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The Knits

The Knits

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Published by Dilip Kumar

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Published by: Dilip Kumar on Jun 06, 2011
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07/10/2012

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Sections

  • KNITTING OR FABRICATION
  • Machine Gauge:
  • Texture:
  • Diameter:
  • KNITTING WITH ELASTAN (SPANDEX):
  • PRE-PROCESSING
  • LAB DIPS:
  • ALL OVER PRINTS:
  • Cost of Elastics:
  • Cost of Inner board:
  • Cost of Tissue paper:
  • Cost of safety pins and threads:
  • Cost of Polybags:
  • Cost of Hangers & Sizers:
  • Cost of Cartons:
  • Delivery terms:
  • SEA FREIGHT:
  • AIR FREIGHT:
  • Calculation of the charges:
  • GARMENT COSTING
  • FABRIC CONSUMPTION:
  • FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF OPEN WIDTH FABRICS (SYNTHETIC):
  • GROSS WEIGHT & NET WEIGHT:
  • CMT CHARGES:
  • COST OF GARMENT
  • PRICE OF GARMENT
  • SHIPPING CHARGES:
  • PROFIT:
  • COST OF QUOTA:
  • COMMISSION:
  • GARMENT COSTING:
  • PAYMENT TERMS
  • L/C amendments:
  • Importance of B/L and Airway Bill:
  • Documentation:
  • At Sight L/C:
  • Revolving L/C:
  • D/A terms:
  • MARKETING
  • SELF STUDY:
  • Code of Conduct:
  • Child Labour
  • Factory Conditions
  • Housing Conditions
  • Environment
  • PRODUCT STUDY:
  • MARKET STUDY:
  • CUSTOMER STUDY:
  • WORK STUDY:
  • COSTING & PRICING:
  • COMMUNICATION:
  • DOCUMENTATION:
  • PURCHASE:
  • SHIPPING:
  • PAYMENT:
  • MERCHANDISING
  • Internal & external communication
  • Sampling
  • Development samples or enquiry samples
  • Salesmen samples or promotional samples
  • Proto samples or fit samples
  • Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples
  • Wash test samples
  • Photo samples
  • Fashion show samples
  • Pre-production samples
  • Production samples
  • Shipment samples
  • Lab dips
  • Accessories & trims
  • Preparing internal order sheets
  • Preparing purchase orders
  • Advising and assisting production
  • Coordination regarding shipping
  • Helping documentation department
  • Taking responsibility for inspections
  • Following shipment
  • PRODUCTION
  • PRODUCTION PLANNING:
  • Line balancing:
  • Man planning:
  • FABRIC INSPECTION:
  • LINE SYSTEM:
  • CUTTING:
  • Inspection of cut bits:
  • SEWING:
  • TRIMMING:
  • QUALITY CHECKING:
  • PACKING:
  • SAMPLING:
  • QUALITY SYSTEM:
  • LAB TESTS:
  • WASHING INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOLS:
  • QUALITY PROCEDURES:
  • WORKMANSHIP & GENERAL APPEARANCE:
  • PRESENTATION:
  • INSPECTIONS:
  • COORDINATION:

PREFACE As everybody knows, the textile industry is one of the best trades in the world.

Especially the business of manufacturing and exporting knitted garments is very much interesting. The knit garments can be made in light weight, at the same time, with more thickness fabrics for winter seasons. For the summer seasons, they can be made in lighter weight with less thickness fabrics. Also there is a huge number of fabric varieties can be made in knits. The speciality of knit garments is the elasticity. Because of these special and comfort qualities, the requirement for knit garments is huge and forever. Hence manufacturing and exporting knit garments is definitely a life long profitable business. At the same time, there is a huge competition among the exporters around the world. Nowadays, most of the overseas buyers and importers prefer to do business with the suppliers - who are having their own manufacturing factories with huge production capacity, - who are quality conscious, - who are able to make prompt shipment in right time with right quality, - who are adopting local labour laws and code of conduct, - who are having thorough knowledge about the business, - who are reliable, - who are having sound financial strength and - who are able to supply the garments on competitive prices. As the quota restrictions will be removed from January 2005 and due to globalisation, we expect a huge competition in all the businesses among the sellers and buyers worldwide. In these years, we have been competing within our country or region. But hereafter we will have to compete with the other countries. It is going to be very tough. At the same time, it is not an impossible thing. We can achieve success, if we pay more attention in knowing about the trade thoroughly. Actually, I wanted to share my knowledge and experience with my younger brothers who are also in this same trade. And I wanted to give them the important hints for their easy understanding and reference. But while I was writing, I decided to write this also for others who are in this trade and who is interested to know about this trade. Then I decided to write this elaborately covering all the stages of this trade in detail. Also I have explained the details in very simple and easy language so that every one who reads this book can understand easily. In this book, I have given the costs and costing in Indian Rupees as it is easy for me. The readers, other than Indians, will have to convert the costs and costing in their desired currencies. I believe that the readers will bear with me for this inconvenience. I am very happy to bring out my knowledge about this trade through this book and I have real happiness as I am sharing the details with you. Hope all the information in this book will be useful to you all and hope you will be satisfied. I wish you all success in your business or career!

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INDEX Subject Heading GARMENTS GSM YARN Grey yarn & prices Melange yarn & prices Dyed yarn & prices Mercerised yarn & prices Grindle yarn & prices KNITTING OR FABRICATION Machine gauge Texture Diameter Knitting charges Knitting with Elastan (Spandex) PRE-PROCESSING Procedures to avoid shading PROCESSING Azo Free dyestuffs Bleaching (Chlorine & Peroxide) Fabric dyeing – Reactive, pigment & discharge dyeing Lab dips Winch dyeing & charges Soft flow dyeing & charges Fabric mercerising & charges Fabric washing & charges FINISHING & COMPACTING Calendering & charges Compacting & charges Stentering & charges Heat setting & charges Fabric raising & charges PRINTING All over prints Pigment print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages 2 Page No. 7 7

8 9 10 10 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 17 17

19 20 21 21 21 22 23 23

24 24 24 25 25

25 26 26 27

3 Risk factors Print in open width form Water base print Organic dyeing & printing Printing charges Reactive print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Printing charges Discharge print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Some tips Printing charges Chest prints (advantages) Printng charges SPECIAL PROCESSES Tie & Dye Procedures Advantages Risk factors Tie & dye charges Batiks Garment dyeing Procedures Advantages Risk factors Garment dyeing charges EMBROIDERY Applique Acoba Embroidery charges 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31

32 33 34 34 34 34

35 36 36 36 36 36 36 37

ACCESSORIES Cost of buttons Cost of zippers Cost of twill tapes & ropes 3

37 37 37 38

1 – Men’s Basic T shirts Fabric consumption of open width fabrics (synthetic) Gross weight & net weight Fabric cost per kg Fabric cost per garment Other charges Cost of trims CMT charges Cost of accessories Cost of garment Price of garment Shipping charges Profit Cost of quota Commission Garment costing Trial costing No.4 – Men’s long pyjamas Trial costing No.3 – Ladies Night dress Trial costing No.7 – Boys Yarn stripes T shirts (engineering) PAYMENT TERMS L/C terms L/C amendments Importance of B/L & Airway bill 4 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 43 44 47 48 48 49 50 52 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 58 61 62 65 67 69 71 71 73 73 .2 – Men’s all over printed Polo shirts Trial costing No.6 – Ladies Yarn stripes T shirts (feeder) Trial costing No.5 – Men’s Pique polo shirts Trial costing No.4 Cost of elastics Cost of labels Cost of hangtags Cost of inner boards Cost of tissue papers Cost of safety pins & threads Cost of polybags Cost of master polybags Cost of hangers & sizers Cost of cartons CMT CHARGES SHIPPING Delivery terms Sea freight Air freight Calculation of the charges GARMENT COSTING Fabric consumption Trial costing No.

60days.5 Documentation At Sight L/C 30days. 90days L/C Revolving L/C D/P terms D/A terms MARKETING Self study Code of conduct Child labour Safety Workers’ rights Factory conditions Housing conditions Environment Policies and approaches Product study Market study Customer study Work study Costing & pricing Communication Documentation Purchase Shipping Payment MERCHANDISING Internal & external communication Sampling Development samples or enquiry samples Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples Lab dips Accessories & trims Preparing internal order sheets Preparing purchase orders Advising and assisting production Advising quality department about quality level Coordination regarding shipping 5 75 76 77 78 78 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 86 86 87 89 90 90 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 100 100 100 .

6 Helping documentation department Taking responsibility for inspections Following shipment PRODUCTION Production planning Work study Standard Minute Value Line balancing Man planning Cost Per Minute Patterning Fabric inspection Line system Cutting Inspection of cut bits Sewing Trimming Quality checking Packing Sampling QUALITY CONTROL Quality system Lab tests Washing instructions & symbols Quality procedures Workmanship & general appearance Presentation Inspections Coordination 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 105 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 109 112 113 116 118 119 120 121 6 .

The knit garments can be made in solid dyed or all over printed or yarn striped or jacquard fabrics. By the weight of 50cm x 50cm fabric bit multiplied by 4. The bigger size of fabric bit is better used to get exact or closer GSM. round cutters are used. towels and made ups are Woven. It can be found out by any one of the below ways. As this bit is very small and as the weight has to be multiplied by 100. Woven fabrics are made in hand looms. By the weight of 25cm x 25cm fabric bit multiplied by 16. the fabric will be cut into a small bit. they are called by different names. bed spreads. finishing. According to the structure of fabrics. then we don’t have any problem in finding GSM. Fleece. But yarn counts. sarees. colours. sweatshirts. Polar fleece and Jacquards. making and other references. Hence nowadays. Knit fabrics are made in different kinds of knitting machines. The fabric quality is made differently by various methods of finishing and treating. Another is Knitted garments. undergarments. the fabric has to be 7 . as we can cut any dimension to find GSM. So we will be allowed to cut a small bit from the garments. etc. Then the GSM of the fabric can be found out by multiplying the weight of this round bit by 100. This round bit is to be weighed in an electronic scale with milligram accuracy. This system is used worldwide. trousers. One is Woven garments. accurate GSM can not be achieved. Loop knit. prints. width should be considered with more care. blankets. And we will have to keep the garment for style. reed & picks (warp & weft). GSM GSM is the short form of Grams per Square Metre. GSM is the very most important thing which defines the weight of the fabrics of knit garments. fabric quality. pyjamas and socks are Knits. The mainly used fabrics are Jersey. Flat back rib. French Rib. It means 100cm x 100cm = 10. We must be aware that if we use the smaller size bit. By the weight of 10cm x 10cm fabric bit multiplied by 100. Shirts. But most of the times. we will have only the garments to find GSM. embroidery.7 GARMENTS There are 2 types of garments. style. Rib. Garment price and quality based on many things like GSM.000 sq. Interlock. But GSM is the most important thing to be decided when confirming the prices between the sellers and buyers. power looms and mill made. GSM is the weight of 1mtr x 1mtr fabric. T shirts. Pique.cms. If we have fabrics. With the help of this round cutter. By the weight of 100cm x 100cm fabric bit. Making woven fabrics is simple.

For this purpose. evenness. When we think about the raw materials for knit garments. 30’s. etc. the fabric will have very even look. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. we can understand that there is only one raw material which is. 36’s. the fibers with more length are considered to be better. 25’s. raw material. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this. As the above said ‘combing’ process is not being done. Hence the blades of this round cutter are to be sharp and new to get the exact GSM. There are 2 qualities of yarn. Also the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. Likewise 30’s yarn is thicker than 34’s. Cost of yarn covers almost 20% to 30% of garment price. higher the prices. Because of this extra process. As the yarn prices are fluctuated often and as the yarn is the major cost factor of garments. the lesser the thickness. Price of 30’s yarn is lesser than 34’s yarn. 24’s.5 inches. 34’s. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths. 0’s counts are cotton fiber. the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness. we have to pay more attention in yarn quality and its cost. the thickness becomes lesser. Because of the same longer length of fibers. 100’s. 80’s. Yarn prices based on the thickness. This process is called ‘Combing’. higher the counts. Combed is superior quality. a special process is being done. the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers. We must know. Hence after knitting or weaving. hand feel. the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. 38’s. Yarn prices will vary from Mill to Mill due to their different quality standards. 60’s. Combed and Carded. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn.25 inches to 2. the Yarn. According to the technical parameters. We can see. We can consider like this. the higher the counts. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn. 40’s. 20’s. Price of 20’s yarn is lesser than 24’s. 20’s counts yarn is thicker than 24’s yarn. 16’s. 4’s. So when the yarn counts are increasing. Yarns are made in different counts like 2’s. Carded yarn is inferior in quality. the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. YARN The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. Cost of yarn depends on the quality standards like dyeing absorbency. etc. 10’s. 8 . We have to use either Combed or Carded yarn according to buyers’ requirements and to the suitable price range. availability.8 cut very sharply to get the exact GSM. strength.

also the shrinkage can not be controlled. But we must think of shrinkage. The garment quality is based on the fabric quality. the cotton portion will be in light shade and the Viscose portion will be in dark shade. the Dark Blue colour mélange yarns will have 55%Cotton / 45%Viscose approximately. the fabric quality is based on the yarn quality. due to higher shrinkage. Let us see below the approximate prices for various qualities of 100%Cotton yarns. Approximate grey yarn prices per kg in Rs: 20’s 24’s 30’s 34’s Combed 100 120 130 140 Carded 95 110 120 130 40’s 145 140 Melange yarn: Melange means mixture. we have to be very cautious of the percentage or composition of Viscose. Melange yarn means mixture of different shades of yarns. Melange yarns are generally made with Cotton and Viscose fibers. But we have to remember that if we use colour mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. Ecru mélange. the fabric made with these yarns will have higher shrinkage. colour mélange yarns made by 100%Cotton fibers are also used. For light colour mélange yarn. Colour mélange. the shrinkage can be controlled to the acceptable level. For example. They are Grey mélange. But as we use 100% Cotton. Flax mélange. The fabric may have very soft feel and shiny look. Hence the garment’s quality is lying on the yarn quality. the dyeing absorbency will be very less. If the yarn contains more lifeless and dull cottons. etc. Hence. it is enough to add little percentage of Viscose. There are different mélange yarns.9 The processing (dyeing. the cotton portion will be in light shade. the fibers are mixed together before making into yarn. bleaching and finishing) results will differ according to the yarn quality. Grey Melange. bleached mélange. But for dark colour mélange yarns. which is very important. Ecru Melange. To avoid this shrinkage problem. In colour mélange yarn also. It is safer not to use mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. 9 . These mélange yarns are generally in the composition of 85%Cotton / 15%Viscose approximately. Also evenness and numbers of naps determine the yarn quality. But this is more expensive than normal colour mélange yarn with Viscose blend. Bleached Melange are used widely. According to the required percentage and colour shades. In these yarns. higher percentage of Viscose to be added to get dark shades.

There is a huge difference between the mercerised yarns and normal type of cotton yarns.40 to 50 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. Mercerised yarns are always in 2 ply. Medium colours: Rs. Hence it is always advised to dye the yarns with the latest machines only. like 60/2.250 per kg. dull and dead cottons. Also the yarn should have more yarn strength. The prices of dyed yarn are based on the counts and colour shades. 100/2.30 to 40 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns.70 to 100 to be added (according to the depth of colours) with above prices of Combed yarns. For easy reference. In manual yarn dyeing. Rs. These yarns are made exclusively of long fibers. Let us see some important things about these special yarns. The minimum counts which can be doubled are 50s. Dark colours: Rs. Yarns are dyed by manually and by sophisticated machines. only combed yarns are used. As the finer cottons are used. 80/2. Dyed yarn: For making the stripes and jacquard design fabrics. the dyed yarns are used. 10 . the dyed yarn price of 30’s Medium colour will be around Rs.10 to 15 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. as the combing process removes shorter fibers. For Colour Melange in 100% Cotton: Approximately Rs. It means 2 yarns of same counts have to be twisted together. the yarn contains more cotton. Fabric can be made with Ecru mélange or Grey mélange and can be over dyed to required dark shades. The prices of other counts are based on the price differences of grey (kora) yarns.20 to 30 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. yarn strength and better quality. For yarn dyeing. giving more resistance and silky feel. Mercerised Yarn: This is a very special quality yarn. we can not expect the consistency of shades. It is called Count Strength Product (CSP). These yarns are made with selective fibers with longer lengths by thoroughly removing the lifeless. Cost wise. The prices for other colours will be differed according to the shades. there will not be big difference between colour mélange yarn and over dyeing. But this method will solve the shrinkage problem. So minimum mercerised yarn can be 50/2. Approximate Melange yarn prices per kg in Rs: For Ecru Melange & Grey Melange yarns. For Colour Melange in Cotton / Viscose blend: Light colours: Rs.10 Also there is another way to solve shrinkage problem.

Also the garments will not be deformed regarding shape. the fabric has to be mercerised before fabric dyeing. this is called ‘Double Mercerising’. Complete evenness throughout the yarn / fabric / garments. The garments made with mercerised yarns can be washed an infinite number of times without losing luster. 5. In this method. 11 . After making the fabrics with these Gassed Mercerised yarns. Longer life of garments. fabrics have to be mercerised again. As mercerising is done two times. After combing and twisting. Then after mercerizing. But this shiny look will not be permanent and will be inferior comparing with the fabric used with Gassed Mercerised yarns. (Now this is called Gassed Yarn).11 As these yarns are made in multi-ply (2 ply). the yarn is called 2/60’s mercerised yarn. Used for making very expensive special garments. In any case. the hairy particles of the yarn will be burnt out. 2. After mercerising. one in yarn stage and another in fabric stage. Luster and shininess of yarn / fabric / garments. By this process. For yarn striped and jacquard design fabrics. these yarns are used for knitwear. 3. As the prices of Mercerised yarns are higher than Gassed yarns. Also Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarns are available. So these mercerised yarns are very special due to its special qualities. Due to more heat. the yarn will pass rapidly through flames and the superficial hair around the yarn would be eliminated. We will get the shiny look on the fabric. as the yarn is not mercerised and as only the fabric is mercerised. this mercerising process increases the resistance of yarn and reduces its becoming dirty. Further. to minimise the cost. the yarn will be singed (gassed). Then the yarn is treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. Mercerising is done to strengthen the yarn and to improve luster of yarn. After making the fabrics with Gassed yarns. Due to its high resistance properties. the yarn will have great strength and greater brightness. Very less shrinkage of yarn / fabric / garments. it is called ‘Single Mercerising’. This will give more life to the garments. these dyed yarns are used. Gassed yarns can be used instead of Mercerised yarns. they have 10 – 15% more resistance than single ply yarns. underwear and hosiery. then we get 2/60’s gassed yarn. The special features of Gassed Mercerised yarns are 1. the fabric has to be mercerised again with caustic soda to get the permanent shiny look. If two yarns of 60’s counts are gassed. This process is called Mercerising. Also the yarn will capture 20% more humidity without getting wet. 4. These yarns do not create allergies to body. (Now the yarn is called Gassed Mercerised Yarn). They have exceptional ability to absorb and disperse body perspiration.

12 Approximate Gassed (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.310 2/74’s: Rs.360 2/80’s: Rs.400 Approximate Gassed Mercerised (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.380 2/74’s: Rs.440 2/80’s: Rs.490 Approximate Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Light colours: Rs.480 Medium colours: Rs.520 Dark colours: Rs.550 2/74’s: Rs.60 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. 2/80’s: Rs.100 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. Grindle Yarns: These yarns are also called ‘Twisted Yarns’. Two yarns of same counts but in different colours are twisted together. Among these 2 colours, one colour will be in lighter shade and the other will be in darker shade. After the twisting, the yarn will be in a different mixing shade. We must be sure of these yarns are in same counts and have same yarn strength. Also when they are being twisted together, the number of twists per inch (usually 14) should be even for the full length of yarn. If the twisting is not done properly, then we will face problems during knitting. The prices of grindle yarns depend on the colours, counts, etc. The above prices can be referred to get approximate idea.

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KNITTING OR FABRICATION There are 2 types of knitting. One is Circular knitting (Tubular knit). Another is Flat knitting. Circular knit is used to knit body fabrics. Flat knit is used to knit Collars & Cuffs. There is another type of flat knit machines which are used to make Sweaters (Tricot garments). With these machines, the body fabrics, sleeves and necks are being made. And they are joining together with the help of linking machines. We have to note that the attachments of these parts are done with the main yarns. No separate sewing threads are used for joining. Buyers use to call these garments as Knitted garments or Tricot garments or Sweaters. Mostly acrylic and wool yarns are used. Lower counts like 2’s, 4’s, 6’s, etc are used. T shirts, polo shirts are also called knitted garments. As the body, sleeves, collars, cuffs are cut separately and joined together, some buyers use to call these garments as ‘Cut & Sewn Garments’. When we discuss about Knit garments, there are many things to be taken care of. Yarn counts, suitable knitting machines, machine gauge, machine diameter, numbers of feeders, grey fabric GSM, loop length, grey fabric diameter, etc should be well considered before start knitting. The fabric before processing is called Greige fabric. It is also called Grey fabric (kora fabric). Machine Gauge: There are different types of fabric structure like Jersey, Pique, Interlock, Rib, French rib (loop knit), Flat back rib, Fleece, Herring bone, etc. Knitting machines are available in different gauges. 2GG, 3GG, 4GG, 5GG, 7GG machines are used for sweater knitting (Tricot knit). Fabrics like Jersey, Pique, Rib and Interlock are knitted on 14GG, 16GG, 18GG, 20GG, 24GG, 26GG, 28GG, 30GG suitably. The fabric is knitted according to the cam design. If we need any different type of knitting, the cams in cylinder and dial should be adjusted accordingly. Gauge is meant by the number of needles per inch. For example, 24GG machine will have 24 needles per inch; 30GG machine will have 30 needles per inch. If we need more needles per inch, we have to go for higher gauge machine. As the higher Gauge machines are having more needles per inch, the fabric will be knitted tightly. And the fabric will have lesser shrinkage and better feeling. According to the machine gauge, the yarn counts to be selected and used. If the Gauge is higher, the thinner yarn can be used. If the Gauge is lesser, the thicker yarn can be used. 13

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When making knitting program, our aim must be to make tight knitting with better fabric feeling and less shrinkage. Accordingly we must plan to use the higher yarn counts and higher gauge knitting machines. So the yarn count selection is more important according to the selected Gauge machine. Also the machine Gauge to be selected according to the selected yarn count. For example, for Jersey fabric, we can achieve 140GSM either by using 34’s yarn & 26GG machine or by using 30’s yarn & 24GG machine. To get better quality fabric, it is preferable to use 34’s yarn & 26GG machine. Texture: As warp and weft are making woven fabrics, there are 2 things making the knit fabric. They are Wales and Course. Wales is the vertical yarn. Course is the horizontal yarn. Wales lines are fixed by the machine gauge. This can not be changed. Coarse lines can be altered by adjusting in the machine. This is called Texture. By adjusting this texture, the required fabric GSM (Grey or kora) can be achieved. Diameter: As the knit fabrics are made in tubular form, the patterns for making garments are being made according to tubular fabrics. Hence the diameter of fabric is very important. When we talk about Diameter, we must take care of various diameters. They are diameter of the machine, diameter of the grey fabric, diameter of the processed fabric and diameter of the finished fabric. These diameters will not be the same. Our ultimate aim is to get the required diameter of the finished fabric according to the patterns. So we have to check these diameters carefully at every stage. Diameter of the machine will not be changed. But after knitting, each type of fabric will be in different diameters. For example, if Jersey fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be plus or minus 1”. That is, between 29” and 31”. But if Pique fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be 37”. Likewise, each type of grey fabric will be in different diameter according to the knitting method and nature of the fabric design. During processing, the fabrics will be soaked in dyes for more than 5 hours. So the fabric will shrink both in widthwise and lengthwise depends on fabric texture. And the diameter will be changed accordingly. If the fabric is knitted with lower texture, the fabric will grow in widthwise during processing. Hence the diameter will be increased enormously. If the fabric is knitted tightly by using higher yarn counts, higher gauge machines and with higher texture, we can minimise this difference. After processing also, each type of fabric will be in different diameter. For example, if the grey fabric diameter of Jersey is 30”, then the diameter after processing will be 29”. But if the grey diameter of Pique is 37”, then the diameter after processing will be 34”. 14

The knitting charges for these engineering stripes are very higher. Colour yarns should be feed in according to the stripes. When we knit the fabrics with different quality of yarns together.5cms of repeat width of stripes is possible to knit with the ordinary machines. As poly cotton yarns are blended in fiber stage itself.15 Diameter of the finished fabric should be suitable for patterns and for cutting.5cms. Approximate knitting charges per kg in Rs. If this diameter is larger than the pattern. If the repeat width is more than 3. we get the single yarn with blends. As the stripes are adjusted by the yarn feeders. We have to note that a maximum of 3. then we can not cut the fabric as per our program. If there are 1 or 2 inches difference. Hence knitting of these blended yarns is also easy. it can be corrected during compacting or other finishing process. KNITTING WITH ELASTAN (SPANDEX): Knitting of 100%Cotton yarn is easy. machine diameter is based on the fabric nature. then there will be more fabric wastage. These engineering stripes can be knitted with special kind of machines.: Jersey 8 Pique 15 Interlock 18 1x1 rib 15 Jersey with Lycra 25 Pique with Lycra 25 Rib with Lycra 30 Feeder stripes Jersey 12 Feeder stripes Pique 18 Feeder stripes Interlock 20 Feeder stripes rib 15 Engg stripes Jersey 40-60 Engg stripes Pique 50-70 Engg stripes Interlock 40-60 Engg stripes Rib 110-130 Regarding yarn stripes. we have to pay more attention to fix the yarn counts. machine gauge. it is called ‘Feeder stripes’. if the repeat width of stripes is below 3. processed diameter is based on grey diameter. we have to be careful of their counts. If this diameter is smaller than the pattern. viscose. grey diameter is based on machine diameter. Hence the selection of machine diameter is very important to get required finished fabric diameter. and 15 . Also as we have seen earlier. texture and grey GSM. Generally the synthetic yarns like polyester. polyamide (nylon).5cms. then it is called ‘Engineering stripes’ or ‘Auto stripes’. it can be knitted in normal machines. So the fixing of finished fabric diameter is based on pattern requirements. Finished diameter is based on processed diameter.

Counts = 5315 Denier 5315 Counts Denier = Let us see an example of knitting Cotton/Lycra (Elastan) fabric. during knitting. Also. we must be sure of using the suitable denier yarn. then we have to use same 38’s counts of Lycra yarn. 16 . But the cotton yarns are measured in Counts. 140 denier Lycra yarn is to be used for this fabric. Then only the knitting will be even. the number of feeders of Lycra yarn is to be decided according to the required percentage of Lycra. So when we knit cotton yarns with these synthetic yarns. This is the same procedure for the other synthetic yarns too. To select suitable denier. We need the thickness of both yarns to be the same. So. In order to select the suitable denier. we use the above formula. We see that 140 Denier is equal to 38’s counts.16 elastan (spandex) are measured in Denier. If we use 38’s counts of cotton yarn. we can use following conversion formula.

GSM (as per Purchase Order) . we must be aware that there should not be shade variation between body. sleeves. these variations can be limited. collar.Shrinkage – before compacting and after compacting. At the same time. sleeves. Hence regarding knitted fabrics. after processing. Due to the above reasons. sleeves and grey collars. before processing. we have to follow the following procedures. So it is not possible to define the entire system with 100% conformity. qualities of dyes & chemicals. wishing to get the finished fabric with following qualities. collar and cuffs in one garment. To avoid shade variations. after processing. If we take more care during processing.Colour – shade and fastness before and after finishing.Diameter – machine diameter.Shrinkage (as per the tolerance – normally below 5%) . same dyeing factory and same finishing process. This is very important. after compacting (on cutting table). there will be shade variations between lots. after compacting (on cutting table). . But we can not avoid shade variations between lots 100%. rib. twill tape: 1. To avoid shading between body. processing timing. rope. processing methods. they will expect at least no shading between garments packed in one carton. processing and compacting. cuffs. even if we use the same mill yarn but with different yarn lots. before finishing or compacting. 17 . rope. . we always expect different results every time and every time we must be prepared for avoiding the differences or deviations. compacting method & temperature. we will get different results. before finishing or compacting.Fabric feeling – should be controlled during knitting. Also there should not be shade variation between garments of different sizes which are packed in one carton. . etc. Grey fabrics for body. We must be aware the fact that even if we use the same mill yarn. Likewise we will get different results due to knitting machine make.Diameter (as per Pattern) .17 PRE-PROCESSING We are making the fabric. gauge. cuffs. For example. before processing. . fastness as per approval) . we will not get the same result every time.GSM – during knitting. . twill tape should be knitted with same mill yarn from the same yarn lot.Fabric feeling (as per requirement) To fulfill all these important things. same knitting machine. rib. we have to check following things before knitting. after processing. Even though the buyer knows that the lot to lot shade variations can not be avoided 100%. processing water quality.Colour (shade. .

cuffs. Collars.. cuffs. each lot to be made according to assorted sizes. only this lot cutting to be referred and followed for further lots. ribs. etc. These should be consistent to get even dyeing and consistency in shades.18 2. 4. We must study the packing methods clearly. patches. collars. Fabrics from the second lot should be sent separately. First lot cutting swatch to be followed for further lots. should be dyed or processed in one lot only. Body and sleeves should be cut in the same fabric roll. Fabric program should be made accordingly. processing time. before sending the fabrics for processing. Water temperature. Number of assortments of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. collar. Fabric for body. Lab dips should not be referred. twill tapes. 4. Approved lab dips should be followed for the 1st fabric lot ONLY. If the packing is Solid size in one carton. 18 . the same shade to be followed for the second and further lots too. 2. 2. etc should be added in to the above fabric lot. To avoid shading between fabric lots: 1. (If this is not possible or not suitable due to more wastage or any other reason and if the body and sleeve fabrics are in different diameters. the grey fabrics from one yarn lot should be sent for processing separately. All the parts of one garment (body. so that all necessary fabrics and accessories are being dyed at one time. ropes. When we have to use yarn from different lots. sleeves. 3. quantity of water and quality of dyestuffs are the defining factors of dyeing. This is very important. Once 1st lot is approved. 5. they should be dyed or processed as one lot only). Weight of the fabric of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. When the colour shade in the first fabric lot is approved. Same mill yarn from the same yarn lot to be used. To avoid shading between different sizes of garments in one carton: 1. This cutting swatch to be sent along with the other grey fabrics lots when they are sent for processing. etc) should be numbered during cutting. before sending the fabrics for processing each lot to be made with the Size wise fabrics. ribs. sleeves. 3. Mixing of lots should be avoided. 6. pockets. 3. cuffs. Numberings should be followed till the full garment is made. we should dye the fabrics only with latest soft flow dyeing machines. As it is not possible in traditional manual winch dyeing. If the packing is ‘assorted sizes’ in one carton.

is tested and proved that it contains any of these banned dyestuffs. gloves. In April 1996. p-Aminoazobenzene.3’-dichlorobenzidine. o-Toluidine. O-Anisidine. belts. briefcases. watch straps.5-Trimethylaniline.4-Diaminoanisole. 19 . footwear. German Government had banned import of consumer products using one or more of carcinogenic aromatic amines in textile and leather articles which have the possibility of direct contacts with the human skin. They are clothing.4.19 PROCESSING AZO DYESTUFFS: When we discuss about processing.4’-diaminobiphenylmethane.4’-Thiodianiline.3’-Dimethozybenzidine. 4. the buyer has the right to reject the goods or even to sue a case against the supplier for not following the regulations. 4. 4-Aminobiphenyl. 4. bedding. Benzidine. p-Chloroaniline.4’-Methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline). wigs. 2-Amino-4-nitorotoluene. 2. If the garment supplied by a supplier. 3. diapers and other sanitary items. Hence.3’-Dimethyl-4. 4. 3.4-Toluylendiamine. even if the buyer has not specifically mentioned about this. 3. we have to use Azo Free dyestuffs only. 3.3’-Dimethylbenzidine. 2. hats. it is safer to get the confirmation from the dyestuff manufacturer. wallets. p-Cresidine.4’-Oxydianiline.6-Xylidine. Nowadays other developed countries are also following the ban of azo dyestuffs. 4-Chloro-o-toluidine. o-aminoazotoluene. Since the dyeing factory can not determine whether the dyestuff is azo or azo-free. chair covers and toys. we must be aware of Azo dyestuffs. hairpieces. towels. 2. purses.4’-Diaminobihenylmethane. It is important to note that different dyestuffs with the same colour index number can produce different results due to differences in the purity of the raw materials and contamination by impurities.4-Xylidine. 2. 2. 2-Naphthylamine. Following are the 24 banned azo dyestuffs.

Chlorine Bleach: Chlorine bleach is cost wise cheaper and lesser in quality. the result will show that it contains azo dyestuffs. Above all. It is approximately Rs. as Chlorine contains azo dyestuffs.7. In this case. 20 . Also it will not give irritation to body. we can smell Chlorine. Snow white can be achieved by Peroxide bleach. So it is better to bleach the fabrics either by soft flow machines or by continuous bleaching machines. Peroxide Bleach: So the other option is Peroxide bleach. The lab test charges for azo dyestuffs are very high. The fabric will have Chlorine smell. Also it will give irritation to body. before certifying to buyers. Peroxide bleaching can be done in 3 methods. Also after ironed and packed the garments into a polybag and kept for some time. If a garment is made of Chlorine bleached fabric. But this is not acceptable. Another is Peroxide Bleach. By using Continuous bleaching machine. Chlorine bleaching charge: By open winch or open tub: Rs. There will not be any smell.10 – 12 / kg. we can get consistent Whiteness throughout the entire lots. soft flow machines and continuous bleaching machines. But they will use Chlorine bleach and will do Peroxide coating to minimise their cost. It will have lesser whiteness.22 – 24 / kg depending on shade.30–35/kg. Some buyers will ask their suppliers to submit lab test reports for azo free dyestuffs for each colour of the garments they are producing for them.20 Some buyers will ask their suppliers to certify that they are not using azo dyestuffs.000 per colour. If this fabric tested for azo contents. Peroxide White charge if made by winches: Approx Rs. it is banned in most of the countries. Some bleaching factories will say that they will use Peroxide bleach in winches. the whiteness will vanish after washes and will become pale white or Offwhite. If we smell the fabric deeply. One is Chlorine Bleach. it is safer for the supplier to get the certificate from their dyeing factories and their dyestuff suppliers. Peroxide bleach can be made only with hot water. Hence we have to be sure that the bleaching factory is having boiler and whether they are using boiling water for our job. Any bright shades like Milk white. we can smell Chlorine immediately after removing and smelling the garments from the polybag. BLEACHING: There are 2 qualities of bleaching. Peroxide White charge if made by continuous bleaching machines: Approx Rs. They are by using open winches. The brightness will be forever even after many washes of garments. Winch bleach is the traditional method.

Then only we will get required results. One is Winch dyeing. WINCH DYEING: Winch dyeing is a traditional method of dyeing. the Lab dips are made in the laboratory. fabrics will be removed from the winches. Discharge dyeing: For this type of dyeing. there are advanced soft flow machines with simplified methods from which we get better results. LAB DIPS: Before proceeding dyeing. Some dyes are having the quality of discharge. By using these dyes in dyeing. Pigment dyes are mainly used for printing. the fabrics will roll on winches. bulk dyeing will be done. only Azo Free dyes should be used. the Pigment dyes are to be used. Pigment dyeing: In this type of dyeing. We will have more discussions on this. 2 to 4 lab dips are made similar to the required shade. the combination of dyes & chemicals are noted well in the books. This combination is called Recipe. Discharge dyeing is required only when the fabric is to be Discharge printed. 3. 1. if we want to dye Jersey fabric for bulk. other Jersey fabric. For example. They are Reactive dyeing. it means Reactive dyeing only. the fabrics will be washed in special soft flow machines for getting special effects like stone wash. 21 . 2. etc. After checking whether the required shade is attained. This is the normal dyeing. As each yarn will have different dyeing absorbency and as each fabric type will have different dyeing absorbency. During dyeing. Reactive dyeing: When we call dyeing. enzyme wash. According to the approved lab dip.21 FABRIC DYEING: There are 3 qualities of dyeing. When lab dips are made. Fabric rolls will be joined together by knotting them. Nowadays. the lab dips should be done in the same Jersey fabric bits. the fabric will be very stiff. acid wash. the fabrics will be rolled by dipping in diluted dyes. After this. The dyes used for dyeing are called Reactive Dyes. When the winch is rotated by a motor. Even. Generally this pigment dyeing is made in Jigger machines. Another is Soft flow dyeing. which is made with different yarn. should not be used. The dyes are diluted with hot boiled water and kept in the bottom of the vessel. the lab dips should be made in the same fabric which we want to dye the particular colour. As we discussed above. Pigment dyeing is used when the fabric is to be stone washed or acid washed or enzyme washed (like Jeans). in the chapter ‘Garment Dyeing’. There are 2 types of dyeing. Discharge dyes are to be used. The same combination is used in bulk dyeing proportionately. We will discuss about this later when we discuss about ‘Discharge printing’. Pigment dyeing and Discharge dyeing. as if the fabric is pigment printed on both sides 100%.

the temperature is consistent. Olive Green. the colour patches will be occurred on the fabrics. There will not be any colour patches. Blue. These types of machines are used in recent years. Red. dyes & water capacity. Temperature. Offwhite. the dyes are available in suitable shades. Lt Pink. Black. Military Green. Grey. the direct dyes will not be available. the fabric wastages can be reduced considerably. Blue. fabric capacity. It is difficult to give exact definition for light colours or dark colours by their names. etc are Medium colours. dyes of some 2 or 3 colours are to be mixed proportionately to get the required shades. etc are the darkest colours. For the regular shades. Dark Blue. Also the colour fastness will be better. These are called ‘Combination colours’. Lt Green. It will be much lesser. Green. this is the best way to get required shade exactly with better colour fastness. Yellow. So after dyeing.60 Royal: 70 – 80 SOFT FLOW DYEING: It is also called Jet dyeing or Closed Winch dyeing. everything is computerised. In these cases. timing. These dyes are called ‘direct dyes’. the temperature of water will not be consistent. Anyhow let us have a rough idea about colours. Lt Yellow. In open winch dyeing. Also as the fabric rolled in folded form on winches. The dyeing charges by open winches: Light colours: 20 – 25 Medium colours: 30 – 40 Dark colours: 45 – 50 Darkest colours: 55. Brown. Lt Orange. They have to be cut and rejected. fabric may not absorb some colours properly. Also the fabric wastage will be lesser than open winch dyeing. Lt Blue. Navy. the particular colour will not have the total required shade and colour fastness. Light Red. 22 . Hence the fabric absorbs the dyes evenly. Each dye will have different solubility and reactivity. As the winch is kept opened. Light Grey. Orange. etc are Dark colours. Due to this. But in soft flow dyeing. Temperature in the 4th or 5th hour will not be the same in the 1st hour.22 The dyeing process will take different timings for different colours. Hence the absorbency of colour will not be even. etc are Light colours. Some dark colours will take approximately 8 hours. the fabric rolls are joined by tying the ends. Though soft flow dyeing is more expensive than winch dyeing. When 2 or 3 different dyes are mixed together. the fabric wastage will be more due to the rejection of these roll ends. It is a closed winch. For some shades. as the fabric rolls are joined with over lock stitches. Due to this. Dark Navy. Shades and charges: There are too many shades in each colour. Medium Green.

FABRIC WASHING: We make some fabrics with dyed yarn or mélange yarn. Due to this. Any normal fabric also can be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to improve luster. 23 . Approximate fabric mercerising charge is Rs. the dyeing quality will be inferior. Black. But after knitting.80 Royal: 90 – 100 FABRIC MERCERISING: This is a special process. if mercerising and dyeing is done in the same processing mill. Due to this mercerising. but also improved colour absorbency. Hence the consumption of dyestuffs and processing time are reduced. If the mercerising is not been done properly. etc. Hence it is always safer to do the mercerising and dyeing in the same processing mill under same roof. Sometimes if the shade is lighter and if the customer cooperates to reduce the cost. The dyeing charges by soft flow machines: Light colours: 30 – 40 Medium colours: 40 . if we do both mercerising and dyeing together with them. Due to this and due to more processing time.50 Dark colours: 60 – 70 Darkest colours: 70 . We can get some reduction from the mill. the dyeing cost will be reduced by 15 to 20% from the normal dyeing charges. Though we have to bear with the mercerising charges. Also to avoid the handling stains. (It is too expensive. these fabrics are to be washed. the fabric is not needed to be made by gassed or mercerised yarns. these fabrics have to be washed with soft cold water to remove the smell and dusts of yarn. the fabric gets not only very good strength and improved luster. as the direct dyes for Royal to be used to get the brightness. The fabrics made by gassed yarns or gassed mercerised yarns have to be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to get permanent shiny look and brightness. but it will have poor colour fastness. the shade can be achieved with the combination of Blue. the dyeing charges for darker shades are higher than the lighter shades. The dyeing quality will vary depending on mercerising quality.23 The costliest colour is Royal. For the darker shades more dye stuffs are to be used. Red. we can get 15 to 20% reduction in dyeing charges. So it is advisable to knit the fabrics with the knitting machine not less than 26” diameter. So it is advisable to use direct dyes only). After this mercerising process the fabric will become tight and the diameter of the fabric will be much reduced. The fabric will be treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. To do the fabric mercerising. By these colours.45 to 50 per kg. we can get similar shade.

we can get the same good result for knit fabrics also. 2.15 – 20 per kg. Technically we call this ironing method as Calendering.12 – 15 per kg. it will only remove wrinkles and will maintain the diameter. we can adjust following things.50 / kg. We can adjust either diameter or GSM or shrinkage. ribs. glossy finish of fabric. Charges for Open width Stendering: Rs. 3. Charges for Tubular compacting: Rs. we will have to compact the fabric in open width form. ropes made with dyed yarns or mélange yarns also to be washed to avoid stains. if we use this machine for only controlling shrinkage. twill tapes. GSM. We can get better result from these compacting machines. COMPACTING: Nowadays it is not enough to calender the fabrics. The washing charge is normally Rs. From these machines. Diameter. we must take more and more care during yarn selection and knitting. we have to compact the fabrics with the latest compacting machines. 1. FINISHING & COMPACTING CALENDERING: After bleaching or dyeing or washing and after drying. We must be aware of this important fact.6 per kg. Generally these Stenter machines are used for compacting woven fabrics. If we try to achieve these 3 things together. nothing can be done. But it will not control the shrinkage or fabric weight (GSM). smell and to get softer hand feel.24 Not only the fabrics. But all these 3 things can not be adjusted simultaneously. Charges for Open width compacting: Rs. STENTERING: The compacting machines are used to compact the knit fabrics in tubular form. When we calender the fabrics. As the shrinkage and GSM are important things. 24 . the fabric is to be ironed to enable easy cutting. we will be in trouble in the end while finishing the fabrics. Shrinkage. The collars. Some times. To remove these wrinkles.1. Steam calendering charge: Rs. To get required GSM and finishing diameter. These open width fabrics can be compacted by Open Width compacting machines or Stenter machines.50 to 2. the fabrics will have wrinkles and creases.5 per kg. This is done with steam pressure to get smooth. There are no facilities in calendering machines. If we failed to take preliminary steps for GSM and diameter. Also this will help the fabric to maintain its diameter. With these compacting machines.

it is better to do heat set in open width form. etc. They are as follows. Though it is little expensive than manual table printing. If the fabric is raised in the opposite direction of fabric. Polyamide (Nylon). FABRIC RAISING OR BRUSHING: Some fabrics need to be raised on one side or both sides. the print quality will differ. PRINTING There are two different prints. 2. fleece. the fabric is to be raised by a suitable machine. only after drying the 1st colour.10 per kg. If the stroke of the printer differs. They are all over prints and chest prints. these blended fabrics has to be Heat Set. Viscose. Hence nowadays Rotary machines are used for all over printing. We can print the second colour. Also the registration (placement) of all colours will not be perfect. But for the blended fabrics. Hence to get softer hand feel and flexibility. But if the fabric is made or blended with synthetic or artificial fibers like Polyester. Up to 10 colour designs can be printed simultaneously. As the fabric has to dry after printing of each colour. These fabrics can not be used with these stiffness and hardness. the fabric will be very stiff and hard.25 – 30 per kg. 1. Elastan (Spandex). Acrylic. But to get better result. The raising is to be done to the same direction of the fabric. Loop knit (French rib). Charges for one side raising: Rs. Hence the application of colours will not be even and consistent. Especially. it will take more time for multi colour printing. and flat back rib fabrics are usually raised. they can be used for cutting in tubular form itself. As 100% Cotton fabrics don’t need this heat set process. Fabrics are spread on long tables and printed manually with screens. require to be raised to get softer hand feel or to get rich look. as cotton is the natural fiber. the heat set process is a must. Printing is done one colour by one colour. the raising effect will not be good and it will damage the fabric structure. ALL OVER PRINTS: All over prints can be made both manually (table prints) and by machines. So generally the blended fabrics and synthetic fabrics are finished in open width form only. the heavy fabrics made for winter seasons.25 HEAT SETTING: The 100% Cotton fabrics are normally very soft. The print quality depends on the printer’s stroke. Heat set can be done both in open width and tubular form. After dyeing and after drying. we have many advantages in rotary printing. Charges for Heat set: Rs. 25 . Quick and time saving.

Perfect registration (placement). BLD (Bright Light Duplicating) and engraving screens. 2. This can be printed either in tubular form or in open width form. when we print on rotary printing in tubular form. more care to be taken while making films. Hence the fabric is to be completely dried before printing. as the continuous process. These machines are very rare in use. 3. Pigment dyes (inks) are used. the print will be better than on the first side. Grey fabric to be bleached or light colour dyed.26 3. So when we print the same fabric on the second side. Hence the repeat of print will be 64. After printing. We have to be sure that softener should not be added during dyeing or bleaching. tubular screens are to be made for each colour. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. 4. Softener should not be added in dyeing. So there will be difference between both sides in shades and registration. This will create major problem in garmenting. 26 . it should be removed from the fabric by washing the fabric again. If the fabric is even slightly wet. There are some machines available to print with 90cms screen width. To avoid visibility of the repeat joint after printing. Consistent printing colours and quality. Procedure to print in tubular form: 1. it means the fabric does not have softener. 5. If the fabric does not absorb the water. if the fabric absorbs the water. Immediate drying. the first side printing will be in lighter shades. If the fabric has softener. the fabric will get completely dried. screens are also to be made accurately with more attention not showing the repeat joints in screens. The films and screens are to be made with great care to get perfect accuracy. Some times. seating and registration. it means the fabric has softener. Due to this.1cms. we will have to make the films with the help of computers. For this. the fixing of printing on fabric will be affected. Pigment prints. Rotary screens are in tubular form. When we drop one or two drops of water on fabric.1cms. we can achieve perfection in printing. Then the printing will look blurred. For printing in Rotary machines. If the softener is added. Though the films are made with computer. the fabric will have shiny look (like waxing). PIGMENT PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is the regular print. Also before printing. 6. Reactive prints and Discharge prints can be printed with Rotary machines. we have to be sure that the fabric is dried completely. Less wastage. Even though it will cost more. The diameter of the screen is 64. Extra care to be taken for geometric designs like multi checks with inner designs.

Any shade is possible. as the normal procedure. 2. etc. Then. But some print designs may lose its shape after compacting. after the print. to minimise the fabric wastage and to minimise the printing charges. 8. 7. Selection or mixing colours are easier. 3. Cheaper cost. the charges will be little higher than open width printing. Print smell. Hence after printing on both sides. the fabric should be cured to remove the smell from the fabric. a square design may change into a rectangle. the fabric will have the smell of this base fluid. Advantages: 1. If the print has more than 20% print coverage or printed with dark colours. Print in open width form: If we print the fabric in tubular form. Hence it is preferable to print in open width form to avoid shade variation between sides. Less process after printing. The fabric washing will help to avoid these problems and to retain the print designs. This wash will help for better fixation of colours. Printing colours will be the same before and after printing. 6.27 4. Also at least 1” fabric on each edge of each printed side will be wasted due to the merging of printing inks. 2. For example. the printed fabric will go through the drier machine. kerosene is used as an alternate. a round design may change into an oval shape. 5. the fabric is to be washed after curing. Then the printed fabric will come out in thoroughly dried form. 27 . avoid smell. Also due to the double job. 6. As the petroleum product (turpentine or kerosene) is used as the base. Rough hand feel. the fabric is to be compacted to control shrinkage and to remove wrinkles and creases. Procedures are the same for tubular print and open width print. Required printing colours are mixed with the turpentine base which is a petroleum product. If we need softer hand feel after printing. we will get shade variation of printing colours between both sides. Due to the higher cost and scarcity of turpentine. 3. Then the fabric is to be rolled on the other side and the other side is to be printed. 4. 9. Print shades can be checked and corrected during printing. 7. Can be printed in tubular form and open width form. Will have lesser colour fastness especially in rubbing and sun light. So totally at least 4” width of fabric will be wasted. the printed fabric can be enzyme washed. 5. Fabric is printed according to the designs and colours of each screen. As the continuous process. better shrinkage and better colour fastness. Risk factors: 1.

3. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. 8. Shade masters will prepare one shade.28 Water base prints: As turpentine or kerosene is used as the base fluid. water is used in place of turpentine or kerosene. 7. there is another way of using natural substances for dyeing and printing. 6. To avoid this.: Table printing (manual printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 25 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 45 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 20 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 30 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 70 to 80% print coverage: 60 – 70 80 to 95% print coverage: 70 – 80 Printed fabric washing with slight enzyme: 8 – 10 Printed fabric washing with heavy enzyme: 10 – 12 REACTIVE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is a special kind of print. Reactive dyes to be used. Printing charges are almost the same as pigment prints. the fabric will smell after printing. 4. because of dull look and blurred print effect. Then the fabric is to be washed and rinsed in running water. One bit of this printed fabric is to be tested with hot silicate to see the final shades. To remove the print dusts. If the fabric is washed in winches or tubs. All over prints (Pigment print) charges per kg in Rs. It is called Third page image. small length of fabric is to be printed for checking the shades. Before bulk printing. 5. They are called organic dyes. Printed fabric is to be kept under silicate storage for 10 – 12 hours. As the print dyes will penetrate into the fabric. As an alternative for this. but after printing we will get entirely new shade. the print 28 . there may be print impression on third page of fabric. For this. Organic dyeing & printing: As the dyes and chemicals are synthetic. But this is very expensive and very rarely used. Water base colours are to be used as printing inks. They are made mainly from the vegetables. it is better to print in open width form only. Grey fabric is to be bleached or light colour dyed. Accordingly the dyes can be fixed or altered for bulk printing. (We have to remember that Reactive dyes are used for fabric dyeing also). The preparation of printing colours is not easier. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Hence it needs very good knowledge and experience for getting the required shades. But this kind of water print is very rarely used. This is called water base prints. 2. this wash is essential. Also the printed fabric will have slightly rough hand feel. Procedures: 1.

: Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 70 to 80% print coverage: 90 – 100 80 to 95% print coverage: 100 – 120 DISCHARGE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is also a special kind of print. By touch. if we have to print White colour or very light colour on dark base. But if we have to print light colours on Dark colour base. Print will vanish even by rubbing or washing. Prints will be so rough when touching the printed area. we can’t find difference between the printed and unprinted areas. All over prints (Reactive print) charges per kg in Rs. Brightness of colours even after many washes. 4. 2. It is better to avoid this). But this will not have better fastness. Then fabric is to be dried. Longer life for prints. it is not used widely. 9. Too many important processes to be followed. Hence the fabric has to be washed in running water. Importantly. If we have to print dark colours on White or Light colour back ground. As the water should not be recycled. 2. 4. Very difficult to get all the required shades exactly. Risk factors: 1. 3. Gadi is added with the printing colour to stick on the fabric. It means. Very expensive. we can easily use Pigment printing. it is better to wash the fabric in rivers. We have to remember that not all the dyes have discharging qualities. For this.29 dusts will stick to the fabric again. Only discharge dyes are having discharging qualities. 5. Too much care to be taken in every process. (In some cases. in pigment printing. 29 . if the printing colours are darker than the base colour. Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes) are to be used. we can use pigment printing. Very soft hand feel. Advantages: 1. we have to use Discharge printing. Best colour fastness. It is called River Wash. Hence it is essentially important that the fabric is to be dyed with Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes). as Gadi contains azo dyestuffs.

