X to Y induces an isomorphism of L with K (y). ∗ 1. . then G(x) = 0.54. suppose G ∈ K [X ] and G(y) = 0. x i ∈ L.51(d) and induction on the degree.) ∗ 1. . y as in (b). (Hint: Apply Problem 1.) L i is called a splitting field of F . if (X − x)2 divides F . (a) For any v ∈ L. F 1 ∈ L[X ]. Show that F divides G. so F = n=1 (X − x i ).

a n ) for all (a 1 .1 Coordinate Rings Let V ⊂ An be a nonempty variety. Two polynomials F. For any (nonempty) set V .e. and call it the coordinate ring of V . . Problems ∗ 2. . Then I (V ) is a prime ideal in k[X 1 . . . a n ) = 0 for all (a 1 . X n ]/I (V ) is a domain. a n ) ∈ V . k) is called a polynomial function if there is a polynomial F ∈ k[X 1 . .1. so we call them simply varieties. we will mean a ring homomorphism such that ϕ(λ) = λ for all λ ∈ k. Show that the map that associates to each F ∈ k[X 1 .G determine the same function if and only if (F −G)(a 1 . . . We may thus identify Γ(V ) with the subring of F (V. g ∈ F (V. or as an equivalence class of polynomials.. . a n ) = F (a 1 . If V ⊂ An is a variety. The polynomial functions form a subring of F (V. X n ] such that f (a 1 . 2. . . . k) is made into a ring in the usual way: if f . In this chapter we will be concerned only with affine varieties. k) consisting of all constant functions. . . . k) containing k. F (V. . . . . . . . . a n ) ∈ V . we let F (V. . . . k) be the set of all functions from V to k. All rings and fields will contain k as a subring. ( f +g )(x) = f (x)+g (x). By a homomorphism ϕ : R → S of such rings. . . . for all x ∈ V .Chapter 2 Affine Varieties From now on k will be a fixed algebraically closed field. a function f ∈ F (V. It is usual to identify k with the subring of F (V. . i. X n ]. ( f g )(x) = f (x)g (x). 17 . Affine algebraic sets will be in An = An (k) for some n. . k) is a ring homomorphism whose kernel is I (V ). We let Γ(V ) = k[X 1 . F − G ∈ I (V ). . X n ]/I (V ). . so k[X 1 . . k) consisting of all polynomial functions on V . . . We have two important ways to view an element of Γ(V ) — as a function on V . . . X n ] a polynomial function in F (V. An irreducible affine algebraic set is called an affine variety. k). . . .

Tm (a 1 . and hence that T (V ) ⊂ Γ(A ) = k[X 1 . . . . . Y ]/(F ) is one-to-one. a n ) ∈ V . . maximal ideals) of Γ(V ). . If ϕ is a polynomial map. 1. the Ti are uniquely determined by T (see Problem 1. then ϕ( f ) = f ◦ ϕ is the I (V )-residue of the polynomial F (T1 . so that Γ(W ) is isomorphic to Γ(V )/I V (W ). ˜ Any mapping ϕ : V → W induces a homomorphisms ϕ : F (W. k). and T1 . W ⊂ Am be affine varieties. . inducing T : Γ(Am ) = k[X 1 . . ϕ ◦ ψ = identity on W . A mapping ϕ : V → W is called a polynomial map if there are polynomials T1 . . so ϕ restricts to a ˜ homomorphism (also denoted by ϕ) from Γ(W ) to Γ(V ). . . . Choose Ti ∈ k[X 1 . (iii) dimk Γ(V ) < ∞. and so T restricts to a polynomial map ϕ : V → W . . Let V ⊂ An be a variety. . Let F be an irreducible polynomial in k[X . . . 2. (See Problems 1. . . Show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between algebraic subsets (resp. X n ] such that α(I (W )-residue of X i ) = (I (V )-residue of Ti ). . . X m ] → n ˜ (I (W )) ⊂ I (V ). Show that the following are equivalent: (i) V is a point. (ii) Γ(V ) = k. . . Proposition 1 shows that two affine varieties are isomorphic if and only if their coordinate rings are isomorphic (over k). . Let W be a subvariety of a variety V .4. . . prime ideals. a n ). so that k[X ] may be regarded as a subring of Γ(V ).4). . . . If V = An . . Suppose α : Γ(W ) → Γ(V ) is a homomorphism. subvarieties. X n ] determine a polynomial map T : An → Am .) ∗ 2. . Tm ∈ k[X 1 . . Let V ⊂ An be a nonempty variety. and suppose F is monic in Y : F = Y n + a 1 (X )Y n−1 + · · · . Any such ϕ is the restriction of a polynomial map from An to Am . . . with n > 0. . . W = Am . . show that the residues 1. . Show that the natural homomorphism from k[X ] to Γ(V ) = k[X . . Tm ). Tm ). Let V = V (F ) ⊂ A2 . AFFINE VARIETIES ∗ 2. a n ) = (T1 (a 1 . for if f ∈ Γ(W ) is the I (W )˜ residue of a polynomial F . Y . . Proposition 1. points) of V and radical ideals (resp. . (a) Show that every polynomial function on V restricts to a polynomial function on W . Then T = ˜ (T1 . . . resp. X n ]. . . m. Let V ⊂ An . this completes the proof. . n−1 generate Γ(V ) 2. . Tm ∈ k[X 1 . There is a natural one-to-one correspondence between the polynomial maps ϕ : V → W and the homomorphisms ˜ ϕ : Γ(W ) → Γ(V ). a n )) for all (a 1 . so we often write T = (T1 .22. . Y ]. . k) → F (V. Proof. . . It is also easy to verify that ˜ ˜ ϕ = α. .2 Polynomial Maps Let V ⊂ An . . . .3. . . . A polynomial map ϕ : V → W is an isomorphism if there is a polynomial map ψ : W → V such that ψ ◦ ϕ = identity on V .2. Tm ) is a polynomial map from An to Am . A subvariety of V is a variety W ⊂ An that is contained in V . by ˜ ˜ ˜ setting ϕ( f ) = f ◦ϕ. .38. . . Since we know how to construct ϕ from ϕ.5. . X n ] such that ϕ(a 1 . (b) Show that the map from Γ(V ) to Γ(W ) defined in part (a) is a surjective homomorphism with kernel I V (W ). W ⊂ Am be varieties. . for i = 1. .18 CHAPTER 2. and let I (W ) be the ideal of Γ(V ) corV responding to W . then ϕ(Γ(W )) ⊂ Γ(V ). . . . It is easy to check that T W . . . Y over k[X ] as a module. . ∗ 2. resp.

Y Z − X 3 . . Tm ). a n+1 ) ∈ An+1 | (a 1 . This gives a useful test for irreducibility. W ⊂ W subva˜ rieties. . (a) Show that {(t . . and that the map (a 1 . . . Let f ∈ Γ(V ). and X is an algebraic subset of W . . T 3 ] ⊂ k[T ] = Γ(A1 ).13. it follows that T will be one-to-one (and onto) if and only if T is . onto polynomial map.7. the graph of f . a n ) → (a 1 . (Projection gives the inverse.12. . V ⊂ V . Define G( f ) = {(a 1 . n ≥ r . . .) 2. Let ϕ : V → W be a polynomial map of affine varieties. Since any translation has an inverse (also a translation). defined by pr(a . and X is contained in the image of ϕ. show that ϕ−1 (X ) is an algebraic subset of V . . . Tn ) : An → An such that each Ti is a polynomial of degree 1. . α : Γ(V ) → k[T ] induced by the homomorphism α of that problem. Show that the projection map pr : An → Ar . . t (t 2 − 1)). An affine change of coordinates on An is a polynomial map T = (T1 . f (a 1 . . 2. . . 0). . . . COORDINATE CHANGES 19 Problems ∗ ˜ ˜ 2. . .10. .) ∗ 2.3).40. . Z 3 − X 5 . . For ideals I and algebraic sets V in m T A . . . (b) Show that the restriction of ϕ gives a polynomial map from V to W . (b) Show that V (X Z − Y 2 . a n )) defines an isomorphism of V with G( f ). Show that ψ ◦ ϕ = ϕ◦ ψ. . Z 2 − X 2 Y ) ⊂ A3 (C) is a variety.3. Z 4 − Y 5 ∈ I (V ). . then T = T ◦ T . t 2 . and F is a polynomial in ˜ k[X 1 . . we let F T = T (F ) = F (T1 . If ϕ−1 (X ) is irreducible. . X m ]. show that X is irreducible. . a n . (a) Show that ϕ(I W (W )) ⊂ I V (V ) (see Problems 2. 2. a ) = 1 n (a 1 . . .6. . t 3 ). Suppose ϕ(V ) ⊂ W . 2. . (Hint:: ˜ ϕ(Γ(V )) = k[T 2 .8. .2. X n ] generated by {F T | F ∈ I } and V T the algebraic set T −1 (V ) = V (I T ). . where I = I (V ). . except that ϕ(±1) = (0. a n . Show that ϕ is one-to-one and onto. a r ) is a polynomial map. (a)] Let ϕ : A1 → V = V (Y 2 − X 3 ) ⊂ A2 be defined by ϕ(t ) = (t 2 . ψ : W → Z . . . . Show that G( f ) is an affine variety. (a) What is the polynomial map f from A1 to V such that f˜ = α? (b) Show that f is one-to-one and onto. Y 2 − Z 3 ) ⊂ A3 as in Problem 1. . 2. I will denote the ideal in k[X 1 . . ϕ is not an isomorphism. (Hint:: Y 3 − X 4 . a n ) ∈ V and a n+1 = f (a 1 . . Let ϕ : V → W . t 3 ) ∈ A3 (k) | t ∈ k} is an affine variety. . Show that the composition of polynomial maps is a polynomial map. Show that although ϕ is a one-to-one. . but not an isomorphism.) (b) Let ϕ : A1 → V = V (Y 2 − X 2 (X + 1)) be defined by ϕ(t ) = (t 2 − 1. ∗ 2. .3 Coordinate Changes If T = (T1 . where T is a linear map (Ti = a i j X j ) and T is a translation (Ti = X i + a i 0 ). . ∗ 2. Tm ) is a polynomial map from An to Am . Let V = V (X 2 − Y 3 . Find a polynomial map from A1 (C) onto V . V a variety ⊂ An .9. If ϕ : V → W is a polynomial map. . V T is the hypersurface of F T (if F T is not a constant). . . If V is the hypersurface of F .11. If Ti = a i j X j + a i 0 . and such that T is one-to-one and onto. a n )}. .

Q ∈ An (C) V . .Q ∈ X . L 1 . 2. and b(P ) = 0. (Hint:: If P. If f is a rational function on V . (d) Let P . Recall that a topological space X is path-connected if for any P. 2.) So V is a variety. Γ(V ) its coordinate ring. . Let k = C. . however.20). (c) Show that the m that appears in part (b) is independent of the choice of T .4 Rational Functions and Local Rings Let V be a nonempty variety in An . Show that there is an affine change of coordinates T of A2 such that T (P ) = P and T (L i ) = L i . Problems ∗ 2. Since Γ(V ) is a domain. we may form its quotient field. Γ(V ) = k[X . If T and U are affine changes of coordinates on An . L 2 two distinct lines through P . . Then L ∩ V is finite. we say that f is defined at P if for some a. z. . . X n ). . .2). . X n ). The line through 1 n 1 n P and Q is defined to be {a 1 +t (b 1 −a 1 ). Then V is then isomorphic (as a variety) to Am (k). Z .) 2. then so are T ◦U and T −1 . (Hint:: Suppose there were an affine change of coordinates T such that V (X m+1 . .W in Γ(V ). Tn would be dependent. It is called the dimension of V . . b ∈ Γ(V ). 1] → X such that γ(0) = P.15. Q = (b . . and P ∈ V . . . . . and then f is defined at P if and only if b(P ) = 0. show that Tm+1 . where a and b have no common factors (Problem 1. (a) Show that if T is an affine change of coordinates on An . . . let L be the line through P and Q. . w) ∈ V if y = 0 or w = 0 (see Problem 2. (a) Show that C S is path-connected for any finite set S. (b) If V = . then V T is also a linear subvariety of An (k).20 CHAPTER 2. Z .W ]/(X W −Y Z ). Let P = (a . and that a linear subvariety of dimension 1 is the line through any two of its points. (Hint:: use induction on r . (b) Show that a line is a linear subvariety of dimension 1. . Let X . a line is the same thing as a hyperplane. (a) Show that if L is the line through P and Q. γ(1) = Q. and T is an affine change of coordinates. there is a continuous mapping γ : [0. a n +t (b n −a n )) | t ∈ k}. in A2 . b ) be distinct points of An . AFFINE VARIETIES invertible. X n )T = V (X s+1 . y. Give An (C) = Cn the usual topology (obtained by identifying C with R2 . L 1 . i = 1. Z . T is an isomorphism of the variety An with itself. P ∈ A2 . . Then X /Y = Z /W = f ∈ k(V ) is defined at P = (x. Y . Show that An (C) V is path-connected. and is written k(V ). . . . show that there is an affine change of coordinates T of An such that V T = V (X m+1 . . Y . An element of k(V ) is a rational function on V . (c) Show that. . A set V ⊂ An (k) is called a linear subvariety of An (k) if V = V (F 1 . f = a/b. . m < s.16. (b) Let V be an algebraic set in An (C).) ∗ 2. . a ). . Note that there may be many different ways to write f as a ratio of polynomial functions. . .14. This field is called the field of rational functions on V . V = V (X W −Y Z ) ⊂ A4 (k). L 2 distinct lines through P . F r ) for some polynomials F i of degree 1. . then T (L) is the line through T (P ) and T (Q). there is an essentially unique representation f = a/b. Y . and hence Cn with R2n ). .W be the residues of X . f is defined at P if it is possible to find a “denominator” for f that doesn’t vanish at P . Example. If Γ(V ) is a UFD. and L is isomorphic to A1 (C).

. Find the pole sets of z and of z 2 . This proves (1). so 1 ∈ J f (Nullstellensatz!). Proposition 2. so mP (V ) = {non-units of O P (V )}. All the properties of V that depend only on a “neighborhood” of P (the “local” properties) are reflected in the ring O P (V ). a i ∈ Γ(V ). The set of points P ∈ V where a rational function f is not defined is called the pole set of f . O P (V ). . . the lemma is an immediate consequence of this. f r generate I as an ideal in O P (V ). and let f (P ) = a(P )/b(P ) (one checks that this is independent of the choice of a and b. We can then define the value of f at P . . V (J f ) = . Proposition 3. . . . . choose generators f 1 . X n ] containing I (V ). . Let m = {non-units of R}.17. b ∈ Γ(V ). as desired. X n ]. . Let J f = {G ∈ k[X 1 . It is the kernel of the evaluation homomorphism f → f (P ) of O P (V ) onto k. there is a b ∈ Γ(V ) with b(P ) = 0 and b f ∈ Γ(V ). . We must show that any ideal I of O P (V ) is finitely generated. and mP (V ) is its unique maximal ideal. so b f = a i f i . Y the residues of X . written f (P ). We claim that f 1 . so O P (V )/mP (V ) is isomorphic to k. and X . therefore f = (a i /b) f i . i.22). We define O P (V ) to be the set of rational functions on V that are defined at P .e. the units are those elements not belonging to the maximal ideal. a. See Problem 2. . Lemma. 1 · f = f ∈ Γ(V ). If f ∈ P ∈V O P (V ). . RATIONAL FUNCTIONS AND LOCAL RINGS 21 Let P ∈ V . The ring O P (V ) is called the local ring of V at P . . P ∈V Proof.) The ideal mP (V ) = { f ∈ O P (V ) | f (P ) = 0} is called the maximal ideal of V at P . . . It is easy to verify that O P (V ) forms a subring of k(V ) containing Γ(V ) : k ⊂ Γ(V ) ⊂ O P (V ) ⊂ k(V ). Y in Γ(V ). We have seen that O P (V ) is a local ring. Clearly every proper ideal of R is contained in m. f r for the ideal I ∩Γ(V ) of Γ(V ). let z = Y /X ∈ k(V ). as follows: write f = a/b. Let V = V (Y 2 − X 2 (X + 1)) ⊂ A2 . For G ∈ k[X 1 . Suppose V ⊂ An . An element f ∈ O P (V ) is a unit in O P (V ) if and only if f (P ) = 0. Proof. then b f ∈ Γ(V ) ∩ I . .18 for one indication of this. Proof. (2) R has a unique maximal ideal that contains every proper ideal of R.4. O P (V ) is a Noetherian local domain.. denote the residue of G in Γ(V ) by G. X n ] | G f ∈ Γ(V )}. For if f ∈ I ⊂ O P (V ). A ring satisfying the conditions of the lemma is called a local ring. Note that J f is an ideal in k[X 1 . Since Γ(V ) is Noetherian (Problem 1. Problems 2. Suppose f ∈ O P (V ). and the points of V (J f ) are exactly those points where f is not defined. which proves (2). . . b(P ) = 0. Let f ∈ k(V ). The following conditions on a ring R are equivalent: (1) The set of non-units in R forms an ideal. . (2) Γ(V ) = (1) The pole set of a rational function is an algebraic subset of V . These local rings play a prominent role in the modern study of algebraic varieties.2. .

22. But t is not a unit. A ring R satisfying the conditions of Proposition 4 is called a discrete valuation ring. the chain of ideals (z 1 ) ⊂ (z 2 ) ⊂ · · · must have a maximal member (Chapter 1. ∗ ˜ 2. not on V itself. 2. w) | y = 0 and w = 0}. written DVR. ∗ Let T : An → An be an affine change of coordinates. so z n = v t z n and v t = 1. Let f be a rational function on a variety V . (Hint:: If I is prime in O P (V ). Thus the expression of any z = ut n is unique.21. If z 1 is a unit we are finished. we find an infinite sequence z 1 . ϕ : Γ(W ) → Γ(V ) the ˜ induced map on coordinate rings. z. Show that 2. They are put into the next few sections to avoid disrupting later geometric arguments. y. In the example given in this section. and the maximal ideal is principal. (2) There is an irreducible element t ∈ R such that every nonzero z ∈ R may be written uniquely in the form z = ut n . ϕ(P ) = Q. so z = z 1 t for some z 1 ∈ R. (1) implies (2): Let m be the maximal ideal. Since R is Noetherian. Show that ϕ extends ˜ uniquely to a ring homomorphism (also written ϕ) from OQ (W ) to O P (V ). Proposition 4. Show that T induces an isomorphism T T n from OQ (V ) to O P (V ) if P ∈ V .) Show that ϕ(mQ (W )) ⊂ mP (V ). . To show that any z has such an expression. u. Let U = {P ∈ V | f is defined at P }. so R is a PID. Section 5). t a generator for m. .) m = (t ) is clearly the set of nonunits. Continuing in this way. Let O P (V ) be the local ring of a variety V at a point P . It is not hard to see that the only ideals in R are the principal ideals (t n ). AFFINE VARIETIES 2. An element t as in (2) is called a uniformizing parameter for R. 2. Show that the pole set of f is exactly {(x. we may assume z is not a unit. Then the following are equivalent: (1) R is Noetherian and local.5 Discrete Valuation Rings Our study of plane curves will be made easier if we have at our disposal several concepts and facts of an algebraic nature. Then f defines a function from U to k. but only on the complement of an algebraic subset of V . show that it is impossible to write f = a/b. where a. Suppose P ∈ V . and b(P ) = 0 for every P where f is defined. . (Note that ˜ ˜ ϕ may not extend to all of k(W ). Show that this function determines f uniquely. Then z n+1 = v z n for some v ∈ R. So a rational function may be considered as a type of function.20. n a nonnegative integer. Proof. T (P ) = Q. so assume z 1 = z 2 t . Then ut n−m = v is a unit. use Problem 2. so n = m and u = v. z 2 . so (z n ) = (z n+1 ) for some n. . for V a subvariety of A . (2) implies (1): (We don’t really need this part.2. n ≥ m. b ∈ Γ(V ). Suppose ut n = v t m . I ∩ Γ(V ) is prime in Γ(V ). Let ϕ : V → W be a polynomial map of affine varieties.18. ˜ ˜ T : OQ (An ) → O P (An ) is an isomorphism. v units.22 CHAPTER 2. Let R be a domain that is not a field. Show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between the prime ideals in O P (V ) and the subvarieties of V that pass through P . with z i = z i +1 t .19. n a nonnegative integer. u a unit in R.) 2. and I is generated by I ∩ Γ(V ).

23.2). (b) Let t be a uniformizing parameter for R. An order function on a field K is a function ϕ from K onto Z ∪ {∞}. for existence use (a) and induction. (ii) ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a) + ϕ(b). ∗ 2. 2. let m be the maximal ideal of R. Let V = A1 . . ord(a i ) < ord(a j ) (all j = i ). a n ∈ K . Let K be the quotient field of R. a rigorous definition is best i =0 given in terms of sequences (a 0 . and quotient field K . ∗ 2. . (b) Suppose R ⊂ S ⊂ K . Let R be a DVR with maximal ideal m. b ∈ Z. K = k(V ) = k(X ).29. and m = {z ∈ K | ord(z) > 0} is the maximal ideal in R. Problems ∗ 2.2. ) of elements in k. The exponent n is called the order of z. satisfying: (i) ϕ(a) = ∞ if and only if a = 0. and for some i . The ring of formal power series over k. λ1 . (Hint:: For uniqueness use Problem 2. DISCRETE VALUATION RINGS 23 any other uniformizing parameter is of the form ut . z ∈ R. with uniformizing parameter t = 1/X .25. .24 are the only DVR’s with quotient field k(X ) that contain k. Let p ∈ Z be a prime number. Then for any n ≥ 0 there are unique λ0 . . Show that {r ∈ Q | r = a/b. (a) Show that if z ∈ K . a. and is written n = ord(z). show that if R is a DVR with quotient field K . p doesn’t divide b} is a DVR with quotient field Q. then z −1 ∈ m. ϕ(b)). Show that the DVR’s of Problem 2.31. λn ∈ k and z n ∈ R such that z = λ0 +λ1 t +λ2 t 2 +· · ·+λn t n +z n t n+1 . (b) If a 1 . Show that S = R.) 2. (b) Show that O ∞ = {F /G ∈ k(X ) | deg(G) ≥ deg(F )} is also a DVR. Show that those of Problem 2.28. (a) If ord(a) < ord(b). ∗ 2. . u a unit in R. Let R be a DVR with quotient field K . Let k be a field. is defined to be { ∞ a i X i | a i ∈ k}. and quotient field K .24).24. Let R be a DVR with quotient field K . (iii) ϕ(a + b) ≥ min(ϕ(a). then the function ord : K → Z ∪ {∞} is an order function on K . show that ord(a + b) = ord(a).5. . (As with polynomials. ord the order function on K . written k[[X ]]. n ∈ Z (see Problem 1. Conversely. then a 1 + · · · + a n = 0. a 1 . Giving a DVR with quotient field K is equivalent to defining an order function on K . here we allow an infinite .27.29. 2.26. (a) For each a ∈ k = V . show that O a (V ) is a DVR with uniformizing parameter t = X − a. u a unit in R. .30. ∗ 2. Then (when t is fixed) any nonzero element z ∈ K has a unique expression z = ut n . . Verify the following assertions: (a) For any z ∈ R. ∗ 2.25 are the only DVR’s with quotient field Q. Note that R = {z ∈ K | ord(z) ≥ 0}. . Show that the order function on K is independent of the choice of uniformizing parameter. z ∈ R. Show that R = {z ∈ K | ϕ(z) ≥ 0} is a DVR with maximal ideal m = {z | ϕ(z) > 0}. Γ(V ) = k[X ]. and S is also a DVR. and that the composition k → R → R/m is an isomorphism of k with R/m (as for example in Problem 2. Suppose the maximal ideal of S contains m. . and suppose a field k is a subring of R. there is a unique λ ∈ k such that z − λ ∈ m. . we define ord(0) = ∞.

AFFINE VARIETIES number of nonzero terms. . Proof. . . . ( f g )∗ = f ∗ g ∗ . f ∗ is a form of degree d . We often write z = λi t i . Corollary. then F factors into a product of linear factors. Its quotient field is denoted k((X )). ∗ ( f )∗ = f . . The first claim follows directly from (1) and (2) of the proposition. . r (2) If F = 0 and r is the highest power of X n+1 that divides F . for any polynomial f ∈ R[X 1 . Suppose F. . if λ0 . s = deg( f ). . X n ] are forms of degree r . . 2. Y ] is a form. with no common factors (k a field). Problems 2.) Define the sum by a i X i + b i X i = (a i + b i )X i . write F = Y r G. X n+1 ] is the same as factoring F ∗ ∈ R[X 1 . and that the order function on k((X )) restricts to that on K . .24. (These processes are often described as “dehomogenizing” and “homogenizing” polynomials with respect to X n+1 .24 CHAPTER 2.) The proof of the following proposition is left to the reader: Proposition 5. (b) Show that the homomorphism extends to a homomorphism of K into k((X )). Show that F +G is irreducible. X n ]. Let R be a DVR satisfying the conditions of Problem 2.32. . then X n+1 (F ∗ )∗ = F . . and call this the power series expansion of z in terms of t .33. Up to powers of X n+1 . Then F ∗ = G ∗ = (X − λi ) since k is algebraically closed. 2. and define f ∗ ∈ R[X 1 . . r + 1 respectively. (c) Let a = 0 in Problem 2. . . and t = r + s − deg( f + g ). .G ∈ k[X 1 . . . if F ∈ k[X . so F = Y r (X − λi Y ). . . Conversely. . X n+1 ] is a form. For the second. factoring a form F ∈ R[X 1 . t r s (3) (F + G)∗ = F ∗ + G ∗ .34. Show that k[[X ]] is a ring containing k[X ] as a subring. . k algebraically closed. . (a) Show that the map z → λi X i is a one-to-one ring homomorphism of R into k[[X ]]. t = X . . . . 2. where r = deg(g ). Any z ∈ R then determines a power series λi X i . X n . are determined as in Problem 2. where f i is a form of degree i . Factor Y 3 − 2X Y 2 + 2X 2 Y + X 3 into linear factors in C[X . 1). Y ]. . .30. . . If F ∈ R[X 1 . we define F ∗ ∈ R[X 1 . . where c i = j +k=i a j b k . . .6 Forms Let R be a domain. (1) (F G)∗ = F ∗G ∗ . X n ] by setting F ∗ = F (X 1 . write f = f 0 + f 1 + · · · + f d . λ1 . . In particular. X n /X n+1 ). where Y doesn’t divide G. . X n ] of degree d . Find the power series expansion of z = (1 − X )−1 and of (1 − X )(1 + X 2 )−1 in terms of t .30(b). . Show that k[[X ]] is a DVR with uniformizing parameter X . . X n+1 ( f + g )∗ = X n+1 f ∗ + X n+1 g ∗ . . . X n+1 ] by setting d d −1 d f ∗ = X n+1 f 0 + X n+1 f 1 + · · · + f d = X n+1 f (X 1 /X n+1 . . and the product by ( a i X i )( b i X i ) = c i X i .

. 2) = d + 1. . and is written n n i =1 R i . X r ). a n + b n ). . X r ]. show that dimV (d . .36. . . a n ) + (b 1 . . . Y ]. . With the above notation. Then I n is generated by the monomials of degree n.38. R = k[X 1 . . d +n−1 n−1 . Example. Show that {A i j | i + j = d } forms a basis for V (d . We define I n to be I I · · · I (n times). . . . . . . This ring is called the direct product of R 1 . . it may not be generated by them. . j ≥ 0 (A 00 = 1). . M j . X r ]/I n over k. 0) a ring homomorphism? ∗ 2. L 2 . then dim( R ) = i i i dim R i . R n are rings. . . . . Y ]. . Show that V (d . . . . Similarly if I 1 . so I n consists of those polynomials with no terms of degree < n. a n )(b 1 . I = (X 1 . n) is a vector space over k. . . If I is generated by a 1 . and that the monomials of degree d form a basis. . . . R n .35. and ring homomorphisms ϕi : R → R i . n. . . . . . b ∈ J } is denoted I J . It follows that the residues of the monomials of degree < n form a basis of k[X 1 . 2. . Note that while I n contains all nth powers of elements of I . then i i I n is generated by {a i 1 · · · a rr | i j = n}. k a field. a n b n ). . λ ∈ k. n) = ficient. i = 1. i Problems 2. M 2 . . And R = I 0 ⊃ I 1 ⊃ I 2 ⊃ · · · . . b n ) = (a 1 b 1 . a r . . .37. I n are ideals. (b) Let V (d . be sequences of nonzero linear forms in k[X . . . . Show that if k ⊂ R . . Z ]. . The natural projection maps πi : j =1 R j → R i taking (a 1 . and M 1 . . dimV (d . . . So dimV (d .the cartesian product R 1 × · · · × R n is made into a ring as follows: (a 1 . . if a field k is a subring of i each R i . dimV (d . The ideal generated by {ab | a ∈ I .2. . Y . (c) Let L 1 . DIRECT PRODUCTS OF RINGS 25 ∗ 2. and each R is finite-dimensional over k. . What are the additive and multiplicative identities in R i ? Is the map from R i to R j taking a i to (0. . . . . . I 1 · · · I n is the ideal generated by {a 1 a 2 · · · a n | a i ∈ I i }. and assume no L i = λM j . b n ) = (a 1 + b 1 . and (a 1 . X n ]}. . . there is a unique ring homomorphism ϕ : R → n=1 R i such that πi ◦ ϕ = ϕi . . . a i . .7. . . k may be regarded as a subring of n=1 R i . . 3) = (d + 1)(d + 2)/2. . n) = {forms of degree d in k[X 1 . . . . . the binomial coef- 2. Let A i j = L 1 L 2 . . . . and 1 + 2 + · · · + (d + 1) = (d + 1)(d + 2)/2 monomials of degree d in R[X . . . .8 Operations with Ideals Let I . . L i M 1 M 2 . 2). (a) Show that there are d + 1 monomials of degree d in R[X . . In particular. 1) = 1. . 2. . The direct product is characterized by the following property: given any ring R. a n ) to a i are ring homomorphisms. . i .7 Direct Products of Rings If R 1 . J be ideals in a ring R.

Suppose I is finitely generated and I ⊂ Rad(J ).43. . ∗ 2. Show that I O = m. in a ring R: (a) (I 1 + I 2 )J = I 1 J + I 2 J . . n n (b) (I 1 · · · I N )n = I 1 · · · I N . and that ϕ is an isomorphism. m = m (An ). J be ideals in a ring R. proving (2). Define I + J = {a + b | a ∈ I . . ∗ 2. ∗ 2. Show that dimk (k[X .42. O = O (An ). . . .9 Ideals with a Finite Number of Zeros The proposition of this section will be used to relate local questions (in terms of the local rings O P (V )) with global ones (in terms of coordinate rings). . . . . Show that I 1 ∩ · · · ∩ I N = (I 1 · · · I N )n = n (I 1 ∩ · · · ∩ I N ) for all n. (b) Let I be an ideal in a ring R. Then I + J is an ideal. . X n ]. Y ]/I n ) = 1 + 2 + · · · + n = n(n+1) . I = I (V ) ⊂ k[X 1 . ∗ 2. R a subring of a ring S. Y ) ⊂ k[X . X ] (k algebraically closed) are comaximal if 1 n and only if V (I ) ∩ V (J ) = .e. b ∈ J }. X n ] that contains I . it is the smallest ideal in R that contains I and J .41.39. Let I ⊂ k[X . For example.39. . 2 2. . .45. Show that I + J 2 = R. two distinct maximal ideals are comaximal. Prove the following relations among ideals I i . AFFINE VARIETIES If R is a subring of a ring S. I J = I ∩ J . . I S denotes the ideal of S generated by the elements of I . then I ∩ J = (I ∩ J )R = (I ∩ J )(I + J ) = (I ∩ J )I +(I ∩ J )J ⊂ J I + I J = I J . It is easy to see that I n S = (I S)n . X ] be the P P 1 n ideal generated by X 1 . if 1 = a + b. (a) Let I ⊂ J be ideals in a ring R. J . If I + J = R. . Let I . Let I . (2) If I and J are comaximal. . . ∗ 2. Show that there is a natural homomorphism ϕ from O P (An )/J O P (An ) to O P (V )/J O P (V ). . a ∈ I . and n n I i and J i = j =i I j are comaximal for all i . Show that I n ⊂ J for some n. Lemma.44. . . Let P = (0. . Let V be a variety in An . I N are ideals in R. 0) ∈ An . Two ideals I . P ∈ V . J in R are said to be comaximal if I + J = R.26 CHAPTER 2. n.46. Proof. Show that there is a natural ring homomorphism from R/I onto R/J . (See Problem 2. In particular. Show that ideals I . J ⊂ k[X . J be ideals in a ring R. . ∗ 2. (1) is trivial. in fact. . . ∗ 2. (b) Suppose I 1 . . Let J be the image of J in Γ(V ). (1) I J ⊂ I ∩ J for any ideals I and J .. . b ∈ J . O P (An )/I O P (An ) is isomorphic to O P (V ). J are comaximal ideals in R.) Problems ∗ 2. X n .40. and let J be an ideal of k[X 1 . . Show that m I and J n are comaximal for all m. (a) Suppose I . Show that there is a natural ring homomorphism from R/I to S/I S. so I r O = m r for all r . i. . Y ]. Let I = (X .

