This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
INTRODUCTION:Region as a spatial unit having distinct characteristics than the other places surrounding it. In India with its exceptional cultural diversity & range of physical environment & the implication of strong regional identities are central issues & contemporary concern. Regional identities means to explore an idea. To understand the the regional identity in all its uniqueness requires informed & sensitive insight into the complex & stable characteristics of a particular geographical area,its inhabitants & the cultures they have created. The physical settings, historical evolution,people,language,literacy style, culture,customs,formalities,manners,dresses,arts & crafts,etc as a whole not only help to create the image of Eastern Rajasthan, they are also specific element of environmental settings, cultural tradition & social structure that have all played a significant role in shaping the character of Eastern Rajasthan.The region Eastern Rajasthan bears a distinctive imprint of rich cultural heritage & historical glory of India. The forts,palaces,temple & mosques are the relics of the golden history of past. The geographical factors immensely influenced the course of history ,culture, society, polity & inhabitants of Eastern Rajasthan & finally evaluates the nature & strength of the regional character. Further details study of Eastern Rajasthan within the conceptual framework of region, regional identity & regionalism in Eastern Rajasthan might be explored. NOMENCLATURE:Use of any single name for contemporary Rajasthan is not traceable in historical background. It was probably George Thomas was the first who make use of the term Rajputana because of the sovereignty of Rajputs over this territory during 1800.During 1829 Col Todd in accordance to the old inscriptions has given the name Rajasthan to this territory. He was mention the term Rajasthan in his famous book Annals & antiquities of Rajasthan. LOCATION:The Aravalli mountain range has subdivided the Rajasthan state into two regions. Among them eastern part of the Aravalli represents the Eastern Rajasthan. It extends from 23o05’ N. to 28o53’ N.latitudes & from 73o09,E. To 78o19’ E.longitudes.the tropic of cancer passes through its southern tips in Banswara district.it has an area of about 170 sq. Kms. it is bounded by Punjab plain at the north, upper Ganga plain & Bundelkhand region at east, Malwa region at south east,Gujrat region at the south & western Rajasthan Plain at the west. This region comprises of about 21 districts &165 tahsils. HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EASTERN RAJASTHAN:this region dominate the regional history of India. From several historical evidences the evolution of this region can be recognized. The area was earlier settled by the preAryan people.this region constituted through successive processes:1. 17.3.1948(Matsya Union):four princely states of Matshya Union:i.Alwar ii.Bharatpur iii. Dholpur iv. Karauli. 2. 25.3.1948(Rajasthan):several princely-i.Banswara ii.Bundi iii.Dungarpur iv. Jhalawar v. Kota vi. Tonk has joined togather. 3. 30.3.1949(Greater Rajasthan):Jaipur marged with Rajasthan.
5.1949.Physiographically this region is subdivided into mainly three units:PHYSIOGRAPHIC PLATEAU(II) REGIONS PLAIN(III) ERODED MOUNTAIN(I) PLATEAU(II ) UPPER RIVERINE PLAIN(III A) LOWER RIVERINE PLAIN(III B) .India.1956(Recognised Rajasthan )Under the state reorganisation act Rajasthan constituted.highly contorted & faulted gneissic basement complex. etc. 7.1997:-Karauli come into existence from Sawai Madhopur.since then it has presumed that the imprints of all the major geologic events in some form or the other through the main formations outcropping in the region confined only to the dharwarians & vindhyans.Baran.gneisses.4. 5. 15. 6. 1.While the raialo series consists of metamorphosed limestones. 1.among them the Eastern Rajasthan include almost 21 districts. (Eds) (2004):’Rajasthan : From Prehistoty to the Independence Era’.Goyel. PHYSIOGRAPHY:The region has a varied topography which is the result of its geological history as well as the exogenetic forces that have gone into its making. 31. At present the rajasthan has 32 district.phyllites&schists with quartzitic intercalations occurring in nagaur. *source:.S. After 1991 the Rajasthan Govt.Jaipur.1991: Dausa. The ravines flanking the Chambal & its tributaries are of much recent origin.The lower Vindhyan are well exposed in Karauli tableland & extend through sawaiMadhopur to Bundi & Kota. The region appears to have undergone peneplantion in the later Mesozoic & subsequently it experienced warping.7.(United States Of Greater Rajasthan ): Matsya Union marge with Rajasthan. 15.the Aravalli system is largely composed of argellicious deposits.1994:-Hanumangarh formed from Ganganagar district .11. PHYSICAL SETTINGS:GEOLOGY:Geologically the region forms part of the Archean shield of deccan peninsula which consists of the well-foliated.Book Enclave. has done several jurisdictional change by creating 4 new districts & 24 tahsils. metamorphosed from shales through slates & phyllites to mica schists outcropping around Alwar . 8. Probably a second stage of peneplanation occurred during the tertiary & Pleistocene whereby the regional relief was greatly subdued.5.3.separated by the Great Boundary Fault.7. ajmer.This phenomenon of succession is amply demonstrated by the Banas river.R.The alluvium deposits belong to recent &sub recent periods.The aeilian accumulations of sand also belongs to the same period.
Anasagar & Pushkar lake:-these lakes are found in Ajmer.banas basin b.these are:-Gang canal.recreation & water supply. Apart from these rivers &lakes several canals are also found. CLIMATE:Effect of physiography on climate:- .Gurgaon canal.chappan plains DRAINAGE:The geological history .deccan lava trap 3.south-eastern plateau a.the formation of Aravalli range in diagonal shape .sambar & sekhawati lowhills ii.Vindhachal mountains.Although there found large number of fresh water lakes built by the then ruleraby damming the rivers in their territories for beautifying the the landscape . Himalayan mountain orogeny upheavals & climatic changes & phases have greatly contribute for the present drainage system in Eastern Rajasthan. a.Aravalli range & hilly region.Broadly 3 major physiographic divisions are included:1.Chambal Canal. Salt lakes:Sambar Lake:-It is the biggest salt water lake found north-west of Ajmer. In fact it is a trijunction watershed zone.central Aravalli range i. Chhoti Sadri (Chittorgarh) Originating from Janapur-Pahari Man Aravalli Hills Devar village (Udaipur) Vindhyachal hills(MP) Bagali Village Devas(MP) Bairath Hills(Jaipur) INTERNAL FLOWING RIVER Khandela Hills(Sikar) Sewar Hillocks(Jaipur) LAKES:Rajasthan Doesn’t have any natural fresh water lakes but has regions might be described as Salt lakes. a. eastern plains.vindhyan scarp land b. The rivers of Eastern Rajasthan may be classified into 3 systems:CATEGORY RIVER IMPORTANT AREAS FLOWING TOWARDS THE ARBIAN SEA Luni Mahi JHAKAM FLOWING TOWARDS THE BAY OF BENGAL Chambal Banas Kotari Parvati Kali Sindh Ban Ganga Kantli Sabi Ajmer Ka-Nag Pahar Originating from jhabhua. Artificial fresh water lakes:Ranpratap sagar.merwara hills 2.Gandhi sagar&Jawahar sagar:-These lakes are formed due to the formation of dam on the Chambal river.North eastern hilly region b.the location of great Indian watershed.