All the pre-processes and post-processes to be done with much care. 2. To avoid this. Long lasting print quality. All colour shades can not be achieved. 5. Can be printed manually too. the same procedure to be followed to get the White colour. Only possible best way to print on dark colour base. Red. there will be print impression on third page of fabric. Expensive print cost. Fabric is dyed with discharge dyes ONLY. and Navy. After printing is completed. 4. Then after discharge printing. 4. If the printing colour is only Offwhite. As the print dyes will discharge the dyed portions and penetrate into the fabric. 30 . 4. 8. Before bulk printing. Risk factors: 1. Better soft hand feel. the printing dyes will first remove the dyed portions where the print is needed. the fabric is to be slit opened compulsorily before printing. 6. So much care to be taken before printing in selecting suitable colours. 2. These two things will take place at one time simultaneously due to the special quality of discharge dyes. 3. the printing dyes to be checked whether the required colour shades are achieved.30 Procedures: 1. Green. Can get better print quality only on some base colours like Black. No river wash is needed. Better colour fastness. the fabric is to be peroxide bleached before dyeing. That is. Some tips: If the printing colour is only White. the fabric is to be stored in silicate storage for 10 -12 hours for fixation of colours. Printing to be done with discharge dyes. the printing shades will not be visible (like Reactive printing). This is very important as during printing. Then they will let the required colours to be fixed in the same places. Offwhite colour will be visible as printed. the fabric to be printed only in open width form. after the removal of dyeing colour. 2. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. It is called Third page image. the fabric is to be half bleached before dyeing. after the removal of dyeing colour. When printing. After printing. the fabric is to be washed – Normal washing. 3. 5. the base colour White will be visible as printed. Then after discharge printing. 5. Advantages: 1. If White is one of the printing colours. 7. 3.

etc. But prints will have the best quality. Embossed prints.40 lakhs). This machine is very costly (about Rs.31 All over prints (Discharge dyeing + Discharge print) charges per kg in Rs. print area and coverage. 31 . Other one is Semi-automatic machine. These machines are made locally at cheaper prices (about Rs. No stain in unprinted areas. 1. etc. 8. One is called Octopus automatic machine (MHM). Water prints. Motif prints. Quick production. number of colours.: As we see. 9. The printing cost is generally based on the number of colours. Perfect colours and shades. Better smoothness and sharpness. Sticker prints. Better colour fastness. Hence the printing cost will also be higher. Therefore. No smell. Perfect placement and registration. These costs will differ according to the dyeing shades. 5. 2. There are 2 types of machines. There are different quality chest prints namely Pigment prints. Like all over printing on rotary machines. it is better to dye and print in one factory itself. Accordingly let us see the printing cost including dyeing cost. Octopus machine will print automatically. Reflective prints. With these machines. Multi colour facilities (10 colours at a time). Chest printing charges: Chest prints can be printed both in garment form and bit form depending on the print design and area. Perfume prints. we can get better quality prints at cheaper cost. Glitter prints. 6. Hence the below costs are to give you a rough idea only. Sugar prints. Less wastage. 7. Flock prints. Non-PVC prints. Transfer prints. They are as follows.1 lakh). the fabric is to be discharge dyed. 3. Table printing (winch dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 Rotary printing (dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 90 – 100 30 to 50% print coverage: 100 – 120 50 to 70% print coverage: 120 – 140 70 to 80% print coverage: 140 – 160 CHEST PRINTS: Chest prints can be printed both manually and with machines. printing spot prints on chest printing machines too have many advantages. Foil prints. Nowadays only the machine prints are used. 4. But nowadays the Semi-automatic machines are used widely. Longer life for prints. Plastisol prints. Foam prints.

TIE & DYE: This process can be done manually only. Batiks. But the printed part is to be fused to have better fixing and colour fastness. It can be done in garment form or bit form according to the design and style. Print quality will not be affected and will be the same.32 Manual printing (table printing) charges: Only pigment prints should be printed by manually. To get the cost of other special quality prints. It is better to use Discharge dyes. flock. It is advisable to print maximum 4 colours by manually. glitters. Up to 3 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 3 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 5 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 7 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 10 per pc For above 3 colours. 32 . Fusing cost is included in the above costs. 10% of charge per colour can be added with above charges. Reactive dyes or Discharge dyes can be used. etc. Garment Dyeing (Garment wash). Up to 2 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 2 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 4 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 6 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 8 per pc For more than 2 colours. The cost of curing is approximately Rs.5 per kg. sugar. SPECIAL PROCESSES There are some other special processes like Tie & Dye. Here we will see the print cost for normal print namely Plastisol print. 8 to 10 colours can be printed with machines. foam. Machine printing (Plastisol inks) charges: The printing cost also depends on the print quality like plastisol. After plastisol print. After the manual printing. 10% of cost per colour is to be added with the above costs. This tie & dye process will give special dyeing effect. The garment or fabric bits can be with softener finish. It does not matter. the fabric or garment is not needed to be cured. it is better to check with the printers. as there will be no print smell. whether the garment or the fabric bits are having softener or not. the printed fabric or garment is to be cured to remove the print smell. etc. foil.

neck rib and other accessories to be dyed simultaneously according to the requirement. only 100%Cotton threads to be used for stitching. If the fixing agent is added during these above processes. 14. they will not get dyed. And so on. the garment or bit to be dyed to the required base colour.33 Procedures: 1. (If it is Chlorine bleached. 7. shrinkage and shape. After the completion of dipping of all required colours and after the garments or bits dried after the final colours. now the garments or bits can be dried with machines too. If we do tie & dye in bit form. But to get better result. Then only the embroidery threads will be dyed suitably. When we cut the fabrics either for making garment or for bit form. 17. the colours are fixed in the garments and fabric bits. 13. 16. Garments or bits are tightly tied with ropes according to the required design. (In case of emergency. It will take few minutes only. And to be dried under shades naturally. the garments or bits to be fixed with fixing agent. 19. Fabrics for body. As the garment will shrink during tie & dye. 10. 8. Then the garments or bits are to be dried under shadows. the embroidery can be made with normal embroidery threads. 3. As the fixing agent is fixed now. Then the ties are removed and the garments or bits to be dried under shades. 9. 33 . The dipping will be done manually. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk tie &dye. the other colours will not fix properly. 2. 15. This is the dyeing process. As Polyester thread will not get dyed. this has to be followed compulsorily for Tie & Dye. essentially for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after tie & dye. We have to remember that so far. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. It may be stripes or any other design. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). by taking note of all the details. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. 4. nothing can be done about measurements. 5. Important thing is that the garment to be stitched with 100%Cotton Grey thread only. Then the garments or bits to be tied again for the next colour(s) and to be dipped in the next colour(s) and to be dried under shades. The fabric is to be Peroxide bleached for better result. Then the tied portions or untied portions will be dipped into the required colour dyes. After the tie & dye process. 18. If we use normal embroidery threads. it is better to dry them in shadows). the fixing agent is not added with the colour dyes. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. the bleached fabric is to be compacted well before making the garment. the result will not be good). shrinkage and shape of garment. If we do tie & dye in garment form. the garment to be made in bleached fabric. sleeves. If there is any other base colour except White. the fabric bit is to be cut with shrinkage allowance and cutting allowance in lengthwise and widthwise. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. Only 100%Cotton fabrics can be tie & dyed manually (in India). If the embroidery colour is not DTM. 11. 6. 12.

4. Risk factors: 1. Shipments may be delayed if we don’t plan properly expecting the natural problems. This is also called Wax printing. The printing designs like stars. will be made by wax. GSM. Approximate charge for 2 colours may be around Rs. there will be less consistency of designs and quality. cutting. mainly it is used for Woven fabrics. During and after the process. methods. Advantages: 1. 5. length and width of the bits. we will get different qualities and results. the charges will be based on number of colours. etc. Mostly used for sarees. bed spreads and lungies. Drying by machines is not possible. 70cm length x 60cm width (tubular) bit. the charge may be Rs. Very attractive and suitable for high fashions. flowers. garmenting. More and more care to be taken at all stages – starting from knitting. etc. the steam lines are to be carefully found out.34 20. Before cutting the bits for garments. as the designs will be slightly confusing due to symmetrical effect.. 3. curtain cloths. 4. The prices for batiks are almost same as Tie & Dye charges. due to different dyes. etc. BATIKS: This is also done manually. churidars. This is like printing. Better colour fastness.18 to 20. can be made at affordable prices.70 to 80 per Kg either fabric form or garment form. The charge of making wax designs will cost more.: If it is to be tie & dyed in bit form. The print designs made by wax are stuck to the fabrics and over dyed. processing. By this. Approximately. 2. depending on the design. The procedures are the same as for tie & dye. This is almost like tie & dye. the fabrics can be dried only naturally. No alternative can be made in rainy seasons. 3.. Enormous designs can be made. many dyeing factories to be engaged accordingly. Approximate Tie & dye charges per kg in Rs. Hence after removing the waxes. 2. As all the processes are done manually. the fabric will look like the designs are printed. 34 . Though it is being done for woven and knitted fabrics. For larger quantities. The fabric beneath the wax designs will not get dyed. for 2 colours. As it is done manually. Much time consuming process – especially due to natural drying.

the garment will get damaged in some areas mainly at neck seam around collar. Acid wash 3. 2. 11. When we cut the fabrics for making garment. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. 5. cuffs are attached together. Procedures: 1. Fabric for body. Denim (Jeans) wash. 1. they will be cut as per the patterns to make the garments. etc. shoulder seam.mainly at neck seam around collar. shrinkage and shape. cuffs. Recipes of approved lab dips to be followed exactly. The garments to be made from these scoured fabrics. rope. 6. 10. sleeve. to be made from the same mill yarn and from the same yarn lot. 35 . We had seen that the fabrics are dyed by winches and closed winches (soft flow machines). the stitched areas will get the washed or the faded effect. The garments are dyed in soft flow machines with Pigment dyes. 4. 3. 8. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. Garments should be stitched with 100%Cotton threads only. 12. After the garment dyeing. Stone wash. placket box. To avoid this and to have special washed effects on the garments. All these fabrics and accessories to be scoured (half bleached) together. 5. Then body.35 GARMENT DYEING: This is one of the expensive and special processes. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. Also the garment may have more shrinkage to washing. neck rib. cuff. essentially for for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after garment dye. garment dyeing method is followed. collar. Faded wash. the substances are to be used. etc. cuffs. (Depending on the required effect. For example. Since many parts are attached. Hence the garments should be washed very carefully according to the required effect. collars. Enzyme wash 4. side slits and pockets. If the garment is processed more than enough. this has to be followed compulsorily for garment dye. 9. 7. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). the washing method and washing effect are to be checked and confirmed. sleeves. for stone washed effect. 2. By this garment dyeing following special effects can be achieved. placket box. by taking note of all the details. nothing can be done with the garments for measurements. shoulder seam. even though we have taken more care. side slits and pockets. some special pebbles are used during washing to get stone washed effect). By these sample garments dyeing (pre-bulk dyeing). there may be shade variations between these parts. As the garments are dyed in vessels. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. shrinkage and shape. After the fabrics are dyed. This effect will be more in some places where many fabrics are attached together . Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk garment dyeing.. Buttons and button holes are to be made with the same 100%Cotton threads only.

As all the machines are fully computerised with most advanced technologies. nowadays embroidery is being done with the best finishing and consistent quality. Shade variation between lots can not be avoided fully. dyed from one machine at one time. Washed look can be achieved. This is important to avoid shade and effect variation between garments in one carton. there will not be any shrinkage further. collar. But to make the embroidery all over the fabric. It is not possible to get the exact shades 100%. size of the embroidered area is restricted to some extent. Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery): With the above said embroidery machines. 3. There will not be any shade variation between body. 2. Approximate garment dyeing charges per kg in Rs. 4. Different qualities of washes are possible. cuffs. There will be difference in shades and washing effect between lots. 5. Advantages: 1. it is expensive. Hence quantity of garments to be divided into lots according to the packing method.36 13. 4. Some piece of same fabric or contrast fabric is to be attached with the garment and embroidery to be made on or around this fabric cutting. Applique: This is made as decorative embroidery. some other special machines to be used. Each vessel (soft flow dyeing machine) will have different capacities. The garments. 2. As the shrinkage is controlled completely. Other types of embroidery are Applique and Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery). Hence average cost of garments will be increased. Washing methods and timings to be noted well and to be followed carefully. are called Lot. Due to the special effects and quality. 3. Risk factors: 1. Much more care to be taken in all stages to avoid rejections and problems. 14. all over embroidery can be made. 36 . (Like the fabric is printed in rotary printing machines). This will vary from machines to machines. In these special acoba embroidery machines. With these machines it is possible to make any complicated design even in 9 colours. sleeves. etc. Due to the damages in garments. rejections of garments will be high.: Scouring: 30 Light and medium shades dyeing: 80 – 100 Dark shades dyeing: 100 – 130 EMBROIDERY Embroidery can be made by manually and by computerised machines.

37 . Inner cartons and Outer cartons are called accessories. qualities. Anyhow.40 to 60 per gross.3 zippers is lesser than No. So it is difficult to discuss here about their prices in details. nowadays the embroidery cost has come down as around Re. Embroidery charges: Embroidery cost based on the number of stitches. Ropes.3 zippers are used. Cost of Zippers: No5 (5mm width) Nylon 7” length: Rs. etc.1. Elastics. etc. Also each accessory has many dimensions.37 Though acoba embroidery can be made on woven and knitted fabrics.22 – 24 per zip. Inner boards. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. wooden buttons – Varies as per design. For children garments. Shirt buttons with embossed letters (inside design): Rs. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 24” length: Rs. Because of its own quality nature. quantity. Polybags. But the minimum cost is around 2. designer’s fabrics. etc. fixing cost. Zippers.8 to 10 per gross (12 dozens). No. we must have a basic knowledge about the costs. No. Packing pins. blouses.24 per zip. No5 Nylon 24” length: Rs. The prices of accessories are based on the quantity and quality. It is better to check the current prices with the suppliers. Applique embroidery cost is based on the fabric cutting cost. Twill tapes. Hang tags. specifications. Cost of No. (Imitation) Horn buttons: Rs. Labels. the best results can be achieved in woven fabrics.15 to 40 per gross.7 per zip. Hence let us see approximate prices of them as below. knit fabrics will get more damages and holes by acoba embroidery. Tissue papers.50 per garment. Badges. Shirt buttons with engraved letters (inside design): Rs. etc in addition to the number of stitches. curtain cloths. for making costing. For adult garments.5 – 7 per zip. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 7” length: Rs. Due to competition.00 per 1000 stitches.50 to 70 per gross. Special designs of shirt buttons: Rs. Acoba embroidery is commonly made in sarees.10 to 15 per gross. ACCESSORIES Buttons.5 zippers are used. decorative fabrics.5 zippers. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. though the number of stitches is lesser. Metal buttons. Cost of Buttons: Ordinary design of shirt buttons (chalk): Rs.

5cm to 2cm width: Around Rs. It can be further opened or closed only by pulling the pullers.5cm. Yarn price to be added with this charge. 38 . the prices will be different. These labels are made in woven or polyester printed. quality and quantity.30 to 40 per kg. For the special pullers. From 3. size labels.2. The prices are based on quality.50 per metre. 8mm. 3cm and 4cm elastics are used for waist of undergarments and outer garments. Most of the badges are attached by stitches only. From 8mm to 10mm width: Around Rs. It may be a big woven label or printed woven cloth or engraved leather or plastic or PVC sticker or reflective plastic. Cost of Elastics: Elastics are made with Nylon and Polyester yarns. it is better to check the prices with the suppliers. It depends on the design. The above prices are for the zippers with normal pullers. the zipper can not be opened. if we leave the puller when the zipper is halfway opened.50 per metre.5mm to 4cm width: Around Rs. Elastics with 1cm.0. Prices of named elastics are more expensive than plain elastics. As these badges are very special. flag labels and badge labels or patch labels. Mostly the auto lock zippers are used. Hence here we will see only the weaving charge for twill tapes & ropes. the zipper will be locked by the auto lock.1. Cost of Labels: There are main labels.75 per metre.1.3. thickness. 12mm. Elastics with the width of 4mm. From 1. Badges are in many types. 6mm. wash care labels. Hence polyester elastics are used mostly. In these auto lock zippers.5cm to 3cm width: Around Rs. From 4mm to 6mm width: Around Rs. number of colours. etc are used for legs of undergarments. 2. Cost of Badges: Badges attached to the garments either by stitching or fixing with paste.00 per metre. Cost of Twill tapes & ropes: Though readymade twill tapes are available in the markets.38 Lock quality is to be checked. etc. These auto lock zippers are used because they are very safe. There are plain elastics and named elastics. From 2. It is approximately Rs.50 per metre. Nylon elastics are costlier than Polyester elastics. 2cm. Even if the tapes are pulled. 10mm. it is better to make the twill tapes and ropes with the same yarn which is used for the body fabrics to avoid shade variations after dyeing. width.

There are 2 types of woven labels. number of colours.0.0. you can see the evenly woven yarns on the back side also.10 Wash care label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. Though it is not generally necessary for woven labels. The price depends on quality & thickness of the board. Cost of Hang tags: To mention brands. single side or both sides printing.80 Size label (1cm width x 3cm length): Rs. If the yarn colour bleeds.15 per label.08 per label.0. But it is always better and safer to print in automatic offset printing machines and to cut in diecutting machines to get better finish and high look. The woven labels are to be checked with hot water for colour fastness.30 to Rs. size labels and main labels with cheaper quality at cheaper prices. Satin tapes are little costlier than polyester tapes. Mostly these machines are used to make woven wash care labels.0. There are non-computerised looms are also available. die-cut design and quantity. With these machines also woven labels are made. composition. 2 or 3 colours (1” width x 10cm length): Rs.0. tags are used and attached with the garments. Woven labels: Main label (2. sizes. For undergarments these printed labels are used for mentioning size. The printing inks may have poor colour fastness.25” width x 10cm length): Rs.12 Printed labels are used for wash care labels. 39 . In these labels. if printing and cutting are made manually. The tags can be made at cheaper prices. colours. This is double weave. prices. Taffeta labels are woven on single side of labels.40 Badge (patch) label (1cm width x 4cm length): Rs.0. Though these tags are removed from the garments by the end users. cutting and presentation of these hangtags are to be importantly better.0. One is Taffeta and the other is Damask.30 to Rs. Hence before using the printed labels. Printed labels: Single colour (1” width x 10cm length): Rs. care instructions.10 per label. Single colour (1.0. This is single weave.10 Flag label (3cm width x 4cm length): Rs.40 Main label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. This is an important thing. it is used for attraction and for giving special appearance for the packed garments. Hence the quality. Hence the labels made with these machines are costlier. style. composition.0. measurement. colour fastness of printing inks to be checked with hot water. etc. Single colour and multi colours are printed on polyester or satin tapes.60 to Rs.0. it is safer to check them too. Damask labels are costlier than Taffeta. In these labels. etc. printing design. colours.39 Woven labels are made in computerised automatic looms to get better quality and clarity. design. you can see the unevenness of yarns on the backside.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. it may spread and spoil the look of labels and garments after washing. Damask labels are woven on both sides.0.0.

30 to Rs. Another is PE (Polyethylene).00 per board. For special sizes. most of the customers insisting to use PE only. it may not be recyclable.60 to Rs.25 to Rs. Hence the thickness (gauge) is to be checked and confirmed according to the specifications prescribed by the customers and Government statutory bodies. nowadays. the price may be Rs. With size printed on front and care instructions printed on back (normal measurement): Rs. depends on quality of paper & print.0.00. Price of each polybag is fixed with the number of polybags per kilogram. measurements. Cost of Polybags: Normally 2 qualities of polybags are used. depends on paper quality. special quality with die cut: Rs. Due to this.30 to Rs. quantity.0.4.0. PP bags have bright look. Cost of Inner board: Price depends on sizes. etc. If the polybag is very thin. As PE polybags are recyclable. One is PP (Polypropylene). the rejection of polybags will be more. PE polybags are little costlier than PP bags. the price may be Rs.0.50 each paper.00 to Rs.1.80 per tag.0.55. For normal size. normal quality: Rs.1. If there is anything special. If it is a printed tissue paper: Rs. 40 . prints.0. Cost of safety pins and threads: Some times the hang tags are to be attached to labels with safety pins.0.10 to Rs. PE polybags look dull and will not have shiny look. The cost of pin + thread may be around Rs.40 If the tag is in normal size with normal print without die cut.0.0.0.50 depending on the quality of pin & thread.40 to Rs. PP polybags: Approximate cost of polybag per kg: Rs.1.00 to Rs.65.15 each paper.0.0.50 to Rs. The cost of a normal polybag without print may be Rs. quality. We have to remember that we may need to insert more than one tissue paper per garment. If any photo is to be scanned & printed and if the quantity is lesser than 1000 nos. The prices can be fixed either on weight (kg) or quantity. Price depends on thickness (Gauge).30 to Rs. the price may be around Rs.40 per bag.50 per board. The PE polybags will have less strength in sealing (side joints) comparing with PP bags.0.0.80 per bag. die cut (scoring) and quantity.0.50 per tag. Cost of Tissue paper: If it is plain tissue paper: Rs.00 per tag.

00 to Rs. For 3 ply cartons to pack 12 garments. styles. the tape cost will be Rs.00 depends on the measurements and gauges.4.00 per inner carton (for 12 garments). the cost of tape will be added to the above prices at the rate of Rs. Inner Cartons: The inner cartons can be in lesser ply and in lesser GSM paper. So the cost of inner cartons will be lesser. Cost of Cartons: Cartons are used as Inner carton and Outer carton.0.20. quantity. The price of one plastic hanger of 17” with one sizer will be Rs.3. Some buyers use the hangers with their brand name engraved or embossed or printed or stuck on the hangers. Outer Cartons: It is important that the outer cartons to be made in Virgin paper which means the paper should be used for the first time. design.0.0. PE Polybags: The prices of PE bags are approximately 10% higher than the prices of PP bags.00 approximately. 41 . If the width of polybag is 12”. sizes. Some buyers will nominate their hanger suppliers and these buyers will ask us to buy the hangers only from these suppliers. The prices of hangers and sizers are based on the style.00 to Rs.02 for one inch length.15. Recycled papers should not be used.25 to Rs.00 to Rs. These sizers are available in different styles according to the hanger designs. plastic hangers. The sizers are to be attached with the hangers to show the sizes of the garments. etc. Hence the cost of inner carton will be approximately Rs. Approximately 12 or 24 garments can be packed in one master bag. Also the outer cartons must be sea worthy to avoid the damages due to salty wind during transit by sea. depends on the packing size & volume of the packed garments. The hangers are in different types. One master bag cost may be approximately Rs.24 per bag. satin padded hangers and coated aluminium hangers.60 per garment.5. But generally the buyers ask their suppliers to use the plastic hangers only. Cost of master polybag (blister): The master polybags should have more thickness so that many garments can be packed inside.25 will be the master bag cost per garment. Cost of Hangers & Sizers: There are many qualities of hangers like wooden hangers. sizes suitable for different garment styles.41 If the polybag is required with heat sealed tape.1.1. Also the hooks are in different types. etc. the cost will be Rs.5. Hence approximately Rs.

The strength of cartons based on number of plies and paper thickness (GSM). 120GSM or 150GSM papers are used. Here let us see the CMT charges as if the garmenting is done in the exporting factory itself. etc. Because of the better perfection and faster production comparing with manual machines.42 Also the cartons must be strong enough for the safety of garments packed inside. The productivity with these over lock machines is very high. pockets.Lockstitch machines.00 to pack 24 to 50garments. flat lock & lock stitch machines. The operators of these machines should have more experience and knowledge. Normally 7 ply or 9 ply cartons with 100GSM. V neck covering. These factories will add about 25% of the actual charges as their profit. packing methods and other works.40. The export factories will supply the required fabrics. Though CMT is Cutting. . the charges for these jobs are very much higher. Here let us see approximate CMT charges for the basic garments. When comparing with the other machines (over lock & flat lock). .Over lock machines.25. the charges for these jobs are higher. number of jobs with over lock.25. 42 . trims and accessories to these Job workers. There are manual and power driven machines are used. local transport. Hence the charges for these jobs are considerably lesser. and attaching collars & labels. Due to this and due to higher wages for the operators. charges of button attachment & button holes and other attachments. CMT charge depends on the style of garment. Some factories will do only CMT jobs. quality standards. Men’s Basic T shirts – short sleeves: Rs. . Making. time consumption. For making knitted garments following machines are mainly used.1.00 to Rs. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the edges and for covering the stitches around armholes and shoulders. Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics.10 per pc. productivity.Flat lock machines. CMT CHARGES (Cutting. nowadays. the productivity from these lock stitch machines are very lesser. Making and Trimming charges. only the power driven machines are used. Approximate cost of a carton is around Rs. Due to the higher cost of these machines and due to the higher wages for the operators and due to the lesser productivity. Thus cost per garment will be around Rs. it is inclusive of the cost of sewing thread. Trimming) This is the main job in garmenting. Lock stitches are used for making plackets.

Men’s Solid Polo shirts – long sleeves: Rs. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – short sleeves: Rs. Boxer shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. sea transport.14 per pc. It is the same as FOB. CPT.18 per pc. CIF. C&F. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – long sleeves: Rs. It means freight will be paid by the buyer.12 to Rs. It means the buyer will pay the freight . If it is C&F By sea.12 per pc. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and air freight. If there are any extra works. These above charges are approximate. Ladies Basic Tops without collar – short sleeves: Rs.20 per pc.it may be road or rail transport. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – long sleeves: Rs.20 per pc. It means the price is inclusive of the cost and the freight.12 per pc.13 per pc. CIP. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – short sleeves: Rs.43 Men’s Basic T shirts – long sleeves: Rs. etc.12 per pc. etc.12 per pc.10 per pc. the delivery terms are to be confirmed. CFR. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and sea freight. If it is C&F By air. Shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. CIF: It is Cost. Long pyjamas with 2 side pockets: Rs. air transport. Delivery terms: There are many delivery terms like FOB. insurance premium and the freight.8 per pc. Ladies Basic Tops with collar – short sleeves: Rs. It means the price is inclusive of the cost. SHIPPING Shipping means the transportation of goods. FAS. Insurance and Freight. C&F: It is the short form of Cost and Freight.10 to Rs.15 per pc. While we confirm the orders from the customers. rail transport. 43 . The goods to be insured to 110% (generally) of the value of the goods and if any damage or theft or loss. Boxer shorts without pockets: Rs. Ex-Factory: This term is used only for domestic (inland) business. It includes local road transport.10 per pc. Ex-factory. EXW. it will be claimed by the buyer. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – short sleeves: Rs.22 per pc. the charges to be added accordingly. FOB: It is the abbreviation of Free On Board. Ladies Basic Night dresses – short sleeves: Rs. FCA.

2. etc. In case of local supply on C&F or CIF terms. We have to confirm any one of these delivery terms with the buyers when we quote prices. C&F. 4. 44 . availability. 3. Customs charges – Documentation. One is FCL (Full Container Load) and the other is LCL (Loose Container Load). 20’ container: 23 cubic metres.44 EXW (Ex Works): It is the same as Ex-Factory. Service charges of clearing and forwarding agent. Local transport either by road or rail to the customer’s destination can be checked locally according to the distance. 5. The goods are stuffed in to containers and stowed in to the ships. FAS (Free Alongside Ship): It is the same as FOB. 6. Charges of freight. If we have doubt about the terms. routing. 1. Their approximate capacity is as follows. CFR (Cost and Freight): It is the same as C&F. SEA FREIGHT: When we talk about the freight charges. Charges of stuffing the goods into container. CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to): It is the same as CIF. CIF terms are used. FCA (Free Carrier): It is the same as FOB. inspection. There are 20’. In case of export to other countries. CPT (Carriage Paid To): It includes the Cost and Sea freight & Road transport up to the buyer’s final destination place. Some buyers will use different names for the terms. etc. it is better to clarify with the buyer while discussing the prices. unloading and overtime charges (if needed in case of urgency). Local transport to the port. we have to remember that it is the total expenses of following. the local transport and sea freight or air freight are to be added with the cost of the garment. the charges of road or rail transport to be added with the cost of garment. 40’ and Hi-cube containers available with different capacities. Port expenses – Loading. Mostly FOB. There are 2 types of loading.