If V (I ) = {P }. and ϕ( t j a j e j ) = z. then a i /s i = a i t i in R i . It is an R-module isomorphism if it is one-to-one and onto.10. Let H = 1 − G. as desired. N By the Nullstellensatz. .2. In addition. we have e i = e i . . and e i = 1. where g is the I -residue of G. and R is finite dimensional over k. .45). X n ]/I is isomorphic to O P (An )/I O P (An ). Let O i = O P i (An ). m ∈ M . . X n ]/I with i =1 O i /I O i . . Since j =i I j and I i are comaximal (Problem 2. QUOTIENT MODULES AND EXACT SEQUENCES 27 Proposition 6. If we let e i be the residue of E i in R. Let I i = I ({P i }) ⊂ k[X 1 . Show that R is isomorphic to a direct product of local rings. . dimk (k[X 1 . P N }) = i =1 I i . . . R i = O i /I O i . . ϕi (e j ) = 0 for i = j . Then there is a natural isomorphism of N k[X 1 . .42(b)) ϕi from R to R i induce a homomorphism ϕ from R to i =1 R i . . Let I be an ideal in k[X 1 . Note that E i = F id D i for some D i . F i (P i ) = 1 (Problem 1. . Now suppose z = (a 1 /s 1 . . e i e j = 0 if i = j . . . Let t i g i = e i . then for each i there is a G i with G i (P i ) = 0 and G i F ∈ I ( f = I -residue of F ). Corollary 2. Therefore g (e i + he i + · · · + h d −1 e i ) = e i . then k[X 1 . . . . X n ] be the distinct maximal ideals that contain I . j Now choose F i ∈ k[X 1 . .10 Quotient Modules and Exact Sequences Let R be a ring. Let R = k[X 1 . . . Then H ∈ I i . A homomorphism ϕ : M → M of abelian groups is called an R-module homomorphism if ϕ(am) = aϕ(m) for all a ∈ R. . X n ] such that F i (P j ) = 0 if i = j . the quotient group M /N of cosets of N in M is made into an R-module in the following way: if m is the coset (or equivalence . a N /s N ) ∈ R i . we may assume that G(P i ) = 1. . . Proof. X n ] (k algebraically closed). Problem 2. . Suppose R is a ring containing k. .17).40) that I d = (I 1 · · · I N )d = ( I j )d ⊂ I . then there is a t ∈ R such that t g = e i . X n ]. so E i ∈ I d if i = j . . . . it follows (Problem 2. ϕ is onto: Since E i (P i ) = 1. so ϕi ( t j a j e j ) = ϕi (t i a i ) = a i /s i . . If N is a submodule of an R-module M . ϕi (e i ) is a unit in R i . . M . . E i − E i = E i (1 − F i ) is in 2 d · I i ⊂ I . The natural homomorphisms (Problem N 2. . . X n ]/I ) = N i =1 dimk (O i /I O i ). Then f = e i f = t i g i f = 0. Assuming the claim for the moment. Let E i = 1 − (1 − F id )d . we show how to conclude that ϕ is an isomorphism: ϕ is one-to-one: If ϕ( f ) = 0. P N } is finite. and G(P i ) = 0. By the claim. Corollary 1. M R-modules.47. and suppose V (I ) = {P 1 . . . If G ∈ k[X 1 . Therefore ϕi (e i ) = ϕi ( e j ) = ϕi (1) = 1. . . X n ]/I . Rad(I ) = I ({P 1 . 2. so H d E i ∈ I . we may find t i so that t i s i = e i . It follows that (1 − H )(E i + H E i + · · · + H d −1 E i ) = E i − H d E i . . . . since ϕi (e i )ϕi (e j ) = ϕi (e i e j ) = 0 if i = j . .41). To prove the claim. Claim. . so ( I i )d ⊂ I for some d (Problem 2. . j and 1 − d j =i I j d 2 d d i E i = (1 − E j ) − i = j E i ∈ I j ⊂ I .

Show that 0 −→ Ker(ϕ) −→ M −→ Im(ϕ) −→ 0 is exact. Proof. and a ∈ R. For then 0 −→ V1 −→ V2 −→ W −→ 0 and 0 −→ W −→ V3 −→ V4 −→ 0 are exact. (2) Let ϕ1 ϕ2 ϕ3 0 −→ V1 −→ V2 −→ V3 −→ V4 −→ 0 be an exact sequence of finite-dimensional vector spaces. Ker(ϕ) and Im(ϕ) are submodules of M and M respectively. It is easy to verify that this makes M /N into an R-module in such a way that the natural map from M to M /N is an R-module homomorphism. Then dimV4 = dimV3 − dimV2 + dimV1 .28 CHAPTER 2. and from M to 0.48. and ψ maps M isomorphically onto the kernel of ϕ. . (b) If N and P ϕ . and 0 −→ M −→ M is exact if and only if ψ is one-to-one. define am = am. This M /N is called the quotient module of M by N . (a) Let N be a submodule of M . Let ψ : M → M . we say that the sequence M 1 −→ M 2 −→ · · · −→ M n+1 is exact if Im(ϕi ) = Ker(ϕi +1 ) for each i = 1. (2) follows from (1) by letting W = Im(ϕ2 ) = Ker(ϕ3 ). where ψ is the inclusion. ϕ : M → M be R-module homomorphisms. Show that there is a unique homomorphism ϕ : M /N → M such that ϕ ◦ π = ϕ. Then dimV + dimV = dimV . We say that the sequence (of modules and homomorphisms) M −→ M −→ M is exact (or exact at M ) if Im(ψ) = Ker(ϕ). and ϕ(N ) = 0. Thus M −→ M −→ 0 is exact if and only if ϕ is onto. . Note that there are unique R-module homomorphism from the zero-module 0 to any R-module M . ψ ϕ3 ϕ1 ϕ2 ψ ϕ ψ ϕ ϕ1 ϕ2 ϕn ϕ ψ ψ ϕ Problems ∗ 2. AFFINE VARIETIES class) containing m. Proposition 7. . Suppose ϕ : M → M is a homomorphism of R-modules. (1) Let 0 −→ V −→ V −→ V −→ 0 be an exact sequence of finitedimensional vector spaces over a field k. ∗ 2.49. Thus 0 −→ M −→ M −→ M −→ 0 is exact if and only if ϕ is onto. If ϕi : M i → M i +1 are R-module homomorphisms. Verify that for any R-module homomorphism ϕ : M → M . . π : M → M /N the natural homomorphism. and the result follows by subtraction. n. (1) is just an abstract version of the rank-nullity theorem for a linear transformation ϕ : V → V of finite-dimensional vector spaces.

there is a natural exact sequence of R-modules: 0 −→ I /J −→ R/J −→ R/I −→ 0. Let V be a vector space. then α extends uniquely to a homomorphism from M X to M .11. (d) If J ⊂ I are ideals in a ring R. (c) Let z ∈ R. FREE MODULES 29 are submodules of a module M .53. The module M X is called the free R-module on the set X . (a) Show that T induces an isomorphism of V /W with T (V )/T (W ). Show that the resulting sequence 0 −→ N /P −→ M /P −→ M /N −→ 0 is exact (“Second Noether Isomorphism Theorem”). (b) Show that dimk (R/mn ) = n for all n > 0. a x = ϕ(x)).2. where a x ∈ R (in fact.52. and an isomorphism between W /(W ∩ T (V )) and (W + T (V ))/T (V ). then every ϕ ∈ M X has a unique expression ϕ = a x ϕx . since k ⊂ R. Let 0 −→ V1 −→ · · · −→ Vn −→ 0 be an exact sequence of finite-dimensional vector spaces.11 Free Modules Let R be a ring. (e) If O is a local ring with maximal ideal m. a ∈ R. 2. . ϕx (x) = 1. with V /U finite-dimensional. ∗ 2. Show that the subgroup N + P = {n + p | n ∈ N . Show that (−1)i dim(Vi ) = 0. Then mn /mn+1 is an R-module. Show that ord(z) = n if (z) = mn . (a) Show that dimk (mn /mn+1 ) = 1 for all n ≥ 0. and hence that ord(z) = dimk (R/(z)).50. Show that there is a natural R-module isomorphism of N /N ∩ P onto N + P /P (“First Noether Isomorphism Theorem”). there is a natural exact sequence of O -modules 0 −→ mn /mn+1 −→ O /mn+1 −→ O /mn −→ 0. (c) Use Problem 2. P be submodules of a module M . Then dimV /U = dimV /W + dimW /U . W a subspace. Let M X = {mapping s ϕ : X → R | ϕ(x) = 0 for all but a finite number of x ∈ X }. T : V → V a one-to-one linear map such that T (W ) ⊂ W . (d) Conclude finally that dimV /T (V ) = dimW /T (W ). ∗ 2. 2. If we define ϕx ∈ M X by the rules: ϕx (y) = 0 if y = x. and assume V /W and W /T (W ) are finite-dimensional.51. M X is characterized by the following property: If α : X → M is any mapping from the set X to an R-module M . Let R be a DVR satisfying the conditions of Problem 2. and consider X as a subset of M X . Let N . (b) Construct an isomorphism between T (V )/(W ∩ T (V )) and (W + T (V ))/W .49(c) to show that dimV /(W + T (V )) = dim(W ∩ T (V ))/T (W ). Usually we write x instead of ϕx . ∗ 2.30. ψ ∈ M X . with P ⊂ N . p ∈ P } is a submodule of M . This M X is made into an R-module as follows: (ϕ + ψ)(x) = ϕ(x) + ψ(x). (c) Let U ⊂ W ⊂ V be vector spaces. We say that X is a basis for M X : the elements of M X are just “formal sums” a x x. X any set. x ∈ X . and so also a k-module. and (aϕ)(x) = aϕ(x) for ϕ. then there are natural homomorphisms from M /P onto M /N and from N /P into M /P .

. . Let F = X n + a 1 X n−1 + · · · + a n be a monic polynomial in R[X ]. . .56. m n ∈ M if for X the set {m 1 . If R = Z. . . . Problems 2. . Show that a subset X of a module M generates M if and only if the homomorphism M X → M is onto.30 CHAPTER 2. . AFFINE VARIETIES An R-module M is said to be free with basis m 1 . . m n say in terms of the elements of M ? 2.55. a free Z-module on X is called the free abelian group on X . Show that R[X ]/(F ) is a free R-module with basis 1.54. X . 2. . . . m n } with n elements. . X n−1 . Every module is isomorphic to a quotient of a free module. . where X is the residue of X . . What does M being free on m 1 . . the natural homomorphism from M X to M is an isomorphism.

We often slur over this equivalence distinction. or even “the plane curve Y 2 = X 3 ”. A curve with only simple points is called a nonsingular curve. A curve of degree one is a line. they should not be relied upon too heavily. k(F ). The point P is called a simple point of F if either derivative F X (P ) = 0 or F Y (P ) = 0. Since R ⊂ C. b) ∈ F . Note that the components F i of F can be recovered (up to equivalence) from V (F ). we say that the F i are the components of F and e i is the multiplicity of the component F i . and say.g. ı. A point that isn’t simple is called multiple (or singular). We will usually write Γ(F ). Section 6). V (F ) is a variety in A2 . “the plane curve Y 2 − X 3 ”.G ∈ k[X .Chapter 3 Local Properties of Plane Curves 3. Let F be a curve. Y ] are equivalent if F = λG for some nonzero λ ∈ k. If F is a curve in A2 (C). and O P (F ) instead of Γ(V (F )). A2 (R) ⊂ A2 (C). 31 . k(V (F )). P = (a. so we modify our definition slightly: We say that two polynomials F.1 Multiple Points and Tangent Lines We have seen that affine plane curves correspond to nonconstant polynomials F ∈ k[X . F i is a simple component if e i = 1. and multiple otherwise. but the multiplicities of the components cannot. We define an affine plane curve to be an equivalence class of nonconstant polynomials under this equivalence relation.e. and O P (V (F )). We sketch some examples. If F = F i i . e. where F is determined up to multiplication by a nonzero constant (Chapter 1. The degree of a curve is the degree of a defining polynomial for the curve. F ∩ A2 (R). or “the line e a X + bY + c = 0”. we can only sketch the real part of F . In this case the line F X (P )(X −a)+F Y (P )(Y −b) = 0 is called the tangent line to F at P .. so we speak of “the line a X + bY + c”. where the F i are the irreducible factors of F . If F is irreducible. For some purposes it is useful to allow F to have multiple factors. Y ] without multiple factors. While the pictures are an aid to the imagination.

the linear term of the equation for the curve is just the tangent line to the curve at (0. and −4X 2 Y 2 . write m = m P (F ). LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES A =Y −X2 B =Y 2−X3+X C =Y 2−X3 D =Y 2−X3−X2 E = (X 2 + Y 2 )2 + 3X 2 Y − Y 3 F = (X 2 + Y 2 )3 − 4X 2 Y 2 A calculation with derivatives shows that A and B are nonsingular curves. In the first two examples. Let F be any curve. Y ] of degree i . the lowest order form picks out those lines that can best be called tangent to the curve at (0. 0). Using the rules for derivatives. The lowest terms in C . . and F . if m = 3. Note that P ∈ F if and only if m P (F ) > 0. a triple point. where F i is a form in k[X . E . In each case. 0). P is called a double point. 0). CHAPTER 3. E . If m = 2. Y 2 −X 2 = (Y −X )(Y +X ). etc.32 Examples. Write F = F m +F m+1 +· · ·+F n . 3X 2 Y −Y 3 = Y ( 3X −Y )( 3X +Y ). We define m to be the multiplicity of F at P = (0. and F respectively are Y 2 . F m = 0. and in this case F 1 is exactly the tangent line to F at P . D. 0) is the only multiple point on C . and that P = (0. 0). P = (0. D. it is easy to check that P is a simple point on F if and only if m P (F ) = 1.

The line L i is a simple (resp.1. r i is the multiplicity of the tangent. (This is a consequence of the fact that the lowest degree term of F is the product of the lowest degree terms of its factors. the lines αi (X − a)+βi (Y −b) are defined to be the tangent lines to F at P .5. 3. An ordinary double point is called a node. and the tangents to F T at (0.3. then L is tangent to F with multiplicity e i r i .. a point P is a simple point of F if and only if P belongs to just one component F i of F . Let P be a double point on a curve F . Then m P (F ) = e i m P (F i ).). and if L is a tangent line to F i with multiplicity r i . T (x.6). L i = αi X +βi Y . while C and F have a nonordinary multiple point at (0. E . double. 0).) tangent if r i = 1 (resp. and F . 0) and F Y (P ) = F Y (0. If G m = L i i . Problems 3. E has an ordinary triple point. etc. 0) is the only multiple point on the curves C . Note that T takes the points of F T to the points of F .2. G i forms. Since F X (P ) = F X (0. i. Show that P is a node if and only if F X Y (P )2 = F X X (P )F Y Y (P ). Let T be the translation that takes (0. and the two definitions of tangent line to a simple point coincide. 0) to the T T tangents to F at P . MULTIPLE POINTS AND TANGENT LINES r 33 Since F m is a form in two variables. and r i is the multiplicity of the tangent. Find the multiple points. 0) to P . 2.) For convenience. i.4.1. we say that P is an ordinary multiple point of F . b) = (0. . y) = (x + a. and P is a simple point of F i . 3. P is a simple point on F if and only if m P (F ) = 1. Then F T = F (X + a. If a curve F of degree n has a point P of multiplicity n. If F has m distinct (simple) tangents at P . etc.3. y + b). e Let F = F i i be the factorization of F into irreducible components. The L i are called the tangent lines to F at P = (0. F i is a simple component of F . and let r m = m P (F ). 0). (char(k) = 0) Show that m P (F ) is the smallest integer m such that for some i + ∂m F j = m. Y + b). 0).e. Prove that in the above examples P = (0. Find an explicit description for the leading form for F at P in terms of these derivatives. and the tangent lines at the multiple points. 3. 0).. G m = 0. (The curve D has a node at (0. we call a line through P a tangent of multiplicity zero if it is not tangent to F at P . 0). etc. Define m P (F ) to be m (0. ∂x i ∂y j (P ) = 0. we can write F m = L i i where the L i are distinct lines (Corollary in §2. for each of the following curves: (a) (b) (c) (d) Y 3 − Y 2 + X 3 − X 2 + 3X Y 2 + 3X 2 Y + 2X Y X 4 + Y 4 − X 2Y 2 X 3 + Y 3 − 3X 2 − 3Y 2 + 3X Y + 1 Y 2 + (X 2 − 5)(4X 4 − 20X 2 + 25) Sketch the part of the curve in (d) that is contained in A2 (R) ⊂ A2 (C).0) (F T ). show that F consists of n lines through P (not necessarily distinct). To extend these definitions to a point P = (a. write F T = G m + G m+1 + · · · . D.) In particular.e. 3.

T2 ). n even. we may assume that P = (0. 3. (c) Show that the converse of (b) is false: let T = (X 2 . First note that mP (F ) = (x. P = (0. then the image l of L in O P (F ) is a uniformizing parameter for O P (F ).6. . Find the polar equation for the curve F . . where G = 1+ higher terms. F = Y − X 2 . and use §2. (a) Show that mQ (F T ) ≥ m P (F ). let F = L i i + F m+1 . X n ] define a hypersurface V (F ) ⊂ An . (b) If m P (F ) = 1. T (Q) = P . Y ]/(F ) by g . if L = a X + bY + c is any line through P that is not tangent to F at P . it suffices to show that mP (F ) is generated by x. P is a simple point of F if and only if O P (F ) is a discrete valuation ring. (Use the fact that sin(nθ) = Im(e i nθ ) to get the equation.34 CHAPTER 3. By Proposition 4 of §2. (c) Examine F = X 2 + Y 2 − Z 2 . Is this true for hypersurfaces? 3.7. (b) Let T = (T1 . 2. (a) Define the multiplicity m P (F ) of F at P . The following notation will be useful: for any polynomial G ∈ k[X . (a) Show that the real part of the curve E of the examples is the set of points in A2 (R) whose polar coordinates (r. where F m+1 is chosen to make F irreducible (see Problem 2. Y ]. Let P ∈ An . that Y is the tangent line. . Now with the above assumptions. show that the equation r = sin(nθ) defines the real part of a curve of degree n +1 with an ordinary n-tuple point at (0. Y ). H ∈ k[X ]. By making an affine change of coordinates. 0). and define JQ T = (∂Ti /∂X j (Q)) to be the Jacobian matrix of T at Q. θ) satisfy the equation r = − sin(3θ). Irreducible curves with given tangent lines L i of multiplicity r i may be conr structed as follows: if r i = m.) 3. (d) Show that the curves constructed in (b) and (c) are all irreducible in A2 (C).22).2 Multiplicities and Local Rings Let F be an irreducible plane curve. v n ) | F X i (P )v i = 0}.9. and that L = X (Problems 2. . Show that an irreducible plane curve has only a finite number of multiple points. P = Q = (0.15(d) and 2. Is it possible to define tangent hyperplanes at multiple points? 3. .10. F = Y + higher terms.) (c) Analyze the singularities that arise by looking at r 2 = sin2 (nθ). .5. In this section we find the multiplicity of P on F in terms of the local ring O P (F ). 0). G X i (P )v i = 0}. LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES 3. . . denote its image (residue) in Γ(F ) = k[X .44). Let T : A2 → A2 be a polynomial map. we can write F = Y G − X 2 H . In this case. 3.8. P ∈ V . . . If V = V (F ) is a hypersurface. 0).43. and L is a line through P . F irreducible.34). Theorem 1. whether P is simple or not (Problems 2. note that rotation by π/n is a linear transformation that takes the curve into itself. Grouping together those terms with Y .1. The tangent space TP (V ) is defined to be {(v 1 . . Suppose P is a simple point on F . y). How does the dimension of TP (V ) relate to the multiplicity of F at P ? 3. . (b) If n is an odd integer ≥ 1. define the tangent hyperplane to F at P . P ∈ F . 0). Let F ∈ k[X 1 .11. (Hint:: Make the polynomials homogeneous with respect to a variable Z . show that TP (V ) = {(v 1 . v n ) ∈ An | for all G ∈ I (V ). not tangent to F at P . Show that mQ (F T ) = m P (F ) if JQ T is invertible. Let V ⊂ An be an affine variety. . Proof.

Then for all sufficiently large n. so ordP (y) = ordP (x 2 ) + ordP (hg −1 ) ≥ 2. and all n ≥ m P (F ) (Problem 2. we see that dimk (k[X . F )) = nm − for all n ≥ m. F ) ∼ O P (A2 )/(I n . Y ) ⊂ k[X . Suppose P is a simple point on F . There is a natural ring homomorphism ϕ from k[X . It is easy to verify that the sequence 0 −→ k[X . so mn = I n O . Y ]/(I n . Y ]/(I n . We let ordF be the order P function on k(F ) defined by the DVR O P (F ). Suppose P is a simple point on an irreducible curve F . Let P be a point on an irreducible curve F . we write ordF (G) instead of P ordF (g ). The proof of the next theorem introduces a technique that will reappear at several places in our study of curves. Y is the tangent. Theorem 2. Y ]/(I n . If G ∈ k[X . Applying Problem 2. So we are reduced to calculating the dimension of k[X . Y ]/I n to k[X . k[X . y) = (x). F ). Y ] (Problem 2. F ). The converse will follow from Theorem 2. Then ordF (L) = 1 P if L is not tangent to F at P . as desired. we write ordF instead of ordPi . P where F i is the component of F containing P .10 again. Y ]/(I n . Let m = m P (F ). 0).43). Y ]/I n defined by ψ(G) = F G (where the bars denote residues). where I is an ideal in O P (V ). In particular. Then F G ∈ I n whenever G ∈ I n−m . Since V (I n ) = {P }. From the exact sequence 0 −→ mn /mn+1 −→ O /mn+1 −→ O /mn −→ 0 it follows that it is enough to prove that dimk (O /mn ) = n m P (F )+s. and a k-linear map ψ from k[X . Y ]/I n −→ k[X . and ordF (L) > 1 if L is tangent to F at P . and L is any line through P . when F is fixed. It allows us to calculate the dimensions of certain vector spaces of the type O P (V )/I .2. Y ]/I n−m to k[X .3. P If P is a simple point on a reducible curve F . so y = x 2 hg −1 ∈ (x).46 and Proposition 7 of §2. m for O P (F ). the multiplicity of F at P depends only on the local ring O P (F ). since g (P ) = 0. m P (F ) = dimk (mP (F )n /mP (F )n+1 ). m(m − 1) 2 ψ ϕ F . Write O . we may write simply ordP .10). mP (F ) respectively. Y ]/I n−m −→ k[X . Y ]. F ) −→ 0 is exact.44). y = x 2 hg −1 . where I = (X . F )O P (A2 ) ∼ O P (F )/I n O P (F ) = O /mn (Corollary 2 = = of §2. as desired. and g is the image of G in Γ(F ). MULTIPLICITIES AND LOCAL RINGS 35 Then y g = x 2 h ∈ Γ(F ). Thus m P (F ) = (x. We may assume that P = (0. for some constant s.9 and Problem 2. Proof. For we may P assume the conditions are as in the proof of Theorem 1.49(e) and Proposition 7 of §2. Y ]/(I n .

36

CHAPTER 3. LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES

Note that if O P (F ) is a DVR, then Theorem 2 implies that m P (F ) = 1 (Problem 2.50) so P is simple. This completes the proof of Theorem 1. It should at least be remarked that the function χ(n) = dimk (O /mn ), which is a polynomial in n (for large n) is called the Hilbert-Samuel polynomial of the local ring O ; it plays an important role in the modern study of the multiplicities of local rings.

Problems
3.12. A simple point P on a curve F is called a flex if ordF (L) ≥ 3, where L is the P tangent to F at P . The flex is called ordinary if ordP (L) = 3, a higher flex otherwise. (a) Let F = Y − X n . For which n does F have a flex at P = (0, 0), and what kind of flex? (b) Suppose P = (0, 0), L = Y is the tangent line, F = Y + a X 2 + · · · . Show that P is a flex on F if and only if a = 0. Give a simple criterion for calculating ordF (Y ), and P therefore for determining if P is a higher flex. ∗ 3.13. With the notation of Theorem 2, and m = m (F ), show that dim (mn /mn+1 ) =
P

n +1 for 0 ≤ n < m P (F ). In particular, P is a simple point if and only if dimk (m/m2 ) = 1; otherwise dimk (m/m2 ) = 2. 3.14. Let V = V (X 2 − Y 3 , Y 2 − Z 3 ) ⊂ A3 , P = (0, 0, 0), m = mP (V ). Find dimk (m/m2 ). (See Problem 1.40.)

k

3.15. (a) Let O = O P (A2 ) for some P ∈ A2 , m = mP (A2 ). Calculate χ(n) = dimk (O /mn ). (b) Let O = O P (Ar (k)). Show that χ(n) is a polynomial of degree r in n, with leading coefficient 1/r ! (see Problem 2.36). 3.16. Let F ∈ k[X 1 , . . . , X n ] define a hypersurface in Ar . Write F = F m + F m+1 + · · · , and let m = m P (F ) where P = (0, 0). Suppose F is irreducible, and let O = O P (V (F )), m its maximal ideal. Show that χ(n) = dimk (O /mn ) is a polynomial of degree r − 1 for sufficiently large n, and that the leading coefficient of χ is m P (F )/(r − 1)!. Can you find a definition for the multiplicity of a local ring that makes sense in all the cases you know?

3.3 Intersection Numbers
Let F and G be plane curves, P ∈ A2 . We want to define the intersection number of F and G at P ; it will be denoted by I (P, F ∩ G). Since the definition is rather unintuitive, we shall first list seven properties we want this intersection number to have. We then prove that there is only one possible definition, and at the same time we find a simple procedure for calculating I (P, F ∩G) in a reasonable number of steps. We say that F and G intersect properly at P if F and G have no common component that passes through P . Our first requirements are: (1) I (P, F ∩ G) is a nonnegative integer for any F , G, and P such that F and G intersect properly at P . I (P, F ∩G) = ∞ if F and G do not intersect properly at P .

3.3. INTERSECTION NUMBERS

37

(2) I (P, F ∩ G) = 0 if and only if P ∈ F ∩ G. I (P, F ∩ G) depends only on the components of F and G that pass through P . And I (P, F ∩ G) = 0 if F or G is a nonzero constant. (3) If T is an affine change of coordinates on A2 , and T (Q) = P , then I (P, F ∩G) = I (Q, F T ∩G T ). (4) I (P, F ∩G) = I (P,G ∩ F ). Two curves F and G are said to intersect transversally at P if P is a simple point both on F and on G, and if the tangent line to F at P is different from the tangent line to G at P . We want the intersection number to be one exactly when F and G meet transversally at P . More generally, we require (5) I (P, F ∩G) ≥ m P (F )m P (G), with equality occurring if and only if F and G have not tangent lines in common at P . The intersection numbers should add when we take unions of curves: (6) If F = F i i , and G =
r

G j , then I (P, F ∩G) =

sj

i , j r i s j I (P, F i

∩G j ).

The last requirement is probably the least intuitive. If F is irreducible, it says that I (P, F ∩G) should depend only on the image of G in Γ(F ). Or, for arbitrary F , (7) I (P, F ∩G) = I (P, F ∩ (G + AF )) for any A ∈ k[X , Y ]. Theorem 3. There is a unique intersection number I (P, F ∩ G) defined for all plane curves F , G, and all points P ∈ A2 , satisfying properties (1)–(7). It is given by the formula I (P, F ∩G) = dimk (O P (A2 )/(F,G)). Proof of Uniqueness. Assume we have a number I (P, F ∩ G) defined for all F , G, and P , satisfying (1)-(7). We will give a constructive procedure for calculating I (P, F ∩ G) using only these seven properties, that is stronger than the required uniqueness. We may suppose P = (0, 0) (by (3)), and that I (P, F ∩ G) is finite (by (1)). The case when I (P, F ∩G) = 0 is taken care of by (2), so we may proceed by induction; assume I (P, F ∩ G) = n > 0, and I (P, A ∩ B ) can be calculated whenever I (P, A ∩ B ) < n. Let F (X , 0),G(X , 0) ∈ k[X ] be of degree r , s respectively, where r or s is taken to be zero if the polynomial vanishes. We may suppose r ≤ s (by (4)). Case 1: r = 0. Then Y divides F , so F = Y H , and I (P, F ∩G) = I (P, Y ∩G) + I (P, H ∩G) (by (6)). If G(X , 0) = X m (a 0 + a 1 X + · · · ), a 0 = 0, then I (P, Y ∩ G) = I (P, Y ∩ G(X , 0)) = I (P, Y ∩ X m ) = m (by (7), (2), (6), and (5)). Since P ∈ G, m > 0, so I (P, H ∩ G) < n, and we are done by induction. Case 2: r > 0. We may multiply F and G by constants to make F (X , 0) and G(X , 0) monic. Let H = G − X s−r F . Then I (P, F ∩G) = I (P, F ∩ H ) (by (7)), and deg(H (X , 0)) = t < s. Repeating this process (interchanging the order of F and H if t < r ) a finite number of times we eventually reach a pair of curves A, B that fall under Case 1, and with I (P, F ∩G) = I (P, A ∩ B ). This concludes the proof. Proof of Existence. Define I (P, F ∩ G) to be dimk (O P (A2 )/(F,G)). We must show that properties (1)–(7) are satisfied. Since I (P, F ∩G) depends only on the ideal in O P (A2 )

38

CHAPTER 3. LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES

generated by F and G, properties (2), (4), and (7) are obvious. Since an affine change of coordinates gives an isomorphism of local rings (Problem 2.22), (3) is also clear. We may thus assume that P = (0, 0), and that all the components of F and G pass through P . Let O = O P (A2 ). If F and G have no common components, I (P, F ∩ G) is finite by Corollary 1 of §2.9. If F and G have a common component H , then (F,G) ⊂ (H ), so there is a homomorphism from O /(F,G) onto O /(H ) (Problem 2.42), and I (P, F ∩G) ≥ dimk (O /(H )). But O /(H ) is isomorphic to O P (H ) (Problem 2.44), and O P (H ) ⊃ Γ(H ), with Γ(H ) infinite-dimensional by Corollary 4 to the Nullstellensatz. This proves (1). To prove (6), it is enough to show that I (P, F ∩ G H ) = I (P, F ∩ G) + I (P, F ∩ H ) for any F,G, H . We may assume F and G H have no common components, since the result is clear otherwise. Let ϕ : O /(F,G H ) → O /(F,G) be the natural homomorphism (Problem 2.42), and define a k-linear map ψ : O /(F, H ) → O /(F,G H ) by letting ψ(z) = G z, z ∈ O (the bar denotes residues). By Proposition 7 of §2.10, it is enough to show that the sequence 0 −→ O /(F, H ) −→ O /(F,G H ) −→ O /(F,G) −→ 0 is exact. We will verify that ψ is one-to-one; the rest (which is easier) is left to the reader. If ψ(z) = 0, then G z = uF + vG H where u, v ∈ O . Choose S ∈ k[X , Y ] with S(P ) = 0, and Su = A, Sv = B , and Sz = C ∈ k[X , Y ]. Then G(C − B H ) = AF in k[X , Y ]. Since F and G have no common factors, F must divide C − B H , so C − B H = DF . Then z = (B /S)H + (D/S)F , or z = 0, as claimed. Property (5) is the hardest. Let m = m P (F ), n = m P (G). Let I be the ideal in k[X , Y ] generated by X and Y . Consider the following diagram of vector spaces and linear maps: k[X , Y ]/I n ×k[X , Y ]/I m
ψ ψ ϕ

/ k[X , Y ]/I m+n

ϕ

/ k[X , Y ]/(I m+n , F,G)
α

/0

O /(F,G)

π

/ O /(I m+n , F,G) 

/0

where ϕ, π, and α are the natural ring homomorphisms, and ψ is defined by letting ψ(A, B ) = AF + BG. Now ϕ and π are clearly surjective, and, since V (I m+n , F,G) ⊂ {P }, α is an isomorphism by Corollary 2 in §2.9. It is easy to check that the top row is exact. It follows that dim(k[X , Y ]/I n ) + dim(k[X , Y ]/I m ) ≥ dim(Ker(ϕ)), with equality if and only if ψ is one-to-one, and that dim(k[X , Y ]/(I m+n , F,G)) = dim(k[X , Y ]/I m+n ) − dim(Ker(ϕ)).

(H Y )N ∈ (F.e. Proof of (a). 0). Y ]/I n ) − dim(k[X . X N and Y N are in (F. Y ]/(I m+n . if L were a common tangent to F and G at P . Y ]/I m ) = mn 39 (by Problem 2. as desired. so F m divides B s . and G n divides A r . 0). . This shows that I (P. F. where each term of B F has degree ≥ i + j +1. . Two things should be noticed about the uniqueness part of the above proof. and that I (P. Y ] for some N . Property (5) is therefore a consequence of: Lemma. INTERSECTION NUMBERS Putting all this together. The second is an equality if and only if ψ is one-to-one.35(c)).G)) = dim(k[X . if we can show that I t ⊂ (F. Conversely.G)O . we get the following string of inequalities: I (P. The set {A i j | i + j = t } forms a basis for the vector space of all forms of degree t in k[X . Suppose r < m or s < n. Then A i j = B F −B F . F ∩ G) = mn if and only if both inequalities in the above string are equalities. This completes the proof of the lemma. write F m = LF m−1 and G n = LG n−1 .17).3. To prove (a). . But i + j ≥ m + n − 1 implies that either i ≥ m or j ≥ n. i. so AF + BG = A r F m + B s G n + · · · .e. it therefore suffices to show that A i j ∈ (F. so ψ is not one-to-one. Write F = A m0 +F . H (P ) = 0 (Problem 1.G)). M j = M n if j > n. Suppose the tangents are distinct.G)O for t ≥ m + n − 1. the only part of Property (5) that is needed is that I ((0.G)O for all sufficiently large t . Say i ≥ m. F ∩G) = dim(O /(F. AF + BG consists entirely of terms of degree ≥ m + n. (b) ψ is one-to-one if and only if F and G have distinct tangents at P . Proof of (b). Y ] (Problem 2.G)O . . But F m and G n have no common factors. . Let L 1 . We will be finished.G)) ≥ dim(k[X . (The reader might try to find a minimal set of axioms that characterizes the intersection . F. Since H N is a unit in O . .. Write A = A r + higher terms. i. and choose a polynomial H so that H (Q i ) = 0. . . .G) = {P. and therefore I 2N ⊂ (F. it shows that. for example. First. Therefore s ≥ m. so A i j = A m0 B . M n the tangents to G.Q s }. B = B s + · · · . . L m be the tangents to F at P . if I m+n ⊂ (F. and also of Theorem 3.G) ⊂ k[X . X ∩ Y ) = 1. Properties (1)–(7) are exceedingly redundant. and let A i j = L 1 · · · L i M 1 · · · M j for all i . F ∩ G) ≥ mn. where all terms of F are of degree ≥ m+1.G)) ≥ dim(O /(I m+n . as axioms.Q 1 . The first such inequality is an equality if π is an isomorphism. This fact is surely a consequence of the Nullstellensatz: let V (F. and that ψ(A. then I t ⊂ (F. r ≥ n. so (H X )N .G)O for all i + j ≥ m +n −1.46 and arithmetic). where B is a form of degree t = i + j −m. (a) If F and G have no common tangents at P . . j ≥ 0 (A 00 = 1). B ) = (0.G)O . −F m−1 ) = 0. Then ψ(G n−1 . . so (A. Y ]/I m+n ) − dim(k[X . Then we must have r + m = s + n and A r F m = −B s G n ..3. B ) = AF + BG = 0. M 1 . Let L i = L m if i > m. then. Then H X and H Y are in I (V (F.

Making imaginative use of (5) and (7) can save much time. Define G(T ) = F (a + T b. Give a proof of Property (8) that uses only Properties (1)–(7). λi distinct. as in the examples of Section 1. X 4 ∩ Y ) = 4 (by (7). ∗ 3. the proof shows that the calculation of intersection numbers is a very easy matter.) Second. So I (P. Show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between the λi and the points P i ∈ L ∩ F . We can get rid of the worst part of F by replacing F by F − (X 2 + Y 2 )E = Y ((X 2 + Y 2 )(Y 2 − 3X 2 ) − 4X 2 Y ) = Y G. then F has only one component passing through P . where E = (X 2 + Y 2 )2 + 3X 2 Y − Y 3 . and suppose F has only one tangent L at P . E ∩ F ). Let us calculate I (P. which is Y (5X 2 − 3Y 2 + 4Y 3 + 4X 2 Y ) = Y H . 0). F ∩ H )). E ∩ F ) = 14.18. 0). then I (P. Find the intersection numbers of various pairs of curves from the examplse of Section 1.40 CHAPTER 3. then ordF (G) = P dimk (O P (F )/(g )) (Problem 2. Let L be a line that is not a component of F . If g is the image of G in O P (F ). F ∩ L) ≥ 3. F ∩G). I (P. (8) If P is a simple point on F . we apply the process of the uniqueness proof to get rid of the X -terms: Replace G by G + 3E .G) (Problem 2. Suppose L = {(a + t b.50(c)).G)). In particular. We may assume F is irreducible. this dimension is I (P. Then I (P. This is a consequence of Corollary 1 in §2. 3. I (P i . E ∩ G). F = (X 2 + Y 2 )3 − 4X 2 Y 2 .9. L ∩ F ) = e i . Show that under this correspondence. and I (P. F ∩G).44). Let F be an affine plane curve. E ∩ F ) = 2I (P. Since O P (F )/(g ) is isomorphic to O P (A2 )/(F.21. (b) Suppose P = (0. LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES number. (c) Show that if P is a cusp on F . Show that P is a cusp if and only if F X X X (P ) = 0. (a) Show that I (P. Example. but the proof shows that nothing more is needed than some arithmetic with polynomials. then I (P. L ∩ F ) ≤ deg(F ). then I (P. The curve F is said to have an (ordinary) cusp at P if I (P. and L = Y . (9) If F and G have no common components. the first of these can also be used to simplify calculations.20.22. Give some examples. If P is a simple point on F . at the point P = (0. Two more properties of the intersection number will be useful later. E ∩ Y ) = I (P. P Proof. F ∩ L) = 3. Factor G(T ) = (T − λi )e i . (6)). F ∩ L) > m P (F ).19. Problems 3. c + T d ). F ∩G) = dimk (k[X . c + t d ) | t ∈ k}.17. But I (P. 3. . E ∩ H ) = m P (E )m P (H ) = 6 (by (5)). and P = (0. A line L is tangent to a curve F at a point P if and only if I (P. E ∩ H ). 0). F ∩ (G + H )) ≥ min(I (P. Suppose P is a double point on a curve F . P Proof. Y ]/(F. F ∩G) = ordF (G). Since no obvious method is available to find I (P. I (P. E ∩ Y ) + I (P. Give an example to show that this may be false if P is not simple on F . 3. 3.

(c) Suppose there are G 1 . . F has only one tangent line L at P . . Show that I (P.3. all λ ∈ k. Y ] such that I (P. Generalize the results of the preceding problem to this case. Y ]. P = (0. . Thus F has m tangents at P . 0). A point P on a curve F is called a hypercusp if m P (F ) > 1. . L ∩ F ) = m P (F ) + 1. For G ∈ k[X . . . L m .13). F ∩ G i ) > m and g i = λg j for all i = j . and L i is the tangent to G i .) (d) Show that P is an ordinary multiple point on F if and only if there are g 1 .24. so L i is tangent to F by Property (5) of intersection numbers. with tangents L 1 . Y ]} to m/m2 taking a X + bY to ax + b y is an isomorphism of vector spaces (see Problem 3. INTERSECTION NUMBERS 41 3. F ∩ L i ) > m and l i = λl j for all i = j . (Hint:: Write G i = L i + higher terms. and dim O P (F )/(g i ) > m. .G m ∈ k[X . and I (P. λ ∈ k. . (b) Suppose P is an ordinary multiple point. and all λ ∈ k. denote its residue in Γ(F ) by g . ∗ 3. and for g ∈ m. denote its residue in m/m2 by g . Let m = mP (F ). l i = g i = 0. . g m ∈ m such that g i = λg j for all i = j . . Let F be an irreducible plane curve. The object of this problem is to find a property of the local ring O (F ) that P determines whether or not P is an ordinary multiple point on F . m = m P (F ) > 1. (a) Show that the map from {forms of degree 1 in k[X . . .23. Show that P is an ordinary multiple point on F .3. .

42 CHAPTER 3. LOCAL PROPERTIES OF PLANE CURVES .

y) ∈ A2 with the point (x. : x n+1 ]. . . . . . . Every point (x.1 Projective Space Suppose we want to study all the points of intersection of two curves. . . . . . and if x i = 0. 1) ∈ A3 . . λx n+1 ) | λ ∈ k}. Projective n-space over k. y. n + 1. . If a point P ∈ Pn is determined as above by some (x 1 . Note that the i th coordinate x i is not well-defined. x i +1 . 0. 0)}. . . . . Elements of Pn will be called points. but the curve is asymptotic to the line. . Any point (x) = (x 1 . This leads to the following definition: Let k be any field. 0) except those lying in the plane z = 0 corresponds to exactly one such point. or simply Pn . . : x n+1 ] to indicate that (x 1 . is defined to be the set of all lines through (0. but that it is a well-defined notion to say whether the i th coordinate is zero or nonzero. 1) determines a line in A3 that passes through (0. . We often write P = [x 1 : . . Then Pn may be identified with the set of equivalence classes of points in An+1 {(0. . . we say that (x 1 . 0. α ∈ k. . written Pn (k). . they no not intersect. We want to enlarge the plane in such a way that two such curves intersect “at infinity”. Two such points (x) and (y) determine the same line if and only if there is a nonzero λ ∈ k such that y i = λx i for i = 1. . : x i −1 : 1 : x i +1 : . . the ratios x j /x i are well-defined (since they are unchanged under equivalence). . . . . Every line through (0. . 0. consider for example the curve Y 2 = X 2 +1 and the line Y = αX . Each P ∈ Ui can be written uniquely in the form P = [x 1 : . . We let Ui = {[x 1 : . If we define ϕi : An → Ui by ϕi (a 1 . 1). namely {(λx 1 . . . they intersect in two points. x n+1 ) are called the nonhomogeneous coordinates for P with respect to Ui (or X i . . or i ). 0) and (x. . .Chapter 4 Projective Varieties 4. The coordinates (x 1 . . let us say that (x) and (y) are equivalent if this is the case. 0. x n+1 ) ∈ An+1 . . . . x n+1 ) are homogeneous coordinates for P . 0) in the plane z = 0 can be thought of as corresponding to the “points at infinity”. : x n+1 ] ∈ Pn | x i = 0}. a n ) = 43 . y. . x n+1 ) = (0. x i −1 . . . . . . . . 0) in An+1 (k). . . . The lines through (0. When α = ±1. One way to achieve this is to identify each point (x. . . y. 0) determines a unique such line. 0. . x n+1 ) are homogeneous coordinates for P . If α = ±1.

. .3. F i a form of degree i . . . H∞ is often called the hyperplane at infinity. . when extended in this way. (3) Consider a line Y = mX + b in A2 . x n+1 ) = 0 for all homogeneous coordinates for P . . the points on the line correspond to the points [x : y : z] ∈ P2 with y = mx + bz and z = 0. . . Here H∞ is called the line at infinity. . .) 4. (2) P2 (k) = {[x : y : 1] | (x. . . . . For convenience we usually concentrate on Un+1 . x n+1 ). . (a) Show that the definitions of this section carry over without change to the case where k is an arbitrary field. then ϕi sets up a one-to-one correspondence between the points of An and the points of Ui . λx n+1 ) = λi F i (x 1 . . pass through the same point at infinity. Let H∞ = Pn Un+1 = {[x 1 : . Write F = F i . and suppose F (x 1 . . (4) Consider again the curve Y 2 = X 2 + 1. . x n+1 ) = 0 for every choice of homogeneous coordinates (x 1 . What points in P2 do not belong to two of the three sets U1 . : x n ] shows that H∞ may be identified with Pn−1 .U2 . Let P ∈ Pn (k). . : a n ]. Let F ∈ k[X 1 . . (b) If k 0 is a subfield of k. . . . PROJECTIVE VARIETIES [a 1 : . . . many details will be left to the reader.2. (We must make the equation homogeneous so that solutions will be invariant under equivalence). Since the concepts and most of the proofs are entirely similar to those for affine algebraic sets. If we identify A2 with U3 ⊂ P2 .2 Projective Algebraic Sets In this section we develop the idea of algebraic sets in Pn = Pn (k). Examples. y) ∈ A2 } ∪ {[x : y : 0] | [x : y] ∈ P1 }. . show that Pn (k 0 ) may be identified with a subset of Pn (k). so Pn is covered by i =1 n + 1 sets each of which looks just like affine n-space. P1 (k) is the projective line over k. (Hint: consider G(λ) = F (λx 1 . These are the points where the lines Y = X and Y = −X intersect the curve. 1 (1) P (k) = {[x : 1] | x ∈ k} ∪ {[1 : 0]}. . (0) P0 (k) is a point. . . The set {[x : y : z] ∈ P2 | y = mx + bz} ∩ H∞ = {[1 : m : 0]}. .U3 ? ∗ 4. 4. x n+1 ) for P . : x n : 0] ↔ [x 1 : . . Thus Pn = Un+1 ∪ H∞ is the union of an affine n-space and a set that gives all directions in affine n-space. So all lines with the same slope. X n+1 ] (k infinite). Z = 0. . {[x : y : z] ∈ P2 | y 2 = x 2 + z 2 } intersects H∞ in the two points [1 : 1 : 0] and [1 : −1 : 0]. . . . Show that each F i (x 1 . . : a i −1 : 1 : a i : . : x n+1 ] | x n+1 = 0}.44 CHAPTER 4. P2 (k) is called the projective plane over k. . Problems 4. The correspondence [x 1 : .1. P1 (k) is the affine line plus one point at infinity. . x n+1 ) for fixed (x 1 . . The corresponding set in P2 is given by the homogeneous equation Y 2 = X 2 + Z 2 . Note that Pn = n+1 Ui .

4 below. . deg(F i ) = i . but using Problem 4. . If I = (F (1) . Conversely. x n+1 ∈ An+1 | [x 1 : . . Such a set is called an algebraic set in Pn . I p for the projective operations. 0)} . X n+1 ] I algebraic sets in Pn (k) satisfy most of the properties we found in the corresponding affine situation (see Problem 4. so V (S) = V ({F j ) }) is the set of zeros of a finite number of forms. The operations V n homogeneous ideals in k[X 1 . . If F is a form. . If V is an algebraic set in Pn . . In practice it should always be clear which is meant. . . . . we define C (V ) = {(x 1 . I a for the affine ones. we have also F i ∈ I . x n+1 ) for P . let S = {F (α) } be a set of forms generating an ideal I . or a projective algebraic set. . . X n+1 ] | every P ∈ X is a zero of F }. we conclude that F m = A (α) F (α) . If we write F as a sum of forms in the usual way. The same proof as in the affine case. if there is any danger of confusion. .2). where F (i ) = (i F j ). An ideal I ⊂ k[X 1 . F (r ) ) is homogeneous. . (i Proof. . Va . . . . its irreducible components. I (X ) is a homogeneous ideal. . so F m ∈ I . we will write Vp . We have used the same notation in these two situations. F (r ) ). . then each form vanishes on any set of homogeneous coordinates for P (Problem 4. . . .2. . then I is generated by {F j ) }. . V (I ) = V (S). . An irreducible algebraic set in Pn is called a projective variety. Write F = A (α) F (α) . If I = (F (1) . x n+1 ) = 0 45 for every choice of homogeneous coordinates (x 1 . . . If I is the ideal generated by S. with deg(F (α) ) = d α . we then write F (P ) = 0. For any set X ⊂ Pn . X n+1 ] is called homogeneous if for every F = m F i ∈ I . . X n+1 ] if F (x 1 . x n+1 ) = (0. An ideal I ⊂ k[X 1 . m−d α An algebraic set V ⊂ P is irreducible if it is not the union of two smaller algebraic sets. . . then V (I ) = V ({F j ) }). . . . . we let I (X ) = {F ∈ k[X 1 . (i (i (i F j ) a form of degree j . .6). For any set X ⊂ Pn . . The ideal I (X ) is called the ideal of X . PROJECTIVE ALGEBRAIC SETS A point P ∈ Pn is said to be a zero of a polynomial F ∈ k[X 1 . . . . X n+1 ]. we let V (S) = {P ∈ Pn | P is a zero of each F ∈ S}. Proposition 1.4. . for then F − F m ∈ I . . . . and F vanishes at one representative of P . . . and suppose F = F m + · · · + F r ∈ I . . X n+1 ] is homogeneous if and only if it is generated by a (finite) set of forms. F i i =0 a form of degree i . . . . Comparing terms of the same degree. and an inductive argument finishes the proof. . Any projective algebraic set can be written uniquely as a union of projective varieties. . . : x n+1 ] ∈ V or (x 1 . . For any set S of polynomials in k[X 1 . It suffices to show that F m ∈ I . shows that V is irreducible if and only if I (V ) is prime. then it vanishes at every representative.

. X n+1 ]. . . n + 1. (ii) Va (I ) ⊂ {(0. Every element f ∈ Γ may be written uniquely as f = f 0 + · · · + f m . is defined to be {z ∈ k h (V ) | for some forms f . X n+1 ]/I (V ) is a domain. may be called the coordinate hyperplanes. so the value of f /g is independent of the choice of homogeneous coordinates. X n+1 ) (by the affine Nullstellensatz). and let Γ = k[X 1 . More generally. let I be any homogeneous ideal in k[X 1 . . In contrast with the case of affine varieties. . The hyperplanes V (X i ). . . except that we must always make an exception with the ideal (X 1 . . . . . and (iv) (X 1 . . write F = F i . Proof. z = f /g }. . If f is the residue of F ∈ k[X 1 . The function field of V . . where f i is the residue of F i . if f . so f i = g i . (iii) Rad(I ) = I a (Va (I )) ⊃ (X 1 . X n+1 ] such that Vp (I ) = .46 CHAPTER 4. Then (1) Vp (I ) = if and only if there is an integer N such that I contains all forms of degree ≥ N . . PROJECTIVE VARIETIES to be the cone over V . Proof. written k(V ). . Let I be a homogeneous ideal in k[X 1 . A hyperplane is a hypersurface defined by a form of degree one. . Irreducible hypersurfaces correspond to irreducible forms. g ∈ Γh (V ) of the same degree. it is called the homogeneous function field of V . f (λx)/g (λx) = λd f (x)/λd g (x) = f (x)/g (x). . there is a oneto-one correspondence between projective hypersurfaces V = V (F ) and the (nonconstant) forms F that define V provided F has no multiple factors (F is determined up to multiplication by a nonzero λ ∈ k). . (2) I p (Vp (I )) = I a (C (Vp (I ))) = I a (Va (I )) = Rad(I ). g are both forms in Γh (V ) of the same degree d . g i = residue of G i . and since I is homogeneous.41). X n+1 ]. If n = 2. with f i a form of degree i . . . . each F i −G i ∈ I . . . likewise most elements of k h (V ) cannot be regarded as functions. . . . X n+1 ]. (2) If Vp (I ) = . no elements of Γh (V ) except the constants determine functions on V . However. . . X n+1 ]/I . . . 0)}. . . . Let k h (V ) be the quotient field of Γh (V ). and if I is a homogeneous ideal in k[X 1 . . and then f = f i . Let V be a nonempty projective variety in Pn . This reduces many questions about Pn to questions about An+1 . An element f ∈ Γ will be called a form of degree d if there is a form F of degree d in k[X 1 . . . . Proposition 2. . . Then F − G i = (F i − G i ) ∈ I . . For example PROJECTIVE NULLSTELLENSATZ. If V = . It is not difficult to verify that k(V ) is a . then f /g does define a function. Then I (V ) is a prime ideal. . . so the residue ring Γh (V ) = k[X 1 . . . . i = 1. suppose also f = g i . then I p (Vp (I )) = Rad(I ). It is called the homogeneous coordinate ring of V . To show the uniqueness. the V (X i ) are the three coordinate axes. X n+1 ] whose residue is f . then C (Vp (I )) = Va (I ). at least where g is not zero: in fact. then I a (C (V )) = I p (V ). (1) The following four conditions are equivalent: (i) Vp (I ) = . . X n+1 )N ⊂ I (by Problem 2. In particular. X n+1 ). or the hyperplanes at infinity with respect to Ui . The usual corollaries of the Nullstellensatz go through. .

Let I be a homogeneous ideal in k[X 1 . . V = V (F ) ⊂ P2 . then T takes lines through the origin into lines through the origin (Problem 2. . If T : An+1 → An+1 is a linear change of coordinates. f (P ) = 0}. Show that each irreducible component of a cone is also a cone.15). k ⊂ k(V ) ⊂ k h (V ). Ti forms of degree 1. Tn+1 ). . for any forms F. . So T determines a map from Pn to Pn .6. . g (P ) = 0. then V T = V (F 1 .7. . (a) Construct an exact sequence 0 −→ R −→ R −→ Γ −→ 0. where F iT = T F i (T1 . . Z ]. which DVR corresponds to the point at infinity? ∗ 4. Tn+1 ). We say that z is defined at P if z can be written as z = f /g . Let I be a homogeneous ideal in k[X . we write V T for T −1 (V ). and g (P ) = 0. . . If V is an algebraic set in Pn . . . and T induces ˜ isomorphisms T : Γh (V ) → Γh (V T ). then T −1 (V ) is also an algebraic set in Pn . X n+1 ]/I . If V = V (F 1 . Let t = X /Y ∈ k(V ). Let R = k[X . . and show that k(V ) = k(t ). 4.5.4. . T T and T = (T1 .9. . f . Let V = P1 . . . The value z(P ) of a function z ∈ O P (V ) is welldefined. Then V is a variety if and only if V is a variety. . and O P (V ) → OQ (V T ) if T (Q) = P. . . it is a local ring.2. X n+1 ]. It is called the local ring of V at P . Γh (V ) = k[X . . Elements of k(V ) are called rational functions on V . with maximal ideal mP (V ) = {z | z = f /g . Show that I is prime if and only if the following condition is satisfied. Y ]. but Γh (V ) ⊂ k(V ). .4. and 1 n+1 Γ = k[X 1 . k(V ) → k(V T ). . F ∈ R an irreducible form of degree n. z ∈ k(V ). 4. show that Rad(I ) is also homogeneous. . F r ). If I is a homogeneous ideal. n(n − 3) 2 ψ ϕ . X n+1 ]. . . 4. State and prove the projective analogues of properties (1)–(10) of Chapter 1. Y . F r ). 4. . . if F G ∈ I . called a projective change of coordinates. (b) Show that dimk {forms of degree d in Γ} = d n − if d > n. . Problems ∗ 4. then F ∈ I or G ∈ I . Show that the forms of degree d in Γ form a finite-dimensional vector space over k. where ψ is multiplication by F .10. Sections 2 and 3. and Γ = Γh (V ). . g forms of the same degree. Show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between the points of P1 and the DVR’s with quotient field k(V ) that contain k (see Problem 2. We let O P (V ) = {z ∈ k(V ) | z is defined at P }.27). O P (V ) is a subring of k(V ). . .8. . 4.G ∈ k[X 1 . Let P ∈ V . PROJECTIVE ALGEBRAIC SETS 47 subfield of k h (V ). X ].

. . . 2.17. P 3 (resp. Q = [b 1 : .15. Prove the projective analogue of Problem 2. L 3 (resp. . let V be an algebraic set in Pn . Show that H ∩ H ∩· · ·∩ H = . X n ]. (c) Show that the m that appears in part (b) is independent of the choice of T . In this section we study the relations between the algebraic sets in An and those in Pn . Show that there is a projective change of coordinates T : P2 → P2 such that T (P i ) = Q i . PROJECTIVE VARIETIES ∗ 4. Let I ∗ be the ideal in k[X 1 . . . X n+1 ). . (1) If V ⊂ An . . Let L 1 . A set V ⊂ Pn (k) is called a linear subvariety of Pn (k) if V = V (H1 . H ∗∗ = H .12.15. . (a) Show that if T is a projective change of coordinates. I = I (V ) ⊂ k[X 1 . µ ∈ k. . 3. m ≤ n. X n ]. i = 1. where each Hi is a form of degree 1. . It is called the dimension of V (m = −1 if V = ). λ = 0 or µ = 0}. : λa n+1 + µb n+1 ] | λ.14. P 2 . Let I ∗ be the ideal in k[X 1 .13. and apply Problem 4. L 2 . Show that the pole set of z is an algebraic subset of V .3 Affine and Projective Varieties We consider An as a subset of Pn by means of the map ϕn+1 : An → Un+1 ⊂ Pn . . Section 6 for notation). (b) Show that P ∗∗ = P . (a) Show that assigning [a 1 : . If P ∈ Pn . then V T = T −1 (V ) is also a linear subvariety.) Extend this to n + 1 hyperplanes in Pn . . Let H . Hr ). X n+1 ] generated by {F ∗ | F ∈ I } (see Chapter 2. . Show that there is a projective change of coordinates: T : P2 → P2 such that T (L i ) = M i . . . . . . . Q 1 . so V is a variety. . M 1 . . then V∗ ⊂ W∗ ⊂ An . . . : a n+1 ] ∈ Pn to H sets up a natural one-to-one correspondence between {hyperplanes in Pn } and Pn . Let P = [a 1 : . ∗ 4. (2) If V ⊂ W ⊂ An . Let V be an algebraic set in An . ∗ 4. . Q i = M j ∩ M k . then ϕn+1 (V ) = V ∗ ∩Un+1 . If V ⊂ W ⊂ Pn . if H is a hyperplane. .Q 2 . not passing through a point.11.Q 3 ) be three points in P2 not lying on a line. . Let z be a rational function on a projective variety V . H ∗ denotes the corresponding point. . i . Note that (a 1 . . .14. I = I (V ) ⊂ k[X 1 . .18. ∗ 4. not lying on a hyperplane. and (V ∗ )∗ = V . . (Hint:: Let P i = L j ∩L k . (b) Show that there is a projective change of coordinates T of Pn such that V T = V (X m+2 . . . Let H = V ( a i X i ) be a hyperplane in Pn . The line L through P and Q is defined by L = {[λa 1 + µb 1 : . k distinct. . . 4. This is the well-known duality of the projective space. Proposition 3. M 3 ) be lines in P2 (k) that do not all pass through a point. let P ∗ be the corresponding hyperplane. Conversely. This I ∗ is a homogeneous ideal. 4. We define V∗ to be V (I ∗ ) ⊂ An .48 CHAPTER 4. 1 m 1 2 m ∗ 4. : a n+1 ]. we define V ∗ to be V (I ∗ ) ⊂ Pn . M 2 . . then V ∗ ⊂ W ∗ ⊂ Pn . X n ] generated by {F ∗ | F ∈ I }. . Extend this to n + 1 points in Pn . ∗ 4. : b n+1 ] be distinct points of Pn . a n+1 ) is determined by H up to a constant. . H be hyperplanes in Pn . . ∗ 4. Let P 1 . Show that any two distinct lines in P2 intersect in one point. .16. j . Show that P ∈ H if and only if H ∗ ∈ P ∗ .

so F ∗ ∈ I (V ). If V = V (F ) is an affine hypersurface. then V ∗ = i Vi∗ is the irreducible decomposition of V ∗ in Pn . it follows readily that I ∗ is also prime. 4. (3). (6) If V An is not empty. and let f ∗ = I (V )-residue of F ∗ (one checks that this is independent of the choice of F ). and (5). We usually use α to identify k(V ) with k(V ∗ ). then no component of V ∗ lies in or contains H∞ = n P Un+1 . . If we form V∗ with respect to Ui (as with Un+1 ). and X n+1 ∈ I (V ) since V ⊂ H∞ . Any projective variety V ⊂ Pn is covered by the n + 1 sets V ∩ Ui . If f ∈ Γh (V ∗ ) is a form of degree d .4. so X n+1 (F N )∗ ∈ I (V ) for some t (Proposition 5 (3) of §2.20. If I is prime. where f . Since ϕn+1 (V∗ ) ⊂ V . g are forms of the same degree on V ∗ . (7): We may assume V ⊂ Pn is irreducible. AFFINE AND PROJECTIVE VARIETIES 49 (3) If V is irreducible in An . it suffices to show that V ⊂ (V∗ )∗ . Proof. or that I (V∗ )∗ ⊂ I (V ). we may assume V is irreducible. Except for projective varieties lying in H∞ . then V∗ An and (V∗ )∗ = V . so F = X n+1 (F ∗ )∗ ∈ I (V )∗ . Prove: . then V ∗ = V (F ∗ ) (see Problem 4. we may define f ∗ ∈ Γ(V ) as follows: take a form F ∈ k[X 1 . so W ⊃ V ∗ .19. V ∗ ⊂ Pn its projective closure. and the local rings are isomorphic. then V ∗ is the smallest algebraic set in Pn that contains ϕn+1 (V ). then a form F belongs to I ∗ if and only if F ∗ ∈ I . and O P (V ) with O P (V ∗ ).3. with F ∗ ∈ (X n+1 ). Let V = V (Y − X 2 . . there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between nonempty affine and projective varieties (see Problem 4. the points on V ∩Ui correspond to points on V∗ . If V ⊂ An . Let V be an affine variety. V ∗ ⊂ H∞ by (1). (4) If V = i Vi is the irreducible decomposition of V in An .19). . Then F N ∈ I (V )∗ for some t N (Nullstellensatz). we may consider P ∈ V ∗ (by means of ϕn+1 ) and then α induces an isomorphism of O P (V ∗ ) with O P (V ). Thus questions about V near a point P can be reduced to questions about an affine variety V∗ (at least if the question can be answered by looking at O P (V )). as desired. Z − X 3 ) ⊂ A3 . To prove (5). If V is an algebraic set in An . If F ∈ r I (W ). as desired.6). then F ∗ ∈ I (V ). V ∗ ⊂ Pn is called the projective closure of V . (7) If V ⊂ Pn . and no component of V lies in or contains H∞ . If P ∈ V .6. . If I = (F ) is the ideal of an affine hypersurface. X n+1 ] whose I p (V ∗ )-residue is f . But I (V ) is prime. which proves (3). If V ∗ ⊃ H∞ . show that I ∗ = (F ∗ ). (5) If V ⊂ An . (1) follows from Proposition 5 of §2. To prove (6). I = I (V ). then V ∗ is irreducible in Pn . But if 0 = F ∈ I (V ). So V ∗ ⊃ H∞ .22). (2) is obvious. Problems ∗ 4. then I (V )∗ ⊂ I (V ∗ ) ⊂ I (H∞ ) = (X n+1 ). suppose W is an algebraic set in Pn that contains ϕn+1 (V ). then F ∗ ∈ I (V )∗ . We then define a natural isomorphism α : k(V ∗ ) → k(V ) as follows: α( f /g ) = f ∗ /g ∗ . Let F ∈ I (V∗ ). Therefore I (W ) ⊂ I (V )∗ . (4) follows from (2).

. . . . . and m k(V ) = {z ∈ k h (V ) | z = f /g . y ∈ k}. c) ∈ A3 | ax + b y + c z = 0} is a hyperplane in A3 . . PROJECTIVE VARIETIES (a) I (V ) = (Y − X 2 . . finally. Write k[X . to be {F ∈ k[X . it does not follow that I (V )∗ = (F 1 . Show that the lines through P consist of the following: (a) The “vertical” lines L λ = V (X − λZ ) = {[λ : t : 1] | t ∈ k} ∪ {P }. show that I b (V ) is bihomogeneous.q F p. If V ⊂ Pn × Pm is a variety (i. y) = 0 for all F ∈ S}. (b) Z W − X Y ∈ I (V )∗ ⊂ k[X . Y1 . irreducible). For any V ⊂ Pn × Pm . Show that if V ⊂ W ⊂ Pn are varieties. . . . Y ]/I b (V ) is the bihomogeneous coordinate ring. . ∗ 4. .. Show that V = Pn or V = H∞ .q . If V = Pn . V∗ = An . Ym+1 ) with coefficients in k[Y1 . X n+1 (resp. define I (V ). (b) Show that for any finite set of points in P2 . .25. Every F ∈ k[X . . A subset V of Pn × Pm will be called algebraic if V = V (S) for some S. but Z W − X Y ∈ ((Y − X 2 )∗ . Ym+1 ]. F r ). . If S is any set of biforms in k[X 1 . The local rings O P (V ) are defined as before. this is not difficult for affine varieties. . . q) when considered as a polynomial in X 1 . The product Pn × Pm requires some discussion. . Y ] | F (x.q is a biform of bidegree (p. . Y ] may be written uniquely as F = p. Ym+1 ]. b. ∗ 4. . X n+1 ]). . y) = 0 for all (x. . . Z . ∗ 4. .W ]. . Let P = [0 : 1 : 0] ∈ P2 (k). and V is a hypersurface. Y ] for k[X 1 .23. . k[X 1 . Ym+1 ] (resp. We likewise leave it to the reader to develop the theory of multiprojective varieties in Pn1 × Pn2 × · · · × Pnr . or I b (V ). . . Suppose V is a variety in Pn and V ⊃ H∞ . q). then W = V or W = Pn (see Problem 1. Since An × A may be identified with An+m . Y1 . there is a line not passing through any of them. .21. 4.22. however. g biforms of the same bidegree in Γb (V )} is the function field of V . (b) The line at infinity L ∞ = V (Z ) = {[x : y : 0] | x. X n+1 . V∗ = . . q) if F is a form of degree p (resp. 4. .24. Y ] is called a biform of bidegree (p. Γb (V ) = k[X . we let V (S) or Vb (S) be {(x. y) | Pn × Pm | F (x. f . Describe all subvarieties in P1 and in P2 . . . We leave it to the reader to define a bihomogeneous ideal. (Z − X 3 )∗ ). but . ∗ 4. the reader develops the theory of algebraic subsets and varieties in mixed.e. Let P = [x : y : z] ∈ P2 . . If. Z − X 3 ). .4 Multiprojective Space We want to make the cartesian product of two varieties into a variety. (a) Show that {(a. A polynomial F ∈ k[X . .50 CHAPTER 4. or “multispaces” Pn1 × Pn2 × · · · × Pnr × Am (here a polynomial should be homogeneous in each set of variables that correspond to a projective space Pni .30). Y . where F p. Y1 . . while if V = H∞ . ∗ ∗ So if I (V ) = (F 1 . . . and likewise to carry out the entire development for algebraic sets and varieties in Pn × Pm as was done for Pn in Section 2. y) ∈ V }. X n+1 . . F r ). k b (V ) its quotient field.

(a) Show that S is a well-defined. then all projective. : x n ]. T0m . where Ui j = {[t ] | t i j = 0}. (b) Generalize part (a) to maps ϕ : An1 × Anr × Am → Pn1 × Pnr × Am . . .26. and T00 .28. Prove an analogue of Proposition 3 of §4. (a) Define maps ϕi . . . l = 0. Tnm coordinates for PN . . n. in this problem we let X 0 . .4. m}) ⊂ PN . (b) Show that if W is an algebraic subset of PN . ∗ 4. If we define A0 to be a point. S(Ui ×U j ) = V ∩Ui j . . . he or she will have the most general theory needed for the rest of this text. Show that S(Pn ×Pm ) = V . . one-to-one mapping. ∗ 4. . . where N = (n + 1)(m + 1) − 1 = n + m + nm. . . Ym coordinates for Pm . Show that the pole set of a rational function on a variety in any multispace is an algebraic subset.3. S is called the Segre embedding of Pn × Pm in Pn+m+nm . Show that this sets up a correspondence between {nonempty affine varieties in An1 +···+m } and {varieties in Pn1 × · · · × Am that intersect Un1 +1 × · · · × Am }. k = 0. In fact. . . Y0 . . .27. j . For simplicity of notation. MULTIPROJECTIVE SPACE 51 there is no restriction on those corresponding to Am ).4. . Define S : Pn × Pm → PN by the formula: S([x 0 : . multiprojective. . . . (c) Let V = V ({Ti j Tkl −Ti l Tk j | i . . T10 . Problems ∗ 4. .m+1 . then S −1 (W ) is an algebraic subset of Pn × Pm . X n be coordinates for n P . j : An+m → Ui ×U j ⊂ Pn × Pm . . : y m ]) = [x 0 y 0 : x 0 y 1 : . (d) Show that V is a variety. . T01 . Using ϕn+1. . . [y 0 : . : x n y m ]. Show that this correspondence preserves function fields and local rings. and affine varieties are special cases of varieties in Pn1 × · · · × Pnr × Am . . . . define the “biprojective closure” of an algebraic set in An+m . .

52 CHAPTER 4. PROJECTIVE VARIETIES .

We let ordF denote the corresponding order function on k(F ). A projective plane curve is an equivalence class of forms. but if L were another choice. . This F ∗ depends on L. we can always find a line L that doesn’t pass through any of the points (Problem 4. 1). 3 and 4 are called lines.3). Y . P ∈ Ui (i = 1. . Y . etc. If we are considering a finite set of points P 1 . cubic. m P (F ) = 1).2). ordF (G) P P P is the order at P of G/H . and F is irreducible. 1) is the corresponding affine curve. If P is a simple point on F (i. The degree of a curve is the degree of a defining form. Y . and invariant under projective change of coordinates (Theorem 2 of §3. and G ∗ is the residue of G ∗ in O P (F ). 2 or 3). If G is a form in P k[X . P n ∈ P2 . Note also that we may always find a projective change of coordinates so that the line L becomes the line Z at infinity: then. where F ∗ = F (X . . The results of Chapter 3 assure us that the multiplicity of a point on an affine curve depends only on the local ring of the curve at that point. we want to allow multiple components: We say that two nonconstant forms F . we can dehomogenize F with respect to X i . G ∈ k[X . and we write O P (F ) instead of O P (V (F )) for an irreducible F . The multiplicity is independent of the choice of Ui . then O P (F ) is canonically isomorphic to O (x. So if F is a projective plane curve. to be m P (F ∗ ). Z ].1 Definitions A projective plane curve is a hypersurface in P2 . where H is any form of the same degree as G with H (P ) = 0. then O P (F ) is a DVR.. The notations and conventions regarding affine curves carry over to projective curves (see §3. 53 . as with affine curves. and G ∗ ∈ O P (P2 ) is determined as in the preceding paragraph. m P (F ). Y . and quartics respectively. and define the multiplicity of F at P . Note that when P = [x : y : 1]. 2. this F ∗ is the same as the old F ∗ = F (X . Curves of degree 1.25).y) (F ∗ ).e. we let F ∗ = F /L d ∈ k(P2 ). Equivalently. . under the natural identification of k(A2 ) with k(P2 ) (§4. conics. The following notation will be useful. then F /(L )d = (L/L )d F ∗ and L/L is a unit in each O P i (P2 ).Chapter 5 Projective Plane Curves 5. Z ] are equivalent if there is a nonzero λ ∈ k such that G = λF . we define ordF (G) to be ordF (G ∗ ). except that. If F is a curve of degree d .1): thus we speak of simple and multiple components.

