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**HYDRODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PROPELLERS
**

The performance characteristics of a propeller can be divided into two groups; open water and behind hull properties.

**a) Open Water Characteristics
**

The forces and moments produced by the propeller are expressed in terms of a series of non-dimensional characteristics. These non-dimensional terms expressing the general performance characteristics are: Thrust coefficient Torque coefficient Advance coefficient Cavitation number

T ρn 2 D 4 Q KQ = ρn 2 D 5 V J= A nD P −P σ = 0 V 1 ρV 2 2 KT =

In order to establish those non-dimensional parameters, dimensional analysis can be applied to geometrically similar propellers. Thrust, T and Torque, Q can be represented by the following functions depending upon the physical quantities involved: T ≈ f 1 ( ρ , D , V , g , n, P , μ ) Q ≈ f 2 ( ρ , D , V , g , n, P , μ ) where Quantities Thrust Torque Diameter Speed Rate of rotation Mass density of water Viscosity of water Acceleration due to gravity Total static pressure

Symbols T Q D V n ρ μ g P

Dimensions ML/T2 ML2/T2 L L/T 1/T M/L3 M/LT L/T2 M/LT2

**L, T and M are the three basic quantities of mechanics, i.e. length, time and mass respectively.
**

1

it follows: M ML M L L 1 M = ( 3 ) a Lb ( ) c ( 2 ) d ( ) e ( 2 ) f ( ) g 2 LT T T T LT T L Equating terms: (1) M : 1= a+ f + g L : 1 = −3a + b + c + d − f − g T : − 2 = −c − 2d − e − 2 f − g By substituting a and c in b. it then follows: b = 2+d +e− g By substituting (2) and (3) in (1) a = 1-f-g b = 1 + 3a − c − d + f + g c = 2 − 2d − e − 2 f − g (2) (3) ML M L L 1 M M = ( 3 )1− f − g ( L) 2+ d + e − g ( ) 2− 2 d −e − 2 f − g ( 2 ) d ( ) e ( 2 ) f ( ) g 2 T T LT LT L T T By rearranging the above terms: ML M 2 L 2 = 3L ( ) T T2 L 1 ⎤ L ⎤ ⎡ L ⎡ L f ⎢ L( ) − 2 ( 2 )⎥ ⎢ L( ) −1 ( )⎥ T ⎦ T ⎦ ⎣ T ⎣ T g d e (4) ⎡ M −1 L − 2 M ⎤ ⎢( L3 ) ( T ) ( LT 2 )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ f ⎡ M −1 −1 L −1 M ⎤ ⎢( L3 ) L ( T ) ( LT )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (5) and inserting appropriate quantities ⎧ gD nD P f ν g⎫ ) ( ) ⎬ T = ρD 2V 2 f ⎨( 2 ) d ( ) e ( V ρV 2 VD ⎭ ⎩V μ is the kinematic viscosity where ν = ρ ⎧ gD nD P ν ⎫ = f⎨ 2 . . ⎬ 1 V ρV 2 VD ⎭ 2 2 ⎩V ρD V 2 where CT is defined as thrust coefficient. . CT = T (6) (7) 2 .Consider thrust equation as: T = f ( ρ a D bV c g d n e P f μ g ) and inserting the appropriate dimensions.

⎬ 1 V ρV 2 VD ⎭ 3 2 ⎩V ρD V 2 where C Q is defined as torque coefficient Q (8) From equations (7) and (8) it is clear that in order to achieve a flow similarity between two geometrically similar propellers (i. the four non-dimensional parameters. To avoid this undesirable situation V is replaced by nD term which does not make any difference in terms of dimensionality. However this V 2 V ρV 2 VD requirement may not be satisfied for all the test cases. . should be the same for the two propellers.. . CT and CQ become infinitive when speed V approaches to zero.e.By following the above procedure similarly for the torque: CQ = ⎧ gD nD P ν ⎫ . gD nD P ν . to achieve the same CT and CQ between a model propeller and actual propeller). another open water characteristic is the open water efficiency η0 defined as: η0 = PT PD (11) where PT is the thrust power while PD is the delivered power and they are defined as PT = TV and PD = 2πQn 3 . . Hence we have new thrust and torque coefficients defined as: CT becomes K T = T ρn 2 D 4 Q C Q becomes K Q = ρn 2 D 5 (9) On the other hand the four non-dimensional coefficients are: Fn = V2 gD propeller Froude number propeller Reynolds number propeller advance coefficient propeller cavitation number Rn = VD ν (10) V nD P σ = ρV 2 J= In addition to the thrust and torque coefficients. = f⎨ 2 .