And in Colombo port. Volume or weight: Generally freight is considered by volumes. Hence the feeder vessels are taking containers to Colombo port daily. the mother vessels do not come to this port.45 40’ container: 46 cubic metres. This ship will be very big in size with larger loading capacity. different goods from different suppliers – but for the same buyer . The nearest port is Colombo. The transit time between Tuticorin port and Colombo port is only 8 hours. For example. If the volume is lesser than the capacity of 20’ container. the freight will be based on weight too. Sometimes. distance between destinations. The balance volume of the container will be filled with other’s goods. This system is called transshipment. As this port is in the main sea route. granite stones. most of the mother vessels are routing through Colombo port. It is called Loose Container Load. Hence the Mother Vessels can not enter into these ports. In this case. But some goods (not garments) will have lesser volume. routing & transit time. Distance between destinations: It is the distance from the loading port to the discharge port (destination port). as Tuticorin port is small. 45 . then the goods can be stuffed in to a container as a part load. According to the volume of goods. transshipment. If the volume is suitable to fit into one full container (20’ or 40’ or Hi-cube). Routing & transit time: Transit time is the traveling time of the ship. shipping lines and conference lines. but with more weight – Like steel. it is called FCL. This is called Consolidation of Goods. Thus the containers are being taken to Colombo port by feeder vessel. the size of container is to be decided. It will differ according to the distance between destinations and to the sea route. The ship which carries the containers to the final destination port is called Mother Vessel. Hi-cube container: 60 cubic metres. Colombo port is very big. the containers are shifted (transshipped) to mother vessel. The sea freight is varied based on volume or weight. To solve this problem. the small ships are used to take the containers to the nearest bigger Port where the big mother vessels are available. Though some ports have more sea depth.may be stuffed in one full container. etc. These small ships are called Feeder Vessels. etc. the Mother Vessel will not enter into these ports due to lesser port activities or taking more time to reach these ports. Transshipment: Some ports will not have more sea depth.

if there are more than one shipping line involved in one shipment or if the shipping line does not have their office in our port. Approximate sea freight from Indian ports inclusive of all charges: To Far East ports like Singapore. China. These shipping companies operate their ships in the major ports around the world.000 – Rs.000) To African ports: 20’ container: USD 1400 (Approx: Rs. Bill of Lading (receipt) will be generally issued by the shipping lines.1.44. Hence some buyers will insist to use conference lines only.58. This is a regular practice.90.21.000) To European ports: 20’ container: USD 1600 – 1700 (Approx: Rs.76.72.500) 40’ container: USD 2600 – 2700 (Approx: Rs. Conference Lines: Some big shipping lines are called Conference Lines. Shipping lines: The companies own the ships are called Shipping lines. their partner company will use their vessel. we will have more advantages like tracking the ships. Taiwan.54. etc: 20’ container: USD 1200 (Approx: Rs. according to their capacities.90.500) 40’ container: USD 2100 (Approx: Rs. It means from the port of loading to the port of destination. By using these Conference Lines.17.500) To Middle East ports like Dubai.63. This is also called transshipment. etc. Hong Kong. Some companies tie up their business with other shipping companies in some areas. The receipt of sea transport is called Bill of Lading – in short B/L.000 – Rs.99.500) To American ports: 20’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. the goods will sail on one company’s ships. better connection in transshipments. If they don’t have their own vessel in a particular port area. Hence the containers may be transshipped to some other vessel from any other port in between. Kuwait.000) To Colombo port from Tuticorin port: 46 . Freight charges are based on these transshipment expenses too.46 Also the mother vessels may not be able to reach some destination ports. safety. Bangkok: 20’ container: USD 1300 (Approx: Rs.000) 40’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. As we discussed above. (We will discuss about this in detail later).500) 40’ container: USD 2200 (Approx: Rs. Japan.000) 40’ container: USD 3200 (Approx: Rs.1. It means these companies will use only their own ships – for transshipments.1.94. then the Bill of Lading will be issued by the Shipping agent or Liner’s agent.

110 per kg. Bills of Lading and Airway bills will be issued accordingly. As like sea shipments. The charges are calculated by the weight and volume.36. As the leading airlines will use only their flights. If the goods to be air shipped from a major airport to a major airport where there are direct cargo flights available. The goods will be loaded into the planes in box form.22. Approximate air charges from Indian air ports (inclusive of all charges): To European airports: Rs. As the freight charges are very high.500) 40’ container: USD 800 (Approx: Rs. As the small airlines use the flights of other airlines. the goods have to be sent by air. House airway bill is issued by the Airlines agent. If we have enough time and if we don’t have problem of this delay. Hence the shipment will be delayed. Some times. In these cases. The advantage of sending the goods by air is to save time. Master airway bill is issued by the Airlines. So we can be sure of the prompt delivery.80 to Rs. the Air freight charges are many times higher than sea freight. most of the shipments will go by sea only. The air charges of the leading airlines are higher than small airlines. We can negotiate the charges with these smaller airlines. There are Master Airway bill and House Airway bill.000) (This charge is suitable only if the Colombo is the final destination port). Depending on the destination and on the flight services. we can use smaller airlines. the forwarding agent will arrange all the connections and entire transports. But the air charges are lesser than leading airlines. AIR FREIGHT: It is the freight charges if the goods are shipped by air. 47 . Multimodal transport: It is the combined transport of different modes of transport. mostly all the air shipments will have transshipment. they will be prompt in their connections and timings. Air shipment procedures are almost same like sea shipment. Only in case of the shipment is delayed or of urgent needs. we have to send the consignment by Sea + Air. (We will discuss about airway bill and air shipment in detail later).47 20’ container: USD 500 (Approx: Rs. To American and Canadian airports: Rs. The receipt is Airway Bill.100 to Rs. At the same time.140 per kg. (It will take 15 to 30 days by sea depending on the destination). Some times by Sea + Air + Road. then only the shipment will go by a single flight. there is a chance of delaying due to poor connections of their flights. the goods can reach the buyer’s place within 2 to 5 days.

banking charges and commissions. etc. charges of transport and conveyance. customs clearing charges. routing. procedures. etc.00 per garment depending on the distance to the port. sewing and packing of garments. over heads. Very good knowledge and experience is very much essential for doing successful marketing and sales. Hence we must have update knowledge about the latest prices and charges. We must remember that the quality depends on price. We do not manufacture only one quality of garments. marketing. sales. Hence we can not follow the same costing for all the 48 . The insurance premium is calculated at 0.1. processing and finishing of fabrics. Costing is the deciding factor of the prices and the important thing to be followed in all important stages like purchase. Also he must know how to solve the problems when occurred and to take suitable alternate decision immediately in time.48 Calculation of the charges: FOB terms: Though the delivery term is FOB. When we consider the value of goods. price depends on quality. is essential to make perfect costing. the charges will come about Rs. we have to bear the local transport to the port. methods and quality systems.02% of the total value of goods. C&F terms: Based on the above details regarding C&F terms. We must be aware that there are always fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and accessories. shipping. etc. one must know about all these activities thoroughly about their costs. volume of goods. CIF terms: The insurance charges are to be added with the above C&F charges. Also we manufacture the garments not only for one customer. market prices and availability. finishing. Each product will have different price according to its quality. distance between ports. this charge is very nominal. transportation (road. Costing includes all the activities like purchase of raw materials and accessories. sea. GARMENT COSTING Now we have reached the very important stage which is ‘the costing’. Hence CIF charges are almost the same as C&F charges. Also update knowledge about everything related to garments. processing.4.6.00 to Rs. etc. knitting fabrics. charges of knitting.00 to Rs. etc. It will come about Rs. etc. transport and conveyance. advantages and risk factors. air) and freight charges. documentation charges.2.00 per garment depending on the volume of goods. stuffing charges. But we should not forget to make the insurance cover. production. To do perfect garment costing. latest procedures. loading & unloading. sewing and packing. We manufacture different garments to different customers who expect different qualities of garments at different price levels.

2. But here we will discuss about the procedures of making costing thoroughly. Cost of trims (labels. Men’s Printed Polo shirts. To make the garment costing. etc) 9. Fabric cost per garment. Men’s Pyjamas. Here we are going to see the garments which are made in 100% Cotton fabrics in tubular form. 4.) 6. tags. cartons. 5. As there are many different styles in garments. Let us see them in detail now. Cost of a garment. we must have full measurements of the garment.) 7. Price of a garment. Due to the above practical reasons. polybags. Let us analyse here how to make this calculation. etc. quality & quantity and payment terms. To work on the prices exactly. 5. bows. embroidery. badges. costings can be made for other styles too. 10. Ladies Night dress. the fabrics will be in tubular form only. While we do the garment costing. Ladies yarn striped T shirts (Feeder stripes) Boys yarn striped T shirts (Engineering stripes) Based on these methods. we have to find out following things. Men’s Basic T shirts. the customer’s price level. buttons. Fabric consumption. Body Length and Sleeve Length. 7.49 customers. Other charges (print. 1. FABRIC CONSUMPTION: Garment prices are mainly based on the fabric consumption. Hence we must pay more attention to find out the fabric consumption more accurately or closely. Gross weight of other components of garment. 4. As the knitted fabrics are knitted by the circular knitting machines. 3. 3. The method of making costing will vary from style to style. Hence let us take some following styles as examples which are in regular use. But compulsorily. Men’s Solid Pique Polo shirts. we must have the measurements of Chest. it is not possible here to discuss about all the styles. etc. to be taken into consideration. 2. inner boards. here it is not possible to clearly define the exact costing. It needs sound knowledge and good practical experience to find out the fabric consumption. Fabric cost per kg. twill tapes. 1. 6. CMT charges 8. 49 . Cost of accessories (hangers.

Even in Europe. Medium (M). M – XL or M – XXL in different quantity ratio. USA. 1 Inch = 2.1 MEN’S BASIC T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. the consumption will also be relatively higher. (No style number or no size is needed to print). Australia are measuring in Inches. S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 As the price is the same for all these sizes of garments. Generally the quantity of L size will be higher or equal to the quantity of each of other sizes. Generally they are in the Sizes Small (S). if the garment measurements are in Inches. We have to remember that some countries are measuring the garments in Inches and some other countries measure in Centimeters. the consumption will be lesser. To find the fabric consumption.: 3333 Style Ref: AAAA Description: Men’s Basic T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – Solid dyed – Light. then the weight of the fabric is 1 GSM.50 The garments are to be made in many sizes to fit for everybody. Hang tag: Only Brand name printed tag.54Centimeters. Hence to find out the fabric weight of the required dimension. S – XXL. The consumption of fabric is also based on GSM. TRIAL COSTING NO. they have to be converted into Centimeters. the German measurements are slightly bigger than other European countries’ measurements. Canada and Australia are bigger than European measurements. we have to follow the below procedure step by step. if the area of the fabric is 10. GSM is Grams per Square Metre. Asian and European countries are measuring in Centimeters. Medium & Dark colours in equal ratio – Label: Woven main label mentioning brand name and size to be stitched at centre neck. In other words. If the GSM is lesser. The quantity ratio or assortment can be any one of the following approximate ratios. Large (L). Extra Large (XL) and Double Extra Large (XXL). The garment measurements for USA. That is. we have to calculate based on the measurements of the centre size. weight of the fabric of 1 square meter (which is the same as 10.cms. Some buyers may ask for sizes S – XL. If the GSM is higher. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. the garment quality is mainly based on the fabric weight (GSM).000 square centimetres).000 sq. 50 . As we discussed earlier. As we have seen earlier. In any case. we must take the centre size Large (L) for our average calculation. Canada.

we may not get fabric exactly with 61cms. It may have 2 or 3cm extra width. (Body length + Sleeve length + 12 cm) We knit the fabrics in tubular form only. In case. Pique & Interlock. Neck rib width = 3 cms. Thus. Measurements in Centimeters: Size: L Chest = 60 cms. Sizes: S. 2 to 3cm to be added with the chest measurement. Bottom hem and sleeve hem are normally 3cm. 63 or 64cms. That is. 51 . M. Even if we assume that we can get the finished fabric with exact required width. we can find out the fabric consumption with the following formula. As the fabric is in tubular. Quantity: 1 x 20’ container. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour packing: 8 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in a master bag. For shaping and for allowance of neck seam and shoulder seam another 2 to 3 cm to be added with body length & sleeve length separately. this full width of fabric is to be taken for our calculation. if we need 61cms finished diameter fabric as per the patterns. 6 master bags (8 x 6 = 48 pcs) in an export carton. XL. Generally. This allowance of 2 to 3cm is to be added with the chest measurement. Cartons are to be strapped with 2 nylon straps.000 pcs). (22. the finished fabric may have more width than required. Length = 78 cms. L. 12 cm is added with the total of body length and sleeve length. Hem = 3 cms. Hence Body length and sleeve length will have allowances for the hem and shoulder sewing. 2 to 3cms to be added for seam allowance. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. for solid fabrics and normal fabrics like Jersey. Due to unavailability of suitable diameter machines or due to some other practical reasons.51 Polybag: Each garment to be packed in to an individual polybag. Hence due to either way. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. if we are unable to control this. Export carton: 7 ply 120GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Hence 4 to 5cm to be added with body length and 4 to 5 cm to be added with sleeve length. We must know that these are the measurements of a finished garment. we are multiplying the fabric Area into 2. Patterns are generally made with the seam allowance and cutting allowance. For example. That is.

we will have lesser wastage and lesser fabric consumption. though the synthetic fabrics and blended fabrics are made by circular machines. Gross weight : 197 grams. Let us take the GSM is 140. the garments are based on weights. And the consumption of these blended fabrics is to be calculated based on their possible width. back body and sleeves of one garment are to be cut as close as possible. the fabric is required to have either 50” or 62” width. All knitted garments made by either natural fabrics (cotton) or synthetic fabrics are based on GSM. (0. In this case.197 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 197 grams. At the same time. Armhole circumference = 56 cms. Length = 78 cms. 52 . If they are possible. Let us assume that according to the patterns. Sleeve open circumference = 40 cms. they have to be slit opened to do heat setting. then we have to find out by which fabric width. Let us assume following are the measurements. FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF OPEN WIDTH FABRICS (SYNTHETIC): As we had seen earlier (regarding Heat setting).52 Consumption = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (70 + 24 + 12) X (60 + 3) X 2 X 140 10000 = (106) X (63) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & sleeves: 187 grams. to avoid shade variation. we should remember that the front body. Let us assume that the front and back body is to be cut side by side and the sleeves are to be cut below the bodies. we can find the fabric consumption by using following formula. Chest = 60 cms. In other words. Let us calculate for 50” width fabric. Neck rib : 10 grams. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. Hence the fabric consumption is always to be calculated in weights – no matter the finished fabrics are in tubular form or open width form. Let us see how to find the consumption of open width fabric. So the patterns have to be made according to the open width fabrics. We have to see whether these two widths are possible to achieve.

according to the patterns of that particular style of garment. If we want to know the fabric requirement of one garment in terms of length. If the sleeves or other parts are not cut on wales direction. the garment will have spiral effect which is not acceptable. Consumption of a garment = Body fabric consumption + sleeve fabric consumption = (Body length + allowance) X 2 X (Chest + allowance) X GSM 10000 + (full armhole + full sleeve open + allowance) X (sleeve length + allowance) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 8) X 2 X (60 + 3) X 140 10000 = (86) X 2 X (63) X 140 10000 = 152 + 39 = 191 grams. Let us calculate the same for 62”. we can see that it will be 1. Consumption = (Body length + sleeve length + allowance) X (Fabric width) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 24 + 12) X (127) X 140 10000 = (114) X 127 X 140 10000 = 203 grams. we have to select the suitable width.14 mtrs of 50” width. Then we will have to calculate as below. So we can prefer for 62” than 50” width.53 We have to remember that the measurements are to be converted into centimeters. Here we see that 62” fabric width will have lesser consumption and less wastage. When we cut the fabric in open width form (lay cutting). The fabric width is 50” = 127cms. Thus. among the possible widths. we have to be sure of cutting in wales direction perfectly. 53 + (56 + 40 + 3) X (24 + 4) X 140 10000 + (99) X (28) X 140 10000 . Let us assume that front body and back body are cut one by one on left side and the sleeves are cut on sides on right side.

70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams For Light colours = 193.54 This is the same procedure for the natural fabrics (cotton) if they are in open width form.00 Dyeing charge = 35.00 Compacting charge = 6.20 Fabric cost per Kg = 193. The weight of the cut pieces after taking the shape according to the pattern is called Net Weight of Fabric. GROSS WEIGHT & NET WEIGHT: The above weight is the Gross Weight of Fabric.25 For Medium colours For Dark colours For Dark colours Fabric cost per garment = 54 .70 203.25) Light colours Rs.00 65.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.00 9.00) For Light colours Likewise. only if they are all over printed on open width form. 38.00 Dark colours 44.00 184.20 Medium colours 135. For Medium colours = 203.00 6.00) = 224. the weight of the fabric bits cut in tubular form without taking shapes is called Gross weight.70 224. the natural fabrics are needed to be slit opened.00 Medium colours 40.70 X 197 1000 = 40. let us work for Medium & Dark colours.06 (Round off: Rs.00 214.70 X 197 1000 = 44.00 10.13 (Round off: Rs.00 Knitting charge = 8.00 45.38.00 194. It means.00 8. Hence costing is to be made as per this gross weight.40.70 Dark colours 135. This is the consumed fabric for the particular garment. As we had seen earlier.20 X 197 1000 = 38.44.00 8. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): Light colours 34’s combed yarn = 135.00 6.27 (Round off: Rs.

Labels – Woven main label & Polyester printed label.70 55 Medium cols 40.35 per garment. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment .00 1.00 1.) Cost of trims (labels.85 10.0.35 Polyester printed wash care label: single colour print: Rs.0.10. Export carton – Normal: Rs.0. tags. 2.40 So the total cost of trims is Rs. embroidery.20 1.1.45 1.10 Hang tag: Rs. : Rs.55 OTHER CHARGES (Print.35 = Rs. Hang tag – Normal (not a special one). CMT CHARGES: As we see earlier.00 = Rs. there is no need of print or embroidery. polybags. 0. 1.70 58. We require following things.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. COST OF GARMENT Now let us sum up all the above costs and charges together as follows to find out the cost of garment.51.25 -0. etc): For this Basic T shirt.75 Dark cols 44.0.80 per garment. COST OF ACCESSORIES (hangers. Light cols = Rs.0. let us see the costs of the required accessories.85 per garment.2 per master polybag to contain 8 garments. Master polybag – Normal: Rs. elastic.35 52. bows: The accessories which are attached to the garments are called Trims.20 = Rs. 1. ropes. etc. 0. So there are no charges. 1. buttons.25 per garment.10.Normal (not a special one): Rs. Labels: Woven main label: Small size (2.00 -0. Let us see what are the trims required for this style. 3. twill tapes. etc): For this style (Basic T shirt). Now we have taken Men’s Basic T shirts.38. as example. 1.50 = Rs. Let us see the cost of these things.15 Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print. labels.00 per garment. badges.85 = Rs.35 56. the CMT charge for Men’s Basic T shirt is Rs.00 = -= Rs. inner boards.30 per garment. So the total cost of accessories is Rs.50. 2. cartons.55 53.85 10. COST OF TRIMS (zippers. cartons.0.40 per carton to contain 48 garments. tags. : Rs. Polybag .

1. with the above costs of garments.20 = Rs.25 -0. SHIPPING CHARGES: For our example of Men’s Basic T shirt. we have to add the shipping expenses (road transport. So we don’t have to add sea freight.85 10. COST OF QUOTA: If the style is under Quota.35 56. We have to add this commission.55 53.45 1. the agreed commission to be paid on FOB value only. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment . bonus. let us work on 15% profit margin. machineries. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags.00 1. etc.56 We have found out the cost of garment. Let us recall our earlier costing. etc) and profit margin. then the cost of quota is to be added with this price. Light cols = Rs. But the Quota Category and Harmonised Code Numbers will be the same as we use now. we will have to give commission to the agent or the mediator. profit.50 = Rs.75 Dark cols 44. the delivery terms have been mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry as ‘FOB’. But we have to add the local transport with the cost of garment. if any. It will vary from company to company depends on their size. This profit includes the over heads (maintenance. Now let us see these things in detail. COMMISSION: For some orders.70 56 Medium cols 40.10. incentives.00 -0. standards. sea freight / air freight).51.1 per garment.38.00 = -= Rs. 1. GARMENT COSTING: Now let us come back to the buyer’s enquiry No.50. etc. electricity.00 = Rs.15 Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print.85 10.70 58. If the terms are C&F or CIF.35 = Rs. PRICE OF GARMENT To get the price of garment.00 1. tags. depreciation of machineries. It may be approximately Re.35 52.3333. PROFIT: Now we have to add our profit margin with the above costs of garments. cartons. Anyhow. For our calculation. the quota system will be removed from January 2005. 0. quota cost and commissions with the above cost of garment.20 1. interest for investments. It may be 1% to 5% of FOB value. Now we have to find out the freight charges for the Men’s Basic T shirt which we have taken for example. We must note that this is only the cost – Not the price.85 = Rs. office salary.) Cost of trims (labels.

52. Medium and Dark colours are equal. Medium.20 62. FOB / C&F / CIF. we can mention the validity for our prices.05 divided by 45. .Delivery terms to be mentioned. Informing Prices: When quoting our prices to our buyer. Enquiry Style No.60. XXL. packing methods.00 54. quantity and specifications.90 68. XL.60 1. 3333 AAAA Description Men’s Basic T shirt – Short Sleeves – 100% Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – solid dyed – Light.70 = Rs.45. it is better to mention as C&F / CIF By Sea.57 Now we add the local transport Profit @ 15% As there is no commission to be paid Prices of garment = Rs. Now for the buyer’s enquiry 3333.95 1.40 For Dark colours : Rs. as it is mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry 3333. Then we will get following prices. Some Tips: For easy reference. If the terms are C&F and CIF. Dark colours in equal ratio – Sizes: S. It is USD 1. the approximate price can be remembered as follows.If the commission is added.40 FOB. Let us convert this into USD as per the current exchange rate which is Rs.05 ------68. These are approximate prices only. .51 We understand that the quantities of Light. According to the measurements.40 per pc. we can quote the price to buyer as follows.62. it has to be mentioned.00 59.If we expect any price hike in near future. Hence we have to find out the average price for the above prices. we have to inform like this. L. For 150GSM – USD 1.05 Now we have to convert these prices in to USD or Euro. For 180GSM – USD 1. for the Men’s Basic T shirts of medium colours.60 = ------= Rs.00 = USD 1. For 140GSM – USD 1.60 divided by 45.50 FOB.60. .00 = 1 USD. it has to be mentioned.95 -----62.60.00 = USD 1.95 divided by 45. 57 Price / pc .75 8. . regular packing and ratio.15 8.35 For Medium colours: Rs.90 = Rs. ratio. .00 = Rs. the prices will differ.00 = USD 1.80 FOB.60 FOB.Quota category to be mentioned.Complete description (as per our calculation) to be mentioned. M. 7.68. For Light colours : Rs. For 160GSM – USD 1. 1.If we made any change in buyer’s details. .

Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.75 = 2.75 = 4.25 = 14. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Size.: 4444 Style Ref: BBBB USD 1. Quota Category: 4 Pls note the above prices are FOB.2 MEN’S ALL OVER PRINTED POLO SHIRTS (FOR CANADA): Enquiry No. Also it will be clear for our reference. safety instructions printed. Export carton: 7 ply 100GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Size...5 =7 = 1. Polybag: Hanger polybag with Style No. If we give the prices to the buyer in the above format.25 = 17. M.5 58 .40 Description: Men’s Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 190GSM Single Jersey – All over printed on Offwhite base – 50% to 60% print coverage . Sizes: S. TRIAL COSTING NO. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Style No. (Pls find the attached details). Hanger: Plastic hanger with logo embossed + size marker. Colour to be printed on back side.12 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton. To be attached with second button with a silk rope.5 = 2. Quantity: 48.5 = 48 = 48 = 21.5 = 23 = 21. XXL Ratio: 1 : 3 : 4 : 3 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. it will be clear for him.Hanger pack.000 pcs.58 Quantity: 20.000 pcs. XL.Pigment print with soft hand feel – Flat knit collar with raised tipping – 3 buttoned placket – Half moon patch – Side slits – self fabric neck tape . To be attached with second button with hang tag.5 = 16. Measurements in Inches: Size: L Back length Chest Circumference Sweep Across shoulder Armhole circumference Sleeve length from centre back Cuff circumference Cuff opening Collar neckline circumference Collar height Collar point Collar spread Placket length Placket width = 30. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be attached to inside half moon patch. RN no. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 4” above hem. L.

5” – ½ (21. we need the sleeve length from the shoulder point. If we deduct ½ shoulder length from centre back sleeve length. bows. twill tapes. then the print wastage on sides will be about 2 inches (5cm) average. 3. Gross weight of all parts of garment.5inches. buttons.75” = 27. Sleeve length from centre back is 21. Remember.3 cm The allowance for cutting and sewing for both body length & sleeve length can be 12cm. Other charges (print. embroidery. etc) 9.5” – 10. 4. So it will be 24 inches.5 inches Chest circumference is 48 inches. That is. That is 77. 4 cm is to be added with body length. there will be some extra length is needed to straight the print design. Cost of a garment. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (81. CMT charges 8. For our calculation. It should be divided into 2 to get ½ Chest.75” = 10.3 + 12) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 59 .5 + 27. polybags. As this is all over print program. So the body length for calculation will be 77.50 + 4 = 81.5”) = 21. = 21. cartons. 5. we will get sleeve length from shoulder point.5 inches Sleeve length (from centre back) = 21. inner boards. tags. 2.5 cm. badges.) 6.5cm. So the chest for calculation will be 61 + 5 + 2 = 68cm. That is.5”. 10. Now let us do the calculation. Cost of accessories (hangers. etc. Sleeve length from shoulder point = CB Sleeve length – ½ shoulder length. Fabric cost per garment. the measurements in inches to be converted into Centimetres. 61cms. 1. the full measurements are given here. Cost of trims (labels. Let us recall the steps once again. Also the allowance for cutting and stitching is to be added which is about 2 cm. Body Length is 30. Price of a garment. As this is all over print program. Chest (circumference) = 48 inches Body length = 30. etc. Fabric consumption.) 7.59 For your reference. Fabric cost per kg.

00 – Carton. tags. 382 grams. 2. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 24’s combed yarn = 120. 3. As the collar is to be dyed into dark colour.25 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.60 = (120. embroidery. 5.00 Open width compact = 12.131.75 Other charges (print. (0. etc) = Rs.50 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.20 60 .00 235. the cost will be approximately the same as printed. 15 grams.00 Knitting charge = 8. So the fabric consumption per garment is 382 grams.) = -Cost of trims (labels.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 23.8) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 Body & Sleeves: Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Gross weight : 312 grams.50 CMT charges = Rs.00 Fabric enzyme wash = 15.00 Dyeing charge = 30.95 Cost of garment = Rs.00 = Rs.00 – Hanger polybag = Rs.382 kg) Even though the collar is not printed. 40 grams.75 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. for calculation. 18.50 X 382 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 15 grams.135.00 Printing charge = 50.258. packing materials = Rs. etc. 2. 3. rope. 98.50 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 258. 98.00 Cost of accessories – Hanger + sizer = Rs. 2. it can be considered as printed.

XL.: 5555 Style Ref: CCCC = Rs.61 Profit & overheads @ 15% Price of garment That is the FOB price is USD3. M. Measurements in Cms: Size: L Chest = 52 Waist = 60 Bottom sweep = 75 Body length = 110 Sleeve Length = 20 Let us do this directly as an exercise. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be sewn at centre neck. Sizes: S. 20. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer..155. TRIAL COSTING NO. To be attached with the main label.3 LADIES NIGHT DRESS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. size and warning instructions printed. Quantity: 16.000 pcs.24 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton.45 per pc. Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour.30 = Rs. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. Terms: C&F Rotterdam port. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (110 + 20 + 12) X (75 + 2) X 2 X 140 10000 = (142) X (77) X 2 X 140 10000 61 . Polyester printed wash care label at inside left bottom 10cm above hem.50 Description: Ladies Night Dress – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – Solid dyed – Pastel colours – Plastisol print in chest – Round neck – binding with the self fabric. L. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.

FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s combed yarn = 135. tags. 15.00 CMT charges = Rs. 3. Neck piping : 10 grams.00 Compacting = 6. carton. it is better to mention as ‘Price USD2.00 Local freight + sea freight + expenses = Rs. the C&F price is USD2.00 Cost of trims (labels. 3. packing materials = Rs.00 X 316 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.112.62 Body & Sleeves: 306 grams.00 Dyeing charge = 50.00 That is. 6. 97.4 MEN’S LONG PYJAMAS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. 94.00 199.00 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 209.00 = Rs.00 Price of garment = Rs.00 Knitting charge = 8. TRIAL COSTING NO.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 10. 66. Gross weight : 316 grams. (0.00 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.209.00 Cost of polybags.50 C&F Rotterdam By Sea’.00 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs. 5.: 6666 Style Ref: DDDD Description: Men’s Long Pyjamas .316 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 316 grams.00 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. 12.00 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 66.100%Cotton 240GSM Interlock – Elastic waist band with DTM rope – with side pockets – without fly – Brand patch label to be stitched at 62 . When giving this price to buyer.00 Cost of garment = Rs. 2.50 per pc.00 Other charges – chest printing = Rs. etc) = Rs.

There are 2 ways. XXL. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Polyester printed wash care label to be inserted near main label. Label: Woven Brand label with size indication to be inserted at inside centre back waist. If we have the measurements of ½ seat and outer length. Sizes: S. it is easier by using following formula. L. Quantity: 13. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. 1 assortment x 3 colours per carton. Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Assorted Colours + assorted sizes.500 pcs.Solid dyed – Black.. size and warning instructions printed.63 front centre outside waist . Navy and Grey Melange – Equal quantity ratio. let us see how to find the fabric consumption.1x1 rib at bottom legs . 9 pcs x 3 = 27 pcs per carton. To be sewn at front waist. 2 Pockets = 70 grams 63 . Terms: FOB Measurements in Cms: Size: L Waist relaxed Waist extended Waist band width Outer length incl waist band ½ Thigh ½ Seat Front rise incl waist band Back rise incl waist band Inseam Leg rib height = = = = = = = = = = 50 58 4 88 27 58 24 31 62 5 Before making the costing. Consumption = (1/2 seat + allowance) X (outer length + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (58 + 4) X (88 – rib height + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (88 – 5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = 62 X 91 X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption = 270 grams. XL. M.

Hence if the program is Solid program. we can minimise the wastage. We have to work prices with the largest measurements. the seat is the largest measurement. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130. This is not acceptable. we can find consumption by using following formula. back rise & inseam. we have to add 4 cm with the full thigh measurement to get approximate seat measurement. we get one full thigh circumference measurement.64 Leg rib Total = 20 grams = 360 grams If we don’t have ½ seat and outer length measurement. the wastage will be more. the print direction will be opposite and contrast between legs. By doing like this. we can cut the fabrics by marking one leg in the up direction and the other leg in the opposite down direction and by keeping them as close as possible. We know only thigh measurement.00 64 .5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (91) X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams ‘S’ program and ‘S’ cutting: For the long pants and shorts. But we don’t know the seat measurement. Consumption = (full thigh circumference + 4cm + allowance) X (backrise + inseam – 5cm due to curve – leg rib height + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (54 + 4 + 4) X (31 + 62 – 5 . we can use ‘S’ cutting. we must know the measurements of thigh. If we use ‘S’ cutting for all over print programs. Width wise. This cutting style is called ‘S’ cutting. We must remember that this ‘S’ cutting is possible only for Solid programs and not possible for all over print programs. For some flower design prints or mixed design prints for which maintaining direction is not needed. if we cut the fabrics in regular method. reasonably and competitively. By this way. For using this formula. we can quote prices more accurately. In this case. Let us continue the costing. So by multiplying ½ thigh measurement into 2.

80.00 = 10. 4. 20%Black. 80. tags.00 Local freight + expenses = Rs. Label: Woven Brand label to be attached at centre of neck.25 Cost of garment = Rs.00 Woven patch label = Rs.111. carton.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 214. Size.60 Cost of trims (labels. 20%Grey Melange. etc) = Rs.90 Elastic 4cm = Rs.70 =Rs. 1.00 CMT charges = Rs.00 6.85 per pc.00 Cost of polybags.224.00 = Rs. the FOB price is USD2.5 MEN’S PIQUE POLO SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.70 X 360 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Woven Size + wash care label is to be attached at neck near main label.75 Price of garment = Rs. To be attached with main label. 2. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. 0. Solid dyed – 60%White.00 60.128. Colour to be printed on back side.108. 16.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 224.50 That is. 15. 3.00 Waist rope = Rs.65 Knitting charge = Dyeing charge (average) = Compacting = Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg 18. TRIAL COSTING NO. Style No. 3. 65 .90 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. packing materials = Rs.75 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.: 7777 Style Ref: EEEE Description: Men’s Pique Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 220GSM Pique – Half moon patch – Flat knit collar & cuffs – Small logo embroidery at chest – 3 horn buttoned placket – Side slits with DTM twill tape – DTM twill tape at neck. 2.

15 grams. Sizes: S.00 Knitting charge = 15. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. Size. To be attached with main label. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. 40 grams. 15 grams.000 pcs. 4 assortments x 9 pcs = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton.66 Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.400 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130.205. Quantity: 72. and warning instructions printed. (0. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest Back length Sleeve length including cuff = 58 = 75 = 24 Sleeve length for calculation will be 24 – 3 = 21cm. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.00 196.80 X 400 66 . M. XL.. 400 grams.80 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 205. 40 grams. L.00 Dyeing charge (average) = 45.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (75 + 21 + 12) X (58 + 3) X 2 X 220 10000 = (108) X (61) X 2 X 220 10000 Body & Sleeves : Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Cuffs : Gross weight : 290 grams.00 Compacting = 6.80 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.

carton.200 pcs per combination.60 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.60 That is.00 CMT charges = Rs. tags.30 Cost of garment = Rs.90 per pc. Consumption: 67 .113.00 = Rs. 2. 3. the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more.00 Twill tape = Rs.. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. 17. 1.130. Quantity: 7. 82.110. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. 2. XL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: 4 combinations x 6 pcs assortment = 24 pcs to be packed in an export carton.00 Price of garment = Rs.30 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.: 8888 Style Ref: FFFF Description: Ladies T shirt – Short sleeves – 95%Cotton / 5%Elastan (Lycra) 1x1 Rib 230GSM – Yarn dyed Feeder stripes (3cm repeat width) – Self fabric binding neck. Sizes: S. the FOB price is USD2. Polyester printed care label. TRIAL COSTING NO. L.00 Cost of trims (labels.30 Embroidery = Rs. 82.00 Polybag.30 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 3. packing materials = Rs.4 colour combinations.6 LADIES YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. 18. 2. etc) = Rs. That is 15cm. M. Size and warning instructions printed. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest = 55 Back length = 67 Sleeve length = 18 As this is yarn stripes style. Label: Woven Brand label at neck.67 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.

2.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 5% = 60.50 Cost of trims (labels.00 That is.00 Washing charge = 5. (0.131.80 Cost of garment = Rs. Neck piping : 10 grams.85 Fabric cost per Kg = 372. 2.50 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Gross weight : 286 grams.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 372. carton. 106. 19.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.35 X 286 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 338.127. 3.00 Polybag. tags.35 per pc.70 Price of garment = Rs.151.68 = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (67 + 18 + 15) X (55 + 5) X 2 X 230 10000 = (100) X (60) X 2 X 230 10000 Body & Sleeves: 276 grams.50 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 33.00 Knitting charge = 30. 15. 68 . etc) = Rs.106.00 Compacting = 6.286 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s dyed yarn – 250 x 95% = 237. packing materials = Rs.30 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. 2.00 = Rs.00 CMT charges = Rs. the FOB price is USD3.

Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. 110.3 colour combinations. Polyester printed care label. the allowance for chest should be 6cm. As the stripes should set on sides and sleeves to be matched.: 9999 Style Ref: GGGG Description: Boys T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton Jersey 150GSM – Yarn dyed Engineering stripes – 1x1 rib neck with Elastan (Lycra) .00 69 . Label: Woven Brand label at neck. 104. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No.00 Knitting charge = 50. the consumption will be more than feeder stripes. 98. Hence the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more.200 pcs total.7 BOYS YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.69 TRIAL COSTING NO. 116. That is 20cm. Measurements in Cms: Size: 110 ½ Chest = 37 Back length = 48 Sleeve length = 15 Here we have to note that this is engineering stripes style. Hanger: Basic plastic hanger with metal hook. Sizes: 92. (For adult garments.00 Compacting = 6..00 311. Likewise. Size and warning instructions printed. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s dyed yarn = 250. this would be 25cm). 122 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: 3 combinations x 12 pcs assortment = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton. Quantity: 2400 pcs per combination x 3 = 7.00 Washing charge = 5. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (48 + 15 + 20) X (37 + 6) X 2 X 150 10000 = (83) X (43) X 2 X 150 10000 Body & Sleeves: 107 grams.

70 Fabric wastage @ 10% Fabric cost per Kg COST OF LYCRA RIB: 34’s dyed yarn – 250 x 97% Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 3% Knitting charge Washing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg = 31.10 = 342.10

= 242.50 = 36.00 = 30.00 = 5.00 = 6.00 319.50 = 16.00 = 335.50

Gross weight of Lycra rib per garment: 7 grams. So the cost of Lycra rib per garment : Rs.2.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 342.10 X 107 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 36.60

COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Lycra rib = Rs. Cost of trims (labels, tags, etc) = Rs. CMT charges = Rs. Hanger, polybag, carton, packing materials = Rs. Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. = Rs. Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. Cost of garment = Rs. Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Price of garment = Rs. That is, the FOB price is USD1.60 per pc.

36.60 2.35 2.00 12.00 6.00 2.00 60.95 1.85 62.80 9.40 72.20

NOTE: The descriptions, measurements and specifications given in the above trial costings are only for the reference of working procedures and methods of calculations.

70

71 PAYMENT TERMS For every business, payment is the very important thing. To do safer business, we have to be sure of getting prompt payment. We are producing the goods by spending money, time, labour, efforts, etc. After manufacturing and exporting the goods, we have to get the money from the buyer in time. If there is any problem in getting payment from the buyer, we will be in great trouble. Hence we must be very careful in payment terms. There are different terms followed in export business. They are L/C, D/P and D/A terms. L/C (Letter of Credit): As this is the safest payment terms especially for the sellers, every seller prefers this L/C terms. After confirming the garment style, price, quantity, delivery terms, etc, the seller (exporter) is to send the Sales Contract to the buyer. Or the buyer (importer) is to send the Purchase Order to the seller. After signing these documents, the buyer will open the L/C through their banker. Buyer’s bank will send the L/C to the seller’s bank by telex or swift. Here we have to remember that the buyer’s bank will proceed for L/C opening, only according to the financial strength, business performance and the securities of the buyer with their bank. In the L/C many conditions will be mentioned by the buyer. Let us see the important conditions and the L/C format below. 1. Opening bank address: Buyer’s bank is called the opening bank or issuing bank. 2. Form of Documentary Credit (Letter of Credit): It has to be mentioned as ‘Irrevocable Transferable’. Irrevocable means can not be cancelled. It means, after opening the L/C, it can not be cancelled without the consent of both seller and buyer. 3. DC No.: Issued by the opening bank. 4. Date of (L/C) opening: --------------5. Expiry Date and place: It is generally 12 or 15 days from the date of shipment. This period of 12 or 15 days is given for submitting the required documents. If the place is mentioned as the Country of Applicant (buyer), it means the documents should reach the buyer’s bank before the mentioned expiry date. Even if we send the documents in time, the documents may reach buyer’s bank with a delay, that is, after this expiry date. Hence it is always safer for seller to get it mentioned the place as the ‘Country of Beneficiary or India’. 6. Applicant (Address of buyer): 7. Beneficiary (Address of seller): 8. DC amount: It should be in the foreign currency such as USD, Euro, etc. according to the sales contract or purchase order. 9. Percent or Amount tolerance: Normally Plus or Minus 5% is allowed in amount & quantity. As it is not possible to ship the exact quantity, this tolerance is to be mentioned. 71

72 10. Available with / by: It has to be mentioned as ‘(with) Any bank in country of beneficiary’ / (by) Negotiation. It means, after submitting the documents to the seller’s bank, the Invoice amount can be negotiated and can be credited into seller’s account (based on the seller’s financial credit limit with the bank). If it is mentioned as ‘Opening bank’, then the documents can not be negotiated. 11. Drafts At: To be mentioned as ‘Sight for the full value’. 12. Drawee: It will be mentioned as the opening bank. 13. Partial shipments: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 14. Transhipment: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 15. Loading/Dispatch at/from: India or Any Indian port. 16. For Transportation to: Buyer’s country port (Final destination port). 17. Latest date of shipment: 18. Description of Goods: Style of garments, quota, price per garment (unit price), quantity to be mentioned clearly. (Some times buyer will ask us to issue the Proforma Invoice in which we have to mention all these details. In this case, in this clause, it will be mentioned as ‘As per the Proforma Invoice No…& date…). 19. Trade terms: FOB or C&F or CIF and whether By Sea or By Air to be mentioned. 20. Documents required: Very important clause. Following documents will be generally required. a. Commercial Invoice - Original and 2 copies. b. Full set (or 3/3) clean on board marine Bills of Lading plus 2 Nonnegotiable copies (in case of sea shipment). Original clean airway bill or House airway bill consigned to the consignee (buyer) made out to the order of issuing bank. (When we make the air shipment, we must me careful about this clause. The airway bill has to be mentioned as ‘to the order of issuing bank’. Then only the buyer’s bank will hold responsibility for our documents. Otherwise, if the buyer’s bank is not mentioned in the airway bill, the buyer may take delivery of documents from his bank without giving any guarantee for the payment). c. Packing List – Original and 2 copies. d. Beneficiary’s letter – stating that one set of copy documents sent by courier to the applicant within 3 days (or 5 days) after the shipment. With this copy of documents, the originals of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa to be sent to buyer by courier. (These documents will vary from country to country and from quota to non-quota. Buyer will need these original export documents soon after the shipment is made which enable him to get the import license from the buyer’s country authorities. Without the import license, the buyer can not clear the goods from the port. To avoid the demurrage charges at the buyer’s port, it is essential to apply and to get the import license well in advance before the vessel reaches the buyer’s port). e. Copies of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa, etc. f. Original Insurance policy – in terms of CIF. (The insurance to be made for the account of buyer generally for the value of 105% or 110% of the value of goods. It means if there is any damage or theft or loss, the buyer can claim by himself for himself). g. Inspection Certificate (if any) - issued by the buyer’s agent or buying office nominated by the buyer or by any third party testing organization. 72

Some times. So this clause will always be mentioned as ‘Without’. before opening L/C.73 21. it is a set of following originals and copies. In this case. There may be some mistakes. This amendment should be considered as the integral part of the L/C. We have to remember that the buyer’s bank will charge the exporter for each amendment. B/L: As we see above. 24. our bank does not have to wait for any other confirmation of this L/C. Information to presenting bank: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about making the payment. shipment date. Our bank will receive the L/C amendment by telex or swift.B/L Copies (Non-negotiable documents) – 4 or 6 or more Nos. changes or differences in address. validity extension. This is called L/C amendment. amount. etc. . Additional conditions: General conditions like discrepancy charges. documents clauses or anything else which are against our earlier acceptance. These conditions to be followed promptly to avoid the discrepancy charges and deduction of payment. transferring conditions. the exporter should inform these differences clearly to the buyer and should ask him to change them in the L/C. Though we call it in singular as Bill of Lading (B/L). description. This amount would be deducted when they make the payment for the bills. As we have to be careful of these important documents. L/C amendments: After receiving the L/C. 22. 23. (It means we have to submit the complete documents to our bank as per this L/C conditions before the expiry date of this L/C). Accordingly the buyer will ask his bank to issue the amendment.. 73 . he can not clear the goods from his customs. only with B/L or Airway bill. let us see the importance and procedures of them.B/L Originals (Negotiable documents) – 3 Nos. after receiving this L/C. Confirmation instructions: As the L/Cs are transmitted by telex or swift. Importance of B/L and Airway Bill: We have to remember that the buyer can clear the goods from his port or airport. To avoid these amendment charges. will be mentioned here. Bank to bank info: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about the transfer of L/C. B/L is issued by shipping company or shipping agent or forwarding agent. Without these documents. 26. it is always better to get the L/C application copy from the buyer. 25. price. documents dispatch instructions. So the B/L and Airway bill are very valuable documents. Period of presentation: Within 15 or 21 days after the date of shipment but within the validity of the credit. the amendments are made several times. Hence we have to be careful in accepting their conditions before commencing their orders. . the exporter should read all the L/C conditions thoroughly word by word. Details of charges: It is generally mentioned as ‘All charges outside country of issue for account of beneficiary / exporter’. Each buyer will follow different L/C conditions and documentation according to their working systems and convenience.

But it is a long process which will take more time. Hence they are very important. To avoid all these things. It is called Negotiable documents. Now the question is for sending Consignee’s copy to the buyer. it has to be mentioned as ‘FULL SET CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING………….74 Only the originals have got value. pricing. buyer can clear the goods. Consignment copy will travel along with the consignment (goods). These 3 original B/Ls are called ‘FULL SET OF B/L’ or ‘3/3 B/L’. money. They are 1. documentation.. we can approach International Arbitrary Committee for the settlement of the payment. stress and tension. the airlines or airlines agent will issue Master Airway bill or House Airway bill.’ If is mentioned other than this.’ OR ‘3/3 CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING……………………. Consignor’s copy (exporter’s copy) 2. If we agree to this and if we send 2 original B/Ls through bank and 1 original B/L through courier. Non-negotiable documents are having no value. In ‘Documents required’ clause. Some buyer may mention in the L/C to submit 2/3 B/L and the balance 1/3 B/L to send by courier. In this case. So he will not need our other documents which we sent through the bank. After the air shipment. quality. Hence there is no need for him to make payment to get the bank documents. Though we were careful in production. Consignor’s copy can be kept with the exporter. as we sent one original B/L by courier. Hence we must be sure of sending ‘Full set of B/L’ only through the bank. exporter should ask the buyer to make the amendment immediately without fail. Consignee’s copy (importer’s copy) 3. To make sure of the shipment and to make arrangement for taking delivery. we must be sure of this clause in L/C. We have to remember the fact that the goods will reach buyer’s airport within 2 or 3 days or maximum within a 74 . With these original B/Ls only. There will be 3 Original B/Ls (Bills of Lading). the buyer will take delivery of the goods by showing the one original B/L which we sent by courier. There will be 3 airway bills (AWBs). We must be aware that buyer can take delivery of goods with only one original B/L. we don’t get the payment. buyers usually ask the exporter to fax the original AWB to him. This one original B/L is enough for him to clear the goods. Consignment copy. They are only the copies. Already he could have all the other copies of documents.. Airway Bill: For the air shipment the terms are different. Consignee’s copy is to be sent to the buyer. It is advised not to do business with buyers who refuse to accept this condition. etc.

To be specified exactly. Then after checking and scrutinizing them. in order to get the claim or discount. In spite of all these reasons. 75 . full stops. The buyer has to clear the goods from the airport within 3 days from the date of arrival. It will be heavy amount. buyer does not need other documents from the bank. It means in the airway bill both buyer’s bank address and buyer’s address will be mentioned. Then. Here comes the problem for exporter. as we had seen in sea shipment above. Hence if he does not want to make payment to the exporter. showing master airway bill number and dispatch date. etc are to be taken care. To avoid this serious problem and to be on safer side. we have to send the original AWB through bank and it will take more time to reach buyer’s bank. Then the buyer will be in trouble to pay the demurrage. the buyer’s bank is responsible for the payment.75 week. We have to remember. we have to approach International Arbitrary Committee. buyer’s bank will not take responsible for the payment. Hence to be on the safer side. ‘Original clean airway bill or house airway bill MADE OUT TO THE ORDER OF ISSUING BANK (buyer’s bank). As the documents are still with them. the goods are air shipped by spending huge amount as air freight. By verifying the fax copy or photo copy of AWB (which the exporter faxed earlier after the shipment) with the original Consignment copy (which has travelled with the goods). We have to fulfill all the L/C conditions and to submit all these documents exactly as per the requirements to our bank. our bank will send the documents to buyer’s bank by courier – as per the instruction given in the L/C. Documentation: Some buyers may purposely find out some small deviation or small mistake in our documents. To avoid this demurrage charges. If the buyer’s bank’s name is mentioned in the airway bill. buyer has to clear the goods within 3 days from the date of arrival. the exporter should make sure that in the L/C. To avoid this practical problem. But as per L/C condition. it is mentioned as follows. the customs authorities will release the goods to the buyer. Once the airway bill is endorsed by the buyer’s bank. the buyer will get the cooperation from the airport customs authorities. the airport will charge for demurrage. buyer has to produce the original AWB to take delivery of goods. only due to the urgency. if the bank’s name is not mentioned in the airway bill. it is not safe for the supplier. whether the buyer clears the documents from the bank or not. Besides. the airport authority will not release the goods to buyer without his bank’s confirmation or endorsement on airway bill. he will not clear the document from his bank and he will not make payment to the exporter. So there is no meaning in keeping the goods at the buyer’s airport. After taking delivery of goods from the airport. After 3 days. this document credit number and NOTIFY THE APPLICANT (buyer)’. even commas. the exporter should take much care to prepare the documents without even a small mistake.

we must 76 . Hence it is called At Sight L/C. even though the discrepancies are not true. the buyer’s bank will check and scrutinize whether all the documents are according to the L/C conditions. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the American bank. As soon as we receive the discrepancy letter. it will reach our bank through another bank according to the currency of this L/C. If the currency is Euro and if the buyer’s bank in not in European Union. Due to all the above procedures and formalities. If everything is OK. if the buyer instructs his bank to make the payment immediately on sight of the documents at his bank. our bank will get the payment usually in 15 days from the date of dispatching the documents from our bank. in order to hold the documents for some days. Different terms of L/C: Even in L/C terms. We have to note that this is the usual period. it will take more time for our bank to get the payment. At Sight L/C: As per this term. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the European bank (according to their counter banks) and the European bank will make the payment to our bank. the buyer’s bank will hand over the documents to the buyer and will make the payment to our bank.76 On receipt of these documents. the buyer’s bank will inform our bank that there are some discrepancies in our documents and due to this they are holding the documents and waiting for buyer’s confirmation. In other words. there are different systems like At Sight L/C. etc. We will get shock on seeing the discrepancy letter from the buyer’s bank. the buyer / buyer’s bank has to make the payment as soon as they receive the documents from our bank. In this case. 30 days L/C. 60 days L/C. After getting the buyer’s confirmation. Payment terms are to be discussed and to be confirmed between the seller and the buyer during confirming the export orders and before opening L/C. Even in this term. We must note that the documents will reach the buyer’s bank within 7 days from the date of shipment. Even though the buyer’s bank makes the payment to our bank. If the buyer wants to make the payment with a delay. they are making the payment at the sight of documents. the buyer’s bank will inform the buyer about their receipt of the documents. Some genuine buyers use to instruct their bank to release the payment as soon as their banks receive the documents and if they are acceptable as per the L/C conditions. Some buyers will not make the payment immediately on receipt – even though the L/C is At Sight. But the vessel will reach the buyer’s destination port around 20 to 30 days from the date of shipment. 120 days L/C. if the buyer wants to delay the payment for any reason. And the American bank will make the payment to our bank. If the currency is US Dollars and if the buyer’s bank is not in United States. As the buyers will need the documents only to clear the goods from the port. he can do it. 90 days L/C. some buyers will ask their banks to hold the documents till the vessel arrives in their port. It is the same procedure for other currencies also.

the buyer’s bank can not send discrepancy letter. the exporters always need to get the payment with some discounts or claims. some dishonest buyers will not make the payment immediately on sight. This clause is made to the safety and advantage of the exporters by International Chamber of Commerce. 60 days. 120 days L/Cs: The L/C conditions and procedures are the same as At Sight L/C.77 know from the buyer whether he is willing to pay and wants to hold the documents for a while or he does not want to pay our bills. They use to send the discrepancy letter first. If the seller is having good relationship and understanding with buyer. They even say that they don’t want the goods. it will be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 77 . Some reasonable and genuine buyers will clear the goods after making the payment. The exporter should ask him again and again by phone. Here we have to remember the rules of Reserve Bank of India regarding discount or claim. Some times. then we can assume that he is waiting for the arrival of the vessel to his port. These dishonest buyers know these things clearly and would make the exporters to accept discounts or claims. If the bank did not or failed to intimate any discrepancy to exporter’s bank within these 7 working days. If he only wants to hold the documents for a while. Even if the buyer does not want to make the payment. It is allowed a maximum of 10% of the bill amount. if the claim is to be settled before making the payment by the buyer. if the claim is to be settled after making the payment by the buyer. 30 days. After 7 working days. the bank has to release the payment to the exporter’s bank. Accordingly. All the L/Cs are subject to the terms and conditions of UCP 500 (Uniform Customs and Practices of Documentary Credits 1993 issued by International Chamber of Commerce). They ask the exporters to get their goods back. he should ask his bank to hold the documents by informing some discrepancies to the exporter’s bank. they will accept a reasonable discount or claim from the exporters. the buyer will accept to adjust this claim amount in the future orders. 90 days. the bank should honour the exporter’s bill what ever it may be. Here comes the important thing. The discrepancies should be intimated to the exporter’s bank within 7 working days from the date of receipt of documents. All the importers and exporters who are doing business on L/Cs are to follow the directions and rules made under UCP 500. they will ask for some discounts or claims. if the buyer wants to hold the documents for some time. fax or email to make the payment. But these buyers will say different stories with the intention of not making the payment or to get some discounts or claims from the exporters. This percentage is subject to be changed according to the amendment of Reserve Bank of India. As the exporters will face many problems with their bank if the payment for their bills is not received and as there are so much of procedures and formalities to import their goods back and as they will lose huge money and reputation. But when they notice some real defects or deviations or quality complaints in the goods. Here we have to see a very important thing. As these buyers are genuine. Only difference is. And it is allowed a maximum of 15% of the bill amount. in the ‘Drafts By’ clause. After that he will not make the payment.

Even though the seller is getting the payment with a delay. If the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of receipt of documents’. In some countries. good business performance and provision of securities with the bank. etc. 120 days. buyer can claim any discount before making the payment. It can also be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of Bill of Lading’. validity. But the overall maximum amount. the buyer will get the documents and will take delivery of goods. 90 days.78 days from the date of receipt of documents’. 2. the banks will ask the buyer 78 . Normally they will not open L/Cs. as soon as they receive from the seller’s bank. In these terms. If there is a steady business with buyer and seller and if they have agreed for the supply of goods continuously for a longer period. D/P (Delivery against Payment or Documents against Payment): Some buyers prefer this D/P terms because of some reasons. In some backward countries. only if he has financial strength. Then without paying the money to the bank. If the buyer does not agree to open At Sight L/C. As we have seen earlier. At Sight L/C is much safer to the seller. If there is any quality problem. By this kind of L/C. of this L/C is to be discussed and confirmed by buyer and seller according to their business. Revolving L/C: Generally the L/C’s are opened for only one shipment. It the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of B/L’. This kind of L/Cs will be automatically re-extended after its first use. In the same way. the other L/Cs for 60 days. These are all normal L/Cs. Let us see what they are. the buyer will take delivery of goods before making the payment. are treated and followed. etc. As we have seen. In this case. as the buyer’s bank takes responsibility for the payment. he will have time to check the quality of the goods. 1. The terms of L/C will be the same for ever. the seller can give preference for these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs next to At Sight L/C. Then the bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of receipt of documents. Hence after taking delivery. there is no need for buyer to open several fresh L/Cs many times. the buyer can get the L/C opened. the buyer’s bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of B/L. at least to get the payment without any claim. they will work on this Revolving L/Cs. he will not have the facility to open L/C. number of renewals. a lot of tough procedures imposed in their banks. few partial shipments are allowed. the buyer’s bank will release the documents to the buyer. There is another type of L/C which is called Revolving L/C. Also one L/C can be opened for different goods to be shipped in different shipment dates. If he does not have them. Hence seller has to be double-careful about the quality and other things. the seller can prefer these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs.

the buyer has to open L/C from other countries through some financial agencies. fax and email. On the other hand. So he has to double-check about the buyer’s genuineness. 4. After 2 or 3 weeks. Seller can not expect any favour or rights for the payment. If the buyer opens L/C. He will drag the days purposely to put the seller in trouble. At the same time. the seller does not have any hold. Totally it is fully seller’s risk to make the business without problem. he has to pay the bank charges for opening L/C and proceedings. the buyer would not answer his call. then he has his commitment on that particular business and also the seller gets confidence of that particular business and getting payment. Due to any of these above reasons. these buyers will not open L/C. After the shipment of goods and after the dispatch of documents from his bank to buyer’s bank. On receipt of the documents in their bank. But in D/P terms. then seller will face some problems in getting payment. seller will send all the required documents including B/L to buyer’s bank through his bank. the seller will continuously communicate by phone. If the buyer is not genuine. Then the seller’s problem started. Though the buyer gets L/C opened from his bank. the seller has to proceed with his production. he will say that he can not sell the goods or he is not interested in the goods or his customer refuses the goods or the poor quality of shipment samples or he will blame off season or sudden crisis in local market. buyer will save his money on banking charges and other things. If the buyer is dishonest and if he wants to play with the seller. After the shipment. 79 . By these terms. there is no need for the buyer to open L/C. He would affect the seller psychologically. etc. he will use any of the following dialogues to the seller. he will not show any interest in the goods. In these terms. Seller has to depend on the buyer completely for accepting the goods and making the payment. the buyer has no commitment to the seller or the bank. buyer will make the payment for the bills and will get the documents from his bank. Without getting 100% confirmation. the seller has to be double-careful in making the goods in the required quality and shipping the goods in time without any delay. He would avoid the seller completely. He will have to wait for the buyer’s action. Even if the seller calls buyer’s office. As no buyer will be ready to keep their huge money (300% of L/C amount) blocked in the bank for 4 to 5 months. In these days. As nothing can be done. the buyer will not communicate with the seller. seller will not have any problem of getting payment.79 to deposit at least 300% of the L/C value to the bank to get the L/C opened. In this case. the seller does not get confidence on business and payment. 3. honesty and reputation before accepting these terms. with the buyer to persuade him to clear the goods. If the buyer is genuine. some buyers will prefer to do business on D/P terms. But as this buyer is not genuine. But the other procedures are the same as L/C. Buyers will place the orders to the sellers. The buyer has to pay a good amount to these agencies as their commission and service charges.

75days. 120days. his bank will release the documents to him without asking for his payment. I can not let you down because you are my friend. Even after this 80 . the buyer’s bank will release (the seller’s) documents to the buyer on getting the payment from him. I know this is not fair. Some tips: To avoid this. 2. (This is only a drama. I understand your problems and I will help you to solve this problem. Then he would inform the buyer his willingness for discount or claim. This is almost like D/P terms. I tried with our customers. I don’t like to put you into big loss. If you agree for this. D/A terms: These terms are called Documents against Acceptance or Delivery against Acceptance. I will send your documents back to you. Or he would agree for D/A terms. If you want. I have tried my best to sell the consignment to the original customer and the other customers too. the seller will get ready to get the payment with a discount or claim. 90days. I can do this help for you. Thus the seller will get frustrated and disappointed by the buyer. But he is ready to accept the goods at 50% price. So pls send me another set of shipment samples quickly. Pls think it over and let me know. Some times he may lose his business too. Thus both the buyer and the seller will be happy. In order to help you. I will try to sell this consignment to some other customer. Due to his commitments on this payment. He strictly says that he doesn’t need the goods. I can try to sell the goods by myself. And pls change the documents as ‘90 days D/A’ (we are going to discuss about this D/A as the next subject) and send them back to me immediately. He will not do anything with the samples). But I have convinced my customer somehow. So I advise you to pls arrange to get back your goods. the buyer’s bank will remind the buyer for the payment only after 60 days from the date of receipt of documents. So in this term.80 1. But in D/A terms. I will send your documents back. I am sorry. the buyer can cover his expenses of L/C opening charges. if the seller agrees to pay 2 to 3% of FOB value as L/C commission. other banking charges and bank interest. Take care that these samples should not have any mistakes. etc. But it will take at least 2 to 3 months. In the D/P terms. That is giving some commission to the buyer for opening At Sight L/C. 45days. No body is interested to take the goods. Believe me. 3. I can not convince my customer as he is not ready to take the goods. With this commission. 60days. They will have different payment periods like 30days. friend. the seller will have more risks of payment. Hence I said to him that this is not possible. If the terms are mentioned as ‘60 days D/A’. seller can discuss with buyer with another payment option. Some buyers will agree to open At Sight L/C.

Purchase. etc. we must know about the capacity. Merchandising. Thus we can understand that the marketing covers almost all the important things. Customer Study. pollution. 81 . Communication. Market Study. Pollution. of our company. machineries. We will see these departments and activities in the coming chapters elaborately. weaknesses. safety & environment of factory. either buyer’s bank or the seller can not do anything. He can delay the payment further by convincing his bank by informing some reasons like poor quality of goods. Though there are various assistants in various divisions / departments to assist or to help the Marketing Managers. Besides we must have knowledge about our working conditions. etc. Sampling and Quality. Documentation. Work Study.81 period. Attendance. So this term can be used only based on the good understanding between the buyers and the sellers. CEO (Chief Executive Officer) himself will take care of Marketing. Also the buyers have formed Code of Ethics which is about corruption. Then only he can do the marketing in a successful way. the overseas buyers have created their own Code of Conduct which is mainly about Child Labour. if the buyer does not want to make the payment. Also we must know about our customers. Hence the person who is doing marketing must have thorough knowledge in these things. Hours of working. strengths. Instead of giving details about them.. etc. salary and wages. preference. Also the marketing department controls Production. benefits to workers. The person who is in charge for this valuable Marketing Department is called Marketing Manager or Chief Marketing Executive. I prefer to explain in a ‘how to do’ basis. MARKETING For every product. Maternity leave for women workers. Code of Conduct: Nowadays. Shipping and Payment. Working conditions of workers. Product Study. SELF STUDY: Before making any decision on marketing. staff and workers. commitment to customers. Costing & Pricing. Some times. Safety measures. There will be assistants for him like Deputy / Junior Marketing Managers or Marketing Executives. Benefits to workers. Marketing is very most important. labour laws. overheads. bribe. Marketing Managers should have thorough update knowledge in Self Study. financial strength. terms of payment. It is also called as Sales. it is very essential for the Marketing Manager to have his own technical knowledge and experience about all the important things of knitted garments manufacturing and exporting. market situation and general policy of our company. etc.

the buyers use to declare their commitment in their country market that their company is working with the factories which are following below procedures. Most of the big buyers believe their responsibility towards all the thousands of people taking part in the production of their garments. or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical. .Exits should not be blocked by cartons. . or suffers mental or bodily harm. . indecent behaviour.The factory should have clearly marked exits and preferably emergency exits on all floors.82 indirect approach. These procedures are called Code of Conduct. Hence the employees in the age group 15 – 18 years are to be treated accordingly.First aid equipment must be available in each factory. and thus be available to all staff at all times. . Accordingly they want to make sure that nobody whose work is contributing to their business is deprived of their human rights. moral or social development.Workers’ safety should be a priority at all times. Because of the competition in their sales. mental. we must have sufficient knowledge in these things. etc. fabric rolls or debris and should be well lighted.All exit doors should open outwards.If emergency exits are locked. And these buyers expect their suppliers should follow these things strictly. Limits for working hours and overtime for this age group should be set with special consideration to the workers’ low age. fire extinguishers.No hazardous equipment or unsafe buildings are accepted. Safety Building and Fire Safety . first aid equipment. Also we must be sure of ourselves that these things are followed in our company. the fire alarm should be tested regularly and evacuation drills to be made regularly. a person is a child until the age of 18. We must be aware the buyers strategy. The rights of every child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education. Child Labour A person younger than 15 years of age is called Child. . etc. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. spiritual. the keys should be placed behind breakable glass next to the doors. and at least one person in each department should have training in basic first aid. 82 .An evacuation plan should be displayed in the factory. First Aid . . . As we are the persons who are interacting with the buyers. such as emergency exits.All workers should be aware of the safety arrangements in the factory.

. Fans should be provided when needed.No worker should be discriminated against because of race.The temperature in the factory should be tolerable as a working environment. and the ventilation should be adequate.The employer should pay any costs (not covered by the social security) which a worker may incur for medical care.In developing countries. they should never be required to remain employed for any period of time against their own will. .All workers with the same experience and qualifications should receive equal pay for equal work.Sanitary facilities should be clean. she must be allowed 2 hours daily (one hour in the morning and one hour in the evening) for milk feeding to the child up to one year of child’s age. that the factory environment is clean and free from pollution of different kinds. on time and be fair in respect of work performance.Under no circumstances the factories use corporal punishment or other forms of mental or physical disciplinary actions.A doctor or nurse should be available at short notice.It is important for the workers' well-being.All workers should be entitled to his or her basic rights. . .The legal minimum wages should be a minimum. . or engage in sexual harassment. Wages and Working Hours . at all times of day.The lighting in each workplace should be sufficient for the work performed. level. . gender. .All workers should be entitled to an employment contract. . prisoners or illegal workers should not be engaged in the factories. but not a recommended. Also after returning back to work. . .All workers should be free to join associations of their own choosing. . The number of facilities should be adequate for the number of 83 . in case of an accident in the factory. it is recommended the factories to provide the workers with at least one free meal daily. .The workers should be granted their stipulated annual leave and sick leave without any form of a remote or indirect consequence of some action. .Weekly working time must not exceed the legal limit. . .Wages should be paid regularly.Bonded workers. and the workers should have access without unreasonable restrictions. Maternity leave is to be given for 84 working days from the date of delivery. Factory Conditions . .If foreign workers are employed on contract basis. and overtime work should always be voluntary and properly compensated. and for the quality of the garments. religion or ethnic background. Workers’ Rights Basic Rights . following an injury during work in the factory. Working hours per day should be only 8 hours.Female workers should be given their stipulated maternity leave in case of pregnancy. All commissions and other fees to the recruitment agency in connection with their employment should be covered by the employer.Dismissal of pregnant female workers is not acceptable. .83 . Factories should not take any disciplinary actions against workers who choose to peacefully and lawfully organise or join an association. and they should have the right to bargain collectively.

Due to this. quality. fire extinguishers.The environment is of increasing concern globally and the factories should act responsibly in this respect. Sanitary facilities should be available on each floor. Also the company policies must be known to every worker. Nowadays. and the living space per worker must meet the minimum legal requirement. fast pace of working and constant improvement. they will publish in the newspapers and will telecast in televisions in their countries. the requirements regarding safety and factory conditions above regulations should be covered for the housing area too. . Also these buyers are openly declaring their suppliers’ full address. If they found that the factory is not following even any one of the regulations. . So it is our duty to study our organisation well. the big buyers are voluntarily declaring to their countries that they are not working with the factories which are not following the above regulations.Fire alarms. and preferably separated for men and women. With these details. the buyers give more preference for the Code of Conduct than for pricing. some times. some Social Organisations or Media Persons. etc. And the buyer’s sales and business would be affected tremendously. low wages. We must thoroughly know about our company’s internal and external policies. child labour. . unobstructed emergency exits and evacuation drills in dormitory areas to be followed importantly. So the buyers don’t like to take any risk. they will protest against the buyer’s way of business. contact numbers and also the factory address & contact numbers. Factories must comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations in the country.If a factory provides housing facilities for its staff. As the publics of developed countries have very good social awareness. There should be ‘open door’ policy. Environment . cruelty of labour. That is why they are very strict in selecting the factories to work with. granting all employees the right and possibility to discuss any work related issue directly with the management.84 workers in the factory. unsafe factories. The developed countries are very strict in workers’ policies. Housing Conditions . will visit and inspect the factories without any prior intimation.Factories should not use prohibited chemical substances or hazardous chemicals in the production.There should be no restriction on the workers' right to leave the dormitory during off hours. teamwork. contact person’s name. This will help us always to take the right 84 . . Also they are against to the bonded labour system. .All workers must be provided with their own individual bed. capacity. from the buyers’ countries. Basic values include believing in people.Separate dormitories. Policies & approaches: A successful organisation must believe in working with a set of values rather than manuals. toilets and showers should be provided for men and women. Then it would be very difficult for the buyer to retain his reputation. etc.

if the head considers that the subordinates are helping him. The Head may be the Chairman. CEO. Factory Manager. There should be a cordial relation among all the department staff. Department Head. grudges and grievances very well. the Marketing Manager should be the person who can be reached easily by all the persons from all the departments at any time. according to our policies. Administration Manager. securities. juniors. All the Heads should remember one thing always. He should be the person who can be reached easily by each and every employee or worker at any time on any occasion. If the Marketing Manager keeps distance and forms unnecessary formalities and restrictions in meeting him. telephone operators. By doing like this. Supervisors. So whenever needed. Then only he will be able to understand the employees and their rights. The Head should realise the fact that he is responsible for all the activities in his Organisation / Department / Division / Factory / Section / Wing / etc. has done a mistake. the Head is having his employees. he can not do anything by himself alone. expectations. assistants. Likewise. Production Manager. In simple words. So everyone will discuss with him freely. the head may get personal satisfaction. then he will not feel proud of himself or superior feeling. He must develop this kind of relation with the employees and workers. when one subordinate did some mistakes in his duties. workers. whenever needed. Managing Director. When a person. office boys. He will not get any improvement by giving abuses or by giving punishments or by demoting or transferring to other jobs. So he will know about all the activities going on in all the departments. subordinates. On the other hand. Also the replaced new person will make some other mistakes as this job will be new for him. So he will have real close relation with colleagues.85 decisions in right time. Marketing Manager. who is helping us. Then only he can take appropriate. but should think that they are HELPING him. he can 85 . or even Security Head. he would see how to correct the mistakes and how to teach the subordinates to avoid the mistakes in future. He will have a pleasing personality. That too. Let us see the definition of a Human Resources Manager or Personnel Manager. we will not get angry with him. because the subordinates are helping the Head. The Head should realise that it is not possible for him to do all kind of works / jobs by himself. That is the reason. Section Head. openly without hiding or exaggerating things. he should not get angry with him. then he will not get the clear picture of other departments’ activities. and even drivers to help him by sharing his jobs. smooth and necessary action balancing the management and the workers. The punished person would be psychologically affected and he would do more mistakes in his new job. In the same way. So he will have clear idea of what is going on in his company or organisation. subordinates and other departments. But it will give room for adversity among the colleagues. it is very essential for us. When a Head realise this fact. the Head should not think that the subordinates are working for him. The Head should always remember the fact that without getting all these persons help. honestly. when we are doing marketing. He will have easy approach.

colours. It is the indirect indication of lack of self confidence. immediately on seeing a garment. He must know about raw materials and other materials. measurements. Some Heads won’t let his subordinates to grow. It will be very dangerous for his self improvement. dedication and quest for knowledge & information. changes are inevitable. PRODUCT STUDY: For every marketing person. it is a must to know about the product what he is going to sell or market. and they should be their Chief for ever. etc. he can not sell even a small pen. appearance. decorative works. Without knowing or without expressing his knowing. concentration. Simply saying. etc of the garment should come in to his mind. we can expect rapid changes for every season. new styles. they would learn further and would get promoted to further higher position. It is the same for garment also. etc. involvement. They wish their subordinates to be their subordinates for ever. advantages and disadvantages. The product may be a small pen or a ship or a garment. We must develop our knowledge to judge a garment immediately.86 take right decision in right time which will help for the improvement of his company or organisation. The more thoroughness will bring him the more success. It may be difficult. It is very narrow thinking and we should not follow this or encourage this behaviour. So it is very essential for a person who is in marketing to have thorough knowledge about the garments. etc. Especially in garments trade. He must be able to analyse whether that particular garment can be produced by his company. then he will not show any interest in learning further. Also he can learn many things and he can update his knowledge in all the areas. Generally we produce garments according to the styles and 86 . speciality of garments. MARKET STUDY: In the modern world. quality & blends of new fabrics. complete pictures of pricing. We have to learn continuously. methods of production. yarn composition. possibilities and impossibilities. To keep their positions. finding and solving problems in production. but it is not an impossible thing. So it is within us to grow ourselves and improve the company higher and higher and higher. If they have self confidence. prints. We can see changes everywhere at every time. quality. If a man feels that he knows everything. they will play tricks cunningly to get a good name from their superiors. Also they will spoil the lives of their subordinates and also the improvement of their companies or organisations. production. This is called Product Judgement. There is no end for learning. He must be able to judge a garment on seeing and verifying quickly and clearly. utility. fabric quality. For that we must have self interest. new patterns. We must be aware of the changes in style & fit. We must develop our update knowledge in new designs.

Even after the deep study. Summer season starts from April to May varies from country to country. before April / May 2005. world economy. fabric quality to be decided by buyer at least in May / June 2004. Usually the stores would advertise through media about the style of garments. colour forecast. They announce even the date of display of garments in their stores. They publish the photos and specifications of garments in local magazines and newspapers. before confirming the styles. let us take the summer garments. etc. fabrics. We must show interest to enhance our knowledge on forecasts of designs. Goods must be shipped from our port by Jan / Feb 2005 As we usually need 3 months time for production. analysis and experiment of all these things. In other words. due to sudden changes in styles or colours or fabrics.87 specifications given by buyers. the ordered garments may not get expected sales. Also we must develop our knowledge in latest machineries. local market. Salesmen samples and counter samples to be approved in August / Sep 2004. national market. buyer has to take full clear decision about the garments at least one year in advance before his sales takes place. colours. international market. L/C to be received in Sep / Oct 2004. It is not an easy thing. Buyer has to work on pricing. etc. fashion forecast. the consumers would be 87 . foreign exchange. it is essential for us to study about the buyers’ business too. it takes around one full year for the buyer to work for every order. Goods should reach buyers ports in Feb / March 2005. etc. financial changes. We must know about the way of working of buyers and importers. styles. We have to remember that people in the developed countries have more awareness and more time sense than the people in developing countries. the buyer’s or importer’s business may be affected. Garments should be displayed in their stores before the season starts. Style & fit. We must be aware of their way of working and their problems too. due to our delayed shipment or any other reasons. design forecast. If the stores could not display the garments on this date as they announced. new products. colours. This will help us not only to discuss with the buyers. Due to this. measurements. Enquiries to be received from buyer in July / August 2004. new working systems. CUSTOMER STUDY: As our business closely connected with the buyers. For example. etc. So it is the stores’ responsibility to display the garments in their stores on or before this announced date. The customers who are interested in these garments would be in the stores expecting to buy the advertised garments. So. Thus. colours. new regulations. but also to be prepared for sourcing for the future. updating banking regulations. That is. new methods.

Only because of this reason. Some times. some stores will announce a discount for their customers towards their unfulfilled promise and as a matter of making their customers happy. Also their sales and reliability among their customers would be affected. of satisfying our family members. At the same time. Why and how? It is simple. Every one of us should have the intention to produce the garments in such a way that they would be sold immediately in the stores without any problem. As a result. If the stores receive complaints from their end customers about the shrinkage. This may be called as kindness or love or affection. On the other hand. Normally the compensation will be much higher than the price of defected garments.88 disappointed and some customers might sue against the stores in the consumer courts. if the stores have ordered the goods through an importer. We should remember that the success of our business is based on the success of buyers’ business. it is prepared with the sincere intention of satisfying the family members. Then the stores would buy same style with increased quantity. Hence if we ship the poor or defected quality garments to buyers. is the main factor which gives more taste to food. and the importer will rethink of working with the exporter who could not make the prompt shipment. The cook must have made the food by thinking of the 88 . everyone in our factory and office should think that the success of our company is in our every hands. if reasonable. unsuitable measurements.. fit. Hence we should not think that our responsibility ends with the shipment and with the receipt of payment. But above all. When the food is made at home. etc. the home made food tastes more than outside food. Thus they will consider us as their reliable supplier. Every one of us should think about the satisfaction of the end users of our products. the store sales would also be good. Also as they are happy with our performance. we may feel the food in some restaurants is good. The stores will have to pay more compensation to the customers. the Intention. they will rethink of working with the exporter who has made the delayed shipment. if the stores have imported the goods by themselves. So while executing the buyers’ orders. they will place more orders with more styles with more quantities. Which food will taste more? If you ask anybody. Sometimes. Hence the buyer or importer would be happy to place us the repeat orders. it is being prepared by keeping the health of the family members in mind. Also the sales of stores will be affected by poor quality of garments. the stores will rethink of working with that importer. Or else. if the goods are really good in all aspects. you will get the same answer like ‘my home food’. The reason for this also is the same – The Intention. we will lose our reputation and business with those buyers. poor colour fastness. the stores have to replace the garments or to pay compensation. We are having our food at our home and out of home too. They will not mind increasing prices too.

89 satisfaction of their unknown customers. If the food in a restaurant satisfies their customers, it will pull more customers. By the same way, when we produce the garments, we have to produce them by keeping the satisfaction of our end customers in our mind. Every one of us, who are all directly and indirectly involved in various stages of production, should understand this wonderful philosophy and should follow this sincerely whole heartedly, to reach the success and constant improvement. In this competitive world, every businessman is keen on keeping his customers with him. Nobody will be happy by losing their customers. It is very easier to lose a customer. But it is very difficult to get a good customer. Some times, it may take years together to get a good customer. We will have to spend more time, money, efforts, etc. It is evidently important not to lose the buyers. No buyer will give us ‘the second chance’. If the buyer is disappointed with our goods, then it will be very difficult to convince the buyer to get a second chance. Most of the times, it will become impossible. Hence it is in our hands to satisfy our buyers. It is possible, if every one in a company feels and works in the same way. It is not enough to speak the importance of quality, but to implement them in a suitable way is very important. WORK STUDY: Work Study is part of management systems which means techniques designed to help management to make the best use of all available resources. Work Study Officers are concerned with detailed study and improvement of how work is done and the provision of data to help management in its planning, staffing and control functions. There are two main aspects of Work Study. They are Method Study and Work Measurement. Method Study: The analysis of why and how work is carried out, whether on the work place or in the office, with the aim of devising and installing improvements, in terms of productivity and work satisfaction. Work Measurement: It is using specific techniques to measure the time necessary to complete any particular job. It is usually carried out by direct observation of the work and frequently involves stop-watch measurements. Work measurement plays an important part in setting rates of pay where the content and value of the job has to be assessed. Work Study may also involve designing or introducing labour and time-saving devices, and having ideas for such devices. Staff doing this may work closely with systems analysts in the development of computer projects. The person who is doing Work Study should have following personal qualities. - Tactful and able to accept criticism - Self confident - Numeracy skills 89

90 Ability to analyst problems Able to communicate clearly in speech and in writing.

Though this work study department doing its job, it is important for the person who is doing marketing should know about the activities and importance of this department. (We will see Work Study more in detail in the chapter Production). COSTING & PRICING: We had seen the costing elaborately in the previous chapters. Now we could understand how many things are involved in making costing and how important to have thorough knowledge in them. At the same time, we must be aware that we can not give the same price for all the buyers. It may be same style with same specifications. Also when we receive the enquiries, we don’t get full information. It will not be fair to ask the buyer about some details. So we will have to assume or to judge some details with our experience and based on the buyer’s quality. Our judgement can not be the same for every buyer. So when we quote price, we have to make the costing based on following things. Quantity (huge, medium or small) Colours (many or limited) Packing (normal or special) Quality requirements (high, medium or low). Tolerance level (strict or liberal). Lab test results (expensive, normal or nothing). Price level (high, medium or low). Pricing (reasonable, liberal, tight, competitive or squeezing). Buyer (importer or distributor or own stores). Reliability (good or doubtful). Payment (prompt, delay or doubtful). Payment terms (L/C, D/P or D/A). Delivery terms (FOB, C&F or CIF).

We must remember that when we quote prices to buyer, it is our commitment to buyer. If the buyer accepts our prices, then we must be in a position to execute that orders. After getting buyer’s confirmation, we should not refuse the orders. This is not only against to business ethics; but also will become the question of our reliability, immaturity, poor knowledge, etc. So when we make costing and quoting prices, we must be sure of everything. COMMUNICATION: Communication is the mean of expressing ourselves, our thinking, sharing opinions, comments, acceptance, disagreement, questions, answers, explanations, etc. Our way of communication is so important because it creates an image about our company or organisation. Even without meeting the buyers in person, we can do business without any problem, if our communication is good and impressive. No false information or exaggerated information to be communicated, expecting to impress the buyer. 90

91 At the same time, our way of communication should be in a friendly way. It should not disturb or irritate the buyers. Even if the buyer has made some mistakes or even if we have rights to argue, our communication should be very polite. When we communicate by email or fax, our message should be very brief, precise, clear and sharp, mainly prompt. It should be easily understandable when it is read for the first time. The buyer will get irritated and annoyed if he has to read it for second time to understand what we are coming to say. When we speak to buyer over phone, our discussion should be clear and sharp. Our call should not disturb him. It is advisable to make a note of the subjects and to be prepared for the questions, answers and explanations, before making a call. When we talk to him over phone, our speech will be so natural, if we bring his face and his mannerisms to our mind imaginarily. For every business, the first meeting with our buyer is very important. The meeting may be at our place or buyer’s place. Any first meeting will take hardly 20 minutes only. But these 20 minutes of meeting is very important to do any volume business. So it is with us how we are making this meeting – whether a successful one or not. We will have to explain about us, our company, our management, our infrastructures, our special features, our products, our production & quality systems, our pricing, our reliability, etc, and we will have to win the buyer’s heart within these 20 minutes. First impression is the best impression. Here the buyer should have the satisfied impression about working with us. There is no other choice. If we fail to impress him, we can not do business with him. Then we will have to try very hard to get him satisfied. So it is our responsibility to make the meeting as a success. When we speak to the buyers, it is advised to speak by looking directly at his face. It will give a good image to buyers. Some times, it will be difficult for us to understand the buyers’ speech because of their different pronunciation. If we listen to their speech by directly watching their lips and their face movements, we can understand their speech more clearly. Our language and way of expression should be very natural and casual. Dramatic language or amateur look should be avoided. Buyers don’t expect any formalities. They know that they are on business. Likewise, we should give more importance to business than giving preference to the formalities. During the meeting, it is always appreciable to speak only the truths. It is always better to be as we are. If we lie to anything, in order to give a good impression, these lies themselves may create a wrong impression about us. It may give a chance for buyer to doubt about our reliability. Nobody in the world can blame anybody for not having any particular thing or for not knowing any particular thing. So we don’t have to be ashamed of not having everything or not knowing everything. But we would have to be ashamed if the buyer comes to know that we had lied to him by giving false information. So it is very important that the 91

develop and strengthen the relationship with buyers. GR form (Exchange control). Sea shipment or air shipment may get affected due to delay in submitting the documents in the customs. It is advised to take better care to avoid spelling mistakes and grammar mistakes. Certificate of Origin. Our purpose is to make clear message. Honest people like simplicity. We must be honest to ourselves and others. we had seen the importance of L/C. etc are the shipping documents. Lab test reports and other required documents as per L/C conditions. After shipping the documents. Export Certificate. so that they will understand clearly without any confusion. may be poor in English. If there is any L/C amendment.92 information which we give to the buyer should be very much true. Most of the European buyers or their colleagues may not be well versed in English. GSP Form A. But as this job deals with the valuable documents. There are mainly two types of documents. If there are some small mistakes. etc. then appreciate. various payment terms. some buyers may make use of our mistakes in documents. So it should be handled at most care. 92 . Inspection certificate. But when we have a friendly. the revised conditions to be checked while preparing the documents. For any terms. risk factors. Only our communication can establish. AEPC endorsed invoice. Hence it is always better to use simple words in our correspondences. Earlier when we discussed about payment terms. they should be prepared with more care and without any mistake. we must discuss with the buyer honestly. They are shipping documents and bank documents. some documents are to be submitted to the bank. Visa. They are Invoice. Bill of Lading or Airway bill. packing list. these bank documents are to be submitted to our bank. Packing list. They may delay the payment pointing out these mistakes. Tough guys dress easy. Without these documents the shipping can not be done. there will not be any problem of payment. cordial and mutual understanding business relationship with the buyers. They must be very good in business. not to show our strength in language. The buyer will understand. So the documents should reach the port customs well in advance to enable the planned stuffing. DOCUMENTATION: It may be a clerical job. This much friendly relationship should be maintained with the buyer. The payment terms can be L/C or D/P or D/A. then try to find a solution and then will help us. documentation. Some documents are needed when shipping the goods. Hence it is always advised to prepare the documents with thoroughness. this is also an important department. As we are aware that the documents should be strictly as per L/C conditions. Also when we come across any unexpected problem or mistake – which is not purposely or knowingly done – in our production or in our official details. These documents are called bank documents.

Also it is advised that documentation department should get the confirmation from the marketing department for the shipping and bank documents before the submission. etc. ETA buyer’s port (Expected Time of Arrival). Marketing department has confirmed the prices of export orders. shipping. These changes must be intimated to the documentation department as soon as they are agreed. etc. By this way.93 Some times. we will be safe too. it is very important for us to confirm the suitable vessel or flight to reach the buyers’ port in stipulated time. Hence the documentation department should be informed about the changes then and there. it is responsible for the price. But in small and medium companies. It is better to discuss with the marketing department for clear understanding to avoid problems. He will also check these details with his clearing agents. name of the line or airline. everything to be informed to the buyer to get his confirmation. connection details. he may suggest any other option. So the raw materials. has been agreed between our marketing department and the buyer. this kind of systems can not be expected. 93 . In big companies. So there will not be any problem of getting payment. it is very essential to do the purchase strictly as per the costing. So it is always better to get the shipping confirmation from the buyer before booking the vessel or flight. SHIPPING: We had seen the importance of displaying the goods in buyers’ stores in time. Before confirming or booking the vessel or flight. accessories. there may be some changes in prices.. before stuffing the goods in to container. shipment date. etc. If the documentation department does not aware of these changes. CMT. finishing. PURCHASE: Purchase department is a very valuable department which is always connected with accounts department. other job works. Also the charges of processing. So. then the buyer can not comment anything on delayed arrival or something else. To make the expected quality production and to execute the orders with the expected profit. are to be purchased according to the costing and pricing. quality and delivery of the purchased items. quantities. whether the company is big or medium or small. To make this possible. Any decision can be taken. complete details of ETD our port (Expected Time of Departure). And this distribution system will be perfect. they will produce the documents as per the old information. This department involves not only with money. each department will take care of each job. are to be confirmed and executed according to the costing and pricing. As we ship the goods according to his confirmation. If this vessel or flight details are not suitable for him. trims. then he will confirm. So the marketing department is closely related to purchase department.

Internal & external communication. At the same time. So it is a very valuable department. By the same way. then there will not be any problem of getting payment. it is very important to develop a healthy. Internal & external communication Earlier. We have to remember that above all the terms of conditions of payment.94 PAYMENT: It is the final and important stage of Marketing. As we discussed earlier. Preparing internal order sheets. Taking responsibility for inspections and Following shipment. friendly. the goods must be made as per the specifications with required quality standards. shipping and payment. production. Following are the main responsibilities of merchandisers. When we have this kind of understanding relation. they have very high value. communication. Advising and assisting production. MERCHANDISING Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. 94 . Mediating production and quality departments. Sampling. All these things are to be followed perfectly to get the prompt payment. internal communication is also very much valuable. Also the documents must be prepared perfectly without any mistake or deviation and to be submitted to bank in time. Some times. it is very essential for the marketing person to know the day to day status and the current position of these departments. The goods must be shipped in stipulated time so that the buyer gets them on time. Helping documentation department. In any case. we had seen the importance of communication with buyers. we can get these problems solved amicably. Lab dips. merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also. Other departments don’t know the buyer’s instructions. though there are individual departments to take care of purchase. Accessories & trims. the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. they know only the merchandising department’s instructions. documentation. So it is the sole responsibility of merchandising department to instruct other departments the specifications and instructions of buyer’s orders clearly. Advising quality department about quality level. As the other departments will follow the instructions given by the merchandising department. Also if we come across any unexpected problem in unexpected circumstances. Giving shipping instructions and following shipping. Preparing purchase orders. and smooth relation with buyers.

Production samples .Shipment samples Let us see about these samples. Sampling There may be a separate sampling department in a company. they will bring orders to us. mistake or deviation of instruction may create big problems. Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. They are . Sometimes. then also we will have to send these samples. Some times. this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department. we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often. merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably. even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries. they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from. Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship.95 Even a small omission. But as the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements.Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples . If they want to develop new style in new fabric. they may not be correctable. So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices. Hence all the instructions to be double checked before being informed to other departments.Pre-production samples . For one enquiry. then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each 95 . We may have to spend too much on these samples. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office. Whenever they have enquiries. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business. product range.Salesmen samples or promotional samples . We have to send many samples to buyers. Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers’ price ranges and quality levels. Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric. These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers.Photo samples .Proto samples or fit samples . quality standards and price level. Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously.Fashion show samples . Prevention is better than cure. buyer may need samples.Wash test samples .

by showing these samples. style and fit. So they can be made in available similar fabrics. Based on these samples. buyer may comment on fabric. improper measurements. If the order is for 3 colours. So these samples are very important. buyers may do some changes in measurements. unsuitable colours. 96 . Some times. we can not blame the buyer. etc of salesmen samples.96 style. etc. After getting the approval. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price. unmatched prints or embroidery. We might have spent more money. Expected sales may not be possible. buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. 3 styles or 1 style. making. dimension stability and spirality of garments after washing. Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. But as we don’t get orders. colour fastness. due to poor quality. for the styles which we don’t get orders. To avoid this embarrassing situation. etc for making these samples. Wash test samples Some buyers need these samples to test the shrinkage. time. Any way. All the buyers don’t need these samples. These samples are needed to check the measurements. Of course these samples will help us for our business. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. We have to follow his comments carefully in production. we may get orders for all 5 styles. Some genuine buyers will agree for this. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers. measurements. some times. Some times. but in the actual measurements and specifications. style and fit. it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production. we may not get order for even a single style. we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders. If we have sent samples for 5 styles. the approved samples should be followed in production. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. He too can not help us in this regard. measurements. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost. Chain stores buyers will not ask for salesmen or promotional samples. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims.

the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. In this case. colours. they will place orders repeatedly. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. Usually they need 2 or 3 samples in each size in each colour. the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. In any case. Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements. Sometimes. Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. These buyers need these samples for taking photographs.97 If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples. Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. etc. If these samples are rejected due to some complaints. We have to get only ‘OK’ from the buyer. If they don’t get samples on time. These samples can be sent from production. these samples may be considered as ‘shipment samples’. they may do wash test also. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer’s confirmation for shipment. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer’s promotional occasions. for some styles. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. They will accumulate the sales quantities. But we can get higher prices for these orders). hang tag. The buyers will pay the cost of these samples. by spending huge money to the advertising agencies. They will need these samples in all colours covering all sizes. Fashion show samples Some chain stores buyers will need these samples. we may get many repeat orders continuously years together. We should not get any remark or comment. we can correct them in production. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time. Photo samples Some buyers use to sell their garments by creating a catalogue furnishing all details like style. then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble. But each order will get small quantity only. packing box. (These buyers are called Catalogue buyers. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays. 97 . They will represent that the production will be like these samples. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. sizes and important measurements of garments including photos. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. Some times. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session.

Lab dips It is the merchandiser’s responsibility to get the Lab dips from the processing mill and to get approval from buyer. So the lab dips are to be made according to the buyer’s matching system. Our reliability will get questioned here). . it will differ in sun light. They should be sent in actual packing with all labels. he should arrange for the revised lab dips from the processing mill immediately. They should be attached to the shade card in an attractive presentation. it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples). he will think that he had been cheated purposely by the merchandiser. courier expenditure will be wasted unnecessarily. There are different matching systems followed in Labs.Sun light matching. Before sending the lab dips to buyer. If we send the same to buyer and if buyer finds out this. just a tip). tags. By this way. hence there might be some mistakes. Each of these above matching will give different results. If we expect any comments in these samples. For example.Sodium light matching (show room). we may think they are closer. we will have to urge the production which may lead to quality problem. They are . To adjust this wasted time. Our presentation of lab dips will help to get quick approvals. So if he is not satisfied with the lab dips. This is not cheating. This will give a pleasant mood to buyer when he verifies the shades. merchandiser should be aware of the buyer’s matching system. etc. the merchandiser should verify whether they are closer to the required shade. If he sends them with a doubt and if they are not approved. And he should send them to buyer only if he is confident that they will get approved. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. at least 1 week time will be wasted.98 Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment.Tube light matching. Hence before proceeding lab dips. he will have to make them again. . When sending the lab dips to buyer. Also he must be sure of making the lab dips in the actual production fabrics. if a lab dip matches to the original in tube light. he has to take some extra care. (Here we should understand the psychological effect in this regard. we may think they are not suitable. we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment.Ultra Violet matching. Different buyers follow different matching. The lab dip fabric bits are to be ironed and cut into a clean shape. And even if we get some comments from buyers. If we see the same in the evening or the next day. 98 . . Accordingly he should arrange to make lab dips. (Some times. If we see lab dips in the morning. the processing factory will make lab dips in 2 shades and will make them in to 4 bits. It is better to make lab dips in more than 3 closer shades.

The other departments may not need these information. Accordingly each lab dip will have different reference number. The fabric order sheets should contain the full details of fabric quality. Preparing purchase orders Merchandiser has to prepare purchase orders. He must be sure that the reference numbers mentioned to buyer’s set are the same in his counter set also. like buyer’s address. After getting the buyer’s approvals. price or price target. This will help to avoid confusion when processing. he should order them for bulk. 99 . They will give different reference numbers to different lab dips. Accordingly he has to prepare fabric order sheets too. It is advised to get the production samples of these accessories and trims from the suppliers to make sure of the quality. weight. the lab in processing mill will have the recipes noted. The clear information will help everybody to understand the requirements clearly. accessories and trims should be clearly mentioned in the purchase orders. diameter and width of required fabrics. etc. So while preparing internal order sheets. Preparing internal order sheets The merchandising department has to prepare internal order sheets based on the buyer’s order sheets. But the other information like description. quantity. labels. Also as usual. From the merchandising department only. the counter samples of each of these accessories & trims to be kept in our files for better follow ups. Also the merchandiser has to discuss with the production department and patterning department for the requirement of fabrics. It is better to send in 2 or 3 types or qualities for getting approval. When sending lab dips to buyer. packing and shipping to be clearly informed to the concerned departments. zippers. delivery date. This should be followed for all the accessories and trims. etc to buyer for approval. quality standards. inner boards. polybags. export price. Accessories & trims The merchandiser has to send the accessories and trims like buttons. measurements. This will save a good time. specifications. merchandiser and buyer. the other departments will get all the instructions and specifications.99 While making lab dips. hang tags. The merchandiser should be aware of the value of his job. trims. he should prepare them by taking care of each and every detail. The description. colours. delivery target and payment terms of the required raw materials. then it will be difficult for the bar code scanner to read in the buyers’ stores. the merchandiser should keep one set of counter lab dips with reference numbers. They should be advised to the purchase department. It is advised to follow the same reference numbers by everybody – processing mill. accessories. The bar codes in the hang tags or stickers are to be checked thoroughly. If the bar codes are not clear. He may omit some information to other departments.

delivery terms. vessel connections. shipping lines. It is better for the merchandiser to take responsibility for these inspections too. he will have to advise and assist production. it is the merchandiser and the marketing manager who decide whether the quality is up to the acceptable level or not. status and problems of each stage of production. ETA. online. it is preferable for the merchandiser to check the important things like the prices. 100 . It is not only enough to give the instructions to them. comments and instruction. consignee’s & consignor’s addresses. documents and shipping departments. freight & other charges are in accordance with the buyer’s instructions and our suitability. As he has to guarantee the quality to the buyer.100 Advising and assisting production As the merchandiser is the person who knows better about buyer’s approvals. If we work with the buyers directly. the buyer may ask any third party (like SGS) to do the inspections. there will be many inspections like pilot batch. ETD. B/L instructions. initial. So he has to involve in production by advising and assisting the production staff closely. He has to give the shipping instructions clearly to the production. Though the production and quality departments are taking responsibility of quality. port discharge. HS code. for the better flawless production. Category. Following shipment Finally the merchandiser has to make sure the vessel details. quality. purchase order number. Helping documentation department Though the documentation department takes care of all documents. etc. The buyer may like to see the inspection in the middle production or final inspection. documents. description. payment terms. but also it is the merchandiser’s duty to coordinate with these departments for smooth shipping and to follow them closely. quantity. Advising production and quality department about quality level Each garment will have different acceptable quality level according to the buyer’s specification and tolerance level. the merchandiser should know about day to day affairs. Taking responsibility for inspections If we work with buying offices or buying agents or buyer’s liaison offices. Coordination regarding shipping It is one of the responsibilities of merchandiser to follow the shipping. Also he should always anticipate problems in all stages and also he should be prepared for suitable alternates too. So the merchandiser should advise and instruct the production and quality departments about the quality and tolerance levels of garment. Some times. though there is a separate production departments. mid final and final. the number of inspections will be limited.

increasing competition. valuable. in the garment industry it denotes the garment production. Now let us see this in detail. and falling sales prices in the garment industry. nowadays. latest technical procedures and standards are followed. PRODUCTION PLANNING: For doing every job.101 PRODUCTION This is an important. Time study were done with stop clocks and Motion Time Measurement (MTM) are fixed and followed. the merchandising and purchase departments will take care of the costs of fabrics. we will see garment production in detail. the production department looks after not only the garment production. In these times of rising costs. Since 1996. But the garment production is not that much simple. time and cost. These three things are to be fulfilled compulsorily. Work Study Officers were following about 250 codes for defining the jobs. quantity. This GSD is the accepted international standard for methods and time measurement for the needle industry. This is called Work Study method. As we see in the earlier chapters. which is called production cost. garment styles. overheads. proper planning is essentially needed. Furniture and Shoes. At the same time. Though the name ‘production’ stands for many meanings in other trades. Upholstery. it is of particular importance that productivity is maximised at the highest degree of economic efficiency. It includes the wages. Production planning is to be well made according to the available machines. It mainly based on the arrangement of fabrics. Accordingly for the better production of garments. It is the responsibility of the production department to minimise the production cost and to keep them under control. accessories and trims with the required quality and on time. production lead time and targeted shipment date. responsible and sensitive process. electricity and maintenance of production floors. It is the responsibility of the production department to produce the garments strictly according to the specifications with the required quality level and to ship them on stipulated time. GSD (General Sewing Data) systems are being followed worldwide especially in needle trade production like Apparel. For helping to reduce the production cost. planning is important. We have to plan the production in accordance with expected quality. So now. We have already seen the fabric productions in the earlier chapters. but also involves the fabric production. This may be a single sentence. But there is another important cost. 101 . WORK STUDY: In the early 90’s. accessories and trims. This production cost plays a crucial role in garment factories worldwide.

sewing. we can save a good amount of wages or we can reduce the production cost or we can increase the production capacity by at least 5%. This is called Line Balancing. the SMV (Standard Minute Value) is calculated. Operation break down is calculated for each operation. There exists a belief in the industry that production costs can be effectively reduced by using faster and faster sewing machines. By this latest system.5 = 0. each job or operation is classified in different codes with the Minute value of that particular operation. we define Upper Critical Limit by adding 10% of BPT and Lower Critical Limit by reducing 10% of BPT. When comparing with the higher prices for more RPM machines. unless the necessary production costs are thoroughly analysed.102 Even ultra modernised plants by themselves offer no guarantee for continuing competitiveness. this effect is negligible. In order to balance this. quality control and packing.5 minutes for production from cutting. But when we use these advanced GSD systems. We have to find out the Basic Pitch Time (BPT) which is the average pitch time for each machine.414 102 . Upper Critical Limit = 0. It helps us to cost our products. Actual time consumption for all the operations and jobs required for each garment is calculated. while 70% to 80% is handling time. Line balancing: Each floor will have many lines of machineries. The SMV of cutting. pressing. flat lock and single needle. We can understand that in an average operation in garment production. Standard Minute Value (SMV): According to these codes. evaluated and reduced to an absolute minimum. For example. It means for this particular garment takes 11. This GSD helps us to analyse and plan every single operation in the sewing of a garment. whether it is a machine or a manual operation. the job codes are simplified with only 36 codes to follow. only 20% to 30% of the time is the actual sewing machine time. So the increasing of machine speeds will have very less effect. This is not true. In GSD systems.506 Lower Critical Limit = 0.46 + 10% = 0. let us take the SMV for a Men’s polo shirt as 11. production and finishing are found out separately and added together to get the total SMV of the garment.5. Let us work this for say 25 number of various machines like over lock. Each line has to be arranged according to the style of garments. with a high level of accuracy. Basic Pitch Time = SMV Number of machines = 11. this BPT will vary from machine to machine.46 – 10% = 0.46 25 As we use different kinds of machines for different operations by different operators. prior to the start of the production process.

174 garments.174 garments. let us take 50% of this total hours. Let us see the working hours of each operator per month. It is to be decided according to the number of workers. = Effective hours x 60 minutes SMV = 30. Working hours on week days = 9. So the monthly production capacity with 250 operators is 1. We can find out the production capacity by working as below. sewing.5 hours per day x 22 days = 209 hours. the number of operators for each operation to be balanced accordingly.57. Total working hours per month = 241 hours. Man planning: Man planning is needed for all operations like cutting. Say 90%. Flat lock machine operations will take medium time which result medium productivity output. In order to keep even feeding for all operations like cutting. 30. sewing and finishing. pressing. According to the above productivity output and to the SMV of each machine. we have to assume the number of operators as 29 which is 10 to 15% higher than the number of machines. As it is not possible to perform these available hours fully. relatively the productivity output will be lesser.125 hours can be the effective hours. because some operators can be used for multi operations when needed. For example.250 hours. Say 110%. Working hours on Saturdays = 8 hours per day x 4 days = 32 hours. Hence the productivity output will be more. Say 60%. We do this. 103 . quality checking and packing. Single needle machine operations will take more time. the number of each machine is to be balanced for each production line.57.125 x 60 11. let us see the man planning for 250 operators. When we plan for 25 machines.103 Over lock machine operations will take lesser time. So the total available hours in a month for 250 operators = 241 x 250 = 60.5 = 1. That is.

But with so much patience. PATTERNING: Patterns are made to help cutting.104 Cost Per Minute (CPM): To fix the wages and rates. The fabrics may be in tubular form.35. As they are comfortable with their own regular traditional systems of production. Cost Per Minute = 35.00. Cost Per Minute = Over heads per month Effective Minutes Let us assume the total over heads of one factory of 250 operators is Rs. the finished fabrics have to be checked to make sure that the fabrics are as per our required specifications in all aspects like shrinkage.000 30. It is not easy to convince the production department to implement these work study systems. the patterns are to be made accordingly. diameter or width.94 Cost Per Minute So CMT charge per garment = SMV x CPM = 11. prints. etc. management and the production lines. seaming and hemming are to be given sufficiently.22. they will not cooperate with work study department. solid. colour fastness. colour shades (dyeing. costing department.00. we need to find the Cost Per Minute which can be arrived as below. It is in the hands of work study officers to get this implemented smoothly. dyed yarns) and hand feel. marketing department. It is essential to get the fullest cooperation from every one in the production departments.94 = Rs. GSM.5 x 1. 104 . the advantages of these new systems are to be explained to them in convincing manners. yarn stripes. all over printed.125 x 60 = Rs. It can be reduced by increasing the work performance of operators.000 per month. It is important that these same workings and same values are to be followed by the work study engineers. Also if the cutting is made manually. Allowances for cutting. all the patterns are to be made suitably to avoid the fabric wastage. If the cutting is done by lay-cutting. Patterns are to be made in different types according to the form of finished fabrics.1.31 This is how we can find out the CMT charges per garment. open width form. FABRIC INSPECTION: Before proceed cutting.

quality checking and packing should be done simultaneously. This is called line system. the German army had built one ship in only 4 days. The bits which are cut in one day should be made as garments and they should be packed on the same day itself. when cutting the horizontal striped fabrics or horizontal lines printed fabrics. colour shade and hand feel.105 If shrinkage. Then our whole calculation will be changed. Weight loss and fabric wastage in processing are to be checked thoroughly. Feeding between these operations should be even. During World War II. The hems of bodies and sleeves are to be cut on course lines. Also the fabrics are to be checked thoroughly for the damages. the cutting can not be commenced. knitting mistakes. LINE SYSTEM: All the production operations like cutting. They may mark them in any vacant places. It is advised to the factories which are not following this system. Once they are being cut. nothing can be done with the cut bits. If the fabrics are not having required colour fastness. pockets. it is important to cut the 105 . dyeing mistakes. Also the total weight of the finished fabrics is to be checked whether we have received the fabrics according to the fabric program. When cutting the other parts of the garments like half moon patches. sewing. to try and implement this system to improve more productivity and to minimise the practical problems. by using line system in their production. then it would be difficult to get the estimated fabric consumption. in order to minimise the fabric wastage. oil stains and other mistakes. yarn mistakes. CUTTING: Most care to be taken in cutting because it determines the garment shape and gross weight of a garment and also it eases sewing. width or GSM is not in accordance with our requirement. Nowadays most of the factories are using this line system. If this not been followed. Especially. printing mistakes. But this should not be acceptable. There are more chances for this spirality in lay cutting. Cutting is always to be done in accordance with the wales direction of the fabric. some markers may not care about this wales direction. plackets and other patches. The fabrics have to be reprocessed to get them fulfilled. diameter. So all the tests and checking to be done well before commencing cutting. They made this possible. Anything can be done to the fabrics – to certain extent – when they are in fabric stage. the garment will have more spirality resulting to the rejection of the garment as spirality is not acceptable. This is to be followed in manual cutting and lay cutting (open width lay or tubular lay).

SEWING: In the making of knitted garments. No matter the fabric is in tubular form or open width form. the curves and curve edges are to be cut carefully. So cutting is also to be done in the same way according to the fabric program whether solid packing or assortment packing. each fabric roll will have slight difference in shades. This will help to avoid shading in packing. This is importantly to be followed to avoid shade variation between parts in one garment. the wales lines to be strictly maintained in cutting. It means each sleeves should be symmetrical in striped lines. This is very important. 106 . we will have to lose the full cost of one garment. Though they are in the same lot. each fabric lot must have been made according to the final packing details of garments. Also we will face problem in carton packing due to the shortage of garments. we can reject the bit simply. it is better to check the cut bits before numbering and bundling them. the Number of fabric lot also to be marked in each numbering. So when cutting the fabrics. When cutting manually and by lay. As the lines are to be matched on sides of front & back bodies and sides of sleeves. The numberings of these bits should remain till the final checking.106 hems along the lines. efficiency & time and to avoid problem in packing. in order to avoid shade variation. the cut bits can not be used for sewing. Inspection of cut bits: Though the fabrics are being checked. more care to be taken in cutting accordingly. But if we don’t check them in bit form and if we find the mistake after making the garment. the markings will be done more closely to minimise fabric wastage. numbering and bundling of the parts should be done with more care to avoid interchanging of these parts. In case of ‘S’ cutting. the direction of print designs is to be strictly maintained. sleeves and other parts of one garment are to be cut in the same roll as close as possible. Cutting program is to be based on the fabric program. Because of this carelessness. we will have to reject the full garment. the body. When the bits are numbered. At the same time. Also when we do ‘S’ cutting on all over printed fabrics. If we find any bit having a mistake. Also the sleeves are to be balanced in cutting. This will make sewing easy and will save sewing time too. If the curve edges are not being cut properly. Each fabric lot may have many fabric rolls. So it is essential to check all cut bits thoroughly to save money. flat lock machines and single needle machines. As we had seen earlier. Markings. the mostly used machines are over lock machines.

4 threads. these operators don’t correct the mistakes immediately. In order to get better production result. attaching labels. So it is more important to follow these stitching regulations strictly. Over lock machines are available with 3 threads. making. Both manual and power driven machines are available. The operators or helpers or line supervisors or floor supervisors are not to be allowed to do any adjustments to machines. The beauty of the garments is only in the hands of the operators. Hence nowadays. making cover stitches along the armholes and shoulders. Jump stitches or loose stitches should be avoided. the tailors or operators will know the quality of sewing. We can be confident that they will do in a better way if they are aware of their 107 . Though they know better. sewing quality standards and the buyer’s tolerance level are to be well explained to all the workers and operators involved in cutting. Single needle stitches should have minimum 14 stitches per inch. Impression marks due to excess pressure on garments should be avoided. Oil levels and oil leakages are to be checked very often. Speedy sewing is appreciable. because this has safety thread stitch. The machines are to be serviced or adjusted by the qualified and authorised mechanics only. But this is not enough. Wrinkles between stitches are to be avoided. the sewing methods. trimming and packing. If they correct these mistakes then and there. The production managers. When making sewing. The machines are always to be well maintained to keep them in good condition. They even know whether there is any jump stitch or loose stitch or other mistakes in their sewing. It is the operators’ responsibility to keep the machines neat and clean. supervisors and line supervisors know well about the specifications and quality standards of the garments. 5 threads and 6 threads. The sides of bodies and side of sleeves are to be seamed only with 4 threads over lock. patches and badges. In order to show their productivity speed or due to carelessness or by trying to escape or by passing the bug to some other operators. only the power driven machines are used for these operations. But it is more important to make perfect sewing. The stitches made by manual machines are not consistent and even. Single needle machines are used for making plackets. Tension and pressure adjustments are to be checked regularly. But most of the operators don’t do this. attaching V neck & half moon patch with cover stitch. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the bottoms. Each stitch requires specific number of stitches per inch.107 Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. they are not the persons who are going to make the garments. Overhauling and lubrication are to be done regularly. Also there will be more oil stains when sewing with manual machines. Stitches should have required strength. there will not be a big problem. This will result unnecessary problems in quality checking and assortment packing. Tensions and pressures are to be checked before starting sewing. Over lock and flat lock stitches should have minimum 11 stitches per inch. attaching collars & pockets.

The checkers should check the garments on both inside and outside. If they handle carelessly. if they have to be attached at inside of side seams. garments will get cut which will result huge garment rejection. only if the garment is passed by the quality checkers.108 importance of their jobs and if they feel that their jobs are respected properly. It is advised to teach them by showing the garments and by advising about the things to be checked in the particular garment. When they trim the threads of buttons. damages. The checkers should be taught clearly to check the measurements. They must handle the trimmers with care when cutting the threads. general appearance. Also the checkers must be allowed to know the tolerance level of the measurements. according to the washing instructions mentioned in the wash care labels. The garments should be kept free from any insects or their stains. These checkers are not properly directed to find out the other important mistakes. garment shapes. So it is important for the quality checkers to make sure that the size labels are attached properly according to the measurements. 108 . they should cut with extra care. The end customers buy the garments on verifying the size labels only. shade variations and overall finishing of garments. QUALITY CHECKING: Most of the factories are not utilising these quality checkers properly. This is an important thing to be followed. stitching quality. The end user will wash the garments. There are more chances for missing of these wash care labels. the thread ends and unwanted fabric edges are getting trimmed by trimming department. print or embroidery mistakes. So the quality checkers should check for the wash care labels. This is very important. If ‘M’ size label is attached to the ‘L’ size garment mistakenly or purposely. The numberings are to be removed from the garment. labeling. TRIMMING: After sewing. Nowadays most of the factories are using broken needle detector to remove the broken needles. then the fate of the garment becomes ‘M’ size. Also they should be encouraged to give suggestion for the production improvement. So it is mandatory that each garment should have the wash care label with clear instructions. So the size labels to be attached to the garments strictly in accordance to the measurements. They are using them mostly to check the stitches. button holes and embroidery. Hence it is suggested to have meetings among the workers and operators prior to the commencement of production. Also the broken needles are also to be checked. oil stains. This will definitely help to improve their involvement in production. to find out the oil stains and other mistakes and to mark them.

etc. our dress code. hang tags. Whether the packing is solid size packing or assortment packing. Buyers may face problems from the workers. we have to make various types of samples. Hence individual packing. the measurements of cartons are to be get confirmed by the buyers. 109 . Before purchasing cartons. SAMPLING: As we have seen earlier. So a special team is needed for making samples.109 PACKING: Buyer’s packing instructions to be followed strictly. So it is always better to get the buyer’s confirmation before using them. marketing. training and by our systems. then the buyer will face problems in delivering them to his customers. production. bar codes. finishing. In a company the quality is expected in management. our reaction. blister packing and carton packing are to be made exactly as per the buyer’s instruction.in our language. These general qualities can be controlled by practices. our policies.Samples have to be approved if they are sent for approval. whether they are in accordance with the buyer’s instruction. We can see that the sampling department is always busy in making one or the other samples. way of expression. QUALITY CONTROL QUALITY SYSTEM: Quality exists everywhere . before using them. . etc. The buyers are instructing us the packing instruction in a convenient way to deliver the garments to their customers. operators and finishers to have the awareness of the importance of sampling and to work with immense involvement in their jobs. we should pack them according to the fabric lot number. our methods. communication. The buyers usually give carton measurements according to the length & width of the racks in their warehouse. As samples are important for the improvement of business and important part of executing orders. Also they restrict the weight of cartons according to the local labour laws. . This is very important to segregate the shades according to the fabric lots. it is essential for the fabric coordinator. . pattern maker. printed polybags and price tags are to be checked. .Samples are to be made exactly in conformity of the specifications and measurements. Sampling department has more responsibilities as follows.Samples are to be sent strictly on time. If we don’t follow them properly. if the weight is above their local standard weight. Labels. our way of working. The garments packed in a carton should be from the same fabric lot.Fabrics. accessories and trims are to be arranged as per specifications. our approach. documentation.

Their ultimate aim is to control quality in all stages to get better quality garments. If there is any deviation at any stage of their planning. etc. production. labour management. Their only aim is to control the quality of garments and to make sure that they are up to acceptable quality level. knitting. After getting the quality remarks from the QC dept. quality. productivity. production departments and merchandising departments. quality of garments. finishing. costs. the quality department will not be appreciated. This will not be healthier for a company or organisation. inspections. several meetings are to be conducted to discuss and to find solution for the problems. intimation to buyers. fabrics. Quality Assurance Dept. etc. They will not listen to the practical problems. they can not be avoided when there are serious problems. because every one is doing his duties well. So they will monitor the production department closely to achieve their targets. etc. When there are major quality problems. By this way. there are many things to be strictly followed in each and every stage of garmenting – starting from sampling. rejections. nobody can be blamed. Quality Audit Dept. cutting. Let us see what is happening practically in most of the factories. Most of the times. the production dept has to discuss with the merchandising dept for further action. 110 . Or they will not care about the solution for the problems. shipment.110 But when we talk about quality control of garments. production sufferings or loss. Though these meetings will affect production and shipment. It is very important for the production dept to maintain as per the production planning. the shipment will be affected. Nowadays factories are having various departments for controlling quality namely Quality Control Dept. These departments will not worry too much about the costs. So we can understand that there will not be cordial relation between the quality departments. delay in shipment. At the same time. processing. future orders. maintenance of machineries. But overall cooperation between the departments will be missing. In this system. production cost. So what they will do is to create reports over reports and to pass their reports to all the departments. Generally these departments will work independently with the freedom of finding and pointing out the mistakes. sewing. they will have to follow the instructions and advices of merchandising department. the merchandising department has more valuable responsibilities like sampling. inspections and mainly the shipment date. This will create ego and supremacy among the departments. But the production department has to take responsibilities for many things like production planning. But practically. yarn. the merchandising department or the management has to take decisions which may be against to the quality department’s remarks. pressing and up to packing. profit or loss. they should be appreciated for doing their duties in a right way. As the quality departments’ only duty is to check the quality. As the production department is directly controlled by the merchandising department. The merchandising department has to consider not only the quality. accessories & trims and mainly shipment on stipulated date. but the corrective measures. they will see each and everything to find out mistakes. patterning.

we could even see some quality controllers will misbehave to production departments by not approving anything or by stopping production as the indirect threats. So there is nothing great in finding mistakes. This is what happening in most of the factories. they will not have answer. the quality department should not be allowed to work independently. production department & quality controllers to find solution for the problems. The pity is that these quality reports will have comments even in the pre-final and final quality checking. the quality controllers will check the garments and will prepare the quality reports. The management. these reports will definitely have at least 2 or 3 quality complaints and comments. So what to do now? If you ask this question to the quality department. Each merchandiser can have any number of quality controllers under him. It indirectly says that the garments produced are still having complaints even after the completion of production. It has to work under the merchandising department. the quality controllers report the merchandiser. But their views and intention must be the same. Their responsibilities can be different. they find suitable solution quickly. They will say that they had repeatedly instructed the production departments to take necessary steps to avoid the problems. loose thread ends. In worse cases.111 To solve this embarrassing atmosphere. As we know the merchandising department has more responsibilities than the quality department. they will show their quality reports of initial checking. This is the cause of all the problems. but also to correct them. Now. As an unwritten rule. If you ask them why they didn’t take any prior steps to correct these mistakes initially. There will not be any use of these reports. It is suggested that the quality department should realise that their duty is not only to point out mistakes. The real greatness is lying in finding the solution for rectifying. improper trimming. Any person even with little knowledge about the garments can find out mistakes in any garments. the merchandiser understands the problem. etc. Even buyers know about these things. marketing and merchandising departments trust the quality departments to control the quality. If the reports are made in the initial stage of production. They will say that their duty was only to point out the mistakes to concerned departments. So it is their responsibility to work sincerely and with knowledge on rectifying the mistakes. These two departments have different responsibilities and different views on the same garments. For example. In garment production there are some problems which can not be solved completely. As the routine of their jobs. it is very easy for him to find mistakes. But some quality controllers will comment on these problems in almost all of their reports. I suggest making some changes in this system. loose threads on buttons & labels. When a person knows better about the garments. But the QCs should report only to the merchandiser. as everybody join their hands and heads together. so the problems are getting solved or 111 . the comments can be corrected without any major production damage. So in my opinion. restricting or preventing mistakes. We can not see any report without commenting any mistake. he discusses with the merchandising team. lesser number of stitches. They will use their bunch of reports only to safe guard themselves.

wear resistance.Yarn twist.Yarn diameter.Yarn counts. . Then there will be no ego clashes or difference of opinions between these departments.To dry heat / hot pressing. azo test. . .To perspiration (like sweat. easily. Let us see the important tests below.Single yarn strength. . sea water & chlorinated water. (The earlier chapter Azo dyestuffs can be referred for more details). .To washing. etc).To normal water. Colour fastness tests: There are various colour fastness tests. Moreover there will be a friendly and do-you-need-my-help atmosphere among the departments which will help the improvement of productivity with improved quality.Yarn shrinkage. . . . fabric handling. amicably and permanently. .Yarn friction.Composition of blends. . Yarn tests: The fabric is tested for finding . dimensional stability (shrinkage). Fabrics are tested normally for yarn quality. fabric weight (GSM). . safety.To dry cleaning. saliva. LAB TESTS: A lot of tests are to be made in respect of fabrics and garments. . . The important tests are to test colour fastness .Non-chlorine bleach Azo tests: The garments are tested for finding whether the fabrics are having any banned azo dyestuff content.Fibre content and . water resistant.To light. Fabric weight (GSM) tests: Both pre-processed and processed fabrics are to be tested for finding the fabric weight.Acid / alkaline / water spotting . colour fastness.112 rectified or corrected immediately. . 112 . . . etc. etc. Also the stitch density like wales and course lines are to be tested.To rubbing / crocking – wet & dry.Evenness & hairiness.Bursting strength.To bleaching.

Acidity (pH) Fabric handling tests: The fabrics are tested for .Crease recovery.Random tumble pilling .Wrinkle recovery . Coloured garments last longer if they are washed inside out. dimensional stability. Straighten the seams and collar and the shape will be better retained and the shirt easier to iron.Free formaldehyde content . WASHING INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOLS: In general.113 Dimensional stability tests: Shrinkage. Fabric performance tests: The garments are to be tested for . the woven garments retain their shape better if they are dried hanging on clothes hangers. appearance and spirality of fabrics to be tested by .Drape coefficient .Snagging resistance .Soil release performance .Water repellency .Stretch & recovery .Moisture content .Washing and tumble dry . The washing instructions will vary from fabric to fabric.Pilling resistance .Water resistance .Bow & skew.Water proofness . Streaks and spots on garments can then be avoided.Abrasion resistance . 113 .Dry cleaning . The coloured garments should not be dried outdoors in sunlight.Relaxation .Steaming.Washing and flat dry . In the earlier chapters. Let us see the meaning of the different symbols on the washing label. .Wrinkle recovery . washing instructions and wash care labels. They can become discoloured and sun-bleached.Rust proof . But knitted garments retain their shape better if they are dried flat. we had seen the importance of washing methods.

Avoid leaving garments to soak. demand special care. The line under the bowl indicates any limitations to the normal washing process. Washing of wool and silk Garments of untreated wool or silk. with washing instructions "hand wash. Rinse thoroughly. to give it a "fuller" feel. Do not soak. linen. Within the bowl. Never sprinkle or pour washing powder directly onto the garment or allow coloured garments to soak. Hand wash only. Wash in a machine at the indicated water temperature. for example. do not ring out. 114 . Do not rub. For example. Within the symbol there is/are one or more dots to indicate the ironing temperature. The line under the bowl indicates that extra care should be taken. 200C. A short spin removes excess water best. Normal spin.114 Washing in water: The bowl symbol indicates that the garment can be washed in water in a washing machine or by hand. Gently squeeze the garment in the washing water. Ironing: The iron symbol means that the garment can be normally ironed or a rotary iron used. This can result in discolouration. High temperature. Wash directly in water of the correct temperature with the washing powder well dissolved in the water. there is a figure indicating the temperature. do not rub or ring out. Dry heavy knitted garments. Shake out the garment once it is half dry. Hand washing Always make sure that the washing powder is completely dissolved in the water before putting the garment into it. The machine should only be half filled. Wash in a filled machine at the indicated water temperature. Max. Spin for one minute only. Use a washing powder that is specifically intended for 40C washing in water. cotton. half a minute only. Max 40 degree Celcius. In a separate spin dryer. max 40C". in number of degrees Celsius that should be used to wash the garment. Do not wash in water.

Dry Cleaning: The circle indicates that the garment can be dry cleaned. Dry cleaning fluid such as perchloroethane. the mechanical process used and/or the drying temperature. acrylic. The line refers to the water added. Drying: The rectangle is a symbol for drying. Low temperature. natural silk. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than perchloroethane. Many garments can also be tumble dried. The letter inside the circle indicates the type of dry cleaning fluid to be used. Virtually all garments can be given a short spin. the chemical symbol for chlorine can be seen inside the triangle Can be bleached with chlorine. Max 150C. for a maximum of one minute.115 Medium temperature. The letters CL. Do not iron or rotary iron. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than naphtha. Chlorine bleaching: The triangle indicates that the garment can be bleached using chlorine. Max 110C. For example. Must not be bleached. On the other hand. Water must be removed from the garments before drying. For example. avoid tumble drying 115 . Do not dry clean. wool. polyamide (nylon). Perchloroethane is the most common dry cleaning fluid used.

damages and imperfections. The most important thing is to follow the symbol that indicates whether or not the garment should be tumble dried. finish. Quality parameters include finish. fit. size. Tumble dry normal. QUALITY PROCEDURES: Each factory or organisation or company will have different procedures and practices on quality according to their conveniences and principles. High heat in the tumble drier. materials. durability. Hang dry. materials. Flat dry. product variations.116 garments that you particularly cherish. Also the quality department is to prepare their work procedures mainly to 116 . Tumble dry low. The following symbols occur for ‘air drying’. Tumble dry. Do not tumble dry. component parts and garments. as per the instructions of buyers. So let us discuss about the quality system in general. colour. as tumble drying weak the garment. Quality standard relates not only to the fabrics. but also to the production processes. These washing symbols and instructions to be used in wash care labels. We have to take extra care to make sure that the symbols are properly used according to the fabrics of the garments.

interpreting work instructions. accessories and garments. where necessary. environmental. • carry out relevant physical measurements • maintain accurate work records • carry out work in accordance with company policies and procedures • meet work specifications • communicate effectively within workplaces • read. housekeeping and quality practices are strictly followed as specified by machine manufacturers. An understanding is to be demonstrated about the received fabrics & trims. Also they should take responsible for the maintenance of own work quality and contributing to the quality improvement of team or section output. regulatory authorities and the company. as required. . sewing & other activities and the final appearance of the garments. 117 .117 • carry out relevant visual inspections of fabrics. They are to be measured.applying safety precautions relevant to the task.taking required action where standards of fabrics. order forms and other reference materials • sequence operations • clarify and check task related information • Work systematically without the damage to goods. quantity and finish. trims. .checking and measuring the relevant quality parameters. it is better to explain to the buyer clearly to get their confirmation before commencing bulk production. QCs are to make sure that the standard practices in work places are followed systematically. patterns. . In these cases. work standards and patterns. equipment or personnel. Quality department should have knowledge and skills in . colour. standard operating procedures. using the appropriate measuring instruments and units. specifications.assessing operational capability of machineries used. quality. Or some times we may feel the garments may need some alterations in measurements for better appearance and fitting. tickets. fabric weight. All the received fabrics & trims and the finished garments are to be continuously checked for size.maintaining accurate records. accessories.identifying improvements. They have to make sure that safety. the overall shape and appearance of garments are also to be verified. The quality controllers have to check the measurements of the garments thoroughly in the pilot batch or initial production. garments or work processes are found to be unacceptable. . interpret and follow information on job instructions. . . Or some measurements may not be achieved. trims. When the measurements are being checked. specifications. Some times there may be some measurements given by the buyers have to be altered.

fabric qualities. So the ultimate aim for everybody is to satisfy the end users. it has to be immediately informed to the concerned departments like pattern making. accidents and incidents reported in accordance with statutory requirements and factory systems.118 If there is any change in the measurements. So the buyers have some standards on measurements. including modes of behaviour and interactions among staff and others in accordance with company policies. It is the quality controllers’ responsibility to make sure that all the finished garments are having the specified measurements within tolerance levels. garment styles. Now let us think about the expectations of end users. sewing. sampling and to be sure that the new measurements are implemented and followed in production. Also to be sure that the corrective action is being done. fabric qualities and garment styles which are mostly suitable for most of their customers. making and measurements. Faulty pieces or final products are to be identified and isolated. Each end user will have different taste of colours. WORKMANSHIP & GENERAL APPEARANCE: Seller’s general responsibility is to manufacture and supply garments to buyers according to their specifications. . It is advisable for the quality department to take additional care for . colours.the action taken promptly. . Suitable preventative action is to be advised to the concerned operations.recognising and adapting appropriately to cultural differences in the workplace. Causes of deviations from specified quality standards are to be investigated and reported to concerned departments. etc. . The completed work is to be checked continuously in the factories. Reasons for the faults are to be found out and corrective action to be taken. Buyer’s or the importer’s general responsibility is to deliver the garments to their wholesalers or retailers or chain stores. Information on the quality and other indicators of production performance is to be recorded. Also each of them will have different body fits. 118 . The faults and identified problems are to be recorded and reported to the concerned supervisors. Quality checks include visual inspection. It is not easy to satisfy all the customers in all aspects.safety policies.waste and pollution management. decoration. physical measurements and checks against patterns.job procedures and work instructions. . Special care is to be taken for critical measurements. Wholesaler’s or retailer’s or chain stores’ responsibility is to satisfy the end users by offering them quality garments in suitable colours.

colours. From their reports. We are fully responsible for them. we can see that they had spent more time on measuring the garments than checking the other things. it must be only due to the operator’s mistake. they don’t care much about the measurements. styles are most important than the measurements. So when a garment is having measurement problem. As they don’t know the buyer’s original measurements. QCs must be blamed by themselves of their inability. PRESENTATION: As the workmanship and general appearance are important for finished garments. fabric quality. The reason is this. If they like the garments and if the prices are OK. Even if there is any complaint on measurement deviation in a garment. the garment can be accepted. They don’t even bother to know about them. So logically. By saying like this. One may wonder why I am explaining like this in the quality chapter. After making their quality reports. So the quality controllers should give more importance to the general appearance. 119 . checkers. But the workmanship and the general appearance of garments are only in our hands. I don’t degrade the importance of measurements. Hence I suggest the quality controllers. colours. The patterns were checked and approved before bulk cutting. inspectors and quality managers to spend their more valuable time to improve the workmanship and general appearance of the garments instead of wasting time on checking only the measurements. they would buy them even if there is a slight deviation in the measurements. The end users don’t know based on which specifications these garments were made. the garment is to be rejected even if it has the perfect measurements. We can not do anything on them. attractive colours and suitable styles . fabrics. fabrics and styles are buyers’ decision. They won’t talk much about the workmanship and general appearance. We can understand that for the displayed garments the workmanship. The colours. style and fit than to measurements. I am just explaining the fact that the end users will give more importance to the above said general things than the measurements. It is the one of QCs responsibilities to check the quality of sewing.mainly the workmanship of the garments should be neat and perfect. The cut bits were inspected and approved before sewing. most of the quality controllers and the quality inspectors give more preference to the measurements only. they would argue about the measurement deviations. if the workmanship and general appearance are good. workmanship. if there is any measurement problem. The operator(s) should be advised how to correct his working method to avoid the measurement problem in the other garments.119 We can note that these specifications are made by the buyers only – not by the end users. In most of the factories. What they expect is the garments should be in suitable fabrics according to the seasons. But if the workmanship and general appearance are not good in a garment. the presentation is also important for packed garments.

bands. packing clips & pins and packing boxes are used only to give attraction to the garment packing. it will definitely help the factory to improve the quality and workmanship. There are different quality levels and different inspection methods. On the other hand. So we must pay more attention for using these things properly for the best presentation. pre-final and final inspections. Also by these inspections. The garment may have best workmanship and perfect measurements. without doing initial or online inspections. Also there are various numbers of levels from 0. special branded tags. the more quality can be improved.0 and 2. they may ask the factory to recheck and repack the garments. tissue papers. When they do only final inspections. They are initial. INSPECTIONS: There are many inspections are being made. This is also called Assured Quality Level.5 are used in garment inspections. utmost importance is to be given for the presentation. the garment can not be sold. inner boards. pilot batch. the handling stains can not be avoided fully.065 to 15. So after rechecking. Some buyers or buying agents will do only the final inspections. The more number of online inspections. The inspections are being done based on AQL which is Acceptable Quality Level. But if the presentation of packing is not good. the look and finish of the garments get disturbed. there is some risk that good lots may be rejected if the quality levels of the sample units are not within the specified quality limits. only some garments can be checked selectively. if the buyers or buying agents do initial and online inspections. price tags. collar bones. as they can correct all the mistakes according to their quality standards. middle. Why because to attract their customers and the end users.120 The things like hang tags. These selected garments are called ‘Sample units’. The buyers or their nominated agents or buying agents may do any of these inspections. Then the question of either-to-accept-or-to-reject will not arise. Then the final inspection will be very easy. the buyers are giving so much importance for these things. as it is not possible to inspect the whole consignment. 120 . At the same time. So when a garment is to be sold in packed condition. It is obvious that there will not be any improvement by rechecking and repacking. they have only two options – either to accept or to reject the consignment. This is unsafe for the factory. These things will not be of any use to the end users. The Quality Department in a company or factory should do all these inspections routinely and regularly by themselves to get improved and consistent quality. If they are not satisfied with the quality. the garments will become worse than before rechecking. sometimes. Even then. Since the inspection is based on limited quantity of these sample units. both the buyer and the factory can be confident of the quality. All these things will be removed and thrown to dust bins by the end users immediately after opening the packing. online. When we do the inspections. Usually the levels 4.

Huge crowd of us are aiming only for these jobs. At the same time. I wish everybody to try for the higher posts. For the employees: Majority of people in the world are trying for the lower or medium level jobs only. That is coordination. sincere intention and determination for the growth of their company. Everyone in the company should have the honest motivation. the perfect coordination between the departments is compulsorily wanted for the improvement of the company or organisation. To say exactly this is a team work of teams. We should remember that this is a team work. But it is the fact that very few of us are trying for these higher posts. honesty. Though they are different in their duties and responsibilities. businesses and organisations in all parts of the world.121 COORDINATION: Every company or organisation will have their own working systems and procedures. Nothing is impossible – if we work sincerely and honestly. we should develop ourselves with the thorough practical knowledge. We can well understand that the manufacturing and exporting of knitted garments depend on the involvement of several departments. sincerity and hard working. That is the reason there is always stiff competition for these lower and medium level jobs. Wishing you all success! ---------------- 121 . self confidence. On the other hand. But there is one thing is commonly needed. there are always vacancies for the higher posts in all the trades. In order to reach these higher levels. It is not easy. it is not an impossible thing.

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