This is independent of the way F ∗ and G ∗ are formed. ∗ 5. F ∩G) to be dimk (O P (P2 )/(F ∗ . F a curve of degree n. Show that F = aY Z − bX 2 − c X Z − d Z 2 .5. and the intersection numbers at these points: (a) Y 2 Z − X (X − 2Z )(X + Z ) and Y 2 + X 2 − 2X Z . X n + Y n + Z n . equation F X (P )X + F Y (P )Y + F Z (P )Z = 0.19). and the multiplicities and tangents at the multiple points. Find all points of intersection of the following pairs of curves. Find a projective change of coordinates T so that F T = Y Z − X 2 − c X Z − d Z 2 . find their multiple points. (b) Show that F X Y Z has only a finite number of multiple points. A should be a form with deg(A) = deg(G) − deg(F ).54 CHAPTER 5. 5. T should be a projective change of coordinates. ∗ 5.2.) (b) Show that. b = 0. (a) Show that F . (d) (X 2 + Y 2 )2 + 3X 2 Y Z − Y 3 Z and (X 2 + Y 2 )3 − 4X 2 Y 2 Z 2 . Z ). λ ∈ k. 5.6. Z )Y n−i .7. Show that the following curves are irreducible.3. up to projective .G ∗ )). and in (7). (a) (b) (c) (d) X Y 4 + Y Z 4 + X Z 4. P = [0 : 1 : 0] a simple point on F . n > 0.4. X 2Y 3 + X 2 Z 3 + Y 2 Z 3. Everything we will say about curves will be the same for two projectively equivalent curves. ∗ Let P be a simple point on F . F a form of dei i gree i . a. Let F be a projective plane curve. Show that two plane curves with no common components intersect in a finite number of points. Find T so that (F T )T = Y Z − X 2 .9. A point P in F is an ordinary multiple point of F if F has m P (F ) distinct tangents at P . F ∩ L) > m P (F ) (see Problem 3. For any F .1. (a) Let F be an irreducible conic. Show that the tangent line to F at P has the 5. P X P ∗ 5. P ∈ F . show that m (F ) ≥ m (F ) − 1. We can define a line L to be tangent to a curve F at P if I (P. Let F be an irreducible curve. Y 2 Z − X (X − Z )(X − λZ ). G be projective plane curves. Y + c X + d Z . and the factors of F m determine the tangents to F at P . ∗ 5. Show that m P (F ) is the smallest m such that F m = 0. Problems ∗ 5. We define the intersection number I (P.8. PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES Let F . Let P = [0 : 1 : 0]. F = F (X . P ∈ P2 . Show that a point P is a multiple point of F if and only if F (P ) = F X (P ) = F Y (P ) = F Z (P ) = 0. and it satisfies Properties (1)–(8) of Section 3 of Chapter 3: in (3). or F = 0. and Z = 0 the tangent line to F at P . 5. (b) (X 2 + Y 2 )Z + X 3 + Y 3 and X 3 + Y 3 − 2X Y Z . however. F . (c) Y 5 − X (Y 2 − X Z )2 and Y 4 + Y 3 Z − X 2 Z 2 . Two curves F and G are said to be projectively equivalent if there is a projective change of coordinates T such that G = F T . (T = (X .

. and letting F = a i M i . . . .) ∗ 5. where L is a line through two multiple points. Any irreducible conic is nonsingular. P simple points on C . Show that F X (P ) = 0. but Z is not tangent to F at P . . M N be a fixed ordering of the set of monomials in X . Show that P I (P.5. . Examples. L a line not contained in F .12. . . (iii) to make d = e = 0 (Z to Z + d X + eY ).) ∗ 5.14. F ∩ L) = n. (2) d = 2. . LINEAR SYSTEMS OF CURVES 55 equivalence. Show that there is a z ∈ k(C ) with ordP i (z) = m i for i = 1. Let F be an irreducible curve in P2 . “the curves of degree d form a projective space of dimension d (d +3)/2”. It has no other singularities. λa N ) determine the same curve. (b) Show that if F is a curve of degree n. The conic a X 2 +bX Y +c X Z +d Y 2 +eY Z + f Z 2 corresponds the point [a : b : c : d : e : f ] ∈ P5 . then I (P. Prove that an irreducible cubic is either nonsingular or has at most one double point (a node or a cusp). . (Hint: Take lines L i as in Problem 5.18). . Z of degree d .16. . F ∩ Z ) = 1. (Hint: If not. If P 1 is a simple point on F . . 5. . P n .12. there is only one irreducible cubic with a node: X Y Z = X 3 + Y 3 . a N ) and (λa 1 . Up to projective equivalence. Giving a curve F of degree d is the same thing as choosing a 1 . (ii) to make c = 0 (change X to X − 3 Y ). The lines in P2 form a P2 (see Problem 4. we may take these lines transversal to F at P 1 . . and say e. The conics form a P5 . F ∩ X ) = n.2 Linear Systems of Curves We often wish to study all curves of a given degree d ≥ 1.14 for P i . Up to projective equivalence. . 5. Find projective changes c of coordinates (i) to make a = b = 1. . P ∈ P2 . .35). and a line L 0 not through any P j . (a) Assume P = [0 : 1 : 0] ∈ F . Let M 1 . 5. each curve F of degree d corresponds to a unique point in PN −1 = Pd (d +3)/2 and each point of Pd (d +3)/2 represents a unique curve. .) 5. . In other words. . . a N ∈ k. there is only one irreducible cubic with a cusp: Y 2 Z = X 3 .g. ∗ 5.2. not all zero. . . and m let z = L i i L 0 − mi . Let F be an irreducible cubic. . where N is 1 2 (d + 1)(d + 2) (Problem 2. (1) d = 1.15. . . Each line a X +bY +c Z corresponds to the point [a : b : c] ∈ P2 . 1 n m 1 . Y = 0 the tangent line to F at P . . Let P . . We often identify F with its corresponding point in Pd (d +3)/2 .13.10 and 5. . there is only one irreducible conic: Y Z = X 2 . and P = [1 : 0 : 0]. . or use Problems 5. Y . P . . (Hint: Use Problem 5. P = [0 : 0 : 1] a cusp on F . . m n integers. n. Show that F = aY 2 Z −bX 3 −c X 2 Y −d X Y 2 −eY 3 . . .11. use Euler’s Theorem to show that F Y (P ) = 0. . except that (a 1 . .10. Show that there are an infinite number of lines passing 1 n through P 1 . F a curve of degree n. but not through P 2 . Suppose I (P.11. 5. Let C be an irreducible projective plane curve. It has no other singularities.

. PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES (3) The cubics form a P9 . . the curves that satisfy the conditions form a subset of Pd (d +3)/2 . P 1 . F i a form of degree i . . . . We may assume that m > 1. 2 r i (r i +1) (2) If d ≥ ( r i ) − 1. . and a line L 0 not passing through any P i . . i. so it is enough to show that Vi = Vi +1 . . 2 Proof. Theorem 1. . We claim that the curves F +1) of degree d such that m P (F ) ≥ r form a linear subvariety of dimension d (d2+3) − r (r2 . Y )Z d −i . i = 0. Let V0 = V (d . etc. i Then V0 ⊃ V1 ⊃ · · · ⊃ Vr = V (d . (1) Let P ∈ P2 be a fixed point. The proof that F → F T is −1 linear is similar. . (2) If T : P2 → P2 is a projective change of coordinates. . . . r 1 P 1 . By induction it is enough to show that Vn = Vn−1 . r n P n ) = d (d2+3) − . those [a 1 : . If this subset is a linear subvariety (Problem 4. . We prove (2) by induction on m = ( r i ) − 1. since otherwise it is trivial. (1) V (d . Write F = F i (X . Let Vi = {F ∈ V0 | a j = 0 for j < i }. it is called a linear system of plane curves. then the map F → F T from {curves of degree d } to {curves of degree d } is a projective change of coordinates on Pd (d +3)/2 . the coefficients of all monomials X i Y j Z k with i + j < r are zero (Problem 5. .56 CHAPTER 5. And +1) there are 1 + 2 + · · · + r = r (r2 such coefficients. : a N ] satisfying this equation form a hyperplane. P n be distinct points in P2 . j = i (Problem 5. . Since the intersection of n hyperplanes of Pn is not empty (Problem 4.14). r n nonnegative integers. the curves of degree d that contain them form a linear subvariety of Pd (d +3)/2 . We set V (d . . −1 For F ∈ V0 let F ∗ = r=0 a i X i Y r −1−i + higher terms. r n P n ). . z) are zero. It follows that for any set of points. r 1 . . .e. 1 ≤ i ≤ n}. and P = P 1 = [0 : 0 : 1]. then the curve corresponding to (a 1 . the quartics a P14 . . .12). . r n P n ) = {curves F of degree d | m P i (F ) ≥ r i . Then F = L 1 · · · L n−1 L d −n+1 ∈ 0 Vn−1 . r − 1. . . . d > 1.. F ∈ Vn .11). Then m P (F ) ≥ r if and only if F 0 = F 1 = · · · = F r −1 = 0. P i ). r 1 P 1 . y. it is invertible since F → F T is its inverse. The set of curves of degree d that contain P forms a hyperplane in Pd (d +3)/2 . . r 2 P 2 . a N ) ∈ Pd (d +3)/2 passes through P if and only if a i M i (x. Suppose now we fix a point P and an integer r ≤ d +1. . . By (2) of the Lemma. y.5). z) = 0. . . (1) follows from the above discussion. . r n P n ) is a linear subvariety of Pd (d +3)/2 of dimenr i (r i +1) d (d +3) sion ≥ 2 − . Let P 1 . Proof. r n P n ). r 1 P 1 . If we put conditions on the set of all curves of degree d . (r − 1)P. Since not all M i (x. . 1. . r 1 P 1 . Lemma. . . . Case 1: Each r i = 1: Let Vi = V (d . . . we may assume P = [0 : 0 : 1]. . . Case 2: Some r i > 1: Say r = r 1 > 1. then dimV (d . there is a curve of degree d passing through any given d (d + 3)/2 points. . . If P = [x : y : z]. Choose lines L i passing through P i but not through P j . r 2 P 2 .

BÉZOUT’S THEOREM 57 Let W0 = V (d − 1. Let Γ∗ = k[X . [0 : 2 : 1]. .18. Assume F and G have no common component. Show that there are an infinite number of cubics passing through these points. and this completes the proof. [1 : 1 : 1]. . [1 : 1 : 1]. let ϕ : R × R → R be defined by ϕ(A. R d ) be the vector space of forms of degree d in Γ (resp. Step 1: dim Γd = mn for all d ≥ m + n: Let π : R → Γ be the natural map. P 2 . W0 W1 ··· Wr −1 = V (d − 1. Then I (P. ψ ϕ π . P 4 ∈ P2 . Y . Let F and G be projective plane curves of degree m and n respectively. (r − 1)P. . R).3 Bézout’s Theorem The projective plane was constructed so that any two distinct lines would intersect at one point. −F C ). By induction. . F ∩G) = P I (P. . F ∩G) = mn P Proof. 5. R = k[X . r n P n ). Y ]/(F ∗ . Y F i ∈ Vi +1 . Show that dim(V ) = 2 if P 1 . Problems 5. (r − 2)P. If F i ∈ Wi . P 4 lie on a line. [0 : 1 : 1]. For F ∈ W0 . P 3 . Y . and let Γd (resp. F ∗ ∩G ∗ ) = dimk k[X . [2 : 1 : 1]. and X F r −2 ∈ Vr −1 . that none of the points in F ∩ G is on the line at infinity Z = 0. by a projective change of coordinates if necessary. Y ]/(F ∗ .G). and dim(V ) = 1 otherwise. . [1 : 0 : 1].G ∗ ).5. r 2 P 2 . . . it is not difficult to check the exactness of the following sequence: 0 −→ R −→ R × R −→ R −→ Γ −→ 0. Using the fact that F and G have no common factors.19.3. . .17. . Since F ∩ G is finite (Problem 5. Γ = k[X . Z ]. F i ∈ Wi +1 . Show that there is only one conic passing through the five points [0 : 0 : 1]. and [1 : 2 : 3]. [1 : 2 : 1]. 5. we may assume.7). The theorem will be proved if we can show that dim Γ∗ = dim Γd and dim Γd = mn for some large d . Set Wi = {F ∈ W0 | a j = 0 for j < i }. Let P 1 . . B ) = AF + BG. [2 : 0 : 1]. by Property (9) for intersection numbers. [1 : 0 : 0]. Z ]/(F. X F r −2 ∈ Vr . then Y F i ∈ Vi . and let ψ : R → R × R be defined by ψ(C ) = (GC . 5. . F ∗ = a i X i Y r −2−i + · · · . . r − 1. Consider the nine points [0 : 0 : 1]. . . r n P n ). r 2 P 2 . Then P I (P. Let V be the linear system of conics passing through these points. and [2 : 2 : 1] ∈ P2 (Sketch). [0 : 1 : 0].G ∗ ). Thus Vi = Vi +1 for i = 0. show that it is nonsingular. The famous theorem of Bézout tells us that much more is true: BÉZOUT’S THEOREM.

a mn form a basis for Γ∗ : First notice that the map α of Step 2 restricts to an isomorphism from Γd onto Γd +1 . B . Z ]. Corollary 3. and since Z H = A 1 F + B 1G. Since dim R d = (d +1)(d +2) . m = deg(F ). The a i generate Γ∗ : if h = H ∈ Γ∗ . as claimed. Check your answers of Problem 5. then m P (F )m P (G) ≤ deg(F ) · deg(G).3 with Bézout’s Theorem. Step 3: Let d ≥ m + n. so Z N H ∗ = mn λi Z r A i + B F + CG for some λi ∈ k. Z r A mn form a basis for Γd +r for all r ≥ 0. . . and choose A 1 . .3) with Bézout’s Theorem. If F and G meet in mn distinct points. then λi A i ∗ = B F ∗ + CG ∗ . Y ]. as desired. If two curves of degrees m and n have more than mn points in common. some Z N H ∗ is a form of degree d + r . since a one-to-one linear map of vector spaces of the same dimension is an isomorphism. . and let a i be the residue of A i ∗ in Γ∗ . H ∈ k[X . t . Let A i ∗ = A i (X . then H = A F + B G for some A . Then i =1 H = (Z N H ∗ )∗ = λi A i ∗ + B ∗ F ∗ +C ∗G ∗ . The a i are independent: For if λi a i = 0. P ψ ϕ π Corollary 2. Step 2: The map α : Γ → Γ defined by α(H ) = Z H (where the bar denotes the residue modulo (F. B 1 = B −C F . we deduce Corollary 1.C ∈ k[X . Y ]. Since (A 1 )0 = (B 1 )0 = 0. Therefore (by Proposition 5 of §2. It follows that the residues of Z r A 1 . B . 0) by J 0 . . . .6) Z r λi A i = Z s B ∗ F + Z t C ∗G for some r. . so each λi = 0. B. Y ].G. If Z H = AF + BG.G)) is one-to-one: We must show that if Z H = AF + BG. denote (temporarily) J (X . Y . . Z ]. we get the following exact sequences: 0 −→ R d −m−n −→ R d −m × R d −n −→ R d −→ Γd −→ 0. Combining Property (5) of the intersection number (§3. then theses points are all simple points on F and on G. A mn ∈ R d whose residues in Γd form a basis for Γd .10 (with a calculation) 2 that dim Γd = mn if d ≥ m + n. Since F. if d ≥ m + n. . 1) ∈ k[X . B 1 = Z B for some A .20. If F and G have no common component. . and the Z r A i form a basis. F 0 and G 0 are relatively prime forms in k[X . then they have a common component. and Z have no common zeros. Then a 1 . Y . Problems 5. so B 0 = F 0C and A 0 = −G 0C for some C ∈ k[X . it follows from Proposition 7 of §2. we have A 1 = Z A . But then λi Z r A i = 0 in Γd +r . . PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES If we restrict these maps to the forms of various degrees. Y . .58 CHAPTER 5. Y . Let A 1 = A +CG. s. For any J ∈ k[X . then A 0 F 0 = −B 0G 0 . it follows that H = A F + B G. n = deg(G). This finishes the proof. Y ]. so h = λi a i .

2 2 An examination of the cases n = 2. (2) I (P. Then calculate the determinant. 1) and h(X . . Outline of proof. 5. 5. for F irreducible. and assume F contains no lines. This H is called the Hessian of F . (1) A nonsingular curve of degree > 2 always has a flex.. Let F i = F X i and F i j = F X i X j . In particular. (char(k) = 0) (1) P ∈ H ∩ F if and only if P is either a flex or a multiple point of F . (Use Euler’s Theorem. Y ) = H (X . f ∩g ) where g = f y f xx + f x f y y −2 f x f y f x y . 3 however.9. and m P denotes the multiplicity of F at P . 5. Y = 0 is the tangent line to F at P .22. Theorem. forms of degree n − 1 and n − 2 respectively.23. (See Problems 5. Y .13). Then the Hessian of F T = (det(T ))2 (H T ). (Hint: Perform row and column operations on the matrix for h.4. (e) Suppose P is a simple point.6. F has 1 at most 2 n(n − 1) multiple points. and conclude that m P (F )(m P (F ) − 1) ≤ n(n − 1).4 Multiple Points In Problem 5. j )th place being F i j . Y 2 Z = X 2 (X + Z ). H ∩ F ) = 1 if and only if P is an ordinary flex.21. MULTIPLE POINTS 59 ∗ 5. Y ) = F (X . a form of degree 3(n − 2). 1. (a) Let T be a projective change of coordinates. Z . Do the same with the columns. 1). λ = 0. Is this true for affine curves? ∗ 5.) 5. then I (P. Assume F = 0.24. indicates that this is not the best possible result (Problems 5. then mP (mP −1) ≤ n(n−1) . Corollary.12): Let F be a projective plane curve of degree n.) 2 2 (c) I (P.8. Show that F = Z Y 2 + bY Z 2 + cY X Z + terms in X .22 and 6. Y .47 show that H = 0. The following theorem shows the relationship between flexes and the Hessian. then apply part (b). all ordinary. So we can assume P = [0 : 0 : 1]. Apply Corollary 1 X to F and F X . and P is an ordinary flex if and only if a = 0 and d = 0. Z = 0 the tangent line to F at [0 : 1 : 0].) 5. Let F be an irreducible curve of degree n. 5. Then P is a flex if and only if a = 0.11. (b) (n − 1)F j = i X i F i j . .10. A short calculation shows that g = 2a + 6d x + (8ac − 2b 2 + 2e)y+ higher terms.5. λ ∈ k. c Find a projective change of coordinates (using Y → Y − b Z − 2 X ) to get F to the form 2 2 Z Y = cubic in X . Form a 3 × 3 matrix with the entry in the (i . Problems 5. (char(k) = 0) (a) Let [0 : 1 : 0] be a flex on an irreducible cubic F . which concludes the proof. In fact: . Show that every nonsingular projective plane curve is irreducible.22 of the previous section we saw one easy application of Bézout’s Theorem: If F is an irreducible curve of degree n. (See Problems 5. A problem about flexes (see Problem 3. Let H be the determinant of this matrix. or Y 2 Z = X (X − Z )(X − λZ ). Z . write f (X . Add x times the first row plus y times the second row to the third row. (b) Show that any irreducible cubic is projectively equivalent to one of the following: Y 2 Z = X 3 . f ∩ g ) > 1. so f = y + ax 2 + bx y + c y 2 + d x 3 + ex 2 y + . f ∩h) = I (P. (2) A nonsingular cubic has nine flexes.) (d) If P is a multiple point on F .

Z ). then ≤ (n−1)(n−2) . provided it has no multiple components.5 Max Noether’s Fundamental Theorem A zero-cycle on P2 is a formal sum P ∈P2 n P P . Problems 5.25. Then Theorem 1 of §5. L intersects F in n − r distinct points other than P . It is enough to show that for all but a finite number of λ. We outline a proof: (a) We may assume P = [0 : 1 : 0]. Then F = A r (X . (b) Let G λ (t ) = F (λ. Letting n = 4 we see that an irreducible quartic has at most three double points or one triple point.5).26 remains true if F is reducible. consider separately the points on one F i or on both.2 (for d = n − 1) guarantees the existence of a curve G of degree n − 1 such that m P (G) ≥ m P − 1 for all P . . The set of all zero-cycles on P2 form an abelian . we need only consider the L λ . Let F be a projective plane curve of degree n with no multiple components. Note that the curve X n + Y n−1 Z has the point [0 : 0 : 1] of multiplicity n − 1. so the result cannot be strengthened.) ∗ 5. 5.24. For small n this gives us some results we have seen in the problems: lines and irreducible conics are nonsingular. and mQ i (G) ≥ 1.26. . 5.60 CHAPTER 5. If L λ = {[λ : t : 1] | t ∈ k} ∪ {P }.28. . The theorem follows by substituting the value for r into this inequality. P = [0 : 1 : 0]. (char(k) = 0) Let F be an irreducible curve of degree n in P2 . Now apply Corollary 1 of Bézout’s Theorem to F and G (since F is irreducible. Find L ∩ F for all lines L passing through P . etc. there are no common components): n(n − 1) ≥ m P (m P − 1) + r . G λ has n − r distinct points. Suppose P ∈ P2 . (char(k) = p > 0) F = X p+1 − Y p Z . Since r := (n−1)(n−1+3) − (mP −1)(mP ) ≥ (n−1)n − (mP −1)mP ≥ 0. . and an irreducible cubic can have at most one double point. Show that every line that is tangent to F at a simple point passes through P ! 5. Z )Y n−r +· · ·+ A n (X . (See Problems 4. Show that (n − 1)(n − 2) n(n − 1) m P (m P − 1) ≤ +c −1 ≤ 2 2 2 (Hint: Let F = F 1 F 2 . 1) = 0. Then for all but a finite number of lines L through P . 5. A r = 0.Q r ∈ F . and F ∩ F Y ∩ L λ = {P } (see Problem 1. If F is an irreducible curve of degree n. and all but a finite number of n P ’s are zero. Show that Problem 5. (c) Show that G λ has n − r distinct roots if A r (λ. 1). 2 Proof.53). t . and c simple components. we may choose 2 2 2 2 simple points Q 1 . PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES m P (m P −1) 2 Theorem 2. with m P (F ) = r ≥ 0.27. where n P ’s are integers.

Noether’s conditions say that the residue of H∗ in O P (P2 )/(F ∗ . Let F . MAX NOETHER’S FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM 61 group — in fact.e. We say that n P P is bigger than m P P . For then H •F = BG •F = B •F +G •F . t = deg(H ) − deg(G). Z ) = . and H •F ≥ G •F . Several properties of intersection numbers translate nicely into properties of the intersection cycle.5. and H are curves. When is there a curve B so that B •F = H •F − G •F ? Note that necessarily deg(B ) = deg(H ) − deg(G). b ∈ k[X . B such that H = AF + BG. if H∗ ∈ (F ∗ .. H∗ = aF ∗ + bG ∗ .5. s = deg(H ) − deg(F ). Assume F and G have no common components. it suffices to find forms A. i. If A = A i . and F •(G + AF ) = F •G if A is a form and deg(A) = deg(G) − deg(F ). G curves with no common component through P . a. Z ]/(F. Bézout’s Theorem says that F •G is a positive zero-cycle of degree mn. B . Section 11. H another curve.G ∗ ) ⊂ O P (P2 ).e. G ∗ = G(X . b ∈ O P (P2 ) such that H∗ = aF ∗ + bG ∗ (see §5. We define the intersection cycle F •G by F •G = P ∈P2 I (P. Y ]. Let F . It follows from Proposition 6 of §2. The zero cycle is positive if each n P ≥ 0. Y ]/(F ∗ . Let F. F . and P ∈ H . n respectively. F •G H = F •G + F • H . as in the proof of Bézout’s Theorem. P ∈ F ∩ G. B forms of degree deg(H ) − deg(F ). G. the usefulness of this theorem depends on finding criteria that assure that Noether’s conditions hold at P : Proposition 1. deg(H ) − deg(G) respectively) if and only if Noether’s conditions are satisfied at every P ∈ F ∩G. we assume. A. that V (F. so H = A F + B G for some A . We may take F ∗ = F (X . and H ). if each n P ≥ m P . To find such a B .G) is one-to-one. Then Z r H = AF + BG for some r. B i forms of degree i . 1). 1).. G. G. i. . Y . Of course. Let P ∈ P2 . We say that Noether’s Conditions are satisfied at P (with respect to F . A i . and write n P P ≥ m P P . To prove the converse. Y . it is the free abelian group with basis X = P2 . Y . then H∗ = A ∗ F ∗ + B ∗G ∗ at any P . i. G be projective plane curves of degrees m. if there are a. Proof. For example: F •G = G •F .10).G. as defined in Chapter 2.G. If H = AF + BG.9 that the residue of H∗ in k[X . Then Noether’s conditions are satisfied at P if any of the following are true: (1) F and G meet transversally at P . H∗ = H (X . Y . B = B i . MAX NOETHER’S FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM. H intersects F in a bigger cycle than G does. The degree of a zero cycle n P P is defined to be n P . Max Noether’s Theorem is concerned with the following situation: Suppose F . H be projective plane curves. H be plane curves..G ∗ ) is zero. Then there is an equation H = AF + BG (with A.e.1 for notation).G ∗ ) is zero for each P ∈ F ∩ G. 1). F ∩G)P. B (Proposition 7 of §2. But in the proof of Step 2 of Bézout’s Theorem we saw that multiplication by Z on k[X . then H = A s F + B t G. with no common components. Noether’s Theorem relates the local and global conditions.

G ∗ ) is zero. and P . Fix F . and apply Proposition 2. 5. If either (1) F and G meet in deg(F ) deg(G) distinct points. Assume P 1 . . and H passes through these points.L j i . k} = {1. For each i .G ∗ ) ⊂ O P (P2 ) if t ≥ m P (F ) + m P (G) − 1. and H •F ≥ G •F . Since they will not be needed in later Chapters. t ≥ m + n − 1. Corollary 2 (Pappus). Suppose z ∈ k(F ) is defined at every P ∈ F . as desired. C the three opposite sides. k with {i . Let C be three sides. P 6 are simple points on C . Let F be an irreducible projective plane curve. P 1 . and m P (H∗ ) ≥ m P (F ∗ ) + m P (G ∗ ) − 1. we showed precisely that I t ⊂ (F ∗ . . and use Noether’s Theorem). C •C = 9=1 P i . In the notation of the lemma used to prove Property (5) of the intersection number (§3.62 CHAPTER 5.44). Problems 5. L 2 be two lines. R 2 . P 8 . and P 9 lie on a straight line. 5. so H ∗ ∈ (G ∗ ) ⊂ P P O P (F ). In §7. or (2) All the points of F ∩G are simple points of F .29. . And in that lemma. Let F = C .3). H ∩ F ) ≥ I (P. Corollary 1 (Pascal). P 2 .G ∩ F ). j . the residue of H∗ in = O P (P2 )/(F ∗ . H ∩ F ) ≥ I (P. Let L 1 . Q 3 ∈ L 2 (none of these points in L 1 ∩ L 2 ). Proof. Then P 7 . Proposition 2. . Show that z ∈ k. P 3 ∈ L 1 . (1) is a special case both of (2) and of (3) (and is easy by itself ). then the opposite sides meet in collinear points. and m P (H ) ≥ m P (F ) + m P (G) − 1. If a hexagon is inscribed in an irreducible conic.30. the proofs will be brief. 2. H = C in (2) of the Corollary to Proposition 1.5 we will find a criterion that works at all ordinary multiple points of F . j . suppose Q is a conic. let R k = L i j . G = Q. Then R 1 . Proof. Corollary. (3) F and G have distinct tangents at P . Proof. 3}. Q the conic. Q 1 . and Q •C = i 6 i =1 P i . Q 2 . Let C . and R 3 are collinear. (3): We may assume P = [0 : 0 : 1]. C be cubics. G. this says that H∗ ∈ I t . (2): I (P. then there is a curve B such that B •F = H •F −G •F . .G ∩ F ) implies that ordF (H ) ≥ ordF (G). PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES (2) P is a simple point on F . Show that in cases (1) and (2) — but not (3) — of Proposition 1 the conditions on H are equivalent to Noether’s conditions.6 Applications of Noether’s Theorem We indicate in this section a few of the many interesting consequences of Noether’s Theorem.G ∗ ) (Problem 2. and I (P. Since O P (F )/(G ∗ ) ∼ O P (P2 )/(F ∗ . (Hint: Write z = H /G. Let L i j be the line between P i and Q j .

. Define ϕ : C × C → C by setting ϕ(P. Then Q = P 9 . The two lines form a conic. But then L = L and so P 9 = Q.Q) = R. ϕ(P. Let C be a nonsingular cubic. APPLICATIONS OF NOETHER’S THEOREM Proof. and suppose C •C = 8 i =1 P i +Q. Proposition 4. For any two points P .Q. for some R ∈ C . Let C be an irreducible cubic.6. M 1 •C = O + S + S. Addition on a cubic. Q T =T P U R S U S O Proof. there is a unique line L such that L •C = P + Q + R. C . Proof. Then LC •C = C •C + Q + R + S. with the operation ⊕. Suppose C •C = 9=1 P i .5. forms an abelian group. Only the associativity is difficult: Suppose P. so there is a line L such that L •C = Q + R + S. and the proof is the same as in Corollary 1. C . Let L 1 •C = P + Q + S . 63 Pascal’s Theorem Pappus’ Theorem Proposition 3. but there is no identity. This ϕ is like an addition on C . (If P = Q. Q ∈ C . i where the P i are simple (not necessarily distinct) points on C . Let L be a line through P 9 that doesn’t pass through Q.Q)). L •C = P 9 +R +S. Then define an addition ⊕ on C as follows: P ⊕Q = ϕ(O. with the point O being the identity. L 2 •C = S + R + T . To remedy this. R ∈ C . choose a point O on C . L is the tangent to C at P ). C cubics.

L a line such that L •C = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 . PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES Let M 2 •C = Q + R +U .Q 3 lie on a line. Suppose another O gives rise to an addition ⊕ . L 3 •C = O +U +U . let λ = (3x 1 + 2ax 1 + b)/(2y 1 ). A. it suffices to show that T = T . if P 1 = P 2 and y 1 = 0. Show that α is a group isomorphism. ⊕) → (C . (L 2 is a conic!) 5. This gives an explicit method for calculating in the group. and suppose P 1 ⊕ P 2 = P 3 . Show that the same definition as in the nonsingular case makes C ◦ into an abelian group.36. So the structure of the group is independent of the choice of O. Problems 5. O = [0 : 1 : 0]. Suppose the intersections of the opposite sides of a hexagon lie on a straight line. we get many new theorems: (a) State and sketch what happens if P 1 = P 2 . If x 1 = x 2 . Let C be an irreducible cubic. P i distinct.38. and y 3 = −λx 3 − µ. M 3 •C = P +U + T . and C = [2 : −4 : 1].37.O. or any cubic without multiple components. Let 2 µ = y i − λx i . Show that Q 1 . and P ⊕ (Q ⊕ R) = ϕ(O. 5. and define α : (C . (a) Show that the flexes form a subgroup of C . this subgroup is isomorphic to Z/(3) × Z/(3). 5. λ = 0.e. Let L i be the tangent line to C at P i : L i •C = 2P i +Q i for some Q i . using only a straight-edge. (c) From (b) deduce a rule for constructing the tangent to a given conic at a given point. 1..C } form a subgroup of C that is cyclic of order 4. 5.39. Show that x 3 = λ − a − x 1 − x 2 . O = [0 : 1 : 0]. Let C = L 1 L 2 L 3 . (i.34. P 5 = P 6 .Q 2 . In Proposition 4. B = [2 : 4 : 1]. If in Pascal’s Theorem we let some adjacent vertices coincide (the side being a tangent). ⊕ ) by α(P ) = ϕ(Q. and apply Proposition 3. (b) Show that the flexes are exactly the elements of order three in the group.O . i = 1. Let C be a nonsingular cubic given by the equation Y 2 Z = X 3 +a X 2 Z +bX Z 2 + c Z 3 . (d) Let C = Y 2 Z − X (X − Z )(X − λZ ).) 5. (a) Let C = Y 2 Z − X 3 − 4X Z 2 . Show that {0. . 2. 3. How many lines through P are tangent to C at some point Q = P ? (The answer depends on whether P is a flex. (e) Show that the points of order two on a nonsingular cubic form a group isomorphic to Z/(2) × Z/(2).33. T ). B. O a simple point on C giving rise to the addition ⊕ on the set C ◦ of simple points. 5. O = [0 : 1 : 0]. as an abelian group. Find the points of order two. (f) Let C be a nonsingular cubic.64 CHAPTER 5. Let Q = ϕ(O. Let P i = [x i : y i : 1]. P ∈ C .O ). 5. (b) Let P 1 = P 2 . suppose O is a flex on C . 2. O ∈ C ◦ . C ◦ the set of simple points of C . Let C be any irreducible cubic. A = [0 : 0 : 1]. (c) Show that a point P is of order two in the group if and only if the tangent to C at P passes through O. Since (P ⊕Q) ⊕ R = ϕ(O.32. Let C be an irreducible cubic. C = M 1 M 2 M 3 . Show that the vertices lie on a conic. 2 let λ = (y 1 − y 2 )/(x 1 − x 2 ).31. P ). Show that a line through two flexes on a cubic passes through a third flex. exactly those elements P such that P ⊕ P ⊕ P = O).35. T ). P 3 = P 4 . the other four distinct. 5. i = 1.

APPLICATIONS OF NOETHER’S THEOREM 65 (b) Let C = Y 2 Z − X 3 − 43X Z 2 − 166Z 3 . A curve F of degree d is said to be emphrational over k 0 if the corresponding point in Pd (d +3)/2 is rational over k 0 . . V ⊂ An (k). and apply induction to S.41. (b) If O ∈ C (k 0 ). . Let O = [0 : 1 : 0]. . a n+1 ) for P . . show that ϕ(P. i =1 3m i =1 P i . . .) 5. .6. . . O a flex on C . Show that P is an element of order 7 in C . show that C (k 0 ) forms a subgroup of C . F. Show that P 1 ⊕· · ·⊕P 3m = O if and only if there is a curve F of degree m such that F •C = 3m P i . P 3m . P 5 . 5. Let C be a nonsingular cubic. . a n ) ∈ V is rational over k 0 . (a) If P . if each a i ∈ k 0 . For which points P on a nonsingular cubic C does there exist a nonsingular conic that intersects C only at P ? . Q ∈ C (k 0 ). . a point P = (a 1 . . 5.40. F curves of degree m such that F •C = F •C = 3m−1 P i +Q.42. If V ⊂ Pn (k) is projective.43. P = [3 : 8 : 1]. each a i ∈ k 0 .Q) is in C (k 0 ). L •C = Q +R +S. Suppose a nonsingular cubic C is rational over k 0 . this has important applications to number theory. (If k 0 = Q. use Noether’s Theorem. a point P ∈ V is rational over k 0 if for some homogeneous coordinates (a 1 . . L •C = P 3 +P 4 +R. . Let k 0 be a subfield of k. . Let L •C = P 1 +P 2 +Q. Let C (k 0 ) be the set of points of C that are rational over k 0 . i =1 (Hint: Use induction on m. Let P 1 . P 3m ∈ C . k = C.) 5. . Show that P 3m = Q. Let C be a nonsingular cubic. If V is an affine variety.5.

