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A Multistage Detection and Elimination of Spurious Singular Points in Degraded Fingerprints

A Multistage Detection and Elimination of Spurious Singular Points in Degraded Fingerprints

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Singular point (SP) detection is one of the most crucial phases in fingerprint authentication systems and is used for fingerprint classification, alignment and matching. This paper presents a multistage approach for detection and elimination of spurious singular points especially in degraded fingerprints. The approach comprises three stages. In the first stage, two different methods, viz., quadrant change and orientation reliability measure, are independently employed on the same image to generate two sets of candidate singular points. The second stage performs the multiscale analysis on a set of candidate SPs located by reliability method, which improves the approximation by reducing the list of SPs. In the third stage, the spurious singular points are detected and thereby eliminated by taking the intersection of the two sets of SPs. This model is tested on a proprietary (Lumidigm Venus V100 OEM Module sensor) fingerprint database at 500 ppi resolution. The experimental results show that the approach effectively eliminates the spurious SPs from the noisy and highly translated/rotated fingerprint images. The proposed scheme is also compared with one of the state-of-the-art techniques, the experimental results prove its superiority over the later.
Singular point (SP) detection is one of the most crucial phases in fingerprint authentication systems and is used for fingerprint classification, alignment and matching. This paper presents a multistage approach for detection and elimination of spurious singular points especially in degraded fingerprints. The approach comprises three stages. In the first stage, two different methods, viz., quadrant change and orientation reliability measure, are independently employed on the same image to generate two sets of candidate singular points. The second stage performs the multiscale analysis on a set of candidate SPs located by reliability method, which improves the approximation by reducing the list of SPs. In the third stage, the spurious singular points are detected and thereby eliminated by taking the intersection of the two sets of SPs. This model is tested on a proprietary (Lumidigm Venus V100 OEM Module sensor) fingerprint database at 500 ppi resolution. The experimental results show that the approach effectively eliminates the spurious SPs from the noisy and highly translated/rotated fingerprint images. The proposed scheme is also compared with one of the state-of-the-art techniques, the experimental results prove its superiority over the later.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.

5, May 2011

A Multistage Detection and Elimination of Spurious Singular Points in Degraded Fingerprints
Zia Saquib, Santosh Kumar Soni, Sweta Suhasaria Dimple Parekh, Rekha Vig

Center for Development of Advanced Computing Mumbai, Maharashtra 400049, India saquib@cdacmumbai.in santoshsoni@cdacmumbai.in swetas@cdacmumbai.in
Abstract—Singular point (SP) detection is one of the most

NMIMS University, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400056, India dimple.parekh@nmims.edu rekha.vig@nmims.edu gives the genuine set of SPs. These methods, the proposed scheme and its comparison with one of the state-of-the-art techniques are explained in detail in section II. Experimental results are discussed in sections III, followed by conclusion in section IV. II. THE PROPOSED SCHEME AND ITS KEY COMPONENTS

crucial phases in fingerprint authentication systems and is used for fingerprint classification, alignment and matching. This paper presents a multistage approach for detection and elimination of spurious singular points especially in degraded fingerprints. The approach comprises three stages. In the first stage, two different methods, viz., quadrant change and orientation reliability measure, are independently employed on the same image to generate two sets of candidate singular points. The second stage performs the multiscale analysis on a set of candidate SPs located by reliability method, which improves the approximation by reducing the list of SPs. In the third stage, the spurious singular points are detected and thereby eliminated by taking the intersection of the two sets of SPs. This model is tested on a proprietary (Lumidigm Venus V100 OEM Module sensor) fingerprint database at 500 ppi resolution. The experimental results show that the approach effectively eliminates the spurious SPs from the noisy and highly translated/rotated fingerprint images. The proposed scheme is also compared with one of the state-of-the-art techniques, the experimental results prove its superiority over the later.
Keywords- Spurious Singular Points, Multiscale Analysis,

A. Quadrant Change: Method-A
As per K. Kryszczuk and A. Drygajlo (2006)[2], a singular point is the location where the general ridge orientation becomes discontinuous. Informally, this can be stated as the area where ridges oriented rightwards change to leftwards and those that were oriented upwards turn downwards, and opposite. This information can be extracted from the quadrant change of the averaged square gradients. The orthogonal gradient components in the x and y directions are considered separately. In general, each pair of corresponding gradient components manifests the gradient quadrant change by the change of sign. The sign maps PMx and PMy are computed using the Eq. (1):

(1)

Orientation Consistency, Quadrant Change, Reliability, Minimum Inertia, Maximum Inertia. I. INTRODUCTION