e. torque and efficiency) differ from the characteristics of the same propeller operating in open water condition. Relative-rotative efficiency Wake gain: The flow field around a propeller close to the hull is affected by the presence of the hull both because of the potential (non-viscous) nature and viscous nature (boundary layer growth) of the flow. thrust. Potential flow Boundary layer 4 . Thrust deduction 3. 10KQ KT η0 J 0 1 b) Propeller Hull Interaction – Wake When a propeller operates behind the hull of a ship its hydrodynamic characteristics (i. Theoretically the interaction phenomenon is caused by 3 main effects: 1. This is mainly due to different flow conditions. Wake gain 2.K J PT K T ρn 2 D 4V K V 1 J KT TV = = = T = T = η0 = 2 5 PD 2πQn 2πK Q n D n 2π nD K Q 2πK Q 2π K Q (12) These non-dimensional parameters are used to display open water diagrams (performance) of a propeller which gives characteristics of the powering performance of a propeller.

V. δV FP - The potential flow past the hull causes an increased pressure around the stern where the streamlines are closing in. δp + AP velocity distribution. This means that. in this region. V The other definition of the wake fraction was made by Frodue as: wF = V − VA VA Wake gain or simply wake can be composed of three components: Total wake = Potential wake + Viscous (frictional) wake + Wave-making wake iPotential or Displacement Wake Component: AP FP pressure distribution. The difference between the hull speed and the VA is called wake velocity (V-VA). is different usually less than the speed of the hull. VA. 5 .As a result. The ratio of the wake velocity to the hull speed V is known as the wake fraction: wT = V − VA also known as Taylor wake fraction. the relative velocity of the flow past the hull will be less than the speed of the hull and this will appear as a forward or positive wake increasing the wake speed. average speed of water through the propeller plane.

slow to medium speed ships) or trough (i. There is a crest (i. This orbital velocity will give rise to a wake component which will be positive or negative depending upon the position of wave system in the vicinity of the propeller. while in the troughs the velocity is sternward. the wake effect is so important. fast ships) of wave system at the propeller plane. • Twin screws work mainly in potential wake therefore the wake effect is relatively less important.e. iii- Wave-making wake component: crest wave profile forward V sternward trough The ship forms a wave pattern on the water and the water particles in the wave crest have a forward velocity due to their orbital motion.ii- Frictional (Viscous) wake component boundary layer potential wake viscous wake potential wake Hull V cross-section through the boundary layer: V hull surface Vmean Because of the viscous effects: • Mean speed through the boundary layer (Vmean) less than the ship speed V.e. Since single screw propeller mainly operates in a viscous (frictional) wake. 6 . • Frictional wake ≈ 80 to 90% of the total wake effects.

05 for single screw for twin screw CB=0.60 ≈ 0.80 ≈ 0. w (wake fraction) 0.4 ≈ 0.20 0. c) twin-screw hull 7 .Wake definitions: Nominal wake: The wake in the propeller plane without the propeller action or without the presence of the propeller is known as nominal wake.65 CB=0.10 ≈ 0.25 0.05 -0.70 CB=0.50 at cruising speed at full speed Taylor’s formulae for moderate speed cargo ship for large bulk carrier for containership for twin screw ferry for high speed frigate Typical wake contours: a) U form hull. They are based on model tests and not to be regarded as absolute due to the scale effects and other factors which are neglected.05 0.85 CB=0.5 0.55CB-0. Effective wake: When the effects of the propeller in nominal wake are taken into account one talks about the effective wake.15 0.30 0.5CB-0. b) V form hull. The following figures are typical values for w.

