This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

]

January 2010 S1 Note

S1 Notes (Edexcel)

Copyright www.pgmaths.co.uk - For AS, A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets

1

co.For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Copyright www.uk . A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 2 .For AS.pgmaths.

pgmaths. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 3 .For AS.co.For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Copyright www.uk .

co.For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Copyright www.pgmaths.uk .For AS. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 4 .

For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Copyright www.For AS.pgmaths. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 5 .co.uk .

co.pgmaths.uk .For AS.For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Copyright www. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 6 .

co.For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Copyright www.uk .pgmaths. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 7 .For AS.

For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Copyright www. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 8 .For AS.co.uk .pgmaths.

co.pgmaths.uk .For AS. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 9 .For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Copyright www.

mean = mode = median 95% of data lies within 2 standard deviations of mean 68. Explain the process involved in the formulation of a statistical model. enables us to gain a quicker / cheaper understanding of a real world problem Advantage and disadvantage of statistical model Advantage : cheaper and quicker Disadvantage : not fully accurate “Statistical models can be used to describe real world problems. Independent Events P ( A ∩ B) = P( A) × P( B) Mutually Exclusive Events P( A ∩ B) = 0 Copyright www. • Statistical concepts are used to test how well the model describes the real-world problem • Refine model if necessary. Normal Distribution Bell shaped curve symmetrical about mean.pgmaths. “Explain briefly why mathematical models can help to improve our understanding of real world problems” Simplifies a real world problem.3% between one standard deviation of mean 2 conditions for skewness Positive skew if ( Q3 − Q2 ) − ( Q2 − Q1 ) > 0 and if Mean − Median > 0 .For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Definitions for S1 Statistical Experiment A test/investigation/process adopted for collecting data to provide evidence for or against a hypothesis.uk . Negative skew if ( Q3 − Q2 ) − ( Q2 − Q1 ) < 0 and if Mean − Median < 0 .For AS.” • Observe real-world problem • Devise a statistical model and collect data • (Experimental) data collected • Model used to make predictions • Compare and observe against expected outcomes and test model. A sample space A list of all possible outcomes of an experiment Event Sub-set of possible outcomes of an experiment.co. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 10 .

Copyright www. the dependent variable would be length of life.uk .pgmaths.co. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 11 .For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Explanatory and response variables The response variable is the dependent variable. Give two reasons to justify the use of statistical models Used to simplify or represent a real world problem Cheaper or quicker or easier (than the real situation) or more easily modified (any two lines) To improve understanding of the real world problem B1 Used to predict outcomes from a real world problem (idea of predictions) Describe the main features and uses of a box plot.For AS. So in a graph of length of life versus number of cigarettes smoked per week. It depends (or may do) on the number of cigarettes smoked per week. It depends on the explanatory variable (also called the independent variable).

A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 12 .5 ≤ s < 9. We must know how to interpret these groups.pgmaths.5 ≤ s < 14.5 9. Data may be displayed as grouped data or ungrouped data. such as choice of breakfast cereal etc. shoe size is discrete).g. So that Weight (w) 6570Or Score (s) 5-9 10-14 4.uk . So a person’s height is continuous since it could be any value within set limits.For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Data Discrete Discrete data can only take certain values in any given range. Number of cars in a household is an example of discrete data. Continuous Continuous data can take any value in a given range. We say that data is “grouped” when we present it in the following way: Weight (w) 6570Or Score (s) 5-9 10-14 Frequency 2 5 Frequency 3 7 NB: We can group discrete data or continuous data. Categorical Categorical data is data which is not numerical. The values do not have to be whole numbers (e.5 65 ≤ w < 70 70 ≤ w < 75 Copyright www.co.For AS.

75. 62.For AS. 71. The “stem” in this case represents the tens and the “leaf” represents the units so we have the following: Scores in Maths Test Stem (Tens) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Leaf (Units) 8 87 39 257 72292 581 512 25 We then arrange these in numerical order to give the following: Scores in Maths Test Stem (Tens) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Leaf (Units) 8 78 39 257 22279 158 125 25 NB : the data must be in order in a Stem and Leaf Diagram. Q2 and Q3 . 38. 62. 43. stem and leaf diagrams. 81. 52. We see that the smallest value is 18 and the largest is 95. 49. We can easily see the smallest and largest values and we can see that the mode is 62. 69. etc. We should also include a “key” with the diagram. so we say 1 8 means 18 This diagram tells us the basic shape of the distribution. box plots. Stem and Leaf Diagrams The stem and leaf diagram is a very useful way of grouping data whilst retaining the original data. 78. 95. 57. Use to compare distributions. We can also use it to calculate Q1 .For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Representation of Data Histograms.co.uk . The classes of stem and leaf diagrams must be of equal width and so it would seem sensible to choose classes 10-19. 20-29. 67. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 13 . Back-to-back stem and leaf diagrams may be required. 62. 82. For example suppose we had the following scores from children in a Maths test: 85. 92. Copyright www. 55. 18.pgmaths.

For AS. In this case our key would be: 18 0 means 18 and 18 4 means 22 Back to back stem diagrams We can use these to compare two samples by using a “back to back stem plot”. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 14 . In this we put stems down the middle and then one set of data on the left and the on the on the right. So we might end up with a diagram as follows: Physics 75 1 653 421 94310 842 63 51 Maths 8 78 39 257 22279 158 125 25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Our key here would be In Physics 7 1 means 17 In Maths 1 8 means 18 Copyright www.uk . What we could do is have a stem of 18 and then make the leaf the number we add on to the stem.co.For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note NB: If we wanted to represent the interval 18-22 on a stem & leaf we could not make 1 the stem since not all the numbers would begin with 1.pgmaths.

The key feature of a histogram is that the area of each block is proportional to the frequency In order for the area to be equal (or proportional) to the frequency we plot frequency density on the frequency vertical axis.7 2 1.For use only in [the name of your school] January 2010 S1 Note Histograms Data that has been grouped can be represented using a histogram.5 ≤ x < 19. The answer is “Data is continuous” Length (m) 15-19 20-24 25-29 14. FD Length NB: If there are gaps between the stated upper limit of one class interval and the lower limit of the next class interval then we need to fill those gaps as shown below. Not 19 − 15 = 4 NB: Be careful with age since “15-19” would mean 15 ≤ x < 20 since one is 19 until the moment before one’s 20th birthday.5 ≤ x < 24.5 ≤ x < 29.15 0.15 etc. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 15 . The shape of the histogram gives us information about the mean and the dispersion Copyright www.5 24. it runs from the lower boundary to the upper boundary) Example Plot a histogram for the following: Length (h) 650670680690700-720 Frequency 3 7 20 16 4 Class width 20 10 10 10 20 Frequency Density 0.e.5 So the class width is 5.6 0. where frequency density = .pgmaths. The class width is the width of the interval class width (i. A histogram is made up of rectangles of varying widths and heights – there are no gaps between the blocks.co.5 19.For AS. For example.uk . When question says “give a reason to justify the use of a histogram to represent these data”….2 So the first block runs from 650 to 670 and has height 0.

Q2 marked on it. If the question refers to outliers then we should use a refined box plot where we fix the length of the whisker to. Q1 to the upper quartile Q3 with the median. Concepts outliers. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 16 .5 ( Q3 − Q1 ) Q1 Q2 Q3 NB We can tell something about the skewness / symmetry of the distribution from the box plot. There is a box which runs from the lower quartile. For example. Any rule to identify outliers will be specified in the question.co. The whisker then goes from this box to the lowest value in one direction and to the highest value in the other. Lowest Value Q1 Q2 Highest Value Q3 Skewness. 1.5 ( Q3 − Q1 ) at the end where an outlier lies.uk . for example.pgmaths.For use only in [the name of your school] Box Plot Diagram (or Box and whisker diagram) January 2010 S1 Note This is a diagram used to illustrate the dispersion of data. In this case we would mark with crosses those outliers which were outside of the whisker Outlier × Q3 + 1.For AS. Lowest Value Q1 Q2 Highest Value Q3 Copyright www. We end up with a diagram as follows: NB : It must have a horizontal axis with a scale on it.

Copyright www.co. A2 notes and IGCSE / GCSE worksheets 17 . Similarly.For AS.uk .pgmaths. For use only in [the name of your school] Lowest Value Highest Value Q1 Q2 Q3 The above is negatively skewed since ( Q3 − Q2 ) − ( Q2 − Q1 ) < 0 .January 2010 S1 Note We can see from the above that this is positively skewed ( Q3 − Q2 ) − ( Q2 − Q1 ) > 0 with a long tail of high values.

- edexcel s1 revision Notes
- Statistics 1 - Notes
- Edexcel S1 Notes
- s1 Revision Notes
- Core Maths C1 Revision Notes
- S1 Solution Bank.
- S1 Revision Notes V2 r1[1]
- Edexcel M1 Textbook
- Edexcel M1 Reviosn Notes (2)
- S1 Edexcel Revision Pack[1]
- C2 notes
- Edexcel Core Mathematics 3
- Edexcel GCE Biology AS Unit 2 Notes
- C2 Book Solution
- Edexcel Bio 2 Notes
- As Chemistry Unit 2 Notes
- Edexcel Chemistry AS Notes
- Edexcel C3 Summary Notes
- Edexcel GCE Biology Unit 2 Exam Revision Notes
- A Level Maths C1-C4 Notes
- Edexcel C1 Checklist
- Edexcel M1 REVISION!
- Edexcel s1 Mixed Question
- Statistics S1 - revision
- Chemistry Unit 3
- C2 Notes
- Edexcel C4 Summary of Notes
- Biology Revision Guide
- Edexcel S2 Cheat Sheet
- Maths C1 Notes
- S1 Notes

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd