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Enhancement of Throughput for Multi Hop WPAN’s Using UWB - OFDM Physical layer

Enhancement of Throughput for Multi Hop WPAN’s Using UWB - OFDM Physical layer

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One of the most significant determinants for the UWB (Ultra Wide Band) based substitutive physical layer for WPANS (Wireless Personal Area Networks) is MB – OFDM (Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). This paper deals in the manipulation outcomes for Multi-Hop WPAN depending upon the UWB - OFDM physical layer are exhibited. However, the spectrum radius of MB-OFDM UWB machines is quite minimal, and single-hop transmissions may not be sufficient for WPANs functionalizing at huge-data-rates. Therefore, a multi-hop provisional WPAN machine is appropriated at this juncture so as to maximize the coverage of UWB radio. Performance of the entire machine is achieved to determine if the Quality-of-Service conditions can, now even, be sustained when an IEEE 802.15.3 TDMA MAC stratum is used in multi-hop correspondence situations. Simulation outputs for Multi Hop WPAN standing on the UWB - OFDM physical layer are reproduced in this paper. In this mode of functioning, the transmitting machines for the data rates of 200 Mbps, 480 Mbps are used because these two are the directives for the highest compulsion rate and the greatest optional rate respectively. We used both 9mX 9m and 20mX20m geographical areas for the networks fields for the Multi Hop scenarios in this simulation model. The critical functionalities of the Multi Hop WPANS like average End – to – End Delay and Packet Failure Rate(PFR) and for all the source – Destination pairs are manipulated and restricted by employing the Qualnet network simulator.
One of the most significant determinants for the UWB (Ultra Wide Band) based substitutive physical layer for WPANS (Wireless Personal Area Networks) is MB – OFDM (Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). This paper deals in the manipulation outcomes for Multi-Hop WPAN depending upon the UWB - OFDM physical layer are exhibited. However, the spectrum radius of MB-OFDM UWB machines is quite minimal, and single-hop transmissions may not be sufficient for WPANs functionalizing at huge-data-rates. Therefore, a multi-hop provisional WPAN machine is appropriated at this juncture so as to maximize the coverage of UWB radio. Performance of the entire machine is achieved to determine if the Quality-of-Service conditions can, now even, be sustained when an IEEE 802.15.3 TDMA MAC stratum is used in multi-hop correspondence situations. Simulation outputs for Multi Hop WPAN standing on the UWB - OFDM physical layer are reproduced in this paper. In this mode of functioning, the transmitting machines for the data rates of 200 Mbps, 480 Mbps are used because these two are the directives for the highest compulsion rate and the greatest optional rate respectively. We used both 9mX 9m and 20mX20m geographical areas for the networks fields for the Multi Hop scenarios in this simulation model. The critical functionalities of the Multi Hop WPANS like average End – to – End Delay and Packet Failure Rate(PFR) and for all the source – Destination pairs are manipulated and restricted by employing the Qualnet network simulator.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.

5, May 2011

Enhancement of Throughput for Multi Hop WPAN’s using UWB- OFDM Physical Layer
Ch. Subrahmanyam
Department of ECE Scient Institute of Technology Hyderabad, India e-mail: subbunvl@yahoo.com

K. Chennakesava Reddy
Department of ECE TKR College of Engg. &Tech. Hyderabad, India e-mail: kesavary@hotmail.com

Syed Abdul Sattar
Department of ECE Royal Institute of Tech. & Science Hyderabad, India Email: syedabdulsattar1965@gmail.com

