P. 1
Math Tricks

# Math Tricks

|Views: 87|Likes:

See more
See less

06/06/2011

pdf

text

original

# To find the number of factors of a given number

,
express the number as a product of powers of prime
numbers.In this case, 48 can be written as 16 * 3
!"4 * 3#
\$ow, increment the power of each of the prime
numbers b% 1 and mu&tip&% the resu&t.
In this case it wi&& be !4 ' 1#*!1 ' 1# ( * " 1) !the
power of " is 4 and the power of 3 is 1#
Therefore, there wi&& 1) factors inc&uding 1 and 48.
*xc&uding, these two numbers, %ou wi&& have 1) + "
8 factors.
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
The sum of first n natura& numbers n !n'1#-"
The sum of s.uares of first n natura& numbers is n
!n'1#!"n'1#-6
The sum of first n even numbers n !n'1#
The sum of first n odd numbers n/"
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
To find the s.uares of numbers near numbers of
which s.uares are 0nown
To find 41/" , 1dd 4)'41 to 16)) 1681
To find (2/" , 3ubtract 6)/",!6)'(2# 3481
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
If an e.uation !i4e f!x#) # contains a&& positive co,
efficient of an% powers of x , it has no positive roots
then.
eg4 x/4'3x/"'"x'6) has no positive roots .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
5or an e.uation f!x#) , the maximum number of
positive roots it can have is the number of sign
changes in f!x# 6 and the maximum number of
negative roots it can have is the number of sign
changes in f!,x# .
7ence the remaining are the minimum number of
imaginar% roots of the e.uation!3ince we a&so 0now
that the index of the maximum power of x is the
number of roots of an e.uation.#
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
5or a cubic e.uation ax/3'bx/"'cx'do
sum of the roots + b-a
sum of the product of the roots ta0en two at a time
c-a
product of the roots ,d-a
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
)
sum of the roots + b-a
sum of the product of the roots ta0en three at a time
c-a
sum of the product of the roots ta0en two at a time
,d-a
product of the roots e-a
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
If for two numbers x'%0!constant#, then their
89:;<=T is >1?I><> if
x%!0-"#. The maximum product is then !0/"#-4
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
If for two numbers x*%0!constant#, then their 3<>
is >I\$I><> if
x%!root!0##. The minimum sum is then "*root!0# .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
@x@ ' @%@ A @x'%@ !@@ stands for abso&ute va&ue or
modu&us #
!<sefu& in so&ving some ine.uations#
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
8roduct of an% two numbers 8roduct of their 7=5
and B=> .
7ence product of two numbers B=> of the
numbers if the% are prime to each other
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
5or an% regu&ar po&%gon , the sum of the exterior
ang&es is e.ua& to 36) degrees
hence measure of an% externa& ang&e is e.ua& to
36)-n. ! where n is the number of sides#
5or an% regu&ar po&%gon , the sum of interior ang&es
!n,"#18) degrees
3o measure of one ang&e in
3.uare 2)
8entagon 1)8
7exagon 1")
7eptagon 1"8.(
:ctagon 13(
\$onagon 14)
;ecagon 144
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
If an% para&&e&ogram can be inscribed in a circ&e , it
must be a rectang&e.
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
If a trapeCium can be inscribed in a circ&e it must be
an isosce&es trapeCium !i4e ob&i.ue sides e.ua&#.
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
5or an isosce&es trapeCium , sum of a pair of
opposite sides is e.ua& in &ength to the sum of the
other pair of opposite sides .!i4e 1D'=; 1;'D= ,
ta0en in order# .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
1rea of a regu&ar hexagon 4 root!3#*3-"*!side#*!side#
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
5or an% " numbers aAb
aA1>AE>A7>Ab !where 1>, E> ,7> stand for
arithmetic, geometric , harmonic menasa
respective&%#
!E>#/" 1> * 7>
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
5or three positive numbers a, b ,c
!a'b'c# * !1-a'1-b'1-c#A2
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
5or an% positive integer n
"F !1'1-n#/n F3
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
a/"'b/"'c/" A ab'bc'ca
If abc , then the e.ua&it% ho&ds in the above.
a/4'b/4'c/4'd/4 A4abcd
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
!nG#/" A n/n !G for factoria&#
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
If a'b'c'dconstant , then the product a/p * b/. *
c/r * d/s wi&& be maximum
if a-p b-. c-r d-s .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
=onsider the two e.uations
a1x'b1%c1
a"x'b"%c"
Then ,
If a1-a" b1-b" c1-c" , then we have infinite
so&utions for these e.uations.
If a1-a" b1-b" FA c1-c" , then we have no so&ution
for these e.uations.!FA means not e.ua& to #
If a1-a" FA b1-b" , then we have a uni.ue so&utions
for these e.uations..
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 5or an%
.uadri&atera& whose diagona&s intersect at right
ang&es , the area of the .uadri&atera& is
).(*d1*d", where d1,d" are the &enghts of the
diagona&s.
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
8rob&ems on c&oc0s can be tac0&ed as assuming
two runners going round a circ&e , one 1" times as
fast as the other . That is ,
the minute hand describes 6 degrees -minute
the hour hand describes 1-" degrees -minute .
Thus the minute hand describes (!1-"# degrees
more than the hour hand per minute .
The hour and the minute hand meet each other
after ever% 6(!(-11# minutes after being together at
midnight.
!This can be derived from the above# .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
If n is even , n!n'1#!n'"# is divisib&e b% "4
If n is an% integer , n/" ' 4 is not divisib&e b% 4
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Eiven the coordinates !a,b# !c,d# !e,f# !g,h# of a
para&&e&ogram , the coordinates of the meeting point
of the diagona&s can be found out b% so&ving for
H!a'e#-",!b'f#-"I H !c'g#-" , !d'h#-"I
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
1rea of a triang&e
1-"*base*a&titude 1-"*a*b*sin= 1-"*b*c*sin1
1-"*c*a*sinD root!s*!s,a#*!s,b#*!s,c## where
sa'b'c-"
a*b*c-!4*9# where 9 is the =I9=<>91;I<3 of the
triang&e r*s ,where r is the inradius of the triang&e .
In an% triang&e
ab*=os= ' c*=osD
bc*=os1 ' a*=os=
ca*=osD ' b*=os1
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
If a1-b1 a"-b" a3-b3 J , then each ratio is e.ua&
to
!01*a1' 0"*a"'03*a3'JJJJ..# - !01*b1'
0"*b"'03*b3'JJJJ..# , which is a&so e.ua& to
!a1'a"'a3'JJJJ.-b1'b"'b3'JJJ.#
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
!K#In an% triang&e
a-3in1 b-3inD c-3in="9 , where 9 is the
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,x/n ,a/n !x,a#
!x/!n,1# ' x/!n,"# ' JJ.' a/!n,1# # JJLer% usefu&
for finding mu&tip&es .5or examp&e !1K,143 wi&& be a
mu&tip&e of 1K/3 + 14/3#
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
e/x 1 ' !x#-1G ' !x/"#-"G ' !x/3#-3G ' JJ..to infinit%
" F e F 3
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
&og!1'x# x + !x/"#-" ' !x/3#-3 + !x/4#-4 JJJto
infinit% H \$ote the a&ternating sign . .1&so note that
the ogarithm is with respect to base e I
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
In a E8 the product of an% two terms e.uidistant
from a term is a&wa%s constant .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
5or a c%c&ic .uadri&atera& , area root! !s,a# * !s,b# *
!s,c# * !s,d# # , where s!a'b'c'd#-"
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
5or a c%c&ic .uadri&atera& , the measure of an
externa& ang&e is e.ua& to the measure of the
interna& opposite ang&e.
!m'n#G is divisib&e b% mG * nG .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
If a .uadri&atera& circumscribes a circ&e , the sum of
a pair of opposite sides is e.ua& to the sum of the
other pair .,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
The sum of an infinite E8 a-!1,r# , where a and r
are resp. the first term and common ratio of the E8 .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
The e.uation whose roots are the reciproca& of the
roots of the e.uation ax/"'bx'c is cx/"'bx'a
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
The coordinates of the centroid of a triang&e with
vertices !a,b# !c,d# !e,f#
is!!a'c'e#-3 , !b'd'f#-3# .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
The ratio of the radii of the circumcirc&e and incirc&e
of an e.ui&atera& triang&e is "41 .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
1rea of a para&&e&ogram base * height
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
188:BB:\$I<3 T7*:9*>4
In a triang&e , if 1; be the median to the side D= ,
then
1D/" ' 1=/" "!1;/" ' D;/"# or "!1;/" ' ;=/"# .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
for simi&ar cones , ratio of radii ratio of their bases.
The 7=5 and B=> of two nos. are e.ua& when the%
are e.ua& .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Lo&ume of a p%ramid 1-3 * base area * height
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
In an isosce&es triang&e , the perpendicu&ar from the
vertex to the base or the angu&ar bisector from
vertex to base bisects the base.
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
In an% triang&e the angu&ar bisector of an ang&e
bisects the base in the ratio of the
other two sides.
formed b% Moining the angu&ar bisectors of another
a&wa%s a rectang&e.
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
9oots of x/"'x'1) are 1,w,w/" where 1'w'w/")
and w/31
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
@a@'@b@ @a'b@ if a*bA)
e&se @a@'@b@ A @a'b@
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
"F !1'1-n#/n F3
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
NI\$* and N1T*9 formu&a4
If O be the vo&ume of a vesse&
. .t% of a mixture of water and wine be removed
each time from a mixture
n be the number of times this operation be done
and 1 be the fina& .t% of wine in the mixture
then ,
1-O !1,.-O#/n
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
1rea of a hexagon root!3# * 3 * !side#/"
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
!1'x#/n P !1'nx# if xFFF1
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
3ome p%thagorean trip&ets4
3,4,( !3/"4'(#
(,1",13 !(/"1"'13#
K,"4,"( !K/""4'"(#
8,1(,1K !8/" - " 1('1K #
2,4),41 !2/"4)'41#
11,6),61 !11/"6)'61#
1",3(,3K !1"/" - " 3('3K#
16,63,6( !16/" -" 63'6(#
"),"1,"2!*?=*8TI:\$#
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
1ppo&onius theorem cou&d be app&ied to the 4
triang&es formed in a para&&e&ogram.
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
1rea of a trapeCium 1-" * !sum of para&&e& sids# *
height median * height
where median is the &ine Moining the midpoints of
the ob&i.ue sides.
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
when a three digit number is reversed and the
difference of these two numbers is ta0en , the
midd&e number is a&wa%s 2 and the sum of the other
two numbers is a&wa%s 2 .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
1\$% function of the t%pe %f!x#!ax,b#-!bx,a# is
a&wa%s of the form xf!%# .
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Bet N be an% point inside a rectang&e 1D=; .
Then
N;/" ' ND/" N=/" ' N1/"
Bet a be the side of an e.ui&atera& triang&e . then if
three circ&es be drawn inside
this triang&e touching each other then eachQs radius
a-!"*!root!3#'1##
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Bet RxQ be certain base in which the representation of
a number is RabcdQ , then the decima& va&ue of this
number is a*x/3 ' b*x/" ' c*x ' d
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
when %ou mu&tip&% each side of the ine.ua&it% b% ,1,
%ou have to reverse the direction of the ine.ua&it%.
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
To find the s.uares of numbers from () to (2
5or (?/" , use the formu&ae
!(?#/" (/" '? - ?/"
*g 6 !((/"# "('( -"( 3)"(
!(6#/" "('6-36 3136
!(2#/" "('2-81 3481
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
man% of u must b aware of this formu&a, but the pp&
who donQt 0now it must b usefu& for them.
a'b'!ab-1))#
this is used for succesive discounts t%pes of sums.
&i0e 1222 popu&ation increses b% 1)S and then in
"))) b% (S so the popu&ation in "))) now is
1)'('!()-1))#'1(.(S more that was in 1222
and if there is a decrease then it wi&& be preceeded
b% a ,ve sign and &i0eiwse