PROJECTIVE PLANE CURVES .66 CHAPTER 5.

(2) The union of any family of open subsets of X is open. 67 . We want to be able to discard an algebraic subset from an affine or projective variety. If Y ⊂ X . A set C in X is closed if X C is open. We first recall some notions from topology.) If Y is a subset of a topological space X . any open set of X that contains Y will be called a neighborhood of Y . (3) The intersection of any finite number of open sets is open. (Sometimes any set containing an open set containing Y is called a neighborhood of Y .1 The Zariski Topology One of the purposes of considering a topology on a set is to be able to restrict attention to a “neighborhood” of a point in the set. there should be a neighborhood of P where z is a function — we must throw away the pole set of z. satisfying: (1) X and the empty set are open. the abstract language required demands some fortitude from the reader. Often this means simply that we throw away a set (not containing the point) on which something we don’t like happens.Chapter 6 Varieties. but we will consider only open neighborhoods. For example. and Rational Maps This chapter begins the study of intrinsic properties of a variety — properties that do not depend on its embedding in affine or projective spaces (or products of these). if z is a rational function on a variety V . and still think of what is left as some kind of variety. A topology on a set X is a collection of subsets of X . 6. A topological space is a set X together with a topology on X . the induced topology on Y is defined as follows: a set W ⊂ Y is open in Y if there is an open subset U of X such that W = Y ∩U . Making this transition from extrinsic to intrinsic geometry has not been easy historically. and z is defined at P ∈ V . called the open subsets of X . Morphisms.

(b) Suppose U is a dense subset of V and f (P ) = 0 for all P ∈ U . Let X be a topological space. (a) Show that ϕi is a homeomorphism. and suppose f : X → Y is a mapping such that f (Uα ) ⊂ Vα . the closure of Y in X is the intersection of all closed subsets of X that contain Y . (a)] Show that V ( f ) = {P ∈ V | f (P ) = 0} is a closed subset of V . f is one-to-one and onto X . Show that f is continuous if and only if the restriction of f to each Uα is a continuous mapping from Uα to Vα . A mapping f : X → k = A1 is continuous if and only if f −1 (λ) is closed for any λ ∈ k.68 CHAPTER 6. in addition. .5. . ∗ 6. f −1 (V ) is closed in X . ∗ 6. f : X → An a mapping. ∗ 6.4. Show that the topology induced by Y on Z is the same as that induced by X on Z . if V is a variety in X .6. f −1 (C ) is closed in X . (a) Let X be a topological space. (c) Show that if V ⊂ An is an i affine variety. U ∩ Y = . ϕ : An → U as in Chapter 4. equivalently.2. X a topological space. then the projective closure V ∗ of V is the closure of ϕn+1 (V ) in Pn . X = U . Any subset V of X is given the induced topology. a mapping f : X → X is called continuous if for every open set U of X . Let V be an affine variety. So if P and Q are distinct points of V . . The set Y is said to be dense in X if X is the closure of Y in X . (b) Show that a set W ⊂ Pn is closed if and only if each ϕ−1 (W ) is closed in An . AND RATIONAL MAPS For any subset Y of a topological space X . to k = A1 . n + 1. f −1 (U ) = {x ∈ X | f (x) ∈ U } is an open subset of X . If X = A1 or P1 . U1 ∩U2 = (for otherwise V = (V U1 ) ∪ (V U2 ) would be reducible). a subset of V is closed if and only if it is algebraic. If X and X are topological spaces. the proper closed subsets of X are just the finite subsets. f is said to be homeomorphism. (b) Suppose similarly Y = α∈A Vα . for every nonempty open subset U of X . Let U ⊂ Pn . If X = A2 or P2 . proper closed subsets are finite unions of points and curves. show that f is continuous. That this is a topology follows from the properties of algebraic sets proved in Chapter 1 (see also §4. VARIETIES. 6. Any one-to-one mapping from one irreducible plane curve onto another is a homeomorphism. Then f is continuous if and only if for each hypersurface V = V (F ) of An . And every nonempty open subset of a variety V is dense in V . Then f = 0. Let X = Pn1 × · · · × Pnr × Am . (a) Let V be an affine variety. MORPHISMS. f ∈ Γ(V ). In particular. . and f −1 is continuous. Note that for any two nonempty open sets U1 . i = 1. ∗ 6. Show that a α∈A α α subset W of X is closed if and only if each W ∩Uα is closed (in the induced topology) in Uα . Problems ∗ 6. equivalently.7.3. ∗ 6. Considering f as a mapping from V Pn . U open in X .U2 in a variety V . and V ( f ) = V unless f = 0. Any infinite subset of a plane curve V is dense in V . If. (b) Show that any polynomial map of affine varieties is continuous. there are never disjoint neighborhoods containing them. Give U the topology induced from i i i i .4). Let Z ⊂ Y ⊂ X . The Zariski topology on X is defined as follows: a set U ⊂ X is open if X U is an algebraic subset of X . Vα open in Y . f ∈ Γ(V ). for every closed subset C of X . Give Y the induced topology.1.

so that we may consider Γ(U ) as a ring of functions on U . We say that U is an open subvariety of X . Let F (U .e. As in §2.2 Varieties Let V be a nonempty irreducible algebraic set in Pn1 × · · · × Am . i.26. so this notation is consistent. Then z = 0. then U is also open in V .1 we want to identify Γ(U ) with its image in F (U .. and z(P ) = 0 for all P ∈ U . g ∈ Γ(X ). then Γ(X ) is the coordinate ring of X (Proposition 2 of §2. and z = 0. Replacing U by {P ∈ U | g (P ) = 0}. Let X = A2 {(0. Y ]. k) be the ring of all k-valued functions on U . The map that associates a function to each z ∈ Γ(U ) is a ring homomorphism from Γ(U ) into F (U . and if U ⊂ U . Write z = f /g . 6. then Γ(U ) ⊃ Γ(U ). O X ). Show that Γ(X ) = Γ(A2 ) = k[X . we may assume g (P ) = 0 for all P ∈ U (Problem 6. The ring Γ(U ) is a subring of k(X ). f . U a nonempty open subset of X . and that the mapping from U to k = A1 defined by P → z(P ) is continuous. We define Γ(U . it is easy to verify that Y is irreducible in V and that Y = Y ∩ X . Any open subset X of V will be called a variety. Note first that we may replace U by any nonempty open subset U of U . so U is also a variety. We define k(X ) = k(V ) to be the field of rational functions on X . k) to be one-to-one. we say that Y is irreducible if Y is not the union of two proper closed subsets. so Y is open in Y (see Problem 6. 0)}. since Γ(U ) ⊂ Γ(U ). Thus we may assume U is open in an affine variety X ⊂ AN . Such a Y is called a closed subvariety of X . we may replace X by its closure. the local ring of X at P . Problems 6. Let X be a variety. so assume X is closed. Note that if U = X is an affine variety. Let U be an open subset of a variety X . we define O P (X ) to be O P (V ). we may replace X and U by the corresponding affine variety ϕ−1 (X ) and the open set ϕ−1 (U ) in An × · · · × Am . Suppose z ∈ O P (V ) for all P ∈ U . VARIETIES 69 ∗ 6. and z(P ) is well-defined. Proof. for if Y is the closure of Y in V . If Y is a closed subset of X . Let U be an open subset of a variety V . If z ∈ Γ(U ). z determines a k-valued function on U : for if P ∈ U .7).8. so f = 0 (Problem 6. Then Y is then also a variety. to be the set of rational functions on X that are defined at each P ∈ U : Γ(U ) = P ∈U O P (X ). Then f (P ) = 0 for all P ∈ U .6.10). If X ⊂ Pn ×· · ·×Am . z ∈ O P (X ).4). It is given the topology induced from V . Suppose z ∈ Γ(U ). If U is an open subset of X . z ∈ k(V ).2. Then if X ∩(Ui 1 ×Ui 2 ×· · · ×Am ) = . Show that U z = {P ∈ U | z(P ) = 0} is open. an open subvariety of A2 . k).8). and if P ∈ X . For this we need the map from Γ(U ) to F (U .9. where ϕ : An × · · · × Am → Ui 1 × · · · × Am is as in Problem 4. this topology is called the Zariski topology on X . Proposition 1. . or simply Γ(U ). k).

70 CHAPTER 6. (b) Show that if a variety is a union of a collection of open subsets. (ii) ˜ ˜ a morphism ϕ induces a homomorphism ϕ : Γ(Y ) → Γ(X ). k). ˜ (2) For every open set U of Y . A projective variety is a union of a finite number of open affine varieties. Y ⊂ Am .) ∗ 6. (b) Y is an open subvariety of Z . If z ∈ O (X ). a morphism from X to Y is the same thing as a polynomial map from X to Y . (a) Show that every family of closed subsets of a variety has a minimal member. Proposition 3. Let Z be the closure of Y in X .10. There is a natural one-to-one corre˜ spondence between morphisms ϕ : X → Y and homomorphisms ϕ : Γ(Y ) → Γ(X ). and (iv) all these operations are compatible. Y ⊂ Am are closed subvarieties of affine spaces. AND RATIONAL MAPS ∗ 6. The details are left to the reader. ϕ( f ) = f ◦ ϕ. Show that (a) Z is a closed subvariety of X . is left to the reader. VARIETIES.12.3 Morphisms of Varieties If ϕ : X → Y is any mapping between sets. Let X and Y be affine varieties. ϕi : An → Ui ⊂ Pn as in Chapter 4. We may assume X ⊂ An .11.e. composition with ϕ gives a homomor˜ ˜ phism of rings ϕ : F (Y . Proof. Let X be a variety. then ϕ( f ) = f ◦ϕ is in Γ(ϕ−1 (U ). z ∈ k(X ). (All varieties are “quasi-compact”. (iii) any ϕ : Γ(Y ) → Γ(X ) is induced by a unique polynomial map from X to Y (Proposition 1 of §2.26). a projective variety). 6. Y a closed subvariety of U . Section 1. together with the natural generalization to multispace (see Problem 4. Let X and Y be varieties. Proposition 2. and ϕi restricts to an i isomorphism of Vi with V ∩Ui . A variety that is isomorphic to a closed subvariety of some An (resp. The proposition follows from the following facts: (i) a polynomial map is a morphism. we mean that X is a closed subvariety of An (as in Chapter 2). A morphism from X to Y is a mapping ϕ : X → Y such that (1) ϕ is continuous. Show that the pole set of z is closed. so O P (X ) is the union of all Γ(U ). k) → F (X . Let V be a closed subvariety of Pn . O Y ). i. O X ). if f ∈ Γ(U . MORPHISMS. An isomorphism of X with Y is a one-to-one morphism ϕ from X onto Y such that ϕ−1 is a morphism. The proof. .2). P there is a neighborhood U of z such that z ∈ Γ(U ). Let U be an open subvariety of a variety X .. Proof. it is a union of a finite number of theses subsets. Then Vi = ϕ−1 (V ) is a closed subvariety of An . A similar nomenclature is used for projective varieties. but that there exists an isomorphism of X with a closed subvariety of some An . while if we say only “X is an affine variety” we mean that X is a variety in the general sense of Section 2. where U runs through all neighborhoods of P . When we write “X ⊂ An is an affine variety”. If X ⊂ An . Pn ) is called an affine variety (resp. 6.

Then α is onto by (1). By induction. . and let f ∈ Γ(V ). Proposition 5. . since Pn1 × · · · × Pnr × Am is isomorphic to an open subvariety of Pn1 × · · · × Pnr × Pm . The second statement follows from the first. . Any closed subvariety of Pn1 × · · · × Pnr is a projective variety. . We use the notations of that problem.) In particular. . This ϕ is one-to-one and onto. . . X n+1 ) → (X 1 . which mapped Pn × Pm one-to-one onto a projective variety V . X n ) from An+1 to An induces a morphism ˜ ϕ : V → V f (Problem 6. Ym ] to this ring that takes X i to the residue of Ti 0 . is easily checked to be an isomorphism. Choose F ∈ k[X 1 . . . . It suffices to show that the restriction of S to U0 ×U0 → V ∩U00 is an isomorphism. X n ]/I . by the Nullstellensatz. Let V f = {P ∈ V | f (P ) = 0}. X n . so V is a variety. so it is enough to show that the induced map on coordinate rings is an isomorphism. If this were done. Let I be the ideal in k[X 1 . an open subvariety of V . . so Γ(V ) = k[X 1 . X n+1 ). . Any variety is isomorphic to an open subvariety of a projective variety. . . . Let V be an affine variety. . It is possible to define more general varieties than those we have considered here. Then (1) Γ(V f ) = Γ(V )[1/ f ] = {a/ f n ∈ k(V ) | a ∈ Γ(V ). The projection (X 1 . Ym ]. X n . The other inclusion is obvious. defined by polynomials F N G β (X 1 . and Γ(V ∩U00 ) may be identified with k[T10 . . . and hence ϕ is an isomorphism. What is more surprising is that an open subvariety of an affine variety may also be affine. .4). X n ] | G z ∈ Γ(V )} (proof of Proposition 2 of §2. . where J = {G ∈ k[X 1 . . let I = I (V ). V = V (I ) ⊂ An+1 . Note. . . Y1 . . Proof. . and ϕ = (α)−1 . α(X n+1 ) = 1/ f . with N ≥ deg(G β ). X n+1 ] generated by I and by X n+1 F −1. . . Since V (J ) ⊂ V (F ). Since this isomorphism is the one induced by S −1 . The pole set of z is V (J ). . F N ∈ J for some N . .6. . . . 1/F ).13. we defined the Segre imbedding S : Pn ×Pm → Pn+m+nm . k > 0}). Let α : k[X 1 . . I is prime. . from this it follows that ϕ−1 is continuous. The homomorphism from k[X 1 .16). X n+1 ] → Γ(V f ) be defined by letting α(X i ) = X i if i ≤ n. . X n .28. We identify Γ(U0 × U0 ) with k[X 1 . . . Then f N z = a ∈ Γ(V ). and α induces an isomorphism α : Γ(V ) → Γ(V f ). . . . . . (2) V f is an affine variety. the varieties we have defined would be called the “quasiprojective” varieties. f = 0. . In Problem 4. If W is closed in V . . . Y j to that of T0 j . A closed subvariety of an affine variety is also an affine variety. n ∈ Z}. and it is left to the reader to check that Ker(α) = I . . . the proof is complete. . (1): Let z ∈ Γ(V f ). Y1 . so z = a/ f N ∈ Γ(V )[1/ f ]. X n ] whose I -residue F is f . . Proof. . . . defined by the vanishing of polynomials G β (X 1 . Tnm ]/({T j k − T j 0 T0k | j . We may assume V ⊂ An . . . These are affine varieties. it is enough to prove that Pn × Pm is a projective variety. then ϕ(W ) is closed in V f . . MORPHISMS OF VARIETIES 71 Proposition 4. (See Problem 6. .3. We leave it to the reader to complete the proof that ϕ−1 is a morphism. (2): We must “push the zeros of F off to infinity” (compare with the proof of the Nullstellensatz). .

.21. . and that a subset U of Pn is open if and only if π−1 (U ) is open. Let X = U . 0)} to Pn is a morphism of varieties.20. (Use Problems 6.14 and 2. x n+1 ]. . and use α α α α . 0)} is not an affine variety (see Problem 6. and suppose f (Uα ) ⊂ Vα for all α. the inclusion i : Y → X is a morphism. (b) If L is the linear form defining H . and X f is affine by the proposition. Let X be a variety. y) is an isomorphism.19. Q ∈ X .72 CHAPTER 6. If X is open in a projective variety X ⊂ Pn . (Hint: Change coordinates so L = X n+1 .17). (b) The union of two open affine subvarieties of a variety may not be affine. X ⊂ X . . Let ϕ : X → A1 be the mapping defined by ϕ(P ) = f (P ) for P ∈ X . and l is its image in Γh (X ) = k[x 1 .Vα open subvarieties. Proof. Let f be the image of F in Γ(X ). MORPHISMS. Let R be a domain with quotient field K . and let H be a hyperplane in Pn that doesn’t contain X . y) ∈ A × B | x ∈ V } is a closed subvariety of A × B . f = 0 in R. Since X U is an algebraic subset of An . there is a polynomial F ∈ k[X 1 .9). ϕ−1 (λ) is the pole set of z = 1/( f − λ). f : X → Y a mapping.16. (a) Show that for λ ∈ k. X a variety. . . Show that V × {y} = {(x. VARIETIES. U a neighborhood of a point P in X . then ϕ extends uniquely to a ring homomorphism from R[1/ f ] to S. Y be varieties. . . Assume f (X ) ⊂ Y . and P ∈ Ui . Let X . such that V is an affine variety.9. n ∈ Z}. Show that the natural map π from An+1 {(0. and F (Q) = 0 for all Q ∈ X U (Problem 1. (b) Show that the ring homomorphism from R[X ]/(X f − 1) to R[1/ f ] that takes X to 1/ f is an isomorphism. (a) Show that if ϕ : R → S is any ring homomorphism such that ϕ( f ) is a unit in S. ∗ 6.) ∗ 6. ∗ 6.Y = V . So we may assume X ⊂ An is affine. (Hint: See the proof of the Corollary to Proposition 5. B = Pm1 × · · · × Am . (a) If Y is an open or closed subvariety of X . (a) Show that A2 {(0. Let X be a variety. . .17. U by U ∩Ui . . 6.13. 6.22.23. ∗ 6. with Uα .14. Let f : X → Y be a morphism of varieties. Problems ∗ 6. x n+1 /l ]. . ∗ 6. Let P . ∗ 6. f ∈ Γ(X ). Show that there is an affine open set V on X that contains P and Q. and that the map V → V × {y} taking x to (x. (a) Show that f is a morphism if and only if each restriction f α : Uα → Vα of f is a morphism. Then there is a neighborhood V of P . . AND RATIONAL MAPS Corollary. .15. . Then the restriction of f to X is a morphism from X to Y . then Γ(X ∗ ) may be identified with k[x 1 /l . Let A = Pn1 × · · · × An . a subring of K . f is a morphism if and only if each f˜(Γ(Vα )) ⊂ Γ(Uα ). Then P ∈ X f ⊂ U . ∗ 6. Let y ∈ B . (a) Show that X (H ∩ X ) is isomorphic to an affine variety X ∗ ⊂ An . Vα is affine. (b) If each Uα . Let R[1/ f ] = {a/ f n | a ∈ R. . (b) Show that ϕ is a morphism of varieties. Y ⊂ Y subvarieties (open or closed).) 6. (b) The composition of morphisms is a morphism. Let X be a projective variety in Pn .18. X n ] such that F (P ) = 0. V a closed subvariety of A. we may replace X by X ∩Ui . Any variety is the union of a finite number of open affine subvarieties. V ⊂ U .

) ∗ 6. are distinct. Let G α (Y ) = F α (x. It suffices to show that each Ui is open. V. Y ). Y = Am .4 Products and Graphs Let A = Pn1 ×· · ·×An . then for some α and some x ∈ V .6. Let V ⊂ A. . say X is open in V ⊂ A. A set that contains a neighborhood of each of its points is open. (1) is left to the reader. A. g )(z) = ( f (z). Any projective variety is isomorphic to a closed subvariety V ⊂ Pn (for some n) such that V is not contained in any hyperplane in Pn . Y = B (Problem 6. Proof. 1. Zi closed in A ×B . y ) = ( f (x ). Then V × W is a closed subvariety of A × B . PRODUCTS AND GRAPHS 73 Problem 1. (2) If f : Z → X . y) = 0. The only difficulty is in showing that V × W is irreducible. .17).16). Y open in W ⊂ B . (4) The diagonal ∆ X = {(x.4. W ⊂ B be closed subvarieties.14). 6. we may cover A and B by the open affine spaces Ui 1 × · · · × Ar . If Ui 1 × · · · × An and U j 1 × · · · × Am are the usual affine open subvarieties that cover A and B . so X × Y is a variety. Suppose V × W = Z1 ∪ Z2 . then Ui 1 × · · · × An+m are affine open subvarieties that cover A × B . If y ∈ U1 . Let F α (X . F α (x. for then. Let Ui = {y ∈ W | V ×{y} ⊂ Zi }.20). B = Pm1 ×· · ·×Am be mixed spaces. : x : 0] gives an isomorphism of Pn−1 with 1 n 1 n H∞ ⊂ Pn . g (z)) is a morphism. x) is an isomorphism. g (y )) is a morphism. g : Z → Y are morphisms. P. Show that [x : . Show that there is an f ∈ k(X ) that is defined at P and at Q. y) ∈ X × X | y = x} is a closed subvariety of X × X . Then X × Y is open in V × W . then f × g : X × Y → X × Y defined by ( f × g )(x . V is isomorphic to a variety in Pn−1 . Note that the product of two affine varieties is an affine variety. Proof. Then A × B = Pn1 × · · · × Pm1 × · · · × An+m is also a mixed space. so U1 (and likewise U2 ) is open. and then V ×W ⊂ Z1 . Since V ×{y} is irreducible (Problem 6. g : Y → Y are morphisms.24. ∗ 6. Section 4. f (Q) = 0 (Problems 6. and the diagonal map δ X : X → ∆ X defined by δ X (x) = (x. as P varies in X . The local rings OP (X ). one of the Ui (say U1 ) must be empty. and the product of two projective varieties is a projective variety. as in Chapter 4. If X and Y are any varieties. Then {y ∈ W | G α (y ) = 0} is an open neighborhood of y in U1 . Since being a morphism is local (Problem 6. B as above. (1) The projections pr1 : X × Y → X and pr2 : X × Y → Y are morphisms. Proposition 6. Let X be a variety.17(c).25. as desired. So f ∈ mP (X ).23. : x ] → [x : . then ( f . Proposition 7. U1 ∩U2 = . . This reduces it to the case where X = An . If a variety V in Pn is contained in H∞ . Y ) be the “multiforms” defining Z1 . (3) If f : X → X . We may . with f (P ) = 0. g ) : Z → X × Y defined by ( f . (2): We may reduce first to the case where X = A. since W is a variety.W. 1/ f ∈ OQ (X ). .Q two distinct points of X .

The projection of X × Y onto X restricts to an isomorphism of G( f ) with X .29. Let U . We may thus think of π : V → PN −1 as a “universal family” of curves of degree d . . Let V be a variety. (b) For each t = (t 1 . (b) A1 {(0)} = k {(0)}. Proof. then {x ∈ X | f (x) = g (x)} is closed in X . (Compare Problem 6. . (4): The diagonal in Pn × Pn is clearly an algebraic subset. MORPHISMS. Corollary. . . let C t be the corresponding curve (§5. .. and let π : V → PN −1 be the restriction of the projection map. (b) If X and Y are affine. and ψ : V → V (inverse) satisfying the group axioms.26. G( f ) is a closed subvariety of X × Y . where j = identity on X .28. M N be the monomials of degree d in 2 X . Show that each of the following is an algebraic group: (a) A1 = k. . . . Show that the homomorphism f˜ : Γ(Y ) → Γ(X ) is one-to-one. the graph of f .) 6. If ϕ and ψ are morphisms. G( f ). g )−1 (∆Y ). . V is said to be an algebraic group. g ◦ pr2 ). Y . show that U ∩V is affine. Proposition 8. Let d ≥ 1. . and π is a morphism. We have G( f ) = ( f ×i )−1 (∆Y ). maps X onto G( f ). so ∆ X is closed in any X (Proposition 4 of §6. If f . 6. Every curve appears as a fibre π−1 (t ) over some t ∈ PN −1 . T N be homogeneous coordinates for PN −1 . f ) : X → X ×Y . Now ( j . (a) Let f : X → Y be a morphism of varieties such that f (X ) is dense in Y . If f and g agree on a dense set of X .17. i = identity on Y . If f : X → Y is a morphism of varieties. But this case is trivial. Y . Let N V = V i =1 M i (X . . g : X → Y are morphisms of varieties. so δ X is an isomorphism. since the product of polynomial maps is certainly a polynomial map. Z )Ti ⊂ P2 × PN −1 . Is this true if Y is not affine? 6. and suppose V is also a group. Problems ∗ 6. since Z is a union of open affine subvarieties.e. V be open subvarieties of a variety X .27. (a) Show that V is an irreducible closed subvariety of P2 × PN −1 . is defined to be {(x. VARIETIES. {x | f (x) = g (x)} = ( f . show that f (X ) is dense in Y if and only if f˜ : Γ(Y ) → Γ(X ) is one-to-one. (a) Show that U ∩V is isomorphic to (U ×V )∩∆ X . . and let M 1 . N = (d +1)(d +2) . and this is inverse to the projection. there are mappings ϕ : V × V → V (multiplication or addition). Z (in some order). (3): Apply (2) to the morphism ( f ◦ pr1 . Let T1 . Show that π−1 (t ) = C t × {t }. AND RATIONAL MAPS also assume Z is affine. t N ) ∈ PN −1 .3). i. . then f = g . The restriction of pr1 : X × X → X is inverse to δ X .2). Proof. with the usual addition on k. (c) An (k) with addition: likewise M n (k) = {n by n matrices} under addition may 2 be identified with An (k).74 CHAPTER 6. y) ∈ X × Y | y = f (x)}. with the usual multiplication on k: this is denoted Gm . (b) If U and V are affine. this group is often denoted Ga .

48). Part (5) of the next proposition shows that. A variety of dimension one is called a curve.5 Algebraic Function Fields and Dimension of Varieties Let K be a finitely generated field extension of k. Proof. that a “curve” is assumed to be a variety. Note. to be tr.30. . The transcendence degree of K over k. and p is a prime ideal in R. y).31 below. degk K is defined to be the smallest integer n such that for some x 1 . x n ). We say then that K is an algebraic function field in n variables over k. y = 0. ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION FIELDS AND DIMENSION OF VARIETIES 75 (d) GLn (k) = {invertible n × n matrices} is an affine open subvariety of M n (k). T must appear in F . O ∈ C . dim(X ). then the natural homomorphism from k to R/p is an isomorphism.46). . Let K be an algebraic function field in one variable over k. If X is a variety. (3) If R is a domain with quotient field K . (e) C a nonsingular plane cubic. x) = 0 (clear denominators if necessary). Show that the map ϕ : Ga → C ◦ given by ϕ(t ) = [t : 1 : t 3 ] is an isomorphism of algebraic groups. . y) = 0. so t is algebraic over k(x). But x is not algebraic over k (Problem 1. Show that ϕ : Gm → C ◦ defined by ϕ(t ) = [t : t 2 : 1 − t 3 ] is an isomorphism of algebraic groups. (3) Suppose there is an x ∈ R whose residue x in R/p is not in k.5. then a 0 (X ) = 0. however. 6. Since x is algebraic over k(t ). so K is algebraic over k(x) (Problem 1. C ◦ = C {[0 : 0 : 1]}. a group with O = [0 : 1 : 0]. ⊕ the resulting addition (see Problem 5. Y ] so that F (x. If we choose F of lowest possible degree. O = [1 : 1 : 0]. Proposition 9. and a group under multiplication. k(X ) is a finitely generated extension of k. so a 0 (x) = 0. (2) Since char(k(x)) = 0. Define the dimension of X . x n ∈ K .” We have outlined a proof of this algebraic fact in Problem 6. k ⊂ R. . But then a 0 (x) ∈ P . while a “plane curve” is allowed to have several (even multiple) components. K is algebraic over k(x 1 . Then (1) K is algebraic over k(x). this is an immediate consequence of the “Theorem of the Primitive Element. so there is no such x. (1) Take any t ∈ K so that K is algebraic over k(t ). written tr. for subvarieties of A2 or P2 . X ] such that F (t . t ) is algebraic over k(x) (Problem 1. degk k(X ). etc. there is a polynomial F ∈ k[T. and let x ∈ K . of dimension two a surface. . . 6. 0 = p = R.38). Since x is not algebraic over k (Problem 1. Then k(x. (b) Let C = V (X 3 + Y 3 − X Y Z ) be a cubic with a node. . this definition agrees with the one given in Chapters 3 and 5. then dimU = dim X . C ◦ = C {[0 : 0 : 1]} the simple points. . (1) If U is an open subvariety of X . and let y ∈ p.6. x ∈ k. Proposition 10. (2) (char(k) = 0) There is an element y ∈ K such that K = k(x. (a) Let C = V (Y 2 Z − X 3 ) be a cubic with a cusp. . Choose F = a i (X )Y i ∈ k[X .50).48).

(4) Every proper closed subvariety of a curve is a point. so L = K . Then x 1 . Proof. x n is a maximal set of algebraically independent elements of K . Then the result follows from (3) and (4). . Apply Proposition 9 (3).33.76 CHAPTER 6. (c) tr. j = 1. x n ) if and only if x 1 . . . so y ∈ K . An (k) is an algebraic set. . we say that x 1 . . We may suppose V is affine by (1) and (2). Suppose k ⊂ K is an algebraically 1 n closed subfield. K a finitely generated extension of k. Let L be a field in which F = n m i =1 (T −x i ).31. If k ⊂ K . then dimV = dimV ∗ . K = K (z). AND RATIONAL MAPS (2) If V ∗ is the projective closure of an affine variety V . . tr. L a finite (algebraic) extension of K . Then Problem 2. x n ∈ K . Use (2) if V ⊂ P2 . x n ) = 0. x ) as in Problem 6. . Then k(V ) is algebraic over k. x n ∈ K are algebraically independent if there is no nonzero polynomial F ∈ k[X 1 . (4): Again we may assume V is affine.32. . VARIETIES. y = y 1 . (3): Suppose dimV = 0. . (1) and (2) follow from the fact that the varieties have the same function fields. Any set {x 1 . Choose λ = 0 in K so that λx + y = λx i + y j for all i = 1. . x n } is called a transcendence basis of K over k.31. . . y). Set H (T ) = G(z − λT ) ∈ K [T ]. The notion of transcendence degree is analogous to the idea of the dimension of a vector space. . . or V = A2 (§1. Let L = K (x . By methods entirely analogous to those for bases of vector spaces. . G(y) = 0. (5) A closed subvariety of A2 (resp. (Theorem of the Primitive Element) Let K be a field of a characteristic zero. a plane curve V (F ). y) ≤ 1. . F ) = (T − x) ∈ K [T ]. . Step (ii): If L = K (x 1 . . . . then Γ(W ) = R/P p (Problem 2. If F (x. If W is a closed subvariety of V . . G = j =1 (T −y i ). so Γ(V ) = k. 1.6). one can prove: (a) Let x 1 . P2 ) has dimension one if and only if it is an affine (resp.4 gives the result. let R = Γ(V ). Then there is a z ∈ L such that L = K (z). p the prime ideal of R corresponding to W . . H (x i ) = 0 if i > 0. . Show that L = K ( λi x i ) for some 6. . . . use induction on n to find λ1 . y) = 0. . . . so k(V ) = k. . or 2. . dimV must be 0. . . . . . (3) A variety has dimension zero if and only if it is a point. L ⊃ L (see Problems 1. MORPHISMS. Let F and G be monic irreducible polynomials in K [T ] such that F (x) = 0. x = x 1 . . . . 1. y). So V is either a point. . degk k(x. X n ] such that F (x 1 . . Since k(V ) = k(x. x n ). x n } such that K is algebraic over k(x 1 . Problems ∗ 6.53). ∗ 6. and V (λ1 . . . . Let z = λx + y. x n is a minimal set such that K is algebraic over k(x 1 . λn ∈ k such that L = K ( λi x i ). .52. . . Outline of Proof. Such {x 1 .3). Then x ∈ K . . λn ) ∈ An V . (5): Assume V ⊂ A2 . . . . x n ) contains a transcendence basis. projective) plane curve. degk K is the number of elements in any transcendence basis of K over k. . . . Step (i): Suppose L = K (x. (b) Any algebraically independent set may be completed to a transcendence basis. . . . Then H (x) = 0. Therefore (H .