Parts of 1. 3. Jhunjhunun. That is why the diurnal range of temperature is very high. The temperature is relatively high In the south-east portion of Eastern Rajasthan.Aw Banswara.Si kar.Jhalawar.owing to its orography mt. Kota. but Ajmer & Jhalwar receive 55cm. atmospheric pressure . Climatic Regions:KOPPEN’S CLIMATIC REGIONS THORNTHWAITE’S CLIMATIC REGIONS CLIMATIC TYPE REGIONS CLIMATIC TYPE REGIONS 1.Dausa.Alwar.Jaipur. • As in Eastern Rajasthan mainly sandy soils & bare rocks are found .Chittaurgarh.Bundi Sikar. winds &rainfall :. Where the temperature is high there low pressure condition is prevailing which ultimately affect the direction & velocity of the wind & rainfall condition.which heated up very soon at daytime & also radiate heat very soon during night time.Cwg Other regions of Eastern Rajasthan. 4. . of rainfall.Bwhw Parts of churu & 3.CA’w Banwara.DA’w Ajmer.Jhunjhunun. 2.Location & physiography have greatly influenced the climatic characteristics of Eastern Rajasthan. 2.kota.Tonk. SOIL:- . Hanumangarh.Churu. The seasonal variation of atmospheric pressure takes place in a systematic manner with a maximum in winter & minimum in the monsoon season. Bharatpur. • The Aravalli mountain is located on the way of south western monsoon(Arabian sea branch).The thermal condition Influence both the pressure condition & air mass circulating pattern. Due to this reason the south-eastern portion of Eastern Rajasthan receives more rainfall.Chittaurga rh. Abu receives an exceptional rainfall.Bshw Nagaur.SawaiMadhopur. The south eastern portion generally receives more rainfall. The relative humidity is generally high during June to September about 76% & the amount of rainfall is relatively high. Climatic seasons:Climatically the year in Eastern Rajasthan region is generally subdivided into 4 seasons:• Summer or pre-monsoon-(May-June) • Monsoon season-(June-September) • Post Monsoon –(September-October) • Winter-(November to February) Temperature. Jhalawar.DB’w Hanumangarh& churu. As Nagaur receive only 30-40cm.Bhi lwara.
Medium Black:.DRY TROPICAL FOREST:. Bhilwara. bushes & scrubs. Dausa .kms. 5.Banswara &Chittaurgarh.SawaiMadhopur& tonk district.Found in Bharatpur. nitrogen & organic matter.Ajmer.this soil is saline & alkaline with high phosphetic content.The tints. 4.which have been subdivided into five categories:1.) SOURSE:-STATE OF FOREST REPORT. With large tracts of land being sandy & rocky & semi arid climate vegetation cover is sparse & limited to medium dense forest of small trees.2005 Data of three districts(Hanumangarh. physiographic & climatic conditions.Jhunjhunun& Nagaur. structure . forest cover can be found. 58 3.Chittorgarh &Dungarpur.soil is light textured & occur as sandy clay or sandy loam.Bharatpur. 2.Bhilwara & Alwar. Kms. Only in hilly tracts of Alwar 14 sq.Jhunjhunun.Soil of Eastern Rajasthan has developed under semi arid & humid condition over the bed rocks of complex nature. DISTRICTS FORES SCRUB T 498 226 1461 250 467 97 1226 143 319 83 356 136 595 150 1860 186 98 10 476 57 1058 435 515 120 364 176 727 114 218 105 1764 470 (Area in sq. 7.Tonk. of dense DISTRICTWISE FOREST COVER IN EASTERN RAJASTHAN.found in sikar. Alluvial soil:. Red & Yellow soil:-Found in Ajmer & Bhilwara.Jaipur.Prosopic Spicigera is the most useful tree found in this forest. AJMER ALWAR BANSWARA BARAN BHARATPUR BHILWARA BUNDI CHITTORGARH CHURU DHAULPUR JAIPUR JHALAWAR JHUNJHUNUN KOTA NAGAUR SAWAI MADHOPUR SIKAR 206 TONK 225 Banswara. Mixed red & black soil:.These found on the undulatting terrains of Churu.Alwar. 2.Although in this region area under vegetation cover is very less but varieties of trees are found . Desert soil:-found in Hanumangarh & Churu having high percentage of soluble salt & PH value.DRY TROPICAL THORN FOREST:. There are grasslands & pastures located in & around Sikar. 3.2005. VEGETATION:Vegetational aspect is the expression of the prevailing ecological. chemical composition. Grey & Brown soils:. Several types of soil are found here :1. Ferruginous red soil:-Found in entire Dungarpur district. Karauli) are not available. predominantly under the process of laterization.reaction & plant food contents bear large scale as well as local variations according to environments.These soil low in phosphoric content. Bamboos including 17 scurbs & grasses are also grown here.noticed in Kota & Bundi.Teak trees.Such types of trees are found in Dungarpur.with texture varying from clayey to sandy loam.These are found in . texture.found in Bhilwara. 6.DRY FORESTS WITH TEAK:.Sawai Madhopur.