The performance of fingerprint authentication system has come a long way but it is still influenced by many factors, like: inaccurate detection of singular points (core and delta). Poorquality and noisy fingerprint images mostly result in false or missing singular points (SPs), which generally results in degradation of the overall performance of the authentication systems. This paper presents a three-stage approach, which primarily focuses on the detection and elimination of spurious SPs for all types of fingerprint images, especially noisy images. This paper puts forward an effective way to locate a unique reference point consistently and accurately using tri-method fusion scheme. Method-A works on the quadrant change information, whereas, Method-B uses pixel-wise reliability measure of the orientation field followed by multiscale analysis to compute candidate SPs. Intersection of methods A and B

We need to locate points in whose respective local ridge gradients change sign in both x and y directions. These points are obtained by computing the intersection of the two sets of such points for which the sign of the y-directional and xdirectional (respectively) gradient component changes, as shown in Eq. (2): (2) The operator edge in Eq. (2) denotes any edge detector that works on binary images, and [xsp, ysp] are the points where two quadrants change boundaries intersect, as shown in Figure 1. [xsp, ysp] are considered as SPs, as shown in Figure 2. This method works well with good quality gray-level images, but the moment image quality degrades, it starts resulting in spurious SPs and eventually becomes ineffective, as shown in Figure 2.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.5, May 2011

Figure 1. Horizontal and Vertical maps.

Figure 3. Reliability Image

Figure 2. Genuine and Spurious SPs based on Quadrant Change Information.

Figure 4. Genuine and Spurious SPs based on Reliability Measure.

C. MultiScale Analysis B. Orientation Reliability Measure: Method B
As per Z. Saquib and S. K. Soni (2011)[6], M. Khalil, D. Muhammad (2010)[5], the raw fingerprint image is first filtered As per T. Van and H. Lee (2009)[1], a multiscale analysis (see Figure 5) of orientation consistency is used to search the local minimum orientation consistency from large scale to fine scale. The orientation consistency-based technique can be summarized as follows: 1) Compute the orientation consistency Cons(s) of each block based on the outside 8s surrounding blocks of its (2s+1) x (2s+1) neighborhood.

using Gabor filter. Then, 'reliability' of ridge orientation map is calculated, followed by the calculation of the area of moment of inertia about the orientation axis (the min. inertia) and an axis perpendicular (the max. inertia), as given in Eq. (3) and (4):
min_inertia(x, y) = (((Gyy + Gxx) - (Gxx - Gyy) * φ'x) - (Gxy * φ'y))/2

(3) (4)

2) Find the minimum orientation consistency denoted as Consmin (s). Compute candidate threshold as, (6) 3) Select the blocks if their Cons(s) < T. 4) Compute dx(s) and dy(s), and select the blocks with both dx(s) and dy(s) larger than 0 as the candidate blocks in the next finer scale:

max_inerita(x, y) = Gyy + Gxx – min_inertia(x, y)

where, φ'x and φ'y are cosine and sine of doubled angles (ridge orientations). The reliability measure is given by Eq. (5):
Reliability Measure = 1.0 – min_inertia/max_inertia

(5)

All such pixels with reliability measure below an empirically determined threshold (here, it is 0.035) are considered as the candidate SPs. The pixels with deep blue shades are the possible SPs, as shown in Figure 3, and the corresponding SPs are shown in Figure 4, which is inclusive of both genuine and spurious.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.5, May 2011

(7) (8) 5) If no candidate blocks for the reference point are located, let T = T + 0.01, go to step 3). 6) Repeat steps 1), 2), 3), 4), and 5) in the selected candidate blocks with s = s-1 until s = 1. 7) Locate the block with minimum orientation consistency Cons(1) from the selected finest scale blocks as the unique reference point.

cases are also presented in Figure 9, where the raw images chosen are relatively of much poorer quality than the images in Figure 8. III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Proprietary (Lumidigm Venus V100 OEM Module sensor) dataset has been chosen as test data to evaluate the impact of the proposed multistage scheme for detection and elimination of spurious SPs. The scheme is implemented in MATLAB. The experimental results show that this approach satisfactorily improves the accuracy of detection of correct singular points in noisy and highly transformed (translated/rotated) fingerprint images. Only select cases (highly degraded/translated/rotated) have been chosen to measure the effectiveness of the approach. Few of them are presented in Figure 7 and 8. Some improved cases are also displayed, as shown in Figure 9, where severely distorted/poorly overlapped fingerprint images are chosen, which present real challenges in the fields. IV. CONCLUSION

Figure 5. The multiscale analysis of orientation consistency.

We have performed multiscale analysis over the set of SPs given by reliability measure stage for better approximation of the genuine SPs, as explained in sub-section D. Multiscale analysis helps in reducing the list of SPs further by isolating and removing the false SPs. D. Proposed Approach: A Multistage Detection and Elimination of Spurious SPs The proposed approach, as shown in Figure 6, comprises the state-of-the-art methods (with some modifications/tuning) presented in sub-sections A, B and C. Firstly, the two sets of candidate SPs are generated using the methods: i) quadrant change information and ii) reliability measure of the orientation field. In order to have better approximation, multiscale analysis is performed over the candidate SPs from reliability measure, which reduces (or minimizes) the list by identifying, and thereby ignoring most of such pixels which are not likely to be the SPs. Finally, the genuine SPs are confirmed by taking the intersection of the two sets of SPs from the above two methods, which then filters out the false SPs, if any, leaving behind genuine SPs. These stages are shown together in Figure 6. The experimental results are shown in Figure 7 and 8. In Figure 8, first column depicts the raw images, second column shows the results using Quality Change and Reliability methods, third column displays SPs by Quadrant Change Information (blue), Reliability Measure (red), Multiscale Analysis (green) and the fourth column presents results from the proposed scheme (genuine SPs are depicted by orange color). Few improved

Genuine SPs are very crucial towards attaining high accuracy and performance of the authentication systems. Thus, spurious SPs need to be completely removed. In this paper, a multistage scheme is proposed for detection and elimination of spurious singular points, especially in highly degraded, translated and rotated fingerprint images. Experimental results clearly show that the three methods in combination effectively remove (or minimize) the spurious singular points. The scheme is tested against some select difficult cases. Also, this method (fourth column in Figure 8), upon comparison with the approach presented by Z. Saquib, S. K. Soni (2011) (second column in Figure 8), is found better. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We wish to extend our sincere thanks to the Department of Information Technology (DIT), Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Govt. of India, for assigning us a biometric project: “BharatiyaAFIS”. This work is carried out as a part of the same project. REFERENCES
[1] [2] T. Van and H. Lee,“An efficient algorithm for fingerprint referencepoint detection”, IEEE 2009. K. Kryszczuk and A. Drygajlo, “Singular point detection in fingerprints using quadrant change information”, The 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'06), 2006. D. Maltoni, D. Maio, A. Jain, and S. Prabhakar, Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition. New York: Springer, 2003. L. Hong, Y. Wan, and A. Jain, “Fingerprint image enhancement: algorithm and performance evaluation”, IEEE Transactions On Pattern Analysis And Machine Intelligence, Vol. 20, No. 8, 1998. M. Khalil, D. Muhammad, M. Khan, Mohammed, “Singular points detection using fingerprint orientation field reliability”, International Journal of Physical Sciences Vol. 5(4), pp. 352-357, 2010. Z. Saquib, S. Soni, S. Suhasaria, D. Parekh, R. Vig, “A fault-tolerant approach for detection of singular points in noisy fingerprint images”, International Journal of Computer Security Issues, Volume 8, 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclidean_distance Kovesi PD (2008). MATLAB and Octave Functions for Computer Vision and Image Processing, in School of Computer Science and Software Engineering, The University of Western Australia. Available from http://www.csse.uwa.edu.au/~pk/research/matlabfns/.

[3] [4]

[5]

[6]

[7] [8]

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.5, May 2011

Figure 6. Proposed Scheme.

Genuine SP

Genuine SP

Spurious SP
Figure 7. SPs before Intersection (left), SPs after Intersection (right).

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.5, May 2011 Quadrant Change, Reliability & Multiscale methods (before Intersection) Quadrant Change, Reliability & Multiscale methods (after Intersection)

Fingerprint Image

Quadrant Change & Reliability methods

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001_5_68.bmp

003_5_73.bmp

006_5_16.bmp

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.5, May 2011

006_5_34.bmp

006_5_55.bmp

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.5, May 2011

007_5_2.bmp

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Figure 8. Experimental Results from Lumidigm Dataset: (first column) Raw Images, (second column) Results using Quality Change and Reliability methods, (third column) Blue SPs by Quadrant Change Information, Red SPs by Reliability Measure, Green SPs by Multiscale Analysis and (fourth column) Proposed Scheme – Genuine SPs are depicted by Orange SPs.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.5, May 2011

Sr.No.

Fingerprint Image

Quadrant Change & Reliability methods

Quadrant Change, Reliability & Multiscale methods (proposed approach)

1.

006_5_65.bmp (There is no SP present in the Raw Image)

2.

006_5_66.bmp (Only Delta should have been marked)

3.

007_5_25.bmp (Only single Core is present)

4.

001_5_15.bmp (Only single Core is present)
Figure 9. Experimental Results from Lumidigm Dataset: Third column represent improved cases, inclusive of both genuine and spurious SPs (please zoom to view them properly).

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