Abstract— One of the most significant determinants for the UWB (Ultra Wide Band) based substitutive physical layer for WPANS (Wireless Personal Area Networks) is MB – OFDM (Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). This paper deals in the manipulation outcomes for Multi-Hop WPAN depending upon the UWB - OFDM physical layer are exhibited. However, the spectrum radius of MB-OFDM UWB machines is quite minimal, and single-hop transmissions may not be sufficient for WPANs functionalizing at hugedata-rates. Therefore, a multi-hop provisional WPAN machine is appropriated at this juncture so as to maximize the coverage of UWB radio. Performance of the entire machine is achieved to determine if the Quality-of-Service conditions can, now even, be sustained when an IEEE 802.15.3 TDMA MAC stratum is used in multi-hop correspondence situations. Simulation outputs for Multi Hop WPAN standing on the UWB - OFDM physical layer are reproduced in this paper. In this mode of functioning, the transmitting machines for the data rates of 200 Mbps, 480 Mbps are used because these two are the directives for the highest compulsion rate and the greatest optional rate respectively. We used both 9mX 9m and 20mX20m geographical areas for the networks fields for the Multi Hop scenarios in this simulation model. The critical functionalities of the Multi Hop WPANS like average End – to – End Delay and Packet Failure Rate(PFR) and for all the source – Destination pairs are manipulated and restricted by employing the Qualnet network simulator.
Keywords- Multi hop, OFDM, Throughput, UWB, WPAN’s

extensive usage of cutting edge WPAN networks (up to 480 Mbps) grounding on a UWB physical layer application. The special interest group (SIG) from IEEE have structured for this high- rate WPANS, which is popularly known as IEEE 802.15.3. We begin with the thought of Multi Hop Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) in this paper, then the confrontations of the Multi Hop WPANS, and later the reflections of Multi Hop WPANS for the performance assessments like End- toEnd delay, Packet Failure rate calculations for both the data rates of 200 Mbps and 480 Mbps.

II.

MULTI HOP WPAN’S

I.

INTRODUCTION

At this juncture, there is a huge requirement for wireless communication systems that could be monitored at high amount of data rates over a very less distance communications so as to attain the modern advances in electronic gadgets (Camcorders, DVD Players, etc). The usage of high - rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) for short distances provisional connectivity among electronic gadgets and communication devices have paved their way since 2000. having been approved from Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for the use of Ultra- Wide- Band (UWB) on the unlicensed band in 3.1 – 10.6 GHz range maximizes the

Mobile multi-hop Adhoc networks (MANETs) are assortments of mobile nodes of bridges linked together over a wireless viaduct. These nodes can freely and actively self-monitor into approximate and temporary expedient network analysis sites. In this way, instruments can seamlessly inter-network in areas where pre-existing communication infrastructure (e.g., disaster recovery sites and battlefield environments) is zero. The discreet connectivity concept is not a budding one , but has been in existence for the last 30 years in different modes such as packet radio network (1972), sustainable adaptive radio network (1980), Global Mobile information system (early 1990s). Due to their quick and economically less demanding deployment of Ad hoc wireless networks we observe applications for the same in many areas. Defense applications, associated and spearheaded computing, emergency operations, wireless mesh networks, wireless sensor networks, and hybrid wireless network architectures are some of the areas its applications. Conventionally, logical networks have been the only correspondence networking practice that accepted the ad hoc paradigm. The thumb-rule behind provisional networking is that of multi-hop relaying. In cellular networks, the routing decisions are acceded in a centralized format under the surveillance of base stations. But in an ad hoc cordless network, both accessing and resource management are operated in a scattered form in which all nodes would associate to capacitate communication among the nodes themselves. This calls for each bridge to be more

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intelligible so that it can act both as a data signaling host for transmitting and receiving data, and as a network lane for routing packets from other ends. Hence, the mobile paths in possible wireless networks are more confusing and entangled than that of their correspondents in cellular networks. The truancy of any central administrator, or control station, makes the routing process a more complicated one compared to that found in cellular networks. Multi-network ―hops‖ may be required for one station to interchange information with another node located elsewhere in the network due to the restricted transmission range of a wireless network. In such a network, each mobile node operates not only as a host but also as a router, forwarding packets for other mobile nodes in the network that may not be within direct wireless transmission range of each other. Each node involves in an accessing protocol that permits it to search for ―Multi-hop‖ paths through the network to any other node. WPAN is said to be a single-hop network as per the present IEEE 802.15.3 Strategy. That is, an info packet can be forwarded only from a source address to a destination address, and there is no arbitrating node to work as a ―router‖. Using an UWB - OFDM physical layer practicability for a WPAN, the amount that can be attained is acutely minute, usually less than 10 meters. For an assured transmission with minimal packet error progression, a certain concentration of within 4 meters is usually needed. The benefit with a multi-hop network is obvious as it can maximise network coverage without increasing either the accessibility strength, or sensitivity of the receiver. The other advantage is that of improved reliability through redundancy of route. The ambit of IEEE 802.15.3 MAC code to provide multi-hop networks calls for attentive and comprehensive observation. An example is used to demonstrate why a Multi - hop WPAN is required to provide backup for immense progression practical traffic flows. A video conference or home theatre system is a trivial practice for use of WPAN based on the OFDM UWB physical layer. That is, to transmit the multimedia traffic instead of using cables, the unwired links will be used. The frequency range requirements for each traffic outflow is about 6 Mbps, the average downtime should be less than 90 ms, and the packet Failure rate, less than 8% so as to arrive at the required QoS level. The circuitry region for a video conference or home theatre system generally ranges from 9 m x 9 m to 20 m x 20 m. The indemnity radius for an UWB - OFDM regulation is relatively only 3 meters for a data procession of 200 Mbps and only 7 meters for a info progression of 480 Mbps to guarantee a PER of 8%. A singlehop network structure is inadequate to cover the expected network area for these huge amounts of data rates have retained obvious. If a Multi - hop WPAN frame works well, then the network coverage area can be perfectly enlarged through the application of arbitrary nodes while monitoring transmission at the required data rates. The suitability of the IEEE 802.15.3 TDMA MAC layer for use with multi-hop WPAN systems necessitates to be recognized. In Multi - hop

network, due to the huge amount of variables taken part, the amplitude of the machine develops significantly, thus materializing logical modeling a considerably arduous task. On the side of the machine, simulation methods capacitate the exploration of more problematic and realistic phenomena. In composite machinery such as multi-hop networks, attentive preference of the system attributes can drive to considerable development in function, specifically for time-sensitive applications. Focusing on time-sensitive applications, the objective is to examine the performance strategies of multihop WPAN systems standing on an OFDM physical layer. Compatible system functioning precautions involving end-toend delay, productivity and packet failure rate realized in various conditions with different choices of system parameters. A. Capacity Analysis of a Multi-Hop Network The network productivity or approximate capacity for a multihop network is described in this section. When frequency reuse is not considered, the capacity of multi-hop networks is greatly affected by the average hop count h. Theoretically, if the network capacity based on peer-to-peer communications is C , the capacity of multi-hop networks will be C = C/h , assuming that the network bandwidth used for routing messages is multi negligible, and that a high-efficiency scheduling scheme is implemented. If the aggregate packet production rate is r Mbps, the highest number of sourcedestination pairs that can be supported is L = C /r. When the number of source-targeted pairs L is max multi over L, packets will be launched due to the existence of a network due point condition at max. The conversion and transformation system being monitored at 200 Mbps is utilized here to exemplify how the Multi- hop network ability is related to the associated network strategy and the average hop count. It is known that the attainable productivity for 200 Mbps peer-to-peer transmission is about 120 Mbps. If the average hop count is set to h = 3, the capacity of a multi-hop network will be C = 120/3= 40 Mbps, theoretically. the maximum number of source-destination = 40/6 = 6, if the average packet multi generation rate per link is r = 6 Mbps,. If the packet Generation rate doubles, that can be supported is L = C /r max multi per link r = 3 Mbps, then the maximum number of source-destination pairs that can be = 40/3 = 13. If the average hop count is fixed to backed up is L = C /r h = 4, the max multi capacity of a multi-hop network will be C = 120/4 = 30 Mbps, theoretically. If the multi average packet generation rate per link is r = 6 Mbps, then the maximum number of source-destination pairs that can be supported is L = C /r = 30/6 = 5. The maximum number of source-destination pairs that can be backed up is L = C /r = 30/3 = 10. If the max multi average packet generation rate per link is r = 3 Mbps. When the max multi number of sourceestimation pairs L is greater than L, packets will get a break down affected due to the saturation of max network.

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Resultantly, the packet failure rate and the aggregate downtime should increase productively. III. PREVAILING CHALLENGES IN MULTI-HOP NETWORKS

Table 1. abridges the limitations of system used in the simulations for the Multi -hop situations recognized in this analysis. Simulation parameter Simulation Time Number of nodes Number of links Network Area Node’s coverage radius to achieve a PER of 5% Number of Channels Transmission Power Receiver sensitivity Channel model considered Packet size(application layer) Max Network Buffer size CTA slot Duration Number of slots per Frame for Equal- Weighed NodeBased Scheduling Number of slots per Frame for On – Demand LinkBased Scheduling Guard time between slots Intra Frame time Value 5s 20 2,4,6,8,10 20mX20m for 200 Mbs 9mX9m for 480 Mbps 6.9m for 200 Mbps 2.95m for 480 Mbps 1(Center Frequency = 3.432 GHz -10.3 dBm -77.2 dBm for 200 Mbps -72.6 dBm for 480 dBm Free space,Shadowing,and Rayleigh fading 982 bytes(will be 1024 bytes after MAC layer) 1,00,000 Bytes Transmission duration of 1024Byte Packet 20 20,40 for 200 Mbps 30,60 for 480 Mbps

In a multi-hop provisional network, connections correspond with each other using multi-hop wireless links, and there are no static infrastructure instruments similar to a ground station. Each connection in the network also plays a role as a router, enrooting data packets for other nodes. One of the prominent hurdles is the structure of active routing protocols that can efficiently search for routes between two corresponding nodes. Routing is apparently the first methodology to be reconsidered in altering from single-hop to multi-hop implementations [6]. A mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) functioning set has been established within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IEFT) to develop a routing framework for IP-based protocols in ad hoc networks. Dozens of routing protocols for MANETs have been introduced, some examples including DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector), DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), and AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector). However, most simulations and performance affinities of mobile Adhoc network piloting protocols are based on a condensed and visionary physical layer model, as well as easy performance metrics. Most of the presently prevailing codes were framed out under the hypothesis of an UDG (Unit Disk Graph) communication model, in which signal strength variations due to a realistic channel are not considered. Without modification, such routing schemes cannot work well with physical layer characteristics that are correspondent of more factual communication channel environments. IV. SIMULATION RESULTS FOR MULTI-HOP WPAN SYSTEMS The simulation results for multi-hop communication system structuralizing are exhibited, and the assistive performance analyses are given in this paper. The transmission systems operating at 200 Mbps and 480 Mbps are simulated in this analysis as they are representatives of the immense mandatory rate and the immense optional rate, respectively. First, the simulation results and function analysis for the equal-weighted node-based scheduling scheme are shown. Then, the simulation outputs and performance analysis for the ondemand link-based scheduling scheme are given. In an unorthodox simulation scheme we applied for Multi – Hop networks are basically depended on the Link formation algorithm because of the existence of direct relationship between the Throughput and the scheduling competence. In this imaging task we used the two Link organizing algorithms; the first is Equal-Weighted Node-Based Scheduling and the second, On-Demand Link-Based Scheduling.

1 µs 1.875 s

A. SIMULATION RESULTS FOR EQUAL-WEIGHTED NODE-BASED SCHEDULING The equal-weighted node-based scheduling scheme is first implemented. The packet generation rates are taken to be 128 kbps, 3 Mbps and 6 Mbps. Figures 1 and 2 exemplify the average delay and the PFR with PGR taken as a parameter using the equal- weighted scheduling scheme for systems operating at 200 Mbps. Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the average delay and the PFR with PGR considered a parameter using the equal- weighted scheduling scheme for systems being operated at 480 Mbps. Each node has the same share of the bandwidth irrespective of whether it has a packet to transmit or not and independent of how many packets it needs to transmit for equal-weighted node-based scheduling. For the total number of network nodes set to 20, each node can have 120/20 = 6 Mbps of frequency of the network available for systems being operated at 200 Mbps, and 180/20 = 9 Mbps of network bandwidth available for systems operating at 480 Mbps. If the PGR per link is 6 Mbps, only 1, or possibly 1.5 traffic currents can be backed up by one node in either case. So, there will be collisions, and some of the packets will be dropped, if a node is a transmitting node for one traffic progression and a forwarding node for another traffic stream. This situation occurs rarely, and sometimes there are number of traffic currents which need to be

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transmitted by one node at the same time. Hence, the system may work well with high probability only when the number of source- destination pairs is very small. When there are not more than 2 active links when the PGR equals 6 Mbps for systems operating at either 200 Mbps, or 480 Mbps only, the simulation results show that the performance measures are acceptable. When the number of source-destination pairs L is greater than 2, both the PFR and the average delay increase logically. Similarly, if the PGR per link is 3 Mbps, only 2 or 3 traffic streams can be transmitted from one node at the same time in either case. The situation is better than that for a PGR equal to 6 Mbps, but the capacity available for each node is still not enough. It can be observed that a maximum of 4 active links can be supported. When L > 4, both the PFR and the delay maximizes dramatically. The maximum numbers of source-destination pairs that can be supported are less than the theoretically predicted capacities that were presented in Section II.A for machines being operated at either 200 Mbps, or 480 Mbps. The efficiency of allotment is less, and the system bandwidth is wasted. For a PGR equal to 128 kbps, there are over 50 traffic currents that can be backed by any one node at the same time for systems operating at either 200 Mbps, or 480 Mbps. when the PGR is 128 kbps, it can be recorded that the PFR (<8%) and the delay (about 5ms) both meet the QoS requirements for real-time applications even for 10 active links. The Equal - weighted scheduling scheme only works well when either the packet generation rate is low, or there is only a very small number of active links. However, a UWB-based WPAN system is structured for high-data rate inter media progression, and hence, QoS requirements have to be met. The simple equal- weighted node-based scheduling cannot execute well in this kind of condition. For huge amount of info speeds, the on-demand scheduling scheme has to be considered.

Figure 2.: PFR vs. Number of Source-Destination Pairs With Equal-Weighted Scheduling for Transmission Systems Operating at 200 Mbps.

Figure 3.: Average Delay vs. Number of Source-Destination Pairs With EqualWeighted Scheduling for Transmission Systems Operating at 480 Mbps

Figure 4.: PFR vs. Number of Source-Destination Pairs With Equal-Weighted Scheduling for Transmission Systems Operating at 480 Mbps

B. SIMULATION RESULTS FOR ON-DEMAND LINKBASED SCHEDULING
Figure 1.: Average Delay vs. Number of Source-Destination Pairs With Equal- Weighted Scheduling for Transmission Systems Operating at 200 Mbps

For the on-demand link-based scheduling scheme, the packet generation rates are absorbed to be 3 Mbps and 6 Mbps. A value for PGR of 128 Kbps is not accepted here for the ondemand link- based scheduling scheme, provided that the equal-weighted scheduling can function perfectly for low data rates.

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As the criteria of using the on-demand link-based scheduling scheme for systems operating at 200 Mbps, Figures 5 and 6 explain the aggregate delay and the PFR with PGR, respectively. It can be marked that saturation of the network is reached when there are more than 6 dynamic connections for a PGR similar to 6 Mbps. Both the PFR (<7%) and the delay (< 40 ms) are appropriated for real-time applications before network due-point happens. Another analysis is that both the PFR (< 7%) and the delay (< 40 ms) are feasible even for the case of 10 dynamic links when the PGR is 3 Mbps per link. These simulation yields for systems operating at 200 Mbps match the theoretically assumed capacities that were shown in Section II.A. That is, a total of 6 links can be reinforced when the PGR is equal to 6 Mbps and 12 links can be supported when the PGR is equal to 3 Mbps. Figures 7 and 8 exemplify the average delay and the PFR, respectively, using the needed scheduling scheme for systems being functioned at 480 Mbps. It can be considered that saturation of the network is attuned when there are more than 8 active links for a PGR equal to 6 Mbps. Both the PFR (< 7%) and the delay (< 10 ms) remain reasonable before network saturation occurs. Another observation is that both the PFR (< 7%) and the delay (< 10 ms) are acceptable even for the case of 10 active links when the PGR is 3 Mbps per link. The simulation results attained for networks functionalizing at 480 Mbps match the theoretically and impractically assumed capacities that were produced in Section II.A. That is, 8 links can be upheld when the PGR is equal to 6 Mbps and 16 links can be supported when the PGR is equal to 3 Mbps. When the PGR is 3 Mbps per link, this will also be examined that both the PFR and the delay reach the QoS requirements for real-time applications even for 10 active links. With the same network buffer size, the PFR is almost the same when the PGR is equal to 6 Mbps and when the PGR is equal to 3 Mbps. The delay when the PGR is same as to 3 Mbps which is slightly smaller than that when the PGR is equal to 6 Mbps. This is feasible since there will be more adjoining deferment associated with the higher data rate. The simulation outputs described above for machines being monitored at both 200 Mbps and 480 Mbps match the capacity analysis for a multi-hop network exhibited in Section II.A. Hence, it can be examined that the efficiency in allotment is comparatively greater for the required scheduling scheme, and the network bandwidth can be utilized more efficiently than in the case of the equal-weighted scheduling scheme. It can be summarized that this UWB-based multi-hop WPAN system performs well when the on-demand link- based scheduling is used along with the proper routing protocol.

Figure 5.: Average Delay vs. Number of Source-Destination Pairs With On-Demand Scheduling for Transmission Systems Operating at 200 Mbps

Figure 6.: PFR vs. Number of Source-Destination Pairs With On-Demand Scheduling for Transmission Systems Operating at 200 Mbps

Figure 7.: Average Delay vs. Number of Source-Destination Pairs With OnDemand Scheduling for Transmission Systems Operating at 480 Mbps

III CONCLUSIONS Based on the simulation results attained and performance analyses described in the previous section, conclusions can be drawn. The equal-weighted node-based allotting scheme does not function well for high-data rate applications. That is, the

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Figure 8.: PFR vs. Number of Source-Destination Pairs With On-Demand Scheduling for Transmission Systems Operating at 480 Mbps.

scheduling efficiency is low and much of the available network frequency had been wasted. When either the data rate is very low, or there are only a very small number of active links, this scheduling scheme only executes well since the network bandwidth is not utilized efficiently. The On - Demand link-based scheduling scheme can perform well for the UWB-based multi-hop WPAN system taken into view here. That is, the scheduling efficiency is high, and the network bandwidth is utilized efficiently. Thus, the IEEE 802.15.3 TDMA MAC layer with the accurate scheduling and routing schemes perform well in the context of multi-hop networks. Multi-hop WPANs based on a realistic OFDM UWB physical layer can be a suitable method to improvise the network coverage while backing up huge amount of data rate multimedia traffic.

REFERENCES [1] R. Bruno, M. Conti and E. Gregori, ―Mesh Networks: Commodity Multihop Ad Hoc Networks,‖ IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 123-131, March 2005. [2] C. S. Murthy and B. S. Manoj, Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architecture and Protocols, Prentice-Hall, NJ, 2004. [3] F. Eshghi, A. K. Elhakeem and Y. R. Shayan, ―Performance Evaluation of Multihop Ad Hoc WLANs,‖ IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 107-115, March 2005. [4] A. F. Molisch, J. R. Foerster and M. Pendergrass, ―Channel Models for Ultrawideband Personal Area Network,‖ IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, Vol. 10, pp. 14-21, December 2003. [5] M. D. Benedetto and G. Giancola, Understanding Ultra Wide Band Radio Fundamentals, Prentice-Hall, NJ, 2004. [6] A. Saleh and R. Valenzuela, ―A Statistical Model for Indoor Multipath

Propagation,‖ IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications , Vol. 11, No. 7, pp. 967-978, September 1993. [7] L. Maret, I. Siaud and Y. Kamiya, ―Ultra WideBand PHY Layer MBOA Performance and Sensitivity to Multipath Channels (IST Magnet Project),‖ http://www.ist-magnet.org/. [8] MultiBand OFDM Alliance, ―Multi-Band OFDM Physical Layer Proposal for IEEE 802.15 Task Group 3a,‖ September 14, 2004, http://www.wimedia.org/. [9] H. Xu and A. Ganz, ―A Radio Resource Control Method in UWB Protocol Design,‖ Military Communications Conference, Vol. 2, pp. 886-891, October 2003. [10] S. Datta, I. Seskar and M. Demirhan, ―Ad-hoc Extensions to the 802.15.3 MAC Protocol,‖ Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM’05) , Taormina, Giardini Naxos, pp. 293-298, June 2005. [11] A. Rangnekar and K. Sivalingam, ―Multiple Channel Scheduling in UWB Based IEEE 802.15.3 Networks,‖ Proceedings of the First International Conference on Broadband Networks (BROADNETs) , San Jose, CA, pp. 406415, October 2004. [12] H. Fattah and C. Leung, ―An Overview of Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Multimedia Networks,‖ IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, pp. 76-83, October 2002. [13] I. Stojmenovic, A. Nayak and J. Kuruvila, ―Design Guidelines for Routing Protocols in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks with a Realistic Physical Layer,‖ IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 101-106, March 2005. [14] H. Gao and D. G. Daut, ―Position-Based Greedy Stateless Routing for Multihop WPANs Based on a Realistic UWB Physical Layer,‖ Second IEEE International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking, and Mobile Computing(WiCOM) , Wuhan, P. R. China, September 2006. [15] D. Couto, D. Aguayo, J. Bricket and R. Morris, ―A HighThroughput Path Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless Routing,‖ International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom) , San Diego, CA, pp. 134-146, September 2003. [16] H. Tsai, N. Wisitpongphan and O. K. Tonguz, ―LinkQuality Aware Ad Hoc On- Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol,‖ First International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing , Phuket, Thailand, January 2006. [17] L. Qin and T. Kunz, ―On-demand Routing in MANETs: The Impact of a Realistic Physical Layer Model,‖ Proc. Second International Conference on Ad Hoc, Mobile and Wireless Networks, Montreal, Canada, pp. 37-48, October 2003. [18] S. Lee, B. Bhattacharjee and S. Banerjee, ―Efficient Geographic Routing in Multihop Wireless Networks,‖ International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc) , Urbana-Champaign, IL, pp. 230-241, May 2005.

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AUTHORS PROFILE Prof. Ch. Subrahmanyam presently working as a Professor & Head, Department of ECE at Scient Institute of technology, Hyderabad. He has completed his B.E. in 1995 from Andhra University, A. P. India, and M. Tech. from JNTU Hyderabad, in 2002, and Pursuing his Ph.D. from JNTU Hyderabad, A. P. India with ECE in Wireless communications. He has about 15 years of experience in teaching and industry together, he is having publications in International Journals and Conferences. He has guided many M. Tech and B. Tech. Projects. He is a life member of ISTE, India. Dr. Syed Abdul Sattar, presently working as a Dean of Academics & Professor of ECE department, RITS, Chevella, Hyderabad. He has completed his B.E. in ECE in 1990 from Marathwada university Aurangabad, M.S. India, M. Tech. In DSCE from JNTU Hyderabad, in 2002, and Pursued his first Ph.D. from Golden state University USA, with Computer Science in 2004, and second Ph.D. from JNTU Hyderabad, A. P. India with ECE in 2007. His area of specialization is wireless communications and image Processing. He has about 21years of experience in teaching and industry together and recipient of national award as an Engineering Scientist of the year 2006 by NESA New Delhi, India. He has about 73 publications in International and National Journals and conferences. Presently he is guiding more than 15 research scholars in ECE and Computer Science from different Universities. He is a member of Board of studies for a central university and reviewer/editorial member/chief editor for national and International journals.

Dr. K. Chennakeshava Reddy, Presently working as Principal & Professor of ECE at TKR College of Engineering. He has completed his B.E. in 1973 and M. Tech. in1976 from REC Warangal, A.P. India, and Ph.D. in 2001 from JNTU Hyderabad. He has worked in various positions starting from lecturer to Director of Evaluation in JNT University, Hyderabad, A. P. India. He has about 70 publications in international and National journals and Conferences and he has successfully guided 4 Ph.Ds and many are under progress. He is a member of various technical Associations.

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