BARYTES:-are found mainly in Alwar & Bharatpur. in Ajmer. economic.Alwar.4. At present the region has 2 National Parks & 23 sanctuaries & 23 closed areas.Cheetal.in Churu to 931 persons /sq.etc. In addition other mineral ores such as kanglomaret rocks.Kota & Jhalawar.Panther.TROPICAL DRY &DRY MIXED DECIDUOUS FORESTS:-These forests are found in Kota.Jungle cat. GRANITE:-white coloured building stones are found in Kota. DENSITY:In Eastern Rajasthan region at a glance represents that the population distribution is not uniform over the districts.Other migratory birds are include Flamingos.such as:BERYL:-Found in Ajmer.FloriteTungstone ores &Golds are also found DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS:POPULATION:During 2001 Eastern Rajasthan the total population was very high in Ajmer.Bundi & Dungarpur.Dhoulpur.Chinkara.Floricans.Jaipur.The density of population varies from district to district ranges from 114 persons/sq.Alwar & Jaipur.Deer.The scientific study of population density reveals that there is no particular reason for concentration of population over a district.Bluebull.Bundi.Vultures.Wild bore. social.Sawai Madhopur& Bharatpur. SOAPSTONE.Antelope. Sikar . Of population is not so high.Bhilwara & Tonk.Panted Shipes.Pintails.likeTiger.DRY FORESTS OF ANOGEISIS PENDULA:.Weavers. The average density is about 287 persons/sq.Forests of this types are found inChittaurgarh.Sawai Madhopur. GLASS SANDS:-These are found in Bundi. MICA:-foond in Bhilwara district.Bharatpur. FAUNA:The geographical location provides a variety of habitats. COPPER:-Copper mines are located around Khetri Singhana Region in Jhunjhunun & Kho-Dariba in Alwar. BIRDS:. 5.Sambhar.Babllar.Golden Oriols. . LIMESTONE:-available in Kota & Bundi.cultural as well as some regional factors & human behaviour determine the density of population in any region.km.km. MINERALS:Nature seems to have given Eastern Rajasthan a variety of mineral resources.Chittaurgarh.these minerals are being distributed in Bhilwara & Jaipur.Silica.among the birds Rock pigeon.TALC & STEATILE:.Tonk.Bhilwara.km.although Ajmer records highest population density but the total no.include:ANIMALS:-this region supports a large number of animals.King Fishers.environmental.Tailors.Fly catches.Monkey.Dhaulpur.Wood Peacocks are most commonly found. Several Physical.etc.Doves.Black Buck. institutional.
the population of the scheduled castes in the region is about 20% of the total population.There found several subcategories of scheduled castes on the basis of their livelihood. RURAL-URBAN COMPONENTS:According to the 2001 census .but members of other religious groups & sects living along with the Hindus are treated as castes for many purposes. but the southern part of the state is the homeland of the tribes.The Brahmin community in Eastern Rajasthan is divided into two main groups.Chittaurgarh & bundi.The Rajputs are divided into several Khamps like Shisodia.Nagaur .Regars& Bairawas are important constituents of the scheduled castes.Rathore. Thus not only the Hindus .In Banswara the percentage of rural population is very low.about 828 females per 1000 males .As kota is a industrially developed district.Eastern Rajasthan also has a preponderance of males over females. Rajputs.Alwer & Kota.Sex ratio in urban areas is rather low than the rural areas. SEVERAL TRIBES:Many tribes are scattered in different parts or Eastern Rajasthan .Zamindar Meena :-earn their livelihood through agricultural activities.among the different tribes some major tribes are include:1.Jaipur.Chouhan.These tribes generally do not suffers from any social stigma. Kachhava.e.almost in every districts in Eastern Rajasthan the percentage of rural population is more than the urban population.Meena:These tribes are concentrater in the districts of Jaipur. etc.SEX RATIO:As in most part of India . i. According to the 2001 census . Most of the population are concentrated in this district.only 7.Only in Kota district the urban population is high .blood & kinship relations have utmost importance in social life. Vaisyas.The Balais. SCHEDULED CASTES AND SCHEDULED TRIBES:According to Census of 2001 .Althoug they can’t be regarded as sub castes in technical sense but in local socio cultural context many an attribute is associated with them.Jhala.Where as it is high in Banswara about 982.Though rthe scheduled caste population is found in good numbers all over the region but they are easily concentrated in the districts of Hanumangarh.which has been both feudal & conservative is highly caste structured. .Sawai Madhopur.etc.Yadava . The Meenas & Bhils are the major scheduled tribes of Eastern Rajasthan.It has been estimated that there approximately 12% persons in Eastern Rajasthan who would be covered by the definition of scheduled tribes who have been guaranteed constitutional protection especially with regards to special assistance for educational & economic development.Tanwar . Among the several castes included the Brahmins.i. Generally 2 types of meena tribes are found viz. Chhanayatis & others.Sex ratio is very low in Dhaulpur.Dausa. CASTES:The social structure in Eastern Rajasthan .as this region is developed in both agricultural & industrial productions. The non-Hindu communities are also divided into several castes.15%Where as in Jaipur rural & urban population are almost evenly distributed.The Jats are generally a farming community. Marital ties..Sawaimadhopur & parts of alwar.
Banswara & Chittaurgarh.Bhilodi languages are found because of the existance of the bhil tribal groups . RELIGION:A number of religious groups are found in Eastern Rajasthan.They keep themselves from crime & violence. 2. But recently they have taken a settled life to agricultural activities.Of the remaiming includes :-Bhilodi. 3.Sahariya:They are found in bulk in kota district.Anglicans & other Protestant denominations are distributed all over the region.where as urdu language is found because of historical influence of the Mughals.Economically they are largely poverty striken nomadic tribes. But mostly concentratedd in the cities of Ajmer & Jaipur. 4.They are basically farmers.ii.i.sansi is a nomadic tribe & don’t have any permanent habitation. 5. LANGUAGE:Eastern Rajasthan is predominantly a Hindi speaking area& about 80% people speaks in hindi & its regional dialects. The swetambars are further subdivided into Mandir margis & sadhu Margis. ISLAMISM:The Muslim has been reported to be the second largest community.Marwari is the most predominant local dialect followed by rajasthani & Mewari. Chaukider meenas :-work as watchman to earn their bread.They dofarming & cattle breeding for their livelihood.Majority of muslims are Sunnis.Their social system are very well organized .Bhils are largely influenced by the hindu religion.Methodists. Swetambar & Digambar.That is why they also don’t have any stable occupation. The Buddhists & the people following other religions & persuasians form a negligible proportion of the population. SIKH:Sikhs constituted a large number of people of Eastern Rajasthan specially in Hanumangarh District. CHRISTIANS:The Christians including the Roman Catholics. LITERACY:- .Sansi:These tribes are generally found in Bharatpur district.Damore:They are found in churu & Banswara district.e. JAINISM:Jains are divided into two main sects.historically the evolution of this languages is linked up with shaurseni prakit & sanskrit.Ther are a number of temple & shrines belonging to belonging to both the sects all over the region.Panjabi & Sindh. The Shiyas have their pocketsmainly in Banswara .Urdu.bhil:They are largely settled in Bhilwara. HINDUISM:Inhabited by all the principal religious groups found in Eastern Rajasthan is overwhelmingly predominated by Hindus.
leisure timeactivities & pastime. The rural houses are made of mud mixed with dried grass.T.social & economic reforms. SOCIAL LIFE:a. however followed the rules of primogeniture.Chamars. c.etc.V. b. but at present concrete materials are also used.Marital System:Most of the communities in Eastern Rajasthan prescribe monogamy but some communities while exalting monogamy .radio.odhani.Dhankas. the Jagirdar class of Rajputs.dhobis.The quality & the size of the ornaments are the indicators of class.woman’s dress is ghagra. Bamboos grass &twigs.Polyandry System of marriage is not very common in Eastern Rajasthan. The scenario shows that.woods.The people of Eastern Rajasthan are very fonf of ornaments & traditional jwellaries.Although recently the joint family system is losing its rigid control over the individual & radical cganges are taking place because of several factors like:-the growing individualistic tendencies.lime . Property & Inheritance:The inheritance of property among the Hindus is generally guided by the Mitaksra rules of customary hindu law of inheritance. Joint Family System:The bond of jointness in terms of mutuality of rights & obligation could be considered a unique character of the famile system of the joint family in Eastern Rajasthan..Bhilwara & Tonk.folk dances.yet have permitted polygamy.secular education.Types of dwellings:The house construction & types of dwellings can easily be classified into rural & urban houses.folk dramas. b.leaves & grasses.kanchali. ECONOMIC ASPECTS:WORK PARTICIPATION:- .female literacy lags behind the male literacy throughout the region.etc.The tribal prople used Bamboo.Jaipur & Kota. HOME LIFE:a. Gujars.etc. c.The broad spectrum of literatures in Eastern Rajasthan shows that there found a marked differentiation in literacy rates between the rural & urban divides & between males & females.Where as the urban houses are made of stone .urbanization. games & sports club activities etc constitute some of the sources of entertainment in towns.These dresses are very colourful.modern theatrical performences .angarkha & pag or safa.Now a days the Cinema.brick block.Darogas.puppet shows fair & festival etc formed the various sources of entertainment.Apart from Rajputs Bhils & Meenas the custim of monogamy is prevalent among the Jats.Jhunjhunun .folk songs .industrialization. Raigers & other tribes.DRESSES & ORNAMENTS:The Mughal influence is reflected on the dresses & ornaments of the people of Eastern Rajasthan. impact of western values. Whereas low in Banswara .AMUSEMENT & FESTIVITIES:Various types of indoor & outdoor games .Malies. folk poetry.The dresses for the man include-dhoti.The literacy rate is high in the districts of Churu.
Noteble ccops are include –Bazra.Bajra .68 16.16 75.86 17.67 8.sesamum . .Gram.Secondary sector absorbs 13.70 TERTIA RY 15.not only because of physical variability but also in landuse patterns.DISTRICTWISE PERCENTAGE OF MAIN WORKERS CLASSIFIED BY PRIMARY .11 68.Gram Bajra Wheat Region:-comprises of the district of Alwar.60 15.etc. 5.45 13.it include parts of Ajmer .69 % of the total main workers.10 40.Gram.SERIES-23. RAJASTHAN.26 SECONDA RY 9.This phenomena reflected from the scenario of the distribution PRIMARY 75.Barley & Maize.25 20.Wheat .00 10.Remaining 18.04 19. Sesamum are notable crops. INDUSTRIES:This region is not industrially so much developed due to the lack of raw materials & infrastructural facilities. 4.It comprising the parts of Jaipur & Tonk districts with medium black soils & better irrigation facilities .The Bhilwara male main workers dominate in Banswara ecch sectors in all the districts.24 10. irrigation facilities .94 63.Gram Region:.02% total main workers.08 12.36 18.72 69.73 75.00 72.42 15.13 14.01 36.Important crops are include –Jower.91 25.89 61. 2.05 *SOURCE:-Calculated from CENSUS OF INDIA-2001.2001.Jower.cotton.25 16.26 80.14 13.79 15.Jower.& mustered.major crops are includeWheat.50 68. Chittaurgarh MAJOR ECONOMIC Kota ACTIVITIES:Baran AGRICULTURE:Jhalawar Agriculture is the main basis of the economy of Eastern Rajasthan.some crop combination regions are include:1.87 73.74 16.maize .95 72.96 70.80 15. 3. DISTRICT Hanumangarh Churu Jhunjhunun Alwar Bharatpur Dhaulpur Karauli Sawai Madhopur Dausa Jaipur Sikar Nagaur Ajmer Tonk Bundi In Eastern Rajasthan the primary sector holds the significant place in economy which provides employment to 68.08 15.48 15.99 33. Wheat .Maize Wheat Gram Region:.31 41.26 21.MaizeWheat Gram Region:-comprises the Bhilwara. of annual rainfall & alluvial soils .in addition commercial cash crops & fruits & vegetables are also cultivated.76 9.58 30.10 15.55 10. Chittaurgarh district with moderately good rainfall.Barley.the crop combination shows marked variation .SECONDARY & TERTIARY SECTORS IN EASTERN RAJASTHAN.Gram & Sesamum.44 19.28 % of the total main workers are engaged in tertiary sector.85 14.48 5.61 9.69 71.89 12.66 7.41 12.97 73.68 22.The cropping pattern reveals that cultivation of cereals is an important activity.Millets Bajra Wheat Sesamum Maize Region:-Transitional cropping pattern.major crops are include –wheat gram .ECONOMIC TABLE.42 10.97 49.25 10.91 84.92 79.32 72. red loamy ti black soil. Jaipur with 45-50 cm.the major crops are-Maize .92 12.88 10.
6 0 2.dausa .25 fema le wpr 29. 1.80 -0.27 .3 5 23.39 0.72 -6. Sawai Madhopur:-Ranotham bhor wildlife sanctuary. TOURISM:A major service industry which has had a great impact on Rajasthan economy is Tourism.80 -0.jhalawar.Baran. 4.71 ALWAR BHARATPUR DHAULPUR 0.5 7 1. Kota:-industrial centres .Palace .forts.etc.6 15.45 -0.e.dhaulpur. Bird sanctuary.6 6 0.54 13.5 6 6.02 -0.71 -0. 3.53 -2.Palaces. Moinuddin Chisti.32 25.Chittaurgarh .i.Hanumangarh.09 -0.14 0.6 Z-SCORE SEX RATI O URBANIZAT ION FEMALE LITERA CY fema le wpr SEX RATI O URBANIZAT ION COMPOSI TE INDEX 937 931 880 832 795 28. Types of industries:Generally 4 kind of industries are found i.Mayo college agency.66 0.both through national & internation arrival of the tourists.Forest based.Low percentage of industrial labour region:Almost 11 districts are included within this zone.ajmer.Very low percentage of labour region:Karauli & Banswara included within this zone.9 7 21.42 17.54 22. Bharatpur:-Fort .9 20. Churu:.5 3 0.bundi.museum.07 0.Agro based .Jhunjhunun. Jaipur:-Pink city. Churu.95 19.museum.88 2.Sand dunes Festivals.19 -0.54 19.4 1 31.of indusrial labours. city walls. Some of major places of tourist interest in Rajasthan are : Ajmer:-Dargah of St.Relatively high Percentage of industrial worker region:Jaipur. tonk.fort & muslim pilgrim centre. SOCIO-ECONOMIC-CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT:1991 FEMALE LITERA CY DISTRICTS CHURU JHUNJHUNU N 17. 2.A large amount of foreign money has come has come by this industry.Livestock based & mineral based.Moderate percentage of industrial labour region:Alwar.palace.71 0.21 -0.On the basis of the percentage of industrial labour several subregions can be found.Nagaur are included in this region.45 1.Museum .Handicrafts. Alwar :-fort.temple.Desert resorts. Chittorgarh:-‘city of valore’.sikar.Despite of harsh climate tourism as a industry has taken root in Eastern rajasthan by the States & the Central govt.Bhilwara & kota included in this zone.38 0.Sawai Madhopur.4 0 0.palace fort.e.93 0.
98 1.25 3.53 17.64 28.9 18.43 -0.75 fema le wpr 38.64 17.58 1.41 1.61 36.43 15.3 7 0.68 3.58 0.7 3 29.42 -0.7 8 40.62 0.58 2.41 -1.84 -0.36 19.86 1.88 -0.1 0 0.78 -0.4 8 19.6 43.43 JAIPUR SIKAR NAGAUR AJMER TONK BUNDI BHILWARA BANSWARA CHITTAURG ARH KOTA JHALAWAR 1.27 -0.47 -2.23 0.49 1.58 2.15 -1.02 -1.57 -0.17 0.SAWAI MADHOPUR 14.29 1.62 0.69 0.46 -0.69 19.20 0.21 -0.96 35.53 21.10 0.80 -0.9 1 32.40 1.57 -1.89 1.18 28.47 2.69 0.60 4.64 -0.30 COMPOSI TE INDEX 1.05 -0.56 -0.6 9 32.60 -0.6 2 32.42 17.27 47.6 SEX RATI O 948 946 887 857 828 874 925 951 951 932 936 908 URBANIZATI ON 27.35 -0.56 0.9 4 0.61 FEMAL E LITERA CY -0.0 8 34.2 5 -0.71 -3.57 0.72 15.15 0.09 42.5 15.1 2 27.88 42.43 0.32 -1.53 7.3 9 0.71 -0.88 13.23 0.93 -0.9 9 34.51 -1.47 17.79 SEX RATI O 0.8 8 32.67 32.43 0.3 1 855 888 946 942 918 923 889 945 969 950 889 918 14.05 -0.13 16.6 2 43.84 39.35 -0.09 -0.54 -0.8 9 38.7 7 0.49 31.49 2.06 -0.22 -1.65 29.35 1.09 20.3 6 0.45 -0.02 2.19 -0.78 47.06 0.7 8 27.03 0.60 1.1 6 31.05 -0.06 0.02 -0.3 40.08 1.54 -0.8 52.5 1 32.8 6 0.39 0.36 -0.48 2001 Z-SCORE FEMAL E LITERA CY DISTRICTS CHURU JHUNJHUNU N ALWAR BHARATPUR DHAULPUR SAWAI MADHOPUR JAIPUR SIKAR NAGAUR AJMER TONK BUNDI 34.8 2 29.5 13.34 33.36 -0.20 -0.23 1.15 29.3 5 0.5 16.78 -0.11 0.2 40.98 40.86 20.69 19.20 -1.95 16.24 16.27 0.29 1.76 fema le wpr 0.09 36.11 0.70 1.1 7 36.64 14.85 20.7 3 41.3 8 0.8 3 1.11 0.2 9 29.00 -0.33 - URBANIZATI ON 0.04 -0.63 .53 19.21 0.46 1.2 5 0.62 1.7 4 27.7 4 30.60 -2.05 -0.24 0.61 -0.86 -0.29 34.38 -0.55 -0.41 0.54 1.81 1.03 15.
Rank analysis shows that during 2001 some districts have developed I.bundi.02 -0.lower rank stands for higher level of development & vice versa.on the other hand.no states has remained at the same position.e.49 0.05 2.ECONOMIC TABLE.94 38.12 0.64 1.74 signific ant level 0.84 remarks 0.5 8 44. Sawai madhopur .Chittaurgarh .01 1.GENERAL POPULATION TABLE.27 -0.35 BHILWARA BANSWARA CHITTAURG ARH KOTA JHALAWAR 31.04 35.Jhalawar .01 2.Calculated from CENSUS OF INDIA-2001.66 1. female work participation rate.Dhaulpur.88 32.4 7 39.etc.44 1.91 -1.14 H0 H1 -0.72 -0.67 -0.75 -0.40 1.15 16.64 7. several states have deteriorated by their ranks during 2001.95 × insignificant AJMER ALWAR BANSWARA BHARATPUR BHILWARA BUNDI CHITTAURGAR 4 15 H 5 3 CHURU 17 13 DHAULPUR 2 4 JAIPUR 11 1 JHALAWAR 7 9 JHUNJHUNUN 3 16 KOTA 13 12 NAGAUR SAWAI 15 6 MADHOPUR 10 17 SIKAR 9 11 TONK *source:. Jhalawar.churu.65 26 34.SERIES-23.06 0.6 2 964 978 966 902 928 20.e. RAJASTHAN.bharatpur.Districts like Banswara.3 2 27.etc has improved their position .The r value reveals that their found a huge change in the status of development among different districts.1 2 46.56 1.62 1. RANK df 1991 2001 1 5 15 12 14 8 7 16 2 6 8 14 10 On the basis of composite index coming out from the four indicator of development i.Bharatpur.50 0. Femle literacy.48 -0.05 -1.62 tv 1.0.78 -1.high level of decline is shown in case of Ajmer .83 0.28 47.sex ratio & level of urbanization the districts within this region Has been ranked.13 ̌ × DISTRICTS 0.25 cv -0.It can be observed that generally Chambal basin area (eccept kota)has developed in the previous decade. The data of Three newly formed districta are not available.18 14.kota tonk etc.35 1. .
Ganga canal project.in energy sector power generation has increased.That is why for agricultural production irrigation is very much essential.these regional centres linking other local towns market centres by railways & roadways.scanty .Mahi project. considered the ways in which the Eastern Rajasthan views as a region & finally evaluates the unique regional character.Chittaurgarh nearly 95% tank irrigated area.The most important railway line is Delhi. Ajmer.alwar & Jaipur are the principal node of Jaipur. Three major sources of irrigation are:1. These are :-Chambal project.The rainfall behaviour remains irregular.Bharatpur. 2.Railways & Airways.etc.untimely. So taking the whole territorial unit to be a . During the plan period with the investment made by the govt.unevenly distributed with prolonged drought period .Dausa. 3. The state govt.Dhaulpur. historical background.Naveli lignite corporation. industrial & economic sectors.Jaipur. Canals:several multipurpose canal irrigation projects has been constructed for agricultural &other purposes. NECESSITY OF REGIONALISATION:The greatest difficulty in the study of the region is lies in the determination of regional homogeneity.Well & tube wells :Out of the total irrigated area about 64% area is irrigated by wells & tube wells. cultural tradition & social structure provide a composite.Eastern Rajasthan has a very good transport network .INFRASTRUCTURAL ASPECTS:TRANSPORTATION:Eastern Rajasthan has a transportational infrastructure consists of – Road ways.Among the all roads national highway 8 traversing the entireregion. Chambal multipurpose project etc.Bhilwara. Indira Gandhi project. IRRIGATION:Several parts of Eastern Rajasthan is water deficient region. SCHEME OF REGIONALISATION:The spatial unit having homogenic characteristics & is distinct from the space that surrounding it is known as region & Regionalization is a logical adjunct to the concept of the region. multi-faceted picture of the region Eastern Rajasthan.Agricultural production is depend upon south-east monsoon rain. interdisciplinary. has presently taken very ambitious plan for generation of the electricity in the private sectors. Reviews of some theoretical aspect.Sawai Madhopur.Alwar.As a large number of tourist spots are found here a good transport network is necessary. The region of Eastern Rajasthan has got an extensive territorial delineation & hence the environmental settings.Thje districts of Alwar .Tanks :It is totally dependent on rainfall.Kota thermal power plant.Barshingsar Thermal power station. Some major thermal power stations are include:-Suragarh Thermal power station.Ahmedabad railway line that connects the jaipur. POWER:Power resources of Eastern Rajasthan play a key factor in the modern agriculture.Chittorgarh thermal power station.Tonk .Jaipur through this network are connected with major parts of india.
Sha mbar region (B1b) Bharat pur plain (C1a) W. .W.Jhunjhunun. Generally several physical criteria has adopted for the delineation of the boundaries of the region in Eastern Rajasthan. eastern parts of Churu. sikar jhunjh unun (A2b) Nagaur upland (A3) Lower Chambal (C1) Middle Chambal (C2) Lower Banas Basin (C2a) Kota uplan d (C2b) Kota plain( C2c) Upper Mahi Basin (C2d) Upper Banas Basin(D2) Chapp an Plain (D1a) Weste rn hills(D 1b) Hanu mang arh region (A1a) Nohar region (A1b) E. EASTERN RAJASTHA N Northern Sandy plain (A) Aravalli hilly region (B) Shambar basin region (B1) Didwa na basin( A3a) Nagau r osian region (A3b) Alwar malpura hilly zone(B2) Alwar region (B2a) Chambal basin (C) South eastern plain (D) Middle Mahi Basin (D1) Ghaggar plain(A1) Shekhawa ti region (A2) N. The northern sandy plain region:It include the Hanumangarh district. Then on the basis of several economic & socio-cultural parameter these meso regions further subdivided into micro regions .E. Malpu ra (B2ci) S. On the basis of the physiographic differentiation the entire Eastern Rajasthan can be sub divided into four first order regions.sikar & Nagaur. The topography of this region is result of inter acting activities of wind & water erosion.E. Alwar (B2aii) Marwa ra hills (B2b) Malpu ra region (B2c) N. Not only the physical factors but man has also succeeded in bringing into extensive new & uniform cultural regions through their activities. Alwar (B2ai) Karaul i Platea u(C1b ) Dholp ur plain( C1c) E.unit & further studying it to extract the speciality & uniqueness of the region is a difficult job. Churu region (A2a) W.Here sand dunes & small hillocks are prominent feature. That is why it has been considered more scientific to divide the extensive territory of the region into several small units & make a detailed study of them. This region is further subdivided into 3 second order region on the basis of economic factor.sha mbar region (B1a) W..M alpura (B2cii) A.
Generally coarsed grain crops i.Aravalli hilly region:The most prominent relief feature of Eastern Rajasthan is Aravalli hilly range Which includes the districts of Alwar.. It is an irregular plateau surrounded by several projected fields.This region is famous for salt. 2.Jhunjhunun & churu . The economy of this region is characterised by Several Agro Based Industries like:-flour mills.Economy of this region is mainly dependent on Basic good industries i.Marta tahsils. salt industries. gram.1. The topography of this region is characterised by undulating plain with some sand dunes.Here gypsum. The Shambar Basin :- .e.Onthe basis of degree of urbanization & occupational structure this region is again subdivided into 3 macro regions:a.etc are grown.North-Eastern Churu region:This region has only 4 urban centres & percentage of workers in agricultural sector is very high. b.this region is characterised by intensive & diversified type of agricultural pattern.about 40%.this region is subdivided into 2 micro regions on the basis of the agricultural & irrigational pattern.pulses. a.didwana basin region:this is a depressed zone & its formation consists of Aeolian & lacustrine sedimentation. b. b.The economy of this region is completely dependent on agricultural practices. a. Nagaur upland:It is a rocky & hilly surface area. Hanumangarh Region:This region has canal irrigation facilities. 3. B. therefore subsistence types of agriculture is practised. 1.that is why unirrigated & subsistence type of agriculture is practised.western sikar –jhunjhunun plain:This region has more than 25 urban centres & workers in other sectors rather than agriculture is relatively high .This region is further subdivided into 2 second order units on the basis of altitudinal factor.this region is again subdivided into 2 sub regions on the basis of topography & mineral resourses.& parts of Jhunjhunun.bajra. sugar mills .Shekhawati region:The topography of Shekhawati region is undulating & characterised with greater concentration of longitudinal dunes.cotton & woollen textile region .Most of the crops are cash cropped.nohar region:This region is slightly hilly area .Jaipur & Nagaur.rape seed mustered.Nagaur osian region:it is mostly a uplad area with rocky & upland surfaces.didwana.This region include some portion of sikar .That is why well & tube well irrigation is done instead of canal irrigation. zinc etc minerals can be found.Ghaggar plain region:It covers the Hanumangarh district.this region includes Nagaur.e.
Kishangarh of Ajmer district. 2. a.Dhaulpur.north-western malpura region:Well are the main source of irrigation here. b.The alwar Malpura hilly region:It covers the Parts of Alwar.western alwar region:This region is generally covered with hills & it is covered with forest & grassland.south-eastern malpura region:Mainly Tank provided the irrigation facilities here. This region is topographically a sandy hilly area. a. Lower Chambal basin:It comprises the district of Bharatpur & Sawai Madhopur. b.SawaiMadhopur. c.It is a flat upland & occasional sweep of ridges. Jaipur& south eastern part of tonk district.it occupies a depression in the Aravalli schists & gneiss at an elevation of about 360 mts.This region is further subdivided into 2 fourth order region on the basis of irrigational facilities.Eastern alwar region:This is generally a part of Trans –Yamuna plain & intensively cultivated.This region is a completely hilly area with dissected topography. The Malpura upland:It comprises the south eastern part of Ajmer.this region can be further subdivided into 2 third order region on the basis of topographic factors.. b. The Marwara hills:It comprises the thesila of beawar. i.Elevation ranges from 450-700 mts.western shambar basin region:The western part is flat & fertile.characterised by flood plains.the Chambal basin region:The Chambal basin comprises the districts of Bharatpur.river bluffs & inter fluves & ravines. ii.This region is predominantly a low land with alluvial topography. Topography plays an important role in subdivision of this region into 2 third order unit .The plains of the Chambal basin present rather a homogenous topography.This region is mainly dependent on agricultural practices but on the way of progress in industrial sector.This region is further subdivided into three micro regionson the basis of economic activities. The Alwar Hillls:It comprises the whole of Alwar.Eastern shambar basin:the eastern part is sandy & sterile region.eastern part of Sikar & Jhunjhunun & extreme northern part of Jaipur.bharatpur Plain:It comprises the plain lying north of the Karauli platea in Bharatpur & Sawai Madhopur districts. 1.Karauli plateau:- . Ajmer. Kota . a. This region is further subdivided into 2 forth order region:i.eastern part of Jhunjhunun & northern part of Jaipur.Baran.Bundi.dry tropical forests are found here.on the basis of the topographic differences this region is further subdivided into 2 second order region. ii. C. Jhalawar & tonk.The plain is characterised by fault induced alluvial basin which are formed by Banganga & its tributaries like the Ruparel.
Eastern Rajasthan sen as a physical.conceptualization of regions & emergence of regional identities reflects the process involving complex historic . 2. a. Kota upland:This region is restricted to the south eastern part of kota & bundi districts.Dholpur Plain:It covers the lower Chambal plains of Dhaulpur district. Here found thin layers of alluvium.The upper Banas basin:The plain comprises Bhilwara & chittaurgarh. a.The south eastern plain region:It covers the Parts of Banswara. It is compoised of upper Vindhyan sandstone which form a dissected scarpland over looking chambal to the south. rainfall..western hilly region:Here shifting agriculture is practised by the Garasia tribes. c. b.It is characterised by badland topography formed by Chambal ravines.This is a elevated plain region drained by the river Banas & its tributaries Khari.middle mahi basin:It is deeply & intricately dissected leading to the formation of the isolated hillock & the average elevation of this region is 200-400mts. Bhilwara & Chittaurgarh.It comprises the Karauli district.Here agriculture is the mainstay of the economy but industrially under developed.This region is sparsely populated area without any urban centre.The river banks are very high .densely populated with bhil tribes.Chambal& receives about 74 cm. It is a fertile alluvium plain .cultural & social forces working in a particular geographical settings over lengthy periods of time. 1. This region is actually folded & faulted.This region is agriculturally very backward.thus extensive agriculture is practiced. upper Mahi Basin:It is an undulating region which has dissected topography. c. blocks & depression.cultural .The Middle Chambal basin:This region has an undulating topography. b.Its altitude varies between 215-275 mts. d. 2.Topography of this region is an undulating on. Locally this region is known as bagar.This region can be subdivided into following four sub regions on the basis of topographic feature aswell as population density.The region is strewn with bolders.Kota plain:It is a fertile alluvial plain.chappan plain:The central &eastern part is fertile plain area .Agriculturally it is an important area.as well as a economic region. Kothari.Berach.strewn with bolders.This region is moderately populated region. This region is an elevated plain region with some isolated hillocks. D.this region subdivided into 2 micro regions. .this region is futher subdivided into 2 first order region on the basis of difference in the elevation. Lower Banas plain:It is essentially a peneplain region &drained by Banas & its tributaries.Here the Chambal flows in a deep goerge.Kota plain is moderately & evenly populated. It is an upland area lying above 300 mts.well watered by Parbati.
comprising largely the former princely states .New Delhi.N. 42 (Oct. 17.M. till after the the independence it was to some extent Physicoculturally isolated. 8.N. Erdman . A101+A103-A106 3.E(2004) : ‘Wealth.New Delhi.P. Manohar.The Journal of Asian Studies.. Papers and Proceedings of the One Hundred Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association San Diego. Manohar. Vol. pp. 1973).But recently the major problem is related to insufficient health facilities & land reform problem. Duflo .S.American Institute of Indian Studies. Vol. Economic and Political Weekly. India ‘. No.S. Vol. Goyel. Bhargava. Lodrick .By taking the family planning scheme the health facilities has to be tried to terminated but for the land reform promlem it is very much essential to control over the high population growth. (2007):’Geography Of Rajasthan’.(Eds) (1994):’The Idea of Rajasthan: Explorations in Regional Identity’.(1973):’Agricultural Underemployment in Rajasthan’. David C.(1964):’ Area Planning in Rajasthan’.for this it has to be needed to stop the marriage at under age & the gender discrimination. Rudolph .. 1992). 1964). pp. New Delhi. 5. 27.M.iv in Chopra. Rudolph . Gupta. Vol. Potter. Jodha.mostly populated by the tribe. No.vol.P. Though much development has taken place during the planning era. 326-330 4. 10. No.. Ahuja.Book Enclave. Schomer . 2. 1. (Eds). Bhalla..(Eds) (1994):’The Idea of Rajasthan: Explorations in Regional Identity’. . No. Vol. 11. Economic and Political Weekly. 8.(1985) :‘Population Growth and the Decline of Common Property Resources in Rajasthan. Kuldeep Publishing House. economically backward.Problem & prospects:The region eastern Rajasthan has multifacet problems. BIBLIOGRAPHY:- 2.But from the research works of several scholars it is clear that for balanced development the agricultural base has to reinforce first. Lodrick .P. 247-264 . 2 (Jun. Vol. pp.(1992):‘Health of Women and Children in Rajasthan’.S. Schomer .Rajkamal Electric Press. Ghulati. CA. pp. 23. 2004). (Eds) (2004):’Rajasthan : From Prehistoty to the Independence Era’. 1985).. and Health Services in Rural Rajasthan’. January 3-5. 2.A..Rajkamal Electric Press.A.K. 94.Population and Development Review.Rima publishing House. 9. 571-579 6. .Jaipur.American Institute of Indian Studies. Vol. Deaton. Pal.R. 4 (Aug. 39 (Sep. 29. pp. 2004 (May. 2323-2330 11. No.. Health.Jaipur. The American Economic Review. 7.The another important problem is related to the high population growth but the literacy rate is very low. Erdman .. N.R.& Daga .India.Rajasthan’.L. Banerjee.(1992):Encyclopedia Of India .
R. India.V. 19. pp.(1971):’Pragmatic Politics in a Rajasthan Town: Case Study of a Municipal Election ‘.(1994):’Women's Empowerment and Health Experiences from Rajasthan’..District Gazetteers. 1974). Lavania.Directorate . P.K. S. Ltd. Vol. 17.(2001):’ Community Participation in Primary Education: Innovations in Rajasthan ‘. H. 1970). No. 302 004. 19301936 . Vol...a. .’ Vol. 9/12 (Sep. Vol. 36.( 1995):’ Ethnobotany of the Primitive Tribes in Rajasthan’ . 35. 27.Dec.LTD. 1994). of Rajasthan.G. Rawat Publications.s.N.12. Shopping Complex. Singh .Government Of Rajasthan. Vol.Anthropological survey of India . Sawhny . Ramanathan(1994):’Urban Water Supply in Rajasthan: Problems and Prospects ‘. 2244-2250 21.Economic and Political Weekly.. Leaf .S. Series B. 1971). pp. No.Jaipur & New Delhi. C. and Nagar . Rathore. 2272-2274 22. 9. pp.n.Pahariya. 775-778 16. .N. No. 137146 24. K. Singh. No. Rajasthan State Gazetteer.B.: S-12. D.Hospital road. pp. 31.K.) (1998):’People of India . pp. 2442-2446 18. Vol.k.Singh. No. 37 (Sep. N.p. Joshi. 1991). 13. 1/2 (Dec.(1991):’ Small Farmers and an Irrigation Project ‘. pp. 14.Samanta .C. 467-501 . Rathore. 1029 23. p. 3-9. (1974):’Late Quaternary History of Vegetation and Climate of the Rajasthan Desert.(1974):’Educational Inequalities among Rajasthan's Scheduled Castes’. 14. Vol.Chopra. 29.l. A. 115-132 15. (1970):’Rajasthan Studies’.(1996):’Rajasthan Polity.v..G. No. 3. 1994). 14. Jaipur. B. 267. No. 1953). 1409+1411-1412 27. pp.Land & People . Sharma . 13. Economy & Society’. 2 (Apr. 20. 13. 1589+1591-1592 25. Joshi.Economic and Political Weekly. L.K. India’.. 5.D.(1992) ‘Irrigation and Authority in Rajasthan AuthorEthnology.Economic and Political Weekly.Economic and Political Weekly.1. No. Singh. Economic and Political Weekly. 25 (Jun. 1992). Vol. 889 (Jun. 49 (Dec.B. pp. 1968). 6. 16 (Apr.Mumbai. K. 23 (Jun.Jaipur.. No. Plunkett .Agra-3 26. pp. 26. 19 (May 9.O.H.Lakshmi Narayan Agarwal Educational Publishers.D. No. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Shreevastava and Tandon (1968):’Economy of Small Towns in Rajasthan ‘Economic and Political Weekly.(1970):’Population Growth in Rajasthan: An Econometric Analysis’ . Vol.K.M. 39-42 28..Vyas (Eds. 23-29. 22. Biological Sciences. Social Scientist.Rupa Books Pvt. Tilak Nagar. 2000). Govt.part one. (1995)Vol. Panagariya. pp.Mandal.. 1974). Vol. Sharma. Vol. Ramachandran.Vol. 35 (Aug. 37 (Sep. pp. (1953):’A Study on the Growth of Population in Rajasthan ‘Sankhyā: The Indian Journal of Statistics (1933-1960).Economic and Political Weekly. Reddy.XXXVIII. Economic and Political Weekly. Mehta B. No. R. 4..J. 20. 2001).. No.Rajasthan’. Vol. .Popular Prakashan PVT.& Shah(2000):’Revitalisation of Irrigation Tanks in Rajasthan’.S. Raju.s.
R.)(2008):’India A Regional Geography’.29. P. .. . Willies. . ((Eds. pp.World Archaeology. Vol. Hedge K.(1984):’ Ancient Lead and Zinc Mining in Rajasthan. India ‘. Singh.Varanasi-5 30.L. 222-233 . Mines and Quarries (Oct. 1984).. 16. Craddock.L. .National Geogaphical Society Of India.L. No. M. 2. T. T. J. Gurjar.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.