By defining t as “thrust deduction factor”: t= ΔR T − R = T T R = T (1 − t ) The thrust deduction can be estimated by using semi-empirical formulae. It also increases with fullness. 8 . A common practice is to measure it at model scale using a stock propeller with an approximate diameter and with the required loading at the design speed. The thrust deduction depends on streamlining and propeller clearances relative to the hull and rudder. altered pressure distribution due to the propeller +Δp -Δp AP FP Δp1 + Δp1 propeller action Augment of resistance (increase) ΔR: ΔR = (Δp − Δp1 )ds where ds is the hull surface element. thereby: • • increasing the rate of shear in the boundary layer and hence increasing the frictional resistance of the hull reducing pressure over the rear of the hull and hence increasing the pressure resistance Because of the above reasons. the action of the propeller is to alter the resistance of the hull (usually to increase it) by an amount which is approximately proportional to the thrust.Thrust deduction: Propeller accelerates the flow ahead of itself. This means that the thrust (T) developed by the propeller must exceed the towed resistance of the hull (R).

6w w 0.25w+0. High turbulence level affects the lift and drag on the propeller blades and hence its efficiency. Therefore a propeller is deliberately designed for the radial variation in wake (wake adapted propellers) to achieve a further gain.14 0.7w+0.Typical values of t are given below: t (thrust deduction factor) 0. This is because: i. Level of turbulence in the flow is very low in an open water condition whilst it is very high in the wake behind the hull. ii.06 0. dL dT α β dD ωr VR VA dQ/r The relative-rotative efficiency ηR is defined as the ratio of the power delivered to a propeller producing the same thrust in open water (PD0) and in behind (PD) conditions such that: ηR = PD 0 PD where PD0: Delivered power in open water condition PD : Delivered power in behind condition or ηR = PD 0 η B Efficiency behind hull = = PD η 0 Efficiency in open water 9 . The flow behind a hull is very non-uniform so that flow conditions at each radius at the propeller plane are different from the conditions in open water case.3CB for single screw for twin screws for twin screws with bossings for twin screws with brackets for modern single screws Taylor’s formulae Relative-rotative efficiency: The efficiency of a propeller in the wake behind a hull is not the same as the propeller operating in open water.

The relationship between the propulsive efficiency ηD (or Quasi propulsive coefficient.25 for single screws 0. Typical values for hull efficiency 1− w 1.98 ≈ 1.04 depending upon the propeller type. Propulsive efficiency and propulsion factors: In power prediction. w.96 to 1.05 for twin screws η D = η H η 0η R 10 .0 ≈ 1. t and ηR are frequently referred as propulsion factors or propulsion coefficients. QPC) can be established as follows: ηD = = = PE PD PE PT PD 0 RV = η 0η R PT PD 0 PD TV A T (1 − t )V η 0η R TV (1 − w) 1− t ηD = η 0η R 1− w and 1− t = η H as hull efficiency by definition.ηR is usually ηR ≈ 0.

Summary of efficiencies in powering: ηH ηB PT T ηS PD V PB Reduction gear Main engine PE R ηD BEHIND HULL ηR PT PD0 η0 OPEN WATER ηD = ηH = ηB = ηR = η0 = ηS = PE PD PE PT PT PD PD 0 PD PT PD 0 PD PB η B = η 0η R η D = η 0η Rη H T R V PT PD PD0 PB PE η0 ηR ηB ηS ηH ηD Thrust Resistance Ship speed Thrust power Delivered power in behind hull condition Delivered power in open water condition Brake power Effective power Open water efficiency Relative-rotative efficiency Behind hull efficiency Shaft transmission efficiency Hull efficiency Propulsive efficiency 11 .

05 The basic characteristics of B-Series are such that they have: • • • • • • 250 mm diameter and rh/R is 0. Gawn-Burril (KCA) Series. Z Blade shape Blade thickness usually D fixed.167 (rh is the hub radius) constant radial pitch distribution at outer radii R small skew 15° backward rake angle with linear rake distribution a blade contour with fairly wide tips segmental tip blade sections and aerofoil sections at inner radii 12 . P Blade Area Ratio. one of the most extensive and widely used for fixed pitch. BAR Number of blades. D Pitch.c) Standard Series Propeller Data Systematic open water tests with series of model propellers were performed to form a basis for propeller design. iWageningen B propