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CAESAR II Training

# CAESAR II Training

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08/18/2013

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## Sections

• AGENDA
• Pipe Stress Design Data
• Piping Input
• Necessity of Node Points
• Node Numbers
• NAME
• ELEMENT LENGTH
• ELEMENT DIRECTION COSINE
• ELEMENT OFFSET
• PIPE SECTION DATA
• DIAMETER
• +Mill Tol %; Wl
• -Mill Tol %
• SEAM-WELDED
• CORROSION
• Insul Thk (*)
• OPERATING CONDITION
• TEMPERATURE
• PRESSURE
• COMPONENT INFORMATION
• Bend
• BEND-TYPE
• Some practice
• Mitered Bends
• K-FACTOR
• RESTRAINTS
• ANCHORS
• DOUBLE ACTING RESTRAINT
• SINGLE ACTING RESTRAINT
• GUIDE Double Acting
• DIRECTIONAL LIMIT STOPS
• WINDOW
• Vertical Dummy Leg On Bends
• Reducer
• User defined load case names
• Algebraic
• SCALAR
• Abs
• MAX
• MIN
• Sign MAX
• SignMin

# CAESAR II 5.

1
Training
Vivek Paul
Engineer (Tech.)
KLG SYSTEL LTD
AGENDA
ntroduction to CAESAR & Basic theories
Data nputting
Modeling of piping system
÷ Modeling Miters
÷ Reducers
Nozzle/Vessel Junction through C-nodes
Rigid Elements
Bellows
Cold Springs
Expansion Loop
Hangers
Static analysis along with wind loads
Combining Load Cases as per codes
Various Graphics Outputs
sometric generation
Combining Dynamic Load as per code requirement
Creating various reports (WRC 297, Loads on pumps compressors, Exchangers)
Processing the result
Introduction to Pipe stress anaIysis
n order to properly design a piping system, the engineer must
as the regulatory requirements imposed upon it by governing codes.
System behavior can be quantified through the aggregate values of
numerous physical parameter like acceleration, velocities,
displacements, internal forces and moments, stress, and external
reaction developed, under applied loads. Allowable value for each of
them are set after review of appropriate failure criteria for the
system. System response and failure criteria are dependent on type
Sustained Vs Occasional, Static Vs Dynamic.
y do we perform Pipe Stress AnaIysis
n Order to Keep stress in the Pipe & Fittings within code allowable
levels.
allowable of manufactures or recognized standard (NEMA SM23,
AP, AP7)
n Order to calculate design loads for sizing supports and restraints.
n order to determine piping displacement for interference checks
n order to solve dynamic problems in piping, such as those due to
mechanical vibration, fluid hammer, pulsation, transient flow and
relief valve discharge
n order to help optimize piping design.
Pipe Stress Design Data
Design Data typically required for pipe stress analysis consist of
Pipe Material & Size
Operating Parameter
Temperature
Pressure
Fluid Contains
Code Stress Allowable
nsulation Weight
External Equipment Movement
Wind & Earthquake criteria
ut we can go aead onIy wen you
know tis
Basic Piping
Piping components
After starting CAESAR Main Menu appears, it is recommended to kept this
Window minimum as this will used only for accessing toolbar and command
Set Default Data Directory
÷ Tool to set Default project directory where all the files of particular projects will be
saved. Selection of data directory is very important as configuration, units, data files
found in the directory will be considered to be a Local to that Job
New
÷ For creating a new Piping or structural files
Open
÷ Open an existing piping or structural Job
Clean up (Delete) Files
÷ Enables user to delete unwanted scratch, listing, input or output files to retain more
hard disk space
Recent Piping or Recent structural Files
÷ Display the four most recently used Piping or structural files
Exit
÷ Closes CAESAR Application
Piping
nputs CAESAR Piping Model
Underground
Converts Existing Piping Model to buried piping
Structural Steel
nput CAESAR Structural Model
Piping Input
Data Fields
Node Numbers
Element Lengths
Element Direction Cosines
Pipe Section Properties
Operating Conditions: Temperature & Pressure
Special Element nformation
Boundary Conditions
Piping Material
Material Elastic Properties
Densities
Undo/Redo
Customize Toolbar
Necessity of Node Points
Node points are required at any location where it is necessary to provide information to,
or obtain information from pipe stress software. Node points are required to:
Define geometry
System Start, End, Direction Changes, ntersection etc
Observing Changes in operating condition
System start, isolation or pressure reduction valve
Define element stiffness parameters
Change in pipe cross section or material, rigid element or expansion Joints
Defining Boundary conditions
Restraints and imposed displacements
Specify Mass points
Refinement of mass modal
nsulation Weight
mposed Forces
Earthquake g-factor
Response spectra
Wind Exposure & Snow
Retrieve information from the stress analysis
Stress at piping mid spans
Displacements at wall penetration
Node Numbers
The FROM & TO node number defines the
starting & end of the element respectively.
Node numbers must be numeric, ranging
from to 32. Normally, the FROM node
number is "duplicated forward" by
CAESAR II from the preceding element
NAME
This check box is used to assign non-numeric
names to node points. Double-clicking this
check box activates an auxiliary spreadsheet
where names, of up to characters, can be
assigned to the ROM and/or TO nodes.
These names will show up in place of the
node numbers in graphic plots and reports
ELEMENT LENGTH
Length of element is entered as a delta
dimension which are the measurement along
X, Y and Z axis. one or more entries must be
made except Zero length Expansion Joints.
Note: 3-2, -2, 2-3-3/ are the acceptable format for Feet & nches
Entries. Simple forms of addition, multiplication, and division
may be used as well as exponential format.
.3 = ?
- =?
--/4 =?
--/4+3-7 =?
.3*2 =?
ELEMENT DIRECTION COSINE
Direction Vector or direction
cosine which define the center
line of the element.
ELEMENT OSET
Thermal expansion will be "
for the offset portion of an
element. No element flexibility
will be generated for offset
part at the time of analysis.
PIPE SECTION DATA
Diameter
Wt / Sch
+Mill Tol %; W
-Mill Tol %
Seam-Welded
Corrosion
nsul Thk
DIAMETER
The Diameter field is used to specify the pipe diameter. Normally, the nominal
diameter is entered, and CAESAR II converts it to the actual outer diameter necessary
for the analysis. There are two ways to prevent this conversion: use a modified UNTS
file with the Nominal Pipe Schedules turned off, or enter diameters whose values are
off slightly from a nominal size (in English units the tolerance on diameter is .4 in.)
ANSI Nominal Pipe ODs, in inches (file ap. bin)
½ ¾ ½ 2 2 ½ 3 3 ½ 4 5 8 2 4 8 2 22 24 2 28 3 32 34 3 42
IS Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file jp. bin)
5 2 25 32 4 5 5 8 9 25 5 2 25 3 35 4 45 5 55 5
DIN Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file dp. bin)
5 2 25 32 4 5 5 8 25 5 2 25 3 35 4 5 7 8 9
2 4 8 2 22
t / Sc
tm = t + c
tm = minimum wall thickness, in.
t = minimum wall thickness required for
pressure, in
C= sum of allowances for thread or groove depth,
corrosion, erosion and manufacturer's tolerance, in
t / Sc
The aII Tickness/SceduIe field is used to specify the thickness of the pipe. Normal input consists of a
schedule indicator (such as S, XS, or 4), which will be converted to the proper wall thickness by
CAESAR II. f actual thickness is entered, CAESAR II will accept it as entered. Available schedule
indicators are determined by the active piping specification, set via the configuration program. The
available schedules are listed below.
ANS B3. Steel Nominal Wall Thickness Designation:
S - Standard
XS - Extra Strong
XXS - Double Extra Strong
ANS B3. Steel Pipe Numbers:
2 3 4 8 2 4
ANS B3.9 Stainless Steel Schedules:
5S S 4S 8S
JS PPE SCHEDULES
99 Steel Schedules:
2 3 4 8 2 4
99 Stainless Steel Schedules:
5S S 4S
DN PPE SCHEDULES
MiII ToI %; I
The Positive Mill Tolerance is only enabled when GE/TD/2 is
active, and is used when the ase Stress/IexibiIity On
directive of the SpeciaI Execution Options is set to Plus Mill
Tolerance. n that case, piping stiffness and section modulus is
based on the nominal wall thickness, increased by this
percentage. The user may change this value on an element-by-
element basis.
If te 1. piping code is activated, tis fieId is
used to specify te "weId strengt reduction
factor" (I), to be used in te minimum waII
caIcuIation for straigt pipe.
MiII ToI %
The Negative Mill Tolerance is read in from the
configuration file for use in minimum wall thickness
calculations. Also, for GE/TD/2, this value is used
when the ase Stress/IexibiIity On directive of the
SpeciaI Execution Options is set to Plus Mill
Tolerance. n that case, piping stiffness and section
modulus is based on the nominal wall thickness,
decreased by this percentage. The user may change
this value on an element-by-element basis.
SEAMELDED
f the B3.3 piping code is active, the "seam-
welded" check box is used to activate the Wl
field. The I field is the "weld strength
reduction factor" used to determine the
minimum wall thickness of the element.
CORROSION
Enter the corrosion allowance to be used order
to calculate a reduced section modulus. A
"setup file" directive is available to consider
all stress cases as corroded
InsuI Tk (*)
Enter the thickness of the insulation to be applied to the
piping. nsulation applied to the outside of the pipe
will be included in the dead weight of the system,
and in the projected pipe area used for wind load
computations. f a negative value is entered for the
insulation thickness, the program will model
refractory lined pipe. The thickness will be assumed
to be the thickness of the refractory, inside the pipe.
OPERATING CONDITION
Temperature
Pressure
TEMPERATURE
CAESAR uses these temperatures to obtain the thermal strain and allowable stresses for the element from
the Material Database. Thermal strain can be specified directly as well. thermal strain have absolute
values on the order of .2 and are unit less. CAESAR uses an ambient temperature of 7 F, unless
changed using the special execution parameter option.
There are nine temperature fields, to allow up to nine different operating cases. Temperature values are
checked (by the error checker) to insure they are within the code allowed ranges. Users can exceed the
code ranges by entering the expansion coefficient in the temperature field in units of length/length. The
expansion coefficient can be a useful method of modeling cold spring effects. Also when material 2(user-
defined material) enter temperature *expansion coefficient as in the example below.
Values entered in the temperature field whose absolute values are less than the Alpha Tolerance are
taken to be thermal expansion coefficients, where the AIpa ToIerance is a configuration fiIe
parameter and is taken to be .5 by default. For example, if the user wanted to enter the thermal
expansion coefficient equivalent to .37in./ft., the calculation would be:
.37in./ft. * ft./ 2in. = .9475 in./in.
This would be entered into the appropriate Temperature field.
PRESSURE
There are ten pressure fields, to allow up to nine operating, and one hydro
test, pressure cases. When multiple pressures are entered, the user
should be particularly careful with the set up of the analysis load
cases, and should inspect CAESAR II's recommendations carefully
before proceeding.
Extended Operating Conditions input screen, accessible via the
EIIipses Dots button directly to the right of the standard Temperature
and Pressure input fields. This dialog box may be retained open or
closed at the convenience of the user.
Entering a value in the Hydro Press field signals CAESAR II to
recommend a Hydro test load case.
COMPONENT INORMATION
Bend
Rigid Element
Expansion Joint
Reducer
SF & Tees
end
f element described by input sheet ends with bend, elbow, mitered joint bend
check box to be checked.
÷ Bend angle is always defined by element entering and leaving the bend.
÷ By default the bend radius (Basically it is long radius) is .5 times of Pipe nominal
diameter.
÷ CAESAR automatically creates two nodes on bend at degree location and bend
mid point. (Bend)
÷ TO node of the element entering the bend located at far point on the bend. This is for
stress and displacement output. Far point is the weld line of bend and adjacent to
element leaving the bend.
÷ degree Node will not be created if Total length of element specified is equal to R
tan(ß/2)
÷ Nodes on bend curvature can not be place closer together then specified
angle in CONFG/SETUP File.
÷ Minimum and Maximum bend angle also need to be specified in
CONFG/SETUP File only.
END TYPE
For most codes, this refers to the number of attached
flanges, and can be selected from the drop list. f
there are no flanges on the bend then leave the
Type field blank. t has been seen that elbows tends
to ovaIize during bending.
÷ Single & Double flanged bends can be enter by entering
or 2 respectively for the type.
÷ When specifying single flanged bends it does not matter
which end of bend the flange is installed
÷ f user wants to include the weight of rigid flange then he
has to put rigid element with equal length of flange on
desired side of bend.
Some practice
45 degree elbow
U type/8S return bend
Circular ring
Mitered ends
A Miter Joint is a change in pipe direction
through proper cutting and welding of straight
pipe.
Closely Spaced
Widely Spaced
÷ R = r[ + cot0]
2
ITTING THICKNESS
Thickness of the bend will be changed
without affecting preceding & following pipe
CAESAR applies this change on current
bend only
As per B3 Stress at elbow are calculated on
basis of section modulus of matching pipe
however the stress intensification factor &
Flexibility factor for bend is based on wall
thickness of elbow.
KACTOR
K-Factor shows flexibility of bend w.r.t same
length of pipe. f K-factor value is .5, it
means bend is .5 times as flexible as same
length of pipe. end fIexibiIity factor are
calculated as per code but user can
overwrite it.
RESTRAINTS
Restraints we are using to provide boundary condition.
Anchor
Double Acting & Single Acting ÷ Transitional/Rotational
Guide
LM
XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB
X2, Y2, Z2
K2
XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR
X (cosx, cosy, cosz) or X (vecx, vecy, vecz)
RX (cosx, cosy, cosz) or RX (vecx, vecy, vecz)
XROD, YROD, ZROD
ANCHORS
Anchors is an rigid element hence displace should not
be defined at an anchor node.
For ancors wit dispIacement following point should
be considered
Enter only displacement for the node
Do not apply any restraint or anchors at the node to
be displaced
All degree of freedom at the node should be
defined.
Leaving the displacement field blank will default to
zero.
DOULE ACTING RESTRAINT
Transitional
Rotational
SINGLE ACTING RESTRAINT
Always gives information about Free Axis
Can be defined along +ve, -ve & skewed axis
f CNode left blank then the restrained node
is connected via the restraint stiffness to a
rigid point in space. f the CNode is entered
then the restrained node is connected via the
restrained stiffness to the connecting node
GUIDE DoubIe Acting
Guided pipe in the horizontal or skewed
direction will have a single restraint, acting in
the horizontal plane, orthogonal to the axis of
the pipe.
A guided vertical pipe will have both X & Z
direction supports
DIRECTIONAL LIMIT STOPS
Limit stops are single pr double acting restraint
whose line of action is along the axis of the
pipe, these restraint can have gaps which
permits free movement along the restraint
line of action.
÷ Directional Limit stop with gap
÷ Two limit stops acting in opposite direction
INDO
Equal leg windows are modeled using two
double-acting restraints with gaps orthogonal
to the pipe axis
Unequal leg windows are modeled using four
single-acting restraints with orthogonal to the
pipe axis
ROTATIONAL DIRECTIONAL RESTRAINT
These restraints can be considered specialty
items and are typically only used in
sophisticated expansion joints or hinge
models.
÷ Bidirectional rotational restraint with Gap
÷ Hinged Assembly with directional rotational
restraint
SingIeDirectionaI restraint wit
predefined dispIacement
SingIeDirectionaI restraint and Guide
wit Gap and Predefined DispIacement
RESTRAINT ON END AT 45 DEGREES
RESTRAINT ON END AT & 6 DEG
'erticaI Dummy Leg On ends
Reducer
etc.) may be preceded by scale factors such as 2., -, .5 etc.
& "- will be used to specifydirection
.5W+.T+.D+.25Wind
Note: Load case name should not exceed 32 characters
UsercontroIIed combination metods
Algebraic
Scalar
Abs
Max
Min
Sign Max
Sign Min
AIgebraic
This method combines the displacement, forces,
moments, restraint loads and pressures of the
designated load cases in an algebraic (vectorial)
manner. The resultant forces, moments, and
pressures are then used (along with the S!Fs and
element cross·sectional parameters) to calculate the
piping stresses. New combination cases
automatically default to this method, unless
specifically designated by user.
SCALAR
This method combines the displacement,
forces, moments, restraint loads and stresses
of the designated load cases in a scalar
manner but retaining consideration of sign.
This method might typically be used when
operating case, or when doing an occasional
stress code check.
This method combines the displacements,
forces, moments, restraint loads and stresses
of defined load cases in Square root of the
sum of the squares manner, however due
to squaring ¨·ve" vs. ¨+ve" values yield no
difference. This load typically used when
combining seismic loads acting in orthogonal
directions.
Abs
This method combines the displacements, forces,
moments, restraint loads and stresses of defined
load cases in /solute manner, however due
absolute values used by the combination method ¨·
ve" S ¨+ve" values yield no difference in the results.
in orthogonal directions. This method may be used
when doing an occasional stress code check (i.e.
absolute summation of the sustained and occasional
stresses)
MAX
For each result value, this method selects the
displacement, force, moments, restraints load, and
stress having the largest absolute value from the
designated load cases, so no actual combination, per
se, takes place. Load case results are multiplied by
any scale factor prior to doing the selection of
NAX!NA. This method is typically used when design
MIN
For each result value, this method selects the
displacement, force, moments, restraints
load, and stress having the smallest absolute
value from the designated load cases, so no
actual combination, per se, takes place. Load
case results are multiplied by any scale factor
prior to doing the selection of N!N!NA.
Sign MAX
For each result value, this method selects the
displacement, force, moments, restraints load, and
stress having the largest actual value considering the
sign from the designated load cases, so no actual
combination, per se, takes place. Load case results
are multiplied by any scale factor prior to doing the
selection of NAX!NA. This method is typically used in
conjunction with the SignNin method to find the
design range for each value (i.e. maximum positive
SignMin
For each result value, this method selects the
displacement, force, moments, restraints load, and
stress having the Smallest actual value considering
the sign from the designated load cases, so no
actual combination, per se, takes place. Load case
results are multiplied by any scale factor prior to
doing the selection of NAX!NA. This method is
typically used in conjunction with the SignNax
method to find the design range for each value (i.e.
maximum positive and maximum negative restraint

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