Let ˜ Γ(W ) = k[y 1 . A rational map from X to Y is said to be dominating if f (U ) is dense in Y . y n ]. For any point P in the domain of f . take affine neighborhoods V of P . 6. Let K = k(x 1 . and b i (P ) = 0. 77 6. V ⊂ Y be affine open sets. . the mapping f : U → Y defined by f |Uα = f α is a morphism belonging to the equivalence class of the map. (1) is left to the reader (Problem 6. Let Y be a closed subvariety of a variety X . An equivalence class of such morphisms is called a rational map from X to Y . x n ) be a function field in r variables over k.6. and is denoted by F . ˜ If O P (X ) dominates F (OQ (Y )).34. . and F (P ) = Q. Then the induced map f˜ : Γ(V ) → Γ(U ) is one-to-one. then O P (X ) dominates F (OQ (Y )).) 6. Y be varieties. Proof. ˜ Conversely. (1) Let F be a dominating rational map from X to Y . This homomorphism is independent of the choice of ˜ f . a i . (3) Any homomorphism from k(Y ) into k(X ) is induced by a unique dominating rational map from X to Y . RATIONAL MAPS 6. (a) Show that there is an affine variety V ⊂ An with k(V ) = K .26). (Assume char(k) = 0 if you wish. b i ∈ Γ(V ). Proposition 11. every equivalent morphism is a restriction of f . (b) Show that we may find V ⊂ Ar +1 with k(V ) = K . If U is the domain of a rational map. f : U → V a morphism that represents F . . as is the first part of (2). if P ∈ X . Q ∈ Y .6.6 Rational Maps Let X . Show that dim An = dim Pn = n. so f˜ extends to a one-to-one homomorphism from k(Y ) = k(V ) into k(X ) = k(U ). Then F (y i ) = a i /b i . we say that B dominates A if the maximal ideal of B contains the maximal ideal of A. . Then dim Y ≤ dim X . and A is a subring of B . with equality if and only if Y = X . If A and B are local rings. and O P (X ) dominates F (OQ (Y )). If g ∈ Γ(W ) vanishes at Q.3). ˜ then F (g ) vanishes at P . If we let b = ˜ ˜ b 1 · · · b n . ˜ (2) If P belongs to the domain of F . The domain of a rational map is the union of all open subvarieties Uα of X such that some f α : Uα → Y belongs to the equivalence class of the rational map. . Thus a rational map from X to Y may also be defined as a morphism f from an open subvariety U of X to Y such that f cannot be extended to a morphism from any larger open subset of X to Y . where f : U → Y is any morphism representing the map (it is easy to see that this is independent of U ). . then F (Γ(W )) ⊂ Γ(Vb ) (Proposition 5 of §6. then P belongs to the domain of F . . W of Q. Let U ⊂ X .4). r = dimV .3) so F : Γ(W ) → Γ(Vb ) is induced by a unique morphism f : Vb → W (Proposition 2 of §6. . from which it follows easily f (P ) = Q. the value f (P ) is well-defined in k.36. . and F (P ) = Q. each f i is determined by its restriction to U1 ∩U2 (Corollary to Proposition 7 in §6. Two morphisms f i : Ui → Y from open subvarieties Ui of X to Y are said to be equivalent if their restrictions to U1 ∩U2 are the same. Since U1 ∩U2 is dense in X .35.

y]. Then ϕ(Γ(X )) ⊂ Γ(Yb ) for some b ∈ Γ(Y ). Since Γ(V ) = k[X . Then. (See Appendix A for the case when char(k) = p.5).40. An irreducible cubic with a multiple point is rational (Problems 6. Proof. V ⊂ Y .) (a) If t = ±1. if ϕ : k(Y ) → k(X ). birationally equivalent varieties have isomorphic function fields. then dim(Y ) ≤ dim(X ). We say that X and Y are birationally equivalent if there is a birational map from X to Y (This is easily seen to be an equivalence relation). (d) Give a prescription for finding all integer solutions (x. Then I is prime. it follows that k(V ) is isomorphic to k(x. We may assume X and Y are affine.11). Then ϕ restricts to an isomorphism of Γ((X d )ϕ−1 (b) ) onto Γ((Yb )ϕ(d ) ). and ϕ−1 (Γ(Y )) ⊂ Γ(X d ) for some d ∈ Γ(X ). and an isomorphism f : U → V that represents F . (b) Show that the map ϕ : A1 {±1} → C taking t to Q t extends to an isomorphism of P1 with C . Pn ×Pm is birationally equivalent to Pn+m . Show that P1 ×P1 is not isomorphic to P2 . Therefore f (X b ) is dense in Y since f˜ is one-to-one (Problem 6. 5. so (X d )ϕ−1 (b) is isomorphic to (Yb )ϕ(d ) . ϕ(Γ(Y )) ⊂ Γ(X b ) for some b ∈ Γ(X ). So dimV = 1.5). so ϕ is induced by a morphism f : X b → Y . If V is a curve. VARIETIES. and V is a plane curve (Proposition 10 (5) of §6. Y ]/I is isomorphic to k[x.) A variety is said to be rational if it is birationally equivalent to An (or Pn ) for some n. y] ⊂ k(V ). AND RATIONAL MAPS (3) We may assume X and Y are affine.26). (Sketch this. Problems 6. 6. A variety is birationally equivalent to any open subvariety of itself. y) = k(V ). in fact. . A rational map F from X to Y is said to be birational if there are open sets U ⊂ X . z) to the Pythagorean equation X 2 + Y 2 = Z 2 . Every curve is birationally equivalent to a plane curve.) 6. where Q t = [1− t 2 : 2t : 1+ t 2 ]. 6.38. The varieties An and Pn are birationally equivalent. (Hint: P1 × P1 has closed subvarieties of dimension one that do not intersect. as desired. Conversely. Two varieties are birationally equivalent if and only if their function fields are isomorphic. Since k(U ) = k(X ) for any open subvariety U of X . For each t ∈ k. Let I be the kernel of the natural homomorphism from k[X . Proof. MORPHISMS.78 CHAPTER 6. y ∈ k(V ) (Proposition 9 (2) of §6. as in (2).30. Let C = V (X 2 + Y 2 − Z 2 ) ⊂ P2 .39. show that L t •C = P 0 + Q t .10. y. Proposition 12. If there is a dominating rational map from X to Y . suppose ϕ : k(X ) → k(Y ) is an isomorphism. let L t be the line between P 0 = [−1 : 0 : 1] and P t = [0 : t : 1]. (c) Any irreducible conic in P2 is rational. Y ] onto k[x. as in the proof of Proposition 11. y) for some x. 5. Corollary. a conic is isomorphic to P1 .37. k(V ) = k(x. so V = V (I ) ⊂ A2 is a variety.

W ] → Γh (F ) by setting α(U ) = u. (The dual curve) Let F be an irreducible projective plane curve of degree n > 1. F Z . so V (I ) contains the points corresponding to tangent lines to F at simple points. . and k(C ) is algebraic over k(u). . show that the pole set of f is f −1 ([1 : 0]).46. Q ∈ Y . respectively. (d) Show that the dual curve is the only irreducible curve containing all the points of (b). (a) Show that I is a homogeneous prime ideal in k[U . (a) Show that f is birational.41. and let u. Thus a nonconstant f ∈ k(V ) corresponds a homomorphism from k(T ) to k(V ). . . λn ) ∈ k n .V. F (Q) = P . 0) on V that is isomorphic to an open subvariety of a plane curve.44. Let k(P1 ) = k(T ). ∗ 6. [F X (P ) : F Y (P ) : F Z (P )] is in V (I ).V. : x n : z]) = [t : λi x i : z]. Z be coordinates for Pn+1 . Suppose X . Then there is a birational morphism f : C → C .) .6. Conclude that V (I ) is a curve. and ϕ−1 ([0 : 0 : 1]) = {P }.43. Define α : k[U . (See Problem 3. . such that U is isomorphic to V . Z ) = . For any variety V . P ∈ X .6.13. Every n-dimensional variety is birationally equivalent to a hypersurface in An+1 (or Pn+1 ). so V is a rational curve. y. This is another justification for the assertion that properties of X near P should be determined by the local ring O P (X ). the subfield k( f ) generated by f is naturally isomorphic to k(T ). Let C be the closure of ϕλ (C ). Let Γh (F ) = k[X . P = [0 : . Then C ∩ V (T ) is finite. Let C . Then ϕλ is a well-defined morphism. 6. Then there are neighborhoods U of P on X . f ∈ k. . 6.47. for some P ∈ C . . and hence to the a dominating rational map from V to P1 . .42. or F is constant (i. use Euler’s Theorem to show that F divides a X + bY + c Z .W ]. C a projective plane curve. which is impossible. Prove: (a) Either F is dominating.. . (b) Show that there is no neighborhood of (0. (c) If V (I ) ⊂ {[a : b : c]}. so V (I ) is a closed subvariety of P2 . z]. Y varieties. . C be curves. (c) The variable λ can be chosen so ϕλ is a birational morphism from C to C . λ 6. Let I be the kernel of α. Let V = V (X 2 −Y 3 .45. let ϕλ : C → P2 be defined by the formula ϕ([t : x 1 : . v. f : A1 → V as in Problem 2. We outline a proof: (a) We can assume: C ⊂ Pn+1 Let T. Y 2 − Z 3 ) ⊂ A3 .32 and the fact that C ∩ V (T ) is finite). α(W ) = w.) ∗ 6.8). α(V ) = v. C ∩ V (T. The corresponding map is usually denoted also by f . (See Walker’s “Algebraic Curves” for more about dual curves when char(k) = 0. . P ∈ C . If this rational map is a morphism. (b) For each λ = (λ1 . : 0 : 1]. . X n . It is called the dual curve of F . V of Q on Y . 0. then k(C ) is a finite algebraic extension of F (k(C )). F a rational map from C to C . Z ]/(F ) = k[x. with O P (X ) isomorphic (over k) to OQ (Y ). (b) Show that for any simple point P on F . T = X /Y (Problem 4. F Y . such that f −1 ( f (P )) = {P }. where u = T /Z ∈ k(C ).14. Let C be a projective curve. and ϕλ (P ) = [0 : 0 : 1]. (Use Problem 6. and f ∈ k(V ). w ∈ Γh (F ) be the residues of F X . Y . 6. X 1 . RATIONAL MAPS 79 6. all Q ∈ C ). (b) If F is ˜ dominating.e.

MORPHISMS.80 CHAPTER 6. VARIETIES. AND RATIONAL MAPS .

if V is any variety. Uniqueness: If R dominates O P (C ) and OQ (C ). We let ordC . Let N = maxi . J = m ∩ Γ(C ∗ ). Then J is a prime ideal. Let C be a projective curve. . Theorem 1. Let m be the maximal ideal of R. Existence: We may assume C is a closed subvariety of Pn . a discrete valuation ring of K is a DVR that is a local ring of K . .24). and every nonzero element of Γ(C ∗ ) is a unit in R. If C is a plane curve. n + 1 (Problem 6. Then ord( f ) > 0 and ord(1/ f ) ≥ 0.1 Rational Maps of Curves A point P on an arbitrary curve C is called a simple point if O P (C ) is a discrete valuation ring. . so R ⊃ Γ(C ∗ ). . . choose f ∈ mP (C ). x n+1 ].5). so J corresponds to a closed subvariety W of C ∗ (Problem 2. and that C ∩ Ui = . x n /x n+1 ].Chapter 7 Resolution of Singularities 7. i = 1. Then in Γh (C ) = k[X 1 . this agrees with our original definition (Theorem1 of §3. Proof. If C ∗ is the affine curve corresponding to C ∩Un+1 . ord(x i /x n+1 ) = ord((x j /x n+1 )(x i /x j )) = N − ord(x j /x i ) ≥ 0. each x i = 0. Suppose L is a field containing K . Let K be a field containing k. So W = {P } is a point (Proposition 10 of §6.2). Assume that ord(x j /x n+1 ) = N for some j (changing coordinates if necessary).25). K is the quotient field of A. then J = 0. . . 81 .2). but then K ⊂ R. For example. and A contains k. . We say that a local ring A is a local ring of K if A is a subring of K . Then there is a unique point P ∈ C such that R dominates O P (C ). then O P (V ) is a local ring of k(V ). Then for all i . . Similarly. . and R is a discrete valuation ring of L. 1/ f ∈ OQ (C ) (Problem 6. . . K = k(C ). . . It is then easy to check that R dominates O P (C ∗ ) = O P (C ). a contradiction. . X n+1 ]/I (C ) = k[x 1 . j ord(x i /x j ). Assume that R ⊃ K . If W = C ∗ . then Γ(C ∗ ) may be identified with k[x 1 /x n+1 . The curve C is said to be nonsingular if every point on C is simple. P ∈ V . which is contrary to our assumption. or ordP denote the order function on k(C ) defined by P O P (C ). .

But a DVR is not a field. we will remove the point P from P2 and replace it by a projective line L. Let P be a simple point of C . this means that C is determined up to isomorphism by K alone (proving Corollary 3 again). then R dominates a unique O P (C ). Since R and O P (C ) are both DVR’s of K . Let f be a rational map from a curve C to a projective curve C . OC ) = P ∈U O P (C ). And if U is open in C . RESOLUTION OF SINGULARITIES Corollary 1.2 Blowing up a Point in A2 To “resolve the singularities” of a projective curve C means to construct a nonsingular projective curve X and a birational morphism f : X → C . it is enough to show that R ⊃ K . Corollary 2. and P is a multiple point on C . Since X is determined by K alone. 7. Then the correspondence P → O P (C ) from C to X is a homeomorphism. O P (C ) is the corresponding DVR. Show that any curve has only a finite number of multiple points. C a nonsingular curve. Γ(U . A rough idea of the procedure we will follow is this: If C ⊂ P2 . Corollary 4. R = O P (C ). f is a morphism. K be as in Corollary 4. If C is nonsingular. In Chevalley’s “Algebraic Functions of One Variable”. so R is a field (Problem 1. so all the rings of functions on C may be recovered from X . If F is not dominating. it follows that R = O P (C ) (Problem 2.1. K = k(C ). Proof. If R is any such DVR.82 CHAPTER 7. and hence its domain is ˜ all of C . If P ∈ C . then there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between dominant morphisms f : C → C and homomorphisms f˜ : k(C ) → k(C ). it is constant (Problem 6. then L is a finite algebraic extension of K (Problem 6.5 and the above Theorem 1. The points of L will correspond to the tangent directions at P . Corollary 3.45). Suppose K ⊂ R ⊂ L. Give a topology to X as follows: a nonempty set U of X is open if X U is finite.50). If C is a projective curve. Let C . Proof. This can be done in such a way that the resulting “blown up” plane .45). the reader may find a treatment of these functions fields that avoids the concept of a curve entirely. Each O P (C ) is certainly a DVR of K . Then there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between the points of C and the discrete valuation rings of K . Let X be the set of all discrete valuation rings of K over k. Problem 7. So we may assume F imbeds K = k(C ) as a subfield of L = k(C ). By Proposition 11 of §6. Two nonsingular projective curves are isomorphic if and only if their function fields are isomorphic. Let C be a nonsingular projective curve. Then the domain of f includes every simple point of C .26).

The curve C = V (Y 2 − X 2 (X +1)) is sketched. y).7. BLOWING UP A POINT IN A2 83 B = (P2 {P }) ∪ L is still a variety. Let ψ = π ◦ ϕ : A2 → A2 . Then π(B ) = U ∪ {P }. z) ∈ A2 | x = 0}. Let L = π−1 (P ) = {(0. π restricts to an isomorphism of π−1 (U ) onto U . and. and take the closure of this in B . the equations become more involved. If we take the side view of B . z) = (x. but we will see that. many mappings between varieties will be defined by explicit formulas. while L is a closed subvariety of B . ψ(x. a variety covered by open sets isomorphic to A2 . we arrive at a nonsingular curve C with two points lying over the double point of C — we have “resolved the singularity”. It appears that if we remove P from C . xz). In this section we blow up a point in the affine plane. Let E = ψ−1 (P ) = ϕ−1 (L) = {(x. y. z) ∈ A3 | y = xz. replacing it by an affine line L. z)-plane) we see that B is isomorphic to an affine plane. we will leave it to the reader to verify that they are morphisms. z) = (x. Let U = {(x. Define a morphism f : U → A1 = k by f (x. For k = C. y. everything looks like what is done in this section. z) | z ∈ k}. the real part of this can be visualized in R3 . . using the general techniques of Chapter 6. and easy to relate to the geometry. In the following two sections we consider projective situations. The next figure is an attempt. locally. Then ψ : A2 E → U is an isomorphism. but C will have “better” multiple points on L than C has at P . with C (C ∩ L) isomorphic to C {P }. Let B = {(x. take π−1 (C {P }). 0. Since π−1 (U ) = G. This ϕ is an isomorphism of A2 onto B (projection to (x. z) ∈ A3 | y = xz}. Throughout. In this case the equations are quite simple. z)-plane gives the inverse). z) = (x. z). 0) ∈ A2 . x = 0}. xz. Let G ⊂ U × A1 ⊂ A2 × A1 = A3 be the graph of f . and that C becomes a parabola. We see that B is the closure of G in A3 . The curve C will be birationally equivalent to a curve C on B . Since Y − X Z is irreducible. so G = {(x. Let ϕ : A2 → B be defined by ϕ(x. B is a variety.2. Let π : B → A2 be the restriction of the projection from A3 to A2 : π(x. ψ is a birational morphism of the plane to itself. y. y) = y/x. y) ∈ A2 | x = 0}. (projecting B onto the (x. G is an open subvariety of B . Let P = (0. in fact.

and ordCi (x) = 1. With F as above. an open subvariety of C . F = F r +F r +1 +· · ·+F n . X Z ) = X r F r (1. y) with k(C ) = k(x. By multiplying F by a constant. Y /X ) would be reducible. Z ) + X r +1 F r +1 (1. Assumption. Proof. where F = F r (1. y = xz. Z ). Then C = V (F ). If F = G H . and since V (F ) ⊃ C 0 . αi ). Z ) = 0. and let C be the closure of C 0 in A2 . then F = X r G(X . (1). If P is an ordinary multiple point on C . F i a form of degree i in k[X . RESOLUTION OF SINGULARITIES zO y 6 x . Z ) + · · · = X r F . . (2). Y ]. V (F ) = C . r = m P (C ). P s }. Z ) + X F r +1 (1. Let C = V (X ) be a curve in A2 . By means of f˜ we may identify k(C ) = k(x. . X is not tangent to C at P . F (X . α) = 0}. F ∩ X ) = I (P i . Thus F is irreducible. where P i = (0. Then f is a birational morphism of C to C . f −1 (P ) = {P 1 .84 CHAPTER 7. P Proof. i =1 (Z − αi )r i ∩ X ) = r i by properties of the intersection number. f −1 (P ) = C ∩ E = {(0. . then each P i is a simple point on C . . n = deg(C ). X doesn’t divide F . Y /X )H (X . zP ϕmmm6 m mmm ?? ?? π ?? ?? ? y ψ 9 x x . Let f : C → C be the restriction of ψ to C . z). Let C = V (F ). Since F r (1. Z ) + · · · + X n−r F n (1. α) | F r (1. we may s assume that F r = i =1 (Y − αi X )r i . where Y − αi X are the tangents to F at P . let C 0 = ψ−1 (C 0 ).C ∩ E ) = r i . And s m P i (C ) ≤ I (P i . . and m P i (C ) ≤ I (P i . / . Write C 0 = C ∩ U .

∗ 7. j =i (Y − α j X ) + (F r +1 )Y + . P s } are any open sets on C and C . we may choose g ∈ Γ(W ) such that g (P ) = 0. (2) By taking a linear change of coordinates if necessary. 0) = 1. where b i = ( i < r . show that F is nonsingular in the first five examples. Y + βX ). . (a) Show that ordCi (g ) ≥ m P (G). P }.4. and x r −1 z i ∈ Γ(W ) if i ≤ r − 1. . (Hint: R How many tangents would G have otherwise?) 7. . . . (1) We can take the neighborhoods W and W arbitrarily small. W = C h is an affine neighborhood of P in C . . Problems 7. . .7. . . but not in the sixth.. . . . f −1 (P ) = {P .17). To prove the last two claims it suffices to find an equation z r +b 1 z r −1 +· · ·+b r = 0.5. where P 1 is a simple point on C . L i = Y − αi X the tangent line corresponding to P i = (0. What is F ? What is (F ) ? What must be done to resolve the singularity of the curve Y 2 = X 2n+1 ? 7. (b) If s ≤ r . j a i j x i −r y j /h. y)) = r − 1 for i = 1. . and x r −1 Γ(W ) ⊂ Γ(W ). ).2. Y ) → (X +αY . BLOWING UP A POINT IN A2 85 (3). And the zeros of H can be moved by (X . Generalize the results of this section to F . r . show that f −1 (P ) = {P 1 }. if P ∈ U . .e.9). W ⊂ U . so F Y (x. show that F Y = x r −1 ( j =i (z − α j ) + x + . notice that F (x. so it will follow that 1. P r }. we may take W ⊂ U . αi ). U ⊃ {P 1 . and ordC i (g ) ≥ s for each i = 1. With the 1 r notation of Step (2). i. j so we have an equation z r + b 1 z r −1 + · · · + b r = 0. Let G be a plane curve with image g in Γ(C ) ⊂ Γ(C ). Γ(W ) is module finite over Γ(W ). find F .2. Then W = f −1 (W ) = C h is also an affine open subvariety of C . and let h be the image of H in Γ(C ). In fact. Starting with W as in (3).1. show that m P (G) ≥ s. . f −1 (P ) = {P 1 . f (W ) = W . Let F be any plane curve with no multiple components. Proof. . P i . (b) Let F = Y 2 − X 5 . Let P be an ordinary multiple point on C .3. To find the equation. . For the points on the Y -axis can be moved into W by a change of coordinates (X . z) = a i j x i + j −r z j = a i j y i + j −r z r −i . There is an affine neighborhood W of P on C such that W = f −1 (W ) is an affine open subvariety on C . y) = Conclude that ordCi (F Y (x. z. If P is an ordinary cusp on C . Let H = j ≥r a 0 j Y j −r . . Let F = i + j ≥r a i j X i Y j . . but g (Q) = 0 for all Q ∈ (W U ) ∪ f (W U ) (Problem 1. . Y ) → (X . . . ∗ 7. Wg are the required neighborhoods. . with equality if L i is not tangent to P G at P . (a) For each of the curves F in §3. . . Suppose P is an ordinary multiple point on C . Y ). Since H (0. r . we may also assume that W includes any finite set of points on C we wish. a i j y i + j −r )/h for Remarks. and b r = i ≥r.6. z r −1 generate Γ(W ) as a module over Γ(W ) (see Proposition 3 of §1. Γ(W ) = Γ(W )[z]. Then Wg . . . b i ∈ Γ(W ). .

X 3 be homogeneous coordinates for P2 . y) = [x : y : 1]. B and E i isomorphically onto the corresponding G . (4). Define morphisms f i : U → P1 by the formula f i [x 1 : x 2 : x 3 ] = [x 1 − a i 1 x 3 : x 2 − a i 2 x 3 ]. . Let V = ϕ(W ) = B V (Y12 )). We want to study π in a neighborhood of a point Q in some E i . (1). . replacing each by a projective line. and T × T1 × · · · × T t maps G. . B i =1 i (3). t }) ⊂ P2 × P1 × · · · × P1 . Let E i = π−1 (P i ). . W = ϕ−1 (V ). We are going to blow up all of these points. xz). Let B = V ({Yi 1 (X 2 − a i 2 X 3 ) − Yi 2 (X 1 − a i 1 X 3 | i = 1. RESOLUTION OF SINGULARITIES 7. . and π ◦ ϕ = ϕ3 ◦ ψ. where P1 appears in the i th place. Let U = P2 {P 1 . so π restricts to an isomorphism of (2). . . If f = ( f i . (5). B is the closure of G in P2 × · · · × P1 . P t }. . 3 and let W = ψ−1 (W ). P t ∈ P2 . . . Let X 1 . . Let f = ( f 1 . Let ψ : A2 → A2 be as in Section 2: ψ(x. with T (P i ) = P i . leaving the reader to make the necessary changes if P i ∈ U3 . So each E i is canonically isomorphic to P1 . . Yi 2 homogeneous coordinates for the i th copy of P1 . Yi 1 . B i =1 i t E with U . so B is a variety. ( i >1 E i ∪ V (X 3 ) ∪ (6). . . f t ). For if S is any closed set in P2 × · · · × P1 that contains G. z) = (x. X 2 . then there is a projective change of coordinates T of P2 such that T (P i ) = P i and f i ◦ T = Ti ◦ f i (see Problem 7. . . B and E i constructed from f . . and let G ⊂ U × P1 × · · · × P1 be the graph of f . . P t }. . Then ϕ is a morphism. z) = [x : xz : 1] × [1 : z] × f 2 ([x : xz : 1]) × · · · × f t ([x : xz : 1]). This V is a neighborhood of Q on B . . Let π : B → P2 be the restriction of the projection from P2 × · · · × P1 to P2 . Let ϕ3 : A2 → U3 ⊂ P2 be the usual morphism: ϕ3 (x. and that Q corresponds to [λ : 1] ∈ P1 . and hence B is a variety. E i = {P i } × { f 1 (P i )} × · · · × P1 × · · · × { f t (P i )}. and we will soon see that B is the closure of G in P2 × · · · × P1 . P t } → P1 are defined using P i instead of the P i . If T is any projective change of coordinates of P2 . . f t ) : U → P1 × · · · × P1 (t times) be the product (Proposition 7 of §6. . and by (3) and (4) we may assume that P 1 = [0 : 0 : 1]. then there are unique projective changes of coordinates Ti of P1 such that Ti ◦ f i = f i ◦ T (see Problem 7. If Ti is a projective change of coordinates of P1 (for one i ).4).3 Blowing up Points in P2 Let P 1 . .8 below).86 CHAPTER 7. We assume for simplicity that P i = [a i 1 : a i 2 : 1]. Define ϕ : W → P2 × P1 × · · · × P1 by setting ϕ(x.7 below). Let V = U3 {P 2 . . . then (T1 × · · · × T t ) ◦ f = f ◦ T . and f i : P2 {P 1 . We may assume i = 1. t E = B ∩ (U × P1 × · · · × P1 ) = G. . . then ϕ−1 (S) is closed in W and contains . . λ ∈ k (even λ = 0 if desired). Then B ⊃ G.

when restricted to V . Show that T1 = ((a −a 11 e)X +(b −a 11 f )Y . The morphism from P2 × · · · × P1 V (X 3 Y12 ) to A2 taking [x 1 : x 2 : x 3 ] × [y 11 : y 12 ] × · · · to [x 1 /x 3 : y 11 /y 12 ]. Let C be an irreducible curve in P2 . Let C 0 = C ∩U . Show that T = (a X +bY . Proof. 7. although having better singularities than C . locally. c X + d Y + a 12 Z . but it requires more technique than we have developed here. Since W V (X ) is open in W . and T = (a X + bY + a 11 z.4.9.) 7. we must .) If we want C to be a plane curve. . Thus we have the following diagram: A2 ⊃ W ψ ϕ ≈ / V ⊂B / V ⊂ P2   π A2 ⊃ W   ϕ3 ≈ Locally. (7). and apply the above process. ∗ 7. and since Q was an arbitrary point of B G. Let P 1 .4 Quadratic Transformations A disadvantage of the procedure in Section 7. Proposition 1. guarantees that C is nonsingular. and it is difficult to repeat the process to C .7. is no longer a plane curve. f looks just like the corresponding affine map of Section 2. Let C be an irreducible projective plane curve. and suppose all the multiple points of C are ordinary.7. Z ) 1 1 satisfies f 1 ◦ T = T1 ◦ f 1 . T = (a X +bY . so ϕ−1 (S) = W . S ⊃ B .8. Let C = V (X 4 + Y 4 − X Y Z 2 ). . and let C be the closure of C 0 in B . QUADRATIC TRANSFORMATIONS 87 ϕ−1 (G) = W V (X ). π : B → P2 looks just like the map ψ : A2 → A2 of Section 2. P t be the multiple points of C . (c −a 12 e)X +(d −a 12 f )Y ) satisfies T1 ◦ f 1 = f 1 ◦ T . which is an isomorphism from C 0 to C 0 . c X +d Y ). The facts we have learned about plane curves don’t apply to C . Then there is a nonsingular projective curve C and a birational morphism f from C onto C . Write down equations for a nonsingular curve X in some PN that is birationally equivalent to C . C 0 = π−1 (C 0 ) ⊂ G. together with (8) above. e X + f Y + Z ). P 1 = [a 11 : a 12 : 1]. Use this to prove Step (3) above. Suppose P 1 = [0 : 0 : 1]. . c X +d Y . is the inverse morphism to ϕ. (Use the Segre imbedding. getting a better curve C .3 is that the new curve C . (The latter can be done. then π restricts to a birational morphism f : C → C . Problems ∗ 7. . (8). By (7) we know that. Let P = [0 : 0 : 1]. Use this to prove Step (4). Step (2) of Section 2. Therefore Q ∈ S. it is dense.

Let F ∈ k[X . Let C be the closure of Q −1 (C ∩U ) in P2 . Then F Q = F r (Y Z . the results for the other fundamental points and exceptional lines are then clear — and we usually omit writing them. Proof. This Q is a morphism from P2 {P. and Q = Q −1 on U . In particular.88 CHAPTER 7. F = [0 : 0 : 1] is F n (Y . and V (F ) = C . m P (F ) = n − r − r . It is called the standard quadratic transformation. Note that (C ) = C . Then F Q = Z r Y r X r F .) Proof. Write F = F r (X . and closed in U . P } → P2 by the formula Q([x : y : z] = [y z : xz : x y]. m P (C ) = r . Q is a birational map of P2 with itself. Let U = P2 V (X Y Z ). L = V (Y ). Then C ∩ U is open in C . (F ) = F .5). L = V (X ). Define Q : P2 {P. call these the exceptional lines. From (F Q )Q = (X Y Z )n F . Z ] be the equation of C . (4). P = [0 : 1 : 0]. (1). Let L = V (Z ). Note that the lines L and L intersect in P . then Z r is the largest power of Z that divides F Q . or sometimes the standard Cremona transformation (a Cremona transformation is any birational map of P2 with itself). Let F Q = F (Y Z . Y . P . n = deg(F ). and Z do not divide F . RESOLUTION OF SINGULARITIES allow it acquire some new singularities. and L is the line through P and P . And Q −1 (P ) = L − {P . X )X −r Y −r . P } to C . If C is in good position. F i a form of degree i (Problem 5. it follows that F is irreducible and (F ) = F . deg(F ) = 2n − r − r − r . V (F ) must be C . So F Q is a form of degree 2n. So Q maps U one-to-one onto itself. P . Let P = [0 : 0 : 1]. P . so Q is an isomorphism of U with itself. X )(X Y )n−r +Z F r +1 (Y . m P (C ) = r .) If [x : y : z] ∈ U . F is irreducible. so the leading form of F at P = . This F is called the proper transform of F . call these three points the fundamental points. P . P } onto U ∪ {P. Y . X )(X Y )n−r −1 +· · · ). Proof. Let C be an irreducible curve in P2 . n−r i =0 F r +i (Y . X )X n−r −r −i Y n−r −r −i Z i . (3). then Q(Q([x : y : z])) = [xzx y : y zx y : y zxz] = [x : y : z]. X Z )(X Y )n−r +· · · = Z r (F r (Y . Since V (F ) ⊃ Q −1 (C ∩U ). Let us say that C is in good position if no exceptional line is tangent to C at a fundamental point. (2). X Z . (By the symmetry of Q. Then Q restricts to a birational morphism from C {P. If m P (C ) = r . while the old singularities of C become better on C . These new singularities can be taken to be ordinary multiple points. X Y ). so is C . it is enough to write one such equality. called the algebraic transform of F . (Similarly for P and P . Let m P (C ) = r . Assume C is not an exceptional line. from which the result follows. Y ). Therefore Q −1 (C ∩ U ) = Q(C ∩ U ) is a closed curve in U . where X . P }. since Q ◦Q is the identity on U. P }. Y )Z n−r + · · · + F n (X . P = [1 : 0 : 0] in P2 .

If C is in good position. By symmetry. z) = [z : 1 : xz]. Let F ∗ = F (X .. F r (Y . the same holds for the other lines and points. If P ∈ C . There is a neighborhood W of (0. xz). and there are isomorphisms ϕ : W → −1 C 0 and ϕ : W = f ∗ (W ) → C 0 such that ϕ f ∗ = f ϕ . Proof. and P 1 . Define (F ∗ ) = F (X . then F r (1. (See Problem 7. s then m P i (C ) ≤ I (P i . all as in Section 2. Let C 0 = C V (X Y ). . Example. . I (P . F r (Y . y) = [x : y : 1]. X Z . the same argument shows that there are no non-fundamental points on C ∩ L. .e. P s are the non-fundamental points on C ∩L. As in the proof of (4). (6). or I (P . 1). and ϕ (x. F r (Y . (5).7. X ) ∩ Z ) = r . 0) in C ∗ . or F r (1.C ∗ = V (F ∗ ) ⊂ A2 . F ∩ Z ) > m P (C ). But if Y is not tangent to F at P . F ∩ Z ) = I (P i . 0) = 0. 0)}. C ∗ = V (F ∗ ) ⊂ 2 A and f ∗ : C ∗ → C ∗ by f ∗ (x. QUADRATIC TRANSFORMATIONS 89 Proof. Take W = (C ∗ V (X Y )) ∪ {(0. I (P i . and i =1 I (P i . The line L is tangent to C at P if and only if I (P .C ∩ Z ) = r . Let C 0 = (C ∩U )∪{P }. The inverse of ϕ is given by [x : y : z] → (z/x. Let f : C 0 → C 0 be the restriction of Q to C0.10) X Z X Z Y Y . and that P ∈ C . We leave the rest to the reader. Equivalently. i. ϕ(x. X ) ∩ Z ) > 0. x/y). 1)X −r . z) = (x. .C ∩ L).4. X )X n−r −r Y n−r −r ∩ Z ) > n − r − r . Y . a neighborhood of P on C . Remark. the following diagram commutes: C∗ ⊃ W f∗ ϕ ≈ / C ⊂C 0 / C0 ⊂ C  f C∗ ⊃ W   ϕ ≈ Proof. 0) = 0. Assume that C is in good position.

and (F T ) is called a quadratic transformation of F . L intersects C (transversally) in n distinct non-fundamental points. . RESOLUTION OF SINGULARITIES Let us say that C is in excellent position if C is in good position. with multiple points of multiplicity r P = m P (C ). the correspondence preserving multiplicity and ordinary multiple points. L T = Y . m P (F ) = r . with all these points distinct.26 (Take L . and (b) follows by applying (6) to the curves C and (C ) = C (observing by (4) that C is in good position). . any lines. . Let deg(F ) = n. (Theorem 2 of §5. A calculation. (a) follows from the fact that C ∩U and C ∩U are isomorphic. Proof. .90 CHAPTER 7. If C is in excellent position. L first. Q ◦ T is called a quadratic transformation. L T = X . then g ∗ (C ) = g ∗ (C ) − i =1 i m P i (C ). then C has the following multiple points: (a) Those on C ∩U correspond to multiple points on C ∩U . etc. let g ∗ (C ) = (n − 1)(n − 2) − 2 r P (r P − 1) . P a point of F . By Problem 4.) (7). may be any points. . 2 r (r i −1) . and n − r respectively. If F = F 1 . L •C = r P +P r +1 +· · ·+P n . . Then there is a projective change of coordinates T such that F T is in excellent position. and L and L each intersect C (transversally) in n −r distinct non-fundamental points. from now on P . and L •C = P 1 +· · ·+P n . . For any irreducible projective plane curve C of degree n. and T ([0 : 0 : 1]) = P . s (8). (b) P. P . . The special notation used in (1)–(8) regarding fundamental points and exceptional lines has served its purpose. .C ∩ L) = r . P and P are ordinary multiple points on C with multiplicities n. If T is any projective change of coordinates. and from Theorem 2 of §3. we say that the quadratic transformation is centered at P . If C is in excellent position. P . Let P 1 . we say that F is transformed into G by a finite sequence of quadratic transformations. it is enough to find lines L. Proof. and P 1 . . If F T is in excellent position. The existence of such lines follows from Problem 5. n − r . L .4). . etc. F m = G are curves. (c) follows from (6). P .C ∩ L) and I (P i . P s be the non-fundamental points on C ∩ L.16. then L). 2 We know that g ∗ (C ) is a nonnegative integer. . . and each F i is a quadratic transformation of F i −1 . L. Lemma 1. (char(k) = 0) Let F be an irreducible projective plane curve.2 and Problem 3. L . where r i = Proof. and. P s are the non-fundamental points on C ∩ L. F 2 . then there is a change of coordinates T with L T = Z . using (2) and (7). Then m P i (C ) ≤ I (P i . L such that L •C = r P +P r +1 +· · ·+P n . in addition. (c) There are no non-fundamental points on C ∩L or on C ∩L . (This condition is no longer symmetric in P.24. and T ([0 : 0 : 1]) = P .

7.4. QUADRATIC TRANSFORMATIONS

91

Theorem 2. By a finite sequence of quadratic transformations, any irreducible projective plane curve may be transformed into a curve whose only singularities are ordinary multiple points. Proof. Take successive quadratic transformations, centering each one at a nonordinary multiple point. From (7) and (8) we see that at each step, either C has one less non-ordinary r i (r i −1) < g ∗ (C ). If the original curve C multiple point than C , or g ∗ (C ) = g ∗ (C ) − 2 has N non-ordinary multiple points, we reach the desired curve after at most N + g ∗ (C ) steps. (See the Appendix for a proof in characteristic p.)

Problems
7.10. Let F = 8X 3 Y + 8X 3 Z + 4X 2 Y Z − 10X Y 3 − 10X Y 2 Z − 3Y 3 Z . Show that F is in good position, and that F = 8Y 2 Z +8Y 3 +4X Y 2 −10X 2 Z −10X 2 Y −3X 3 . Show that F and F have singularities as in the example sketched, and find the multiple points of F and F . 7.11. Find a change of coordinates T so that (Y 2 Z − X 3 )T is in excellent position, and T ([0 : 0 : 1]) = [0 : 0 : 1]. Calculate the quadratic transformation. 7.12. Find a quadratic transformation of Y 2 Z 2 −X 4 −Y 4 with only ordinary multiple points. Do the same with Y 4 + Z 4 − 2X 2 (Y − Z )2 . ∗ 7.13. (a) Show that in the lemma, we may choose T in such a way that for a given finite set S of points of F , with P ∈ S, T −1 (S) ∩ V (X Y Z ) = . Then there is a neighborhood of S on F that is isomorphic to an open set on (F T ) . (b) If S is a finite set of simple points on a plane curve F , there is a curve F with only ordinary multiple points, and a neighborhood U of S on F , and an open set U on F consisting entirely of simple points, such that U is isomorphic to U . ∗ 7.14. (a) What happens to the degree, and to g ∗ (F ), when a quadratic transformation is centered at: (i) an ordinary multiple point; (ii) a simple point; (iii) a point not on F ? (b) Show that the curve F of Problem 7.13(b) may be assumed to have arbitrarily large degree. 7.15. Let F = F 1 , . . . , F m be a sequence of quadratic transformations of F , such that F m has only ordinary multiple points. Let P i 1 , P i 2 , . . . be the points on F i introduced, as in (7) (c), in going from F i −1 to F i . (These are called “neighboring singularities”; see Walker’s “Algebraic Curves”, Chap. III, §7.6, §7.7). If n = deg(F ), show that (n − 1)(n − 2) ≥
P ∈F

m P (F )(m P (F ) − 1) +
i >1, j

m P i j (F i )(m P i j (F i ) − 1).

7.16. (a) Show that everything in this section, including Theorem2, goes through for any plane curve with no multiple components. (b) If F and G are two curves with no common components, and no multiple components, apply (a) to the curve F G. Deduce that there are sequences of quadratic transformations F = F 1 , . . . , F S = F and G = G 1 , . . . , G s = G , where F and G have only ordinary multiple points, and no

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CHAPTER 7. RESOLUTION OF SINGULARITIES

tangents in common at points of intersection. Show that deg(F ) deg(G) = m P (F )m P (G) +
i >1, j

m P i j (F i )m P i j (G i ),

where the P i j are the neighboring singularities of F G, determined as in Problem 7.15.

7.5 Nonsingular Models of Curves
Theorem 3. Let C be a projective curve. Then there is a nonsingular projective curve X and a birational morphism f from X onto C . If f : X → C is another, then there is a unique isomorphism g : X → X such that f g = f . Proof. The uniqueness follows from Corollary 2 of §7.1. For the existence, the Corollary in §6.6 says C is birationally equivalent to a plane curve. By Theorem 2 of §7.4, this plane curve can be taken to have only ordinary multiple points as singularities, and Proposition 1 of §7.3 replaces this curve by a nonsingular curve X . That the birational map from X to C is a morphism follows from Corollary 1 of §7.1. If C is a plane curve, the fact that f maps X onto C follows from the construction of X from C ; indeed, if P ∈ C , we may find C with ordinary multiple points so that the rational map from C to C is defined at some point P and maps P to P (see Problem 7.13); and the map from X to C is onto (Proposition 1 of §7.3). If C ⊂ Pn , and P ∈ C , choose a morphism g : C → C 1 from C to a plane curve C 1 such that {P } = g −1 (g (P )) (Problem 6.43). Then if g f (x) = g (P ), it follows that f (x) = P . Corollary. There is a natural one-to-one correspondence between nonsingular projective curves X and algebraic function fields in one variable K over k: K = k(X ). If X and X are two such curves, dominant morphisms from X to X correspond to homomorphisms from k(X ) into k(X ). We will see later that a dominant morphism between projective curves must be surjective (Problem 8.18). Let C be any projective curve, f : X → C as in Theorem 3. We say that X is the nonsingular model of C , or of K = k(C ). We identify k(X ) with K by means of f˜. The points Q of X are in one-to-one correspondence with the discrete valuation rings OQ (X ) of K (Corollary 4 of §7.1). Then f (Q) = P exactly when OQ (X ) dominates O P (C ). The points of X will be called places of C , or of K . A place Q is centered at P if f (Q) = P . Lemma 2. Let C be a projective plane curve, P ∈ C . Then there is an affine neighborhood U of P such that: (1) (2) (3) (4) f −1 (U ) = U is an affine open subvariety of X . Γ(U ) is module-finite over Γ(U ). For some 0 = t ∈ Γ(U ), t Γ(U ) ⊂ Γ(U ). The vector space Γ(U )/Γ(U ) is finite dimensional over k.

7.5. NONSINGULAR MODELS OF CURVES

93

The neighborhood U may be taken to exclude any finite set S of points in C , if P ∈ S. Proof. We will choose successive quadratic transformations C = C 1 , . . . , C n so that C n has only ordinary multiple points, and open affine sets Wi ⊂ C i , so that (i) P ∈ W1 and S ∩ W1 = ; (ii) the birational map from C i +1 to C i is represented by a morphism f i : Wi +1 → Wi ; (iii) f i : Wi +1 → Wi satisfies all the conditions of Section 2, Step (3). These quadratic transformations and neighborhoods are chosen inductively. At each stage it may be necessary to shrink the previous neighborhoods; the remarks in Section 2, together with Problem 7.13, show that there is no difficulty in doing this. Likewise let f n : X → C n be the nonsingular model of C n (Proposition 1 of §7.3), −1 and let Wn+1 = f n (Wn ) (shrinking again if necessary); this time Section 3, Step (7) guarantees that the same conditions hold. Let U = W1 , U = Wn+1 . That Γ(U ) is module-finite over Γ(U ) follows from Problem 1.45. Suppose Γ(U ) = m Γ(U )z i . Since Γ(U ) and Γ(U ) have the same quoi =1 tient field, there is a t ∈ Γ(U ) with t z i ∈ Γ(U ), t = 0. This t satisfies (3). Define ϕ : Γ(U )/Γ(U ) → Γ(U )/(t ) by ϕ(z) = t z. Since ϕ is a one-to-one k-linear map, it is enough to show that Γ(U )/(t ) is finite-dimensional. Since t has only finitely many zeros in U , this follows from Corollary 4 to the Nullstellensatz in §1.7. Notation. Let f : X → C as above Q ∈ X , f (Q) = P ∈ C . Suppose C is a plane curve. For any plane curve G (possibly reducible), form G ∗ ∈ O P (P2 ) as in Chapter 5, Section 1; let g be the image of G ∗ in O P (C ) ⊂ k(C ) = k(X ). Define ordQ (G) to be ordQ (g ). As usual, this is independent of the choice of G ∗ . Proposition 2. Let C be an irreducible projective plane curve, P ∈ C , f : X → C as above. Let G be a (possibly reducible) plane curve. Then I (P,C ∩G) = Q∈ f −1 (P ) ordQ (G). Proof. Let g be the image of G ∗ in O P (C ). Choose U as in Lemma 2, and so small that g is a unit in all O P (C ), P ∈ U , P = P . Then I (P,C ∩ G) = dimk (O P (P2 )/(F ∗ ,G ∗ )) = dimk (O P (C )/(g )) (Problem 2.44) = dimk (Γ(U )/(g )) (Corollary 1 of §2.9). Let V = Γ(U ), V = Γ(U ), and let T : V → V be defined by T (z) = g z. Since V /V is finite dimensional, Problem 2.53 applies: dimV /T (V ) = dimV /T (V ), so dimk (Γ(U )/(g )) = dim(Γ(U )/(g )). By Corollary 1 of §2.9 again, dim Γ(U )/(g ) =
Q∈ f −1 (P )

dim(OQ (X )/(g )) =

ordQ (g ),

as desired (see Problem 2.50). Lemma 3. Suppose P is an ordinary multiple point on C of multiplicity r . Let f −1 (P ) = {P 1 , . . . , P r }. If z ∈ k(C ), and ordP i (z) ≥ r − 1, then z ∈ O P (C ). Proof. Take a small neighborhood U of P so that z ∈ O P (C ) for all P ∈ U , P = P (The pole set is an algebraic subset, hence finite), and so that f : U = f −1 (U ) → U looks like Section 2 Step (3). By Step (2) of Section 2, we know that ordP i (x) = 1. Therefore zx 1−r ∈ Γ(U ). But x r −1 Γ(U ) ⊂ Γ(U ), so z = x r −1 (zx 1−r ) ∈ Γ(U ) ⊂ O P (C ), as desired.

Let H be the Hessian of F . or nine flexes. . (b) If P is an ordinary cusp on F . (See Problem 7.G. . This gives another algebraic characterization of X . H be plane curves. The integral closure R of R is {z ∈ k | z is integral over R}.23). Let X be a nonsingular projective curve. F ∩ H ) = 6. H∗ ∈ (F ∗ . (c) With f : X → C as in Lemma 2. . there is a homomorphism ϕ : k(X ) → k((T )) taking t to T (see Problem 2. P . show that I (P. What conditions on X will make it unique? (b) Let f : X → C as in (a). show that there is a z ∈ k(X ) such that ordP i (z) = m i (Problem 5.17. m r ∈ Z.21. . . Show that the restriction of f to f −1 (C ◦ ) gives an isomorphism of f −1 (C ◦ ) with C ◦.24 gives another proof that every cubic is projectively equivalent to one of the type Y 2 Z = cubic in X and Z . . P ∈ X . (a) Show that there is 1 s projective plane curve C with only ordinary multiple points. . Let R be a domain with quotient field K . Let P 1 . C a projective plane curve. 7. Show how to recover the place from ϕ. or with z = H ∗ /G ∗ ∈ O P (F ).94 CHAPTER 7. . Proof.5. (b) If R α = R α . . r . (d) If the . Show that for any place P of a curve C . . (Hint: We may take P = [0 : 0 : 1]. 7. F ∩ H ) = 8 (see Problem 7. three. . Let F be an irreducible projective plane curve. Let P be a node on an irreducible plane curve F . and choice t of uniformizing parameter for O P (X ). (In many treatments of curves. ∗ 7. . H ) if ordP i (H ) ≥ ordP i (G) + r − 1 for i = 1. do a quadratic transform centered at f (P i ). then ( R α ) = ( R α ). .14). Suppose P is an ordinary multiple point of multiplicity r on C . . Applying Lemma 3 to z gives the result. Then Noether’s conditions are satisfied at P (with respect to F. and a birational morphism f : X → C such that f (P i ) is simple on C for each i .G ∗ ) ⊂ O P (P2 ) is equivalent with H ∗ ∈ (G ∗ ) ⊂ O P (F ). Show that m P (G) ≥ s if and only if ordQ i (G) ≥ s for i = 1. Let f : X → C as above.Q r the places on X centered at P . (Hint: if f (P i ) is multiple. r . Q 1 . . Problems 7. (a) Show that for any irreducible curve C (projective or not) there is a nonsingular curve X and a birational morphism f from X onto C . 2. L i ∩ F ) = 3 for i = 1.) 7.6). RESOLUTION OF SINGULARITIES Proposition 3. (a) If P is a simple node on F .32). . then Problem 5. then R = R. L 2 be the tangents to F at P . show that Γ( f −1 (U )) = Γ(U ) for all open sets U of C . . Let G. F ∗ = x y + · · · . Prove: (a) If R is a DVR.22. (c) Use (a) and (b) to show that every cubic has one. . . . a place is defined to be a suitable equivalence class of “power series expansions”. . P r be the places centered at P . .) ∗ 7.18. .15). P an ordinary multiple point of multiplicity r on F . F is called a simple node if I (P.) (b) For any m 1 . (c) Show that the curve C of Part (a) may be found with arbitrarily large degree (Problem 7.19. and let s ≤ r . and let L 1 . show that I (P.20. Let G be any projective plane curve. . possibly reducible. and use Proposition 2 to show that all monomials of degree ≥ 4 may be ignored — see Problem 5. and let C ◦ be the set of simple points of C .

and k cusps. and no other singularities. and i flexes (all ordinary). and δ simple nodes. . This is one of “Plücker’s formulas” (see Walker’s “Algebraic Curves” for the others). then i + 6 δ + 8 k = 3n(n − 2).7.5. NONSINGULAR MODELS OF CURVES 95 curve F has degree n.

96 CHAPTER 7. RESOLUTION OF SINGULARITIES .

g . Since z has only a finite number of poles and zeros (Problem 4. and (z)∞ = ordP (z)<0 − ordP (z)P . The divisors on X form an abelian group — it is the free abelian group on the set X (Chapter 2. Section 11). div(z) is a well-defined divisor. H of degree m in k[X . Section 5. Proof. then div(z) = (z)0 − (z)∞ . say g . K = k(C ) = k(X ) the function field. A divisor D = n P P is said to be effective (or positive) if each n P ≥ 0. and n P = 0 for all but a finite number of P . as in Chapter 7. the divisor of poles of z. Z ]. The points P ∈ C will be identified with the places of K . Define the divisor of G. the divisor of zeros of z. Y .5. and we write n P P ≥ m P P if each n P ≥ m P . Note that div(G) contains more information than the intersection cycle G •C . and G is a plane curve not containing C as a component. div(z) is a divisor of degree zero. f : X → C the birational morphism from the nonsingular model X onto C . where m is the degree of G. h forms of the same degree in Γh (C ). and we have seen that div(G) and div(H ) have same degree mn.Chapter 8 Riemann-Roch Theorem Throughout this chapter. Clearly deg(D + D ) = deg(D) + deg(D ). ordP denotes the corresponding order function on K . By Proposition 2 of §7. div(z). By Bézout’s theorem. to be P ∈X ordP (G)P .C ∩ G). to be P ∈X ordP (z)P .1 Divisors A divisor on X is a formal sum D = P ∈X n P P . C will be an irreducible projective curve. Take C to be a plane curve of degree n. Section 5. A rational function has the same number of zeros as poles. define the divisor of z. For any nonzero z ∈ K . div(G) is a divisor of degree mn. The degree of a divisor is the sum of its coefficients: deg( n P P ) = n P . n P ∈ Z. where ordP (G) is defined as in Chapter 7. Then div(z) = div(G) − div(H ). Note that div(zz ) = div(z) + div(z ).17). Let z = g /h. For any nonzero z ∈ K . h are residues of forms G. Proposition 1. div(G). If we let (z)0 = ordP (z)>0 ordP (z)P . P ∈X ordP (G) = Q∈C I (Q. if they are counted properly. 8. and div(z −1 ) = − div(z). 97 . Suppose C is a plane curve of degree n.

Applying the criterion of Proposition 3 of §7. For each Q ∈ X .e. The criterion proved in Chapter 7. G H = F F +G H for some F .19 it follows that a curve G is an adjoint to C if and only if m P (G) ≥ m P (C ) − 1 for every (multiple) point P ∈ C . X 1 . (1) The relation ≡ is an equivalence relation. then div(z − λ0 ) ≥ 0 and deg(div(z − λ0 )) > 0. both nonzero. Let X = C = P1 . Proof. (5) Let C be a plane curve.1. Then div(G H ) = div(H ) + D + E + A ≥ div(H ) + E . Proposition 2. Let z. in which case we write D ≡ D. Then div(G ) = div(G H )−div(H ) = D +E +A. z ∈ K . unless z − λ0 = 0. (iii) div(z) = 0. then deg(D) = deg(D ). its degree is m P (C )(m P (C ) − 1). Section 5 for Noether’s conditions to hold translates nicely into the language of divisors: Assume C is a plane curve with only ordinary multiple points. From Problem 7. and G H . Let C . Then div(z) = div(z ) if and only if z = λz for some λ ∈ k. Proof. a contradiction.5 to F . then D + D 1 ≡ D + D 1 . (3) If D ≡ D . we see that Noether’s conditions are satisfied at all P ∈ C .G .G of the same degree with D + div(G) = D + div(G ). z ∈ K . (ii) z ∈ k. Any plane curve G such that div(G) ≥ E is called an adjoint of C . By Noether’s theorem. Then the following are equivalent: (i) div(z) ≥ 0. Let H . Proof. as desired. i. (1)–(4) are left to the reader. Two divisors D. For (5) it suffices to write z = G/G . Problems 8. since div(z) = div(G) − div(G ) in this case. Then there is an adjoint G of degree m such that div(G ) = D + E + A. where t = X 1 /X 2 . (4) If D ≡ D . z ∈ k. If div(z) ≥ 0. every curve is an adjoint.98 CHAPTER 8. k(X ) = k(t ). Let 0 = z ∈ K . g relatively prime in k[t ]. f . . let rQ = m f (Q) (C ). where deg(G ) = m. X 2 homogeneous coordinates on P1 . (2) D ≡ 0 if and only if D = div(z). H . If C is nonsingular. Define the divisor E = Q∈X (rQ − 1)Q. (b) Calculate div( f /g ). D are said to be linearly equivalent if D = D + div(z) for some z ∈ K . H be curves of the same degree such that D + div(H ) = D + div(H ). for some effective divisor A.. RESIDUE THEOREM. Corollary 2. If z(P 0 ) = λ0 for some P 0 . Suppose G is an adjoint of degree m such that div(G) = D + E + A. and D 1 ≡ D 1 . E be as above. z ∈ O P (X ) for all P ∈ X . This E is effective. (a) Calculate div(t ). RIEMANN-ROCH THEOREM Corollary 1. Let F be the form defining C . (c) Prove Proposition 1 directly in this case. Then D ≡ D if and only if there are two curves G. with D ≡ D. Suppose D and D are effective divisors on X .

8.2. THE VECTOR SPACES L(D)

99

8.2. Let X = C = V (Y 2 Z − X (X − Z )(X − λZ )) ⊂ P2 , λ ∈ k, λ = 0, 1. Let x = X /Z , y = Y /Z ∈ K ; K = k(x, y). Calculate div(x) and div(y). 8.3. Let C = X be a nonsingular cubic. (a) Let P , Q ∈ C . Show that P ≡ Q if and only if P = Q. (Hint: Lines are adjoints of degree 1.) (b) Let P,Q, R, S ∈ C . Show that P +Q ≡ R +S if and only if the line through P and Q intersects the line through R and S in a point on C (if P = Q use the tangent line). (c) Let P 0 be a fixed point on C , thus defining an addition ⊕ on C (Chapter 5, Section 6). Show that P ⊕ Q = R if and only if P +Q = R + P 0 . Use this to give another proof of Proposition 4 of §5.6. 8.4. Let C be a cubic with a node. Show that for any two simple points P,Q on C , P ≡ Q. 8.5. Let C be a nonsingular quartic, P 1 , P 2 , P 3 ∈ C . Let D = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 . Let L and L be lines such that L.•C = P 1 + P 2 + P 4 + P 5 , L •C = P 1 + P 3 + P 6 + P 7 . Suppose these seven points are distinct. Show that D is not linearly equivalent to any other effective divisor. (Hint: Apply the residue theorem to the conic LL .) Investigate in a similar way other divisors of small degree on quartics with various types of multiple points. 8.6. Let D(X ) be the group of divisors on X , D 0 (X ) the subgroup consisting of divisors of degree zero, and P (X ) the subgroup of D 0 (X ) consisting of divisors of rational functions. Let C 0 (X ) = D 0 (X )/P (X ) be the quotient group. It is the divisor class group on X . (a) If X = P1 , then C 0 (X ) = 0. (b) Let X = C be a nonsingular cubic. Pick P 0 ∈ C , defining ⊕ on C . Show that the map from C to C 0 (X ) that sends P to the residue class of the divisor P − P 0 is an isomorphism from (C , ⊕) onto C 0 (X ). 8.7. When do two curves G, H have the same divisor (C and X are fixed)?

8.2 The Vector Spaces L(D)
Let D = n P P be a divisor on X . Each D picks out a finite number of points, and assigns integers to them. We want to determine when there is a rational function with poles only at the chosen points, and with poles no “worse” than order n P at P ; if so, how many such functions are there? Define L(D) to be { f ∈ K | ordP ( f ) ≥ −n P for all P ∈ X }, where D = n P P . Thus a rational function f belongs to L(D) if div( f ) + D ≥ 0, or if f = 0. L(D) forms a vector space over k. Denote the dimension of L(D) by l (D); the next proposition shows that l (D) is finite. Proposition 3. (1) If D ≤ D , then L(D) ⊂ L(D ), and dimk (L(D )/L(D)) ≤ deg(D − D). (2) L(0) = k; L(D) = 0 if deg(D) < 0. (3) L(D) is finite dimensional for all D. If deg(D) ≥ 0, then l (D) ≤ deg(D) + 1. (4) If D ≡ D , then l (D) = l (D ). Proof. (1): D = D + P 1 + · · · + P s , and L(D) ⊂ L(D + P 1 ) ⊂ · · · ⊂ L(D + P 1 + · · · + P s ), so it suffices to show that dim(L(D + P )/L(D)) ≤ 1 (Problem 2.49). To prove this, let t be a uniformizing parameter in O P (X ), and let r = n P be the coefficient of P in D.

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Define ϕ : L(D + P ) → k by letting ϕ( f ) = (t r +1 f )(P ); since ordP ( f ) ≥ −r − 1, this is well-defined; ϕ is a linear map, and Ker(ϕ) = L(D), so ϕ induces a one-to-one linear map ϕ : L(D + P )/L(D) → k, which gives the result. (2): This follows from Corollary 1 and Proposition 2 (3) of §8.1. (3): If deg(D) = n ≥ 0, choose P ∈ X , and let D = D − (n + 1)P . Then L(D ) = 0, and by (1), dim(L(D)/L(D )) ≤ n + 1, so l (D) ≤ n + 1. (4): Suppose D = D +div(g ). Define ψ : L(D) → L(D ) by setting ψ( f ) = f g . Since ψ is an isomorphism of vector spaces, l (D) = l (D ). More generally, for any subset S of X , and any divisor D = n P P on X , define degS (D) = P ∈S n P , and L S (D) = { f ∈ K | ordP ( f ) ≥ −n P for all P ∈ S}. Lemma 1. If D ≤ D , then L S (D) ⊂ L S (D ). If S is finite, then dim(L S (D )/L S (D)) = degS (D − D). Proof. Proceeding as in Proposition 3, we assume D = D + P , and define ϕ : L S (D + P ) → k the same way. We must show that ϕ maps L S (D + P ) onto k, i.e., ϕ = 0, for then ϕ is an isomorphism. Thus we need to find an f ∈ K with ordP ( f ) = −r − 1, and with ordQ ( f ) ≥ −nQ for all Q ∈ S. But this is easy, since S is finite (Problem 7.21(b)). The next proposition is an important first step in calculating the dimension l (D). The proof (see Chevalley’s “Algebraic Functions of One Variable”, Chap. I.) involves only the field of rational functions. Proposition 4. Let x ∈ K , x ∈ k. Let Z = (x)0 be the divisor of zeros of x, and let n = [K : k(x)]. Then (1) Z is an effective divisor of degree n. (2) There is a constant τ such that l (r Z ) ≥ r n − τ for all r . Proof. Let Z = (x)0 = n P P , and let m = deg(Z ). We show first that m ≤ n. Let S = {P ∈ X | n P > 0}. Choose v 1 , . . . , v m ∈ L S (0) so that the residues v 1 , . . . , v m ∈ S L (0)/L S (−Z ) form a basis for this vector space (Lemma 1). We will show that v 1 , . . . , v m are linearly independent over k(x). If not (by clearing denominators and multiplying by a power of x), there would be polynomials g i = λi + xh i ∈ k[x] with λi ∈ k, g i v i = 0, not all λi = 0. But then λi v i = −x h i v i ∈ L S (−Z ), so λi v i = 0, a contradiction. So m ≤ n. Next we prove (2). Let w 1 , . . . , w n be a basis of K over k(x) (Proposition 9 of §6.5). We may asn n −1 sume that each w i satisfies an equation w i i + a i 1 w i i + · · · = 0, a i j ∈ k[x −1 ] (Probn lem 1.54). Then ordP (a i j ) ≥ 0 if P ∈ S. If ordP (w i ) < 0, P ∈ S, then ordP (w i i ) < ordP (a i j w i i ), which is impossible (Problem 2.29). It follows that for some t > 0, div(w i ) + t Z ≥ 0, i = 1, . . . , n. Then w i x − j ∈ L((r + t )Z ) for i = 1, . . . , n, j = 0, 1, . . . , r . Since the w i are independent over k(x), and 1, x −1 , . . . , x −r are independent over k, {w i x − j | i = 1, . . . , n, j = 0, . . . , r } are independent over k. So l ((r + t )Z ) ≥ n(r + 1). But l ((r + t )Z ) = l (r Z ) + dim(L((r + t )Z )/L(r Z )) ≤ l (r Z ) + t m by Proposition 3 (1). Therefore l (r Z ) ≥ n(r + 1) − t m = r n − τ, as desired. Lastly, since r n − τ ≤ l (r Z ) ≤ r m + 1 (Proposition 3 (3)), if we let r get large, we see that n ≤ m.
n −j

8.3. RIEMANN’S THEOREM Corollary. The following are equivalent: (1) (2) (3) (4) C is rational. X is isomorphic to P1 . There is an x ∈ K with deg((x 0 )) = 1. For some P ∈ X , l (P ) > 1.

101

Proof. (4) says that there is nonconstant x ∈ L(P ), so (x)∞ = P . Then deg((x)0 ) = deg((x)∞ ) = 1, so [K : k(x)] = 1, i.e., K = k(x) is rational. The rest is easy (see Problem 8.1).

Problems
∗ 8.8. If D ≤ D , then l (D ) ≤ l (D) + deg(D − D), i.e., deg(D) − l (D) ≤ deg(D ) − l (D ). 8.9. Let X = P1 , t as in Problem 8.1. Calculate L(r (t )0 ) explicitly, and show that l (r (t )0 ) = r + 1. 8.10. Let X = C be a cubic, x, y as in Problem 8.2. Let z = x −1 . Show that L(r (z)0 ) ⊂ k[x, y], and show that l (r (z)0 ) = 2r if r > 0. ∗ 8.11. Let D be a divisor. Show that l (D) > 0 if and only if D is linearly equivalent to an effective divisor. 8.12. Show that deg(D) = 0 and l (D) > 0 are true if and only if D ≡ 0. ∗ 8.13. Suppose l (D) > 0, and let f = 0, f ∈ L(D). Show that f ∈ L(D − P ) for all but a finite number of P . So l (D − P ) = l (D) − 1 for all but a finite number of P .

8.3 Riemann’s Theorem
If D is a large divisor, L(D) should be large. Proposition 4 shows this for divisors of a special form. RIEMANN’S THEOREM. There is an integer g such that l (D) ≥ deg(D) + 1 − g for all divisors D. The smallest such g is called the genus of X (or of K , or C ). The genus is a nonnegative integer. Proof. For each D, let s(D) = deg(D) + 1 − l (D). We want to find g so that s(D) ≤ g for all D. (1) s(0) = 0, so g ≥ 0 if it exists. (2) If D ≡ D , then s(D) = s(D ) (Propositions 2 and 3 of §8.2). (3) If D ≤ D , then s(D) ≤ s(D ) (Problem 8.8). Let x ∈ K , x ∈ k, let Z = (x)0 , and let τ be the smallest integer that works for Proposition 4 (2). Since s(r Z ) ≤ τ + 1 for all r , and since r Z ≤ (r + 1)Z , we deduce from (3) that (4) s(r Z ) = τ + 1 for all large r > 0. Let g = τ + 1. To finish the proof, it suffices (by (2) and (3)) to show: (5) For any divisor D, there is a divisor D ≡ D, and an integer r ≥ 0 such that D ≤ r Z . To prove this, let Z = n P P , D = m P P . We want D = D − div( f ), so we need m P −ordP ( f ) ≤ r n P for all P . Let y = x −1 , and let T = {P ∈ X | m P > 0 and ordP (y) ≥ 0}.

Then m P −ordP ( f ) ≤ 0 whenever ordP (y) ≥ 0. For if X is a nonsingular cubic. and by the above Corollary 1. l (P ) = 1. If ordP (y) < 0. By its definition the genus depends only on the nonsingular model. i. Then (x)∞ = 2P since if (x)∞ = P . then (y/(x −α1 ))2 = x −α3 . x. Proofs. g = 0 by Corollary 2 and Problem 8. By the Corollary of §8. Then the genus g of C is given by the formula g = (n − 1)(n − 2) r P (r P − 1) − . (2) (char(k) = 2) g = 1 if and only if C is birationally equivalent to a nonsingular cubic. Examples. and let N = deg(D 0 )+ g . then n P > 0. l (r P ) = r for all r > 0. There is an integer N such that for all divisors D of degree > N . we see that a = 0 and degQ = 3.2. Then if deg(D) ≥ N . where C = V (Y 2 Z − 3=1 (X − αi Z )) is a nonsingular i cubic. x ∈ k. deg(D −D 0 )+1−g > 0. there is a relation of the form a y 2 + (bx + c)y = Q(x). It follows that K = k(C ). l (P ) > 1 for any P ∈ X . So the αi are distinct. Let C be a plane curve with only ordinary multiple points. y be a basis for L(3P ). The usefulness of Riemann’s Theorem depends on being able to calculate the genus of a curve. r P = m P (C ). If C is rational. Q a polynomial of degree ≤ 3. 2 2 P ∈C . Since we have a method for finding a plane curve with only ordinary multiple points that is birationally equivalent to a given curve. For the third. we may assume y 2 = 3=1 (x −αi ). or the function field. So [K : k(x)] = 2. if g = 1. and the result follows from Corollary 1. so by Riemann’s Theorem. y ∈ k(y/(x − α1 )). but then X would be rational. RIEMANN-ROCH THEOREM Let f = P ∈T (y − y(P ))mP . By calculating ordP of both sides. then l (D) = deg(D) + 1 − g . D ≡ D +div( f ) ≥ D 0 . If α1 = α2 . Let 1.2. Let n be the degree of C . Conversely. x 2 . x.9 (or Proposition 5 below). so we may assume a = 1.102 CHAPTER 8. y 2 ∈ L(6P ). (1) g = 0 if and only if C is rational. then g = deg(r (x)0 ) − l (r (x)0 ) + 1 for all sufficiently large r. y). If x ∈ K . choose D 0 such that l (D 0 ) = deg(D 0 )+1−g . l (D) = deg(D) + 1 − g .. Problems 8. the result follows from Corollary 2. l (D −D 0 ) > 0. Then D −D 0 +div( f ) ≥ 0 for some f . Since 1. Replacing y by y + 1 (bx +c). If l (D 0 ) = deg(D 0 ) + 1 − g . Conversely. and D ≡ D ≥ D 0 . The first two corollaries were proved on the way to proving Riemann’s Theorem. Then (y)∞ = 3P . so K = k(x.e. Corollary 2. i 2 so x. Let 1.10 and 5.24 (or Proposition 5 below). so a large r will take care of this. if g = 0. the following proposition is all that we need: Proposition 5. and the result follows from the Corollary to Proposition 4 of §8. Corollary 1. which contradicts the first example. C would be rational. x y. y. then l (P ) ≥ 1 for all P . x be a basis for L(2P ). Corollary 3. so y ∈ k(x). so two birationally equivalent curves have the same genus.

The Residue Theorem allows us to find all effective divisors linearly equivalent to certain divisors D. Let n Em = m i =1 Pi − E . . Let F be the form defining C . not the projective space of curves. Let E = Q∈X (rQ − 1)Q. It follows that l (E m ) = deg(E m ) + 1 − (n − 1)(n − 2) − 2 r P (r P − 1) 2 ψ ϕ for large m. (Note that Vm is the vector space of forms. where Wm−n is the space of all forms of degree m −n.) It follows that the following sequence of vector spaces is exact: 0 −→ Wm−n −→ Vm −→ L(E m ) −→ 0.10. So R/S = A/Z m in k(F ). S forms of the same degree. and ψ(H ) = F H for H ∈ Wm−n . we need to find some “large” divisors D for which we can calculate l (D). By Proposition 7of §2. and ϕ(G) = 0 if and only if G is divisible by F . The number on the right is what we called g ∗ (C ) in Chapter 7. Section 4. By the above Corollary 3. rQ = r f (Q) = m f (Q) (C ) as in Section 1. By Proposition 3 of §7. . Then g ≤ (n − 1)(n − 2) − 2 r P (r P − 1) . But since deg(E m ) increases as m increases.5. . Corollary 3 of Riemann’s Theorem applies to finish the proof. So E m is a divisor of degree mn − P ∈C r P (r P − 1).) Let ϕ : Vm → L(E m ) be defined by ϕ(G) = G/Z m . Corollary 1. We may assume that the line Z = 0 intersect C in n distinct points P 1 . there is an equation R Z m = AS + B F . r P = m P (C ). Since G is adjoint if and only if m P (G) ≥ r P − 1 for all P ∈ C . P ∈ C . RIEMANN’S THEOREM 103 Proof. Then div(R Z m ) ≥ div(S) + E . . These two observations lead to the calculation of g . We claim that ϕ is onto. Let C be a plane curve of degree n. . Let Vm = {forms G of degree m such that G is adjoint to C }. Then ϕ is a linear map. 2 Proof.2 to calculate the dimension of Vm . and so ϕ(A) = f . We find that dimVm ≥ (m + 1)(m + 2) − 2 r P (r P − 1) . (Note that div(A) = div(R Z m ) − div(S) ≥ E .3. so A ∈ Vm . so Theorem 2 of §7. we may calculate dim L(E m ).4 concludes the proof. P n . For if f ∈ L(E m ). We saw there that g ∗ decreases under quadratic transformations. at least for m large. 2 with equality if m is large.8. we may apply Theorem 1 of §5. write f = R/S. with R.

and l (E n−3 ) ≥ g . z ∈ k. Show that a morphism from a projective curve X to a curve Y is either constant or surjective. if it is surjective.20. Examples. and let P be a simple point on C . Prove that f (X ) = Y . 8. then C 2 is rational.16. Let X . f : : X → Y a dominating morphism. Y be nonsingular projective curves.16.12. (Hint: Consider C = closure of f (C ) in V . (Hint: If P ∈ Y f (X ).) 8. so is of genus 2.15. 2 not every curve is birationally equivalent to a nonsingular plane curve. For example. and no nonsingular plane curve has genus 2. O X ) for all r ≥ 0. Let U be any open set on X .4 Derivations and Differentials This section contains the algebraic background needed to study differentials on a curve. This follows from the exact sequence constructed in proving the proposition. Since a nonsingular curve of degree n has genus (n−1)(n−2) . then Vm = L(E m ). any h ∈ L(E m ) may be written h = H /Z m . O X ) is infinite dimensional 8. (a) With E m as in the proof of the proposition. then f˜(Γ(Y {P })) ⊂ Γ(X ) = k. apply Problem 8. If f : C → V is a morphism from a projective curve to a variety V .21. Y 2 X Z = X 4 + Y 4 has one node. RIEMANN-ROCH THEOREM = (n−1)(n−2) . S = {P ∈ C | n P > 0}.18. (X 2 − Z 2 )2 − 2Y 3 Z − 3Y 2 Z 2 .17. Y must be projective.) 8. U = X that L(r D) ⊂ Γ(U . If r P (r P −1) 2 CHAPTER 8. Then Γ(U .104 Corollary 2. Let D = n P P be an effective divisor. Calculate the genus of each of the following curves: (a) (b) (c) (d) X 2 Y 2 − Z 2 (X 2 + Y 2 ).14. Corollary 3. over k. Nonsingular cubics have genus one. Show 8. Let C be the curve of Problem 8. Singular cubics are rational.14(b). S. Show that there is a z ∈ Γ(C {P }) with ordP (z) ≥ −12. Show that C 0 (X ) = 0 if and only if X is rational. . then f (C ) is a closed subvariety of V . Lines and conics are rational. (b) deg(E n−3 ) = 2g − 2. = U = X . The two curves of Problem 7. (X 3 + Y 3 )Z 2 + X 3 Y 2 − X 2 Y 3 . where H is an adjoint of degree m. Problems 8.19. 8. Proof. Let C 0 (X ) be the divisor class group of X . 8. 8. Note that if m < n.

Likewise. If x 1 . x n ). then ϕ (N ) = 0. It follows that if R = k[x 1 . if R is a domain with quotient field K . . y ∈ R. . then Ωk (K ) is a vector space of finite dimension over K . . then n x i D(y i ). x n ]. Let F be the free R-module on the set {[x] | x ∈ R}. λ ∈ k} (iii) {[x y] − x[y] − y[x] | x. . . A derivation of R into M over k is a k-linear map D : R → M such that D(x y) = xD(y) + yD(x) for all x. . This is most easily done as follows: For each x ∈ R let [x] be a symbol. y ∈ R. If we define ϕ : F → M by ϕ ( x i [y i ]) = induces ϕ : Ωk (R) → M . and M is a vector space over K . then ˜ any derivation D : R → M extends uniquely to a derivation D : K → M . so ϕ d (G(x 1 . . If R is a domain with quotient field K . . x ∈ k. there is a unique homomorphism of R-module ϕ : Ωk (R) → M such that D(x) = ϕ(d x) for all x ∈ R. they should behave like the differentials of calculus. Then Ωk (K ) is a one-dimensional vector space over K . since x = y z. Lemma 2. and G ∈ k[X 1 . x n )d x i . then d z = y −1 d x − y −1 zd y. then d x is a basis for Ωk (K ) over K . x n ∈ R. . . if K = k(x 1 . . called the module of differentials of R over k. d x n . we must have ˜ ˜ D x = y D z + zD y. . . Ωk (R) is an R-module. . x n )D(x i ). . . . In particular. .8. x i . . . If z ∈ K . . X n )) = i =1 F X i (x 1 . generated by d x 1 . and let M be an R-module. and z = x/y. y ∈ R} Let Ωk (R) = F /N be the quotient module. . . Lemma 3. It follows that for any F ∈ k[X 1 . then. y i ∈ R. . x n )) = i =1 G X i (x 1 . Let N be the submodule of F generated by the following sets of elements: (i) {[x + y] − [x] − [y] | x. Proof. X n ] and x 1 . x. .4. . . . and any derivation D : R → M . (2) (char(k) = 0) If x ∈ K . (1) Let K be an algebraic function field in one variable over k. . then Ωk (R) is generated (as an R-module) by the differentials d x 1 . Let d x be the image of [x] in F /N . . . x n ∈ R. and let d : R → Ωk (R) be the mapping that takes x to d x. Proposition 6. If we ˜ ˜ define D by this formula. . . . y ∈ R} (ii) {[λx] − λ[x] | x ∈ R. d x n . . . . . . it is not difficult to verify that D is a well-defined derivation from K to M . For any R-module M . . . . and d : R → Ωk (R) is a derivation. . . with x and y in R. we will omit the phrase “over k”. So D(z) = y −1 (D x − zD y). . n D(F (X 1 . . and z = x/y ∈ K . which shows the uniqueness. . X n ]. Proof. . We want to define differentials of R to be elements of the form x i d y i . Since all rings will contain k. DERIVATIONS AND DIFFERENTIALS 105 Let R be a ring containing k. .

y)/F Y (x. ϕ takes the derivative of f to the “formal derivative” of ϕ( f ). ordP (y ) ≥ −N . Therefore d x generates Ωk (K ). If f ∈ O . let O be a discrete valuation ring of K . Problems 8. G its image in R. for f ∈ O . But 0 = d (F (x. With O . Write f = i <N λi t i + t N g . Let M = K . We may assume F Y = 0 (since F is irreducible). Let ω ∈ Ω. K their function field as before. Choose N large enough that ordP (x ) ≥ −N . t ∈ k. Proof. X its nonsingular model. Y ]/(F ) = k[x. let D(G) = G X (x. y)d x + F Y (x. g . RIEMANN-ROCH THEOREM Proof. for G ∈ k[X . y)d y. 0) a simple point on F . By Lemmas 2 and 3. so D = 0. Generalize Proposition 6 to function fields in n variables. ω = 0. K = k(x. so F doesn’t divide F Y . t as in Proposition 7. and let P ∈ X be a place. h ∈ R. each term belongs to O . there is a unique element v ∈ K df such that d f = vd t . y]. df and let t be a uniformizing parameter in O .e. and . Y ]. so d y = ud x. We define the order of ω at P . h(P ) = 0. Let F ∈ k[X . λi ∈ k.30). t being fixed throughdt out. If f ∈ O . It follows (char(k) = 0) that for any f . With K as in Proposition 6. or on C .22. 8. y). where u = −F X (x. Show that. g ∈ O (Problem 2. then d t ∈ O . Proposition 7. and that D(x) = 1. and of the fact that Ωk (K ) = 0 in Proposition 6. as follows: Choose a uniformizing parameter t in O P (X ).5 Canonical Divisors Let C be a projective curve. f ∈ K . P = (0. and call v the derivative of f with respect to t . ordP (ω). write ω = f d t . ordP ( f ) ≥ −N . y)) = F X (x.6). Then f = i λi t i −1 + g N t N −1 + t N g . so ordP ( f ) ≥ −N . Let f ∈ O . as required. y). F Y (x.106 CHAPTER 8. Y ] be an affine plane curve with function field K (Corollary of §6. Let R = k[X . let ϕ : O → k[[T ]] be the corresponding homomorphism (Problem 2. elements ω ∈ Ω may also be called differentials on X . so f ∈ O .23. i.32). y)x + f Y (x. y) = 0. since f = f X (x. so dimK (Ωk (K )) ≤ 1. Then f = h −2 (hg − g h ). For z ∈ K . It is natural to write v = d t . 8. y)y . It is left to the reader to verify that D is a well-defined derivation. write f = g /h. Then if f ∈ R = k[x. The above discussion shows that d x and d y generate Ωk (K ) over K . and. So we must show that Ωk (K ) = 0. t ∈ K .. y) − uG Y (x. Using the notation of the proof of Proposition 6. Since ordP (g ) ≥ −N . it suffices to find a nonzero derivation D : R → M for some vector space M over K . We let Ω = Ωk (K ) be the space of differentials of K over k. we may assume O = O P (F ). We can now complete the proof. write z instead of d z . Use this to give another proof of Proposition 7. with u as in the preceding paragraph. y). y].

and no tangent to C at a multiple point passes through [1 : 0 : 0]. Consider the case when Y is tangent to C at P .2). as in Section 1. so ordQ (d x)−ordQ (F Y ) = ordQ (d y)− ordQ (F X ) for all Q ∈ X . and ordQ ( f x ) = rQ (Problem 7. and derivatives aren’t changed by translation. 1). [1 : 0 : 0] ∈ C . Choose coordinates X . suppose u were another uniformizing parameter. is defined to be P ∈X ordP (ω)P . Since F X (P i ) = 0 (Problem 5. Let W = div(ω). the divisor of ω. Then y −1 = Z /Y is a uniformizing parameter in O P i (X ). Then deg(W ) = 2g − 2 and l (W ) ≥ g .24. P i disi tinct. Then div(G) − E is a canonical divisor. deg(G) = n − 3. So the canonical divisors form an equivalence class under linear equivalence. Problems 8. Corollary. Suppose Q is a place centered at P i ∈ Z ∩ C . W is called a canonical divisor. (∗) Note first that d x = −( f y / f x )d y = −(F Y /F X )d y. Let F be the form defining C . Proof. If ω is another nonzero differential in Ω. all canonical divisors have the same degree. it suffices to show that div(ω) = E n−3 + div( f y ). CANONICAL DIVISORS 107 set ordP (ω) = ordP ( f ). f ∈ K . then W = div( f ω). so x is a uniformizing parameter.16). Let E m = m n=1 P i − E . Let E = Q∈X (rQ − 1)Q. div(ω). Therefore ordQ (d x) = ordQ (F Y ) = 0. so div(ω ) = div( f ) + div(ω). since d x = d (x − a). We may assume W = E n−3 .8. Let G be any plane curve of degree n − 3. as desired.) Proof. We may assume P = [0 : 0 : 1]. If 0 = ω ∈ Ω. To see that this is well-defined. Then P is not a multiple point (by hypothesis). Then this is Corollary 3 (b) of §8. and F Y (P ) = 0. both sides of (∗) have order −2 at Q. Y . this is the same as showing n div(d x) − div(F Y ) = −2 i =1 Pi − E . and dt likewise g / f ∈ O P (X ). and let f x = F X (x. . Since f y = F Y /Z n−1 . and div(ω ) ≡ div(ω). Let W be a canonical divisor. then f /g = d u ∈ O P (X ) by Proposition 7. so ordP ( f ) = ordP (g ). so −1 ordQ (d y) = 0.2. If Y is not tangent. Conversely if W ≡ W . and f d t = g d u. Z for P2 in such a way that: Z •C = n=1 P i . Let x = X /Z . so ordQ (d y) = −2. 1). then n ≥ 3 (notation as in Proposition 8). y. div(G) = 0. then y is a uniformizing parameter at Q (Step (2) in §7. are linearly equivalent. f y = F Y (x. i Let ω = d x. say W = div( f )+W . Proposition 8. as desired. so that div(ω) is a well-defined divisor. In Proposition 8 we shall show that only finitely many ordP (ω) = 0 for a given ω. y = Y /Z ∈ K . then ω = f ω. Since divisors of the form div(G) − E . Suppose Q is a place centered at P = [a : b : 1] ∈ C . (If n = 3.4). y. Show that if g > 0. In particular. Assume C is a plane curve of degree n ≥ 3 with only ordinary multiple points. and d y = −y 2 d (y −1 ).5.

Since P does not appear in E + A + B .2. Then div(G) = D + E + A. then l (D + P ) = l (D). For each divisor D.3). where B consists of n − 1 simple points of C . We can prove the general case if we can compare both sides of the equation for D and D + P . Let W be a canonical divisor on X . h ∈ L(W − D − P ).21). The heart of the proof is therefore NOETHER’S REDUCTION LEMMA. Let X = P1 . Let X = C . By Bézout’s Theorem. it follows that D + P ≥ P . (∗)D Case 1: l (W − D) = 0. with P i distinct. But B contains n −1 distinct collinear points. We must show that f ∈ L(D). 8. In particular. 8.C = P + B . and such that P is a simple point on C (Problem 7.108 CHAPTER 8. Choose C as before with ordinary multiple points. Since D + P ≡ D + P . and l (W − D − P ) = l (W − D). We use induction on l (D). Write h = G/Z n−3 . Proof. and P ∉ Z . and both these divisors are effective. Then g ≤ . and H is a curve of degree n −2. G an adjoint of degree n − 3 (Corollary 3 of §8. the Residue Theorem applies: There is a curve H of degree n − 2 with div(H ) = (D + P ) + E + (A + B ). Show that if g > 0. x. or D ≥ 0. If l (D) = 0. K = k(t ) as in Problem 8. A ≥ 0. note that deg(D + P ) = deg(D) + 1. but A ≥ P . So L(W − D) ⊂ L(E n−3 ). The terms in the statement of the lemma depend only on the linear equivalence classes of the divisors involved.26. applying Riemann’s’ Theorem to D and W − D gives (∗)D . If l (D) = 1.1. consider the equation l (D) = deg(D) + 1 − g + l (W − D).27. Take a line L such that L.25. D ≥ 0. y as in Problem 8. l (D) = deg(D) + 1 − g + l (W − D). so we may assume W = E n−3 . H must contain L as a component. Before proving the theorem. Our proof follows the classical proof of Brill and Noether. P ∈ X . Let h ∈ L(W − D). Calculate div(d t ). RIEMANN-ROCH THEOREM. and so Z •C = n=1 P i . Show that for any X there is a curve C birationally equivalent to X satisfying conditions of Proposition 8 (see Problem 7. notice that we know the theorem for divisors of large enough degree. 8. Show that div(ω) = 0.11). there are effective canonical divisors.28. Then for any divisor D. 8.e. i.. RIEMANN-ROCH THEOREM 8.21(a)). Now suppose f ∈ L(D + P ). If l (D) > 0. H (P ) = 0. div(LG) = (D + P ) + E + (A + B ). all distinct from P . Let ω = y −1 d x. Let i E m = m P i −E . and D ≥ 0 (Proposition 8 and Problem 8. while the other two nonconstant terms change either by 0 or 1. let div( f ) + D = D . and show directly that the above corollary holds when g = 0. We turn to the proof of the theorem.6 Riemann-Roch Theorem This celebrated theorem finds the missing term in Riemann’s Theorem. as desired. we may assume D ≥ 0.

and deg(D) ≤ g (Riemann’s Theorem).8. The first three are straight-forward applications of the theorem. applying Case 1 to the divisor W − D proves it. Then the Reduction Lemma gives l (D + P ) = l (D). Let D be a divisor. (3) l (D) = deg(D) + 1 − g + δ(D). if k = C). Applying Riemann-Roch to D concludes the proof.2. which is true by induction. i.8). and l (W − D) > 0. Therefore l (D ) − 1 ≤ g − l (D).e. Proof. Problems 8. Then ϕ is an isomorphism. (1) δ(D) = l (W − D). since otherwise we work with D − P and get a better inequality. Corollary 3. so we may assume l (D) > 0. If l (D) = 0. as desired. For Corollary 4. D ≥ 0. then l (D − P ) = l (D) − 1 for all P ∈ X . If l (D) > 1. If deg(D) ≥ 2g . which proves (1). l (W ) ≤ l (W − D) + deg(D) (Problem 8. and (2) and (3) follow immediately. Let δ(D) = dimk Ω(D). It is a subspace of Ω (over k). 2 Proofs.2). This case can only happen if deg(D) ≤ deg(W ) = 2g − 2 (Proposition 3 (2) of §8. choose P so that l (D − P ) = l (D) − 1 (Problem 8.29. using Proposition 3 of §8. then l (D) ≤ 1 deg(D) + 1. Choose g ∈ L(D) such that g ∈ L(D −P ) for each P ≤ D . Differentials in Ω(0) are called differentials of the first kind (or holomorphic differentials. If deg(D) ≥ 2g − 1. the index of D.5). RIEMANN-ROCH THEOREM 109 l (W ) (Corollary of §8. Corollary 2. proving (∗)D . D + D = W . The term l (W − D) may also be interpreted in terms of differentials. l (W ) = g if W is a canonical divisor. Corollary 1. Then l (W − D − P ) = l (W − D) if and only if l (D + P ) = l (D). If l (D) > 0. Case 2: l (W − D) > 0. So we can pick a maximal D for which (∗)D is false. Let D be any divisor. Define Ω(D) to be {ω ∈ Ω | div(ω) ≥ D}. Then it is easy to see that the linear map ϕ : L(D )/L(0) → L(W )/L(D) defined by ϕ( f ) = f g (the bars denoting residues) is one-to-one. . P ∈ X . then l (D) = deg(D) + 1 − g . And we may assume l (D − P ) = l (D) for all P . Proposition 9. Since (∗)D+P is true.6. implies (∗)D . (2) There are g linearly independent differentials of the first kind on X . and (∗)D−P .13). we may assume D ≥ 0. (∗)D+P is true for all P ∈ X . Choose P so that l (W − D − P ) = l (W − D) − 1. Define a linear map ϕ : L(W −D) → Ω(D) by ϕ( f ) = f ω. then the Reduction Lemma implies that l (W − (D − P )) = 0. Corollary 4 (Clifford’s Theorem). Let W = div(ω).. l (D) = l (D + P ) = deg(D + P ) + 1 − g + l (W − D − P ) = deg(D) + 1 − g + l (W − D).

prove the d (d + 3) − 2 (r i + 1)r i . Let P 1 . (a) Use linear systems to reprove that every curve of genus 1 is birationally equivalent to a plane cubic. The set of effective divisors {div( f )+D | f ∈ V. Show that ϕV (M ) is the divisor div( f ) + D. and D + D = W is a canonical divisor. r m nonnegative integers. If P ∈ X . i. . Show that ϕV (X ) is not contained in any hyperplane of P∗ (V ). . r 1 P 1 . (Hint: Use a g 4 . r m P m ) be the projective space of curves F of degree d with m P i (F ) ≥ r i . . . and suppose d ≥ n − 3. 8. then the correspondence div( λi f i ) + D → (λ1 . . Let f : X → Y be a nonconstant (therefore surjective) morphism of projective nonsingular curves. show that ordP (d t ) = e(P ) − 1. a hyperplane in V . and let V be a subspace of L(D) (as a vector space). (Hint: If D = ϕ−1 (M 0 ). . So these properties characterize canonical divisors. . r 1 P 1 .) (e) If V = L(D) and deg(D) ≥ 2g + 1. if ϕ : X → Pr is any morphism whose image is not contained in any hyperplane. (b) Show that every curve of genus 2 is birationally 3 equivalent to a plane curve of degree 4 with one double point.110 CHAPTER 8. f r +1 is a basis for V . .2. . Show that dimV (d .30. (c) A hyperplane M in P∗ (V ) −1 corresponds to a line m in V . The series is called complete if V = L(D). where deg(a) = g . (Hint: Consider affine plane curves y 2 a(x) + b(x) = 0. Y ). .2). . 8. then ϕ−1 (M ) = div(M /M 0 ) + D. show that the divisors ϕ−1 (M ) form a linear system on X . . . Show that D is a canonical divisor. r m P m ) = Compare with Theorem 1 of §5. The integer n = [k(X ) : k(Y )] is called the degree of f . (Linear Series) Let D be a divisor. RIEMANN-ROCH THEOREM 8. f (P ) = Q. Then l (D) − l (D ) = 1 (deg(D) − deg(D )). . f = 0} is called a linear series. The integer e(P ) = ordP (t ) is called the ramification index of f at P . . . (Hint: See Corollary 3.) 8.. . every effective divisor linearly equivalent to D appears. show that f (P )=Q e(P )P is an effective divisor of degree n (see Proposition 4 of §8. (Reciprocity Theorem of Brill-Noether) Suppose D and D are divisors. the series {div(G) − E | G is an adjoint of degree n not containing C } is complete. . and m P i (C ) = r i + 1. where f spans the line m. with C . let t ∈ OQ (Y ) be a uniformizing parameter. . P m ∈ P2 . (a) For each Q ∈ Y .) Linear systems are used to map curves to and embed curves in projective spaces.36. corresponding to a homomorphism f˜ of k(Y ) into k(X ). If f 1 . E as in Section 1. g Y ) is the genus of X (resp. the series is often called a g n .) 8. (This can always be achieved by replacing D by a divisor D ≤ D. . show that ϕV is one-to-one. 2 .33.34. Let V (d . r 1 . . Show that the mapping P → HP is a morphism ϕV from X to the projective space P∗ (V ) of hyperplanes in V . .32. (a) Show that. . . If deg(D) = r n.31.) For each P ∈ X . 2 8. P m . . deg(b) = g + 2. let HP = { f ∈ V | div( f ) + D ≥ P or f = 0}. (c) (char(k) = 0) If g X (resp. (b) Assume that there is no P in X such that div( f ) + D ≥ P for all nonzero f in V . 8. (b) (char(k) = 0) With t as above. Suppose there is a curve C of degree n with ordinary multiple points P 1 . λr +1 ) sets up a one-to-one correspondence between the linear series and Pr . Show that there are curves of every positive genus. Let D be a divisor with deg(D) = 2g −2 and l (D) = g . (d) Conversely. . . .35.e.

The point P is called a Weierstrass point if the gap sequence at P is anything but (1. More on canonical divisors. at P . (Weierstrass Points. From the Hurwitz Formula (c) with Y = P1 it is easy to prove that the genus defined here is the same as the topological genus (the number of "handles") of this manifold. Every curve of genus > 1 has Weierstrass points. and their relation to Max Noether’s theorem and resolution of singularities. (b) If t ∈ K and ωi = e i d t . . f (1) = f . (iv) There is a differential ω on X with div(ω) ≥ g P . . Such an X is called a hyperelliptic curve. . . can be found in my "Adjoints and Max Noether’s FundamentalSatz". .8. then r + s is not a gap at P . denote the derivative of f with respect to z by f . . . P. . let f (0) = f . then h = Wt (e 1 . 8. . Write ωi = f i d z. the gap sequence is (1. Such a Weierstrass point (if g > 1) is called hyperelliptic. Let Nr = Nr (P ) = l (r P ). ωg be a basis of Ω(0). assume char(k) = 0) Let P be a point on a nonsingular curve X of genus g . n g ) the gap sequence. g ) that is. j = 1. e g )(t )1+···+g . (b) The following are equivalent: (i) P is a Weierstrass point. (iii) l (W − g P ) > 0. . RIEMANN-ROCH THEOREM Hurwitz Formula 2g X − 2 = (2g Y − 2)n + P ∈X 111 (e(P ) − 1). (See Lang’s “Algebraic Functions” or my "Algebraic Topology". f (2) = ( f ) . .) 8. . . . 2. . . and let h = Wz ( f 1 . . . . ωg for Ω(0) such that ordP (ωi ) = n i −1. Part X. . and hence a two-dimensional real analytic manifold. which may be regarded as a ninth chapter to this book. . . and ordP (z) = −n i . (d) For all but a finite number of P ∈ X .i so there are a finite number of Weierstrass points. .AG/0209203. . etc. adjoints. . . . The points P ∈ X (and f (P ) ∈ Y ) where e(P ) > 1 are called ramification points. . It is available on the arXiv. 2g − 1). i = 0. a nonsingular projective curve has a natural structure of a one-dimensional compact complex analytic manifold. if g (n − i ) > 0. . (ii) i =1 i l (g P ) > 1. . . (d) If 2 is not a gap at P . . . e(P ) = 1.37. (a) h is independent of choice of basis. . and (n 1 . (e) An integer n is a gap at P if and only if there is a differential of the first kind ω with ord(ω) = n − 1. .) (e) Prove the formula (n i (P ) − i ) = (g − 1)g (g + 1). z ∈ k. up to multiplication by a constant. n g ) is the gap sequence at P .6. The curve X has a hyperelliptic Weierstrass point if and only if there is a morphism f : X → P1 of degree 2. . where (n 1 . . . 3. (char k = 0) Fix z ∈ K . f r ) = det( f j(i ) ). (d) Show that ordP (h) = (n i −i )− 1 2 g (g + 1) ordP (d z) (Hint: Let t be a uniformizing parameter at P and look at lowest degree terms in the determinant. r − 1.38. If k = C. . . f g ). Let ω1 . If Y = P1 and n > 1. . f r ∈ K . . . So there are exactly g numbers 0 < n 1 < n 2 < · · · < n g < 2g such that there is no z ∈ k(X ) with pole only at P . differentials. r (the “Wronskian”). . . These n i are called the Weierstrass gaps. let Wz ( f 1 . show that there are always some ramification points. math. . For f ∈ K . For f 1 . . (c) There is a basis ω1 . . . (c) If r and s are not gaps at P . (a) Show that 1 = N0 ≤ N1 ≤ · · · ≤ N2g −1 = g .

112 CHAPTER 8. RIEMANN-ROCH THEOREM .

where m = 0 or 1. P ∈ P2 . we have assumed that the characteristic of the field k was zero. 1 will insure that p doesn’t divide n−r . Section 5 is not true as stated in characteristic p. Since the dual curve is irreducible.26). For if P is terrible for F . A reader with some knowledge of separable field extensions should have little difficulty extending the results to the case where char(k) = p = 0. and then k = k(x. and so that P is not on a fundamental line. Theorem 2 of that section is still true. Then the point P on F corresponding to P on F will not be terrible for F . and r = m P (F ) ≥ 0. Since n − r ≡ n − m (mod p). The point [0 : 1 : 0] is terrible for F = X p+1 −Y p Z (see Problem 5. It follows that there can be at most one terrible point for F . The differential d x will be nonzero provided K is separable over k(x).. one of the choices m = 0. y) for some y ∈ K . it must be a line. one can always find lines that intersect F in n distinct points. The set of lines that pass through P forms a hyperplane (i.26: Let F be an irreducible projective plane curve of degree n. Note that P can only be terrible if p divides n − r (see Problem 5. Then n = deg(F ) = 2n − m.47). The point [1 : 0 : 0] is terrible for F = X p −Y p−1 Z . From Problem 8. It may be impossible to perform a quadratic transformation centered at P if P is terrible. 113 . since k is algebraically closed (hence perfect). it is possible to choose x ∈ K so that K is a finite separable extension of k(x). In particular. Lemma 1 of Chapter 7. Proposition 9 (2) of Chapter 6. However. for simplicity. then d x = 0. a line) in the space P2 of all lines. If P is terrible for F . Let us call the point P terrible for F if there are an infinite number of lines L through P that intersect F in fewer than n − r distinct points other than P . A few remarks might be helpful. Section 4 is false in characteristic p. Take a quadratic transformation centered at some point Q of multiplicity m. and we can proceed as before. however.23 one can easily deduce that if x is a uniformizing parameter at any point P ∈ X . the dual curve to F contains an infinite number of points on a line (see Problem 6.e. Let F be the quadratic transform of F .28). p must divide n − r . The same comment applies to the study of Ωk (K ) in Chapter 8. A more serious difficulty is that encountered in Problem 5.Appendix A Nonzero Characteristic At several places.

NONZERO CHARACTERISTIC .114 APPENDIX A.

vol. Foundations of Algebraic Geometry. New York. A. For the analytic study of curves over the field of complex numbers: S. 1966. Harvard lecture notes. Einführung in der algebraische Geometrie. Interscience. Introduction to Algebraic Geometry. R. Algebraic Curves. Addison-Wesley. LANG. 197–278. Commutative Algebra. New York. Math.. ZARISKI and P SAMUEL. 61. A. Amer. MUMFORD. 1955.Appendix B Suggestions for Further Reading For algebraic background: O. New York.. WEIL. J. Introduction to the Theory of Algebraic Functions in One Variable. Amer. Princeton.. Berlin. New York. W. . SERRE. Introduction to Algebraic Geometry. N. Elements of the Theory of Algebraic Curves. Lectures on Riemann Surfaces. CHEVALLEY. For more on the classical theory of plane curves: R. LANG.. L. pp. WALKER. For a purely algebraic treatment of curves over any field: C. Benjamin. Springer. A. 1946 and 1962. VAN DER WAERDEN. GUNNING. 1939. SEIDENBERG.-P. J. B. For an introduction to abstract algebraic geometry: D. 1962. 1958. 115 . 1968. Dover. 1967. Algebraic Functions. Princeton Mathematical Notes. Annals of Math. 1958. 1965. Faisceaux Algébriques Cohérents. Math. Van Nostrand. New York. Soc. 1952 For a classical treatment of general algebraic geometry: S. Soc.

Residues of Differentials on Curves.-P SERRE. . TATE. 1965. pp. Algèbre Locale · Multiplicités. .116 APPENDIX B. Heidelberg. 4th Ser. 1958. Hermann. Annales Sci. . 1. J. 149–159. Springer-Verlag Berlin. 1959.-P SERRE. Paris. vol. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING For other proofs of the Riemann-Roch Theorem: J. Groupes Algébriques et Corps de Classes. For a modern treatment of multiplicity and intersection theory: J. de l’Ecole Normals Sup.

69 21. f × g ∆ X . C UFD PID R/I ∂F ∂X . 47 21. I ∗ . (z)∞ D ≡D E L(D). An V (F ). 97 61 69 73 74 75 75 90 97 97 97 98 98 99 101 105 105 106 107 109 117 . r n P n ) nP P nP P ≥ mP P F •G Γ(U ). F ∩G) Pn (k). I a Γh (V ) I ∗ . F X i An (k). . f ∗ In m P (F ) ordP . dx df dt ordP (w). I p . 69 18. 70 19 20. V (S) I (X ) Rad(I ) F (V. Pn Ui . div(z) (z)0 . V ∗ . 47 22 23 24. 53 25 32 35. R. F X . 53. . l (D) g Ωk (R) d. g ). V T k(V ) O P (V ) f (P ) mP (V ) DV R. Γ(U . Q. or d k[[X ]] F∗ . IT . W δ(D) 45 46 48 53 56 61 61. Z.Appendix C Notation References are to page numbers.G( f ) tr. ordF P I (P. V∗ O P (F ) V (d . Va . 93 36 43 43 44 Vp . 47. 45 5. 47. 45 6 17 17. ϕi : An → Ui ⊂ Pn H∞ 1 2 2 2 3 4 4. 69 21. O X ) ( f . r 1 P 1 . k) Γ(V ) ˜ ϕ FT . deg dim(X ) g ∗ (C ) deg(D) div(G). div(w). . .

NOTATION .118 APPENDIX C.

59. 62. 62. 109 cone. 106 differential of the first kind. 25 discrete valuation ring. 75. 110 dual curve. 53. 94 119 . 57. 53 of a divisor. 63 curve. 36. 22 divisor. 53. 90 exceptional line. 97 dominate a local ring. adjoint. 61 derivation. 111 Clifford’s Theorem. 88 variety. 113 duality. 40. 4. 108. 97 class group. 48 exact. 75 cusp. 4 change of coordinates. 31 variety. 78. 107 of a function. 105 derivative. 109 on a curve. 106 dimension. 75. 83. 97 of a differential. 65. 88 flex. 102. 64.Index This index does not include the words defined in the sections of general algebraic preliminaries. 94. 97 of a morphism. 57. 110. 74 set. 75 direct product. 98 of a curve. 47. 77 dominating a rational map. 46 ring. 46 hyperplane. 107. 32. 50 biform. 110 addition on. 50 bihomogeneous. 77 double point. 4 plane curve. 59. 99. 20. 4 algebraic set. 86 canonical divisor. 111 affine n-space. 17 cubic. 78 blowing up a point. 28 excellent position. 82. 55. 45 conic. 64. 17. 97 linear equivalence of. 79. 55. 50 birational equivalence. 19 line. 4 transform. 99 degree of. 70 algebraic group. 78 coordinate axes. 69 Bézout’s Theorem. 108. 97 effective. 53–55. 94 degree of a curve. References are to page numbers. 98. 31. 57 bidegree. 40. 101. 33. 55. 110 of a zero cycle. 4 plane.

61. 46 ideal. 44 linear equivalence. 94 homogeneous coordinate ring. 97. 7. 37 intersection cycle. 102. 92 pole set. 33 multiprojective space. 102. 46 at infinity. 33. 50 multispace. 31. 46. 41 hyperelliptic. 54. 23 of a differential. 49. 70. 59. 107. 21. 21 polynomial function. 20. 62 Plücker’s formula. 43 function field. 31. 21. 88 graph. 83. 106 of a rational function. 110 good position. 82. 102. 81 of a variety at a point. 21. 47 of a field. 101. 69 components. 92. 50. 47 module of differentials. 50. 94. 46 coordinates. 34 line. 24 product. 46 hypersurface. 31. 46 function field. 18 polynomial map. 47. 61 Noether’s Reduction Lemma. 45 index. 31 point. 55. 46 ideal of an algebraic set. 68. 99. 90. 56 local ring. 105 algebraic. 74. 36 transversally. 93. 88 genus. 36. 5. 33. 104 Noether’s Conditions. 35 ordinary multiple point. 110 subvariety. 41. 4. 5. 98. 41. 98 series. 20. 109 intersect properly. 46 order. 92 Nullstellensatz. 34. 108. 45 Jacobian matrix. 110 hypercusp. 75. 62. 79 maximal ideal of a variety at a point.120 form. 88. 50. 53 at infinity. 17 map. 69 INDEX local ring of a variety at a point. 36 irreducible algebraic set. 50 node. 94 Noether’s Fundamental Theorem. 62 Pascal. 70 multiple component. 7 nonsingular curve. 81 model. 48. 110 Pappus. 94. 91. 85. 8. 95 places. 74 power series. 105 morphism. 31 of a point. 75 fundamental point. 4. 23 function. 45. 31 multiplicity of a component. 84. 45 Hurwitz Formula. 61 number. 53 of a tangent. 76. 86 Hessian. 51 . 111 hyperplane. 108 Noetherian ring. 35. 19. 10. 32. 44. 47 system. 20.

69 Weierstrass point. 22 value of a function. 43 algebraic set. 54 space. 31 node. 31. 81 subvariety. 47. 75 tangent line. 70 quadratic transformation. 71 simple component. 51. 21. 108 Segre embedding. 45 change of coordinates. 53. 94 point. 47 closure. 60 121 . 77 rational over a field. 90 quartic. 20. 75 uniformizing parameter. 6 ramification. 60. 88. 33. 45. 99 radical of an ideal. 109 Residue Theorem. 101 Riemann-Roch Theorem. 34 transcendence degree. 65 rational variety. 90 centered at a point.INDEX projective n-space. 31. 44 plane. 77 variety. 46 rational map. 78 Reciprocity Theorem of Brill-Noether. 69 zero-cycle. 46. 110 rational function. 44 variety. 69 surface. 49 equivalence. 77 domain of. 55. 98 Riemann’s Theorem. 54 line. 18. 111 Zariski topology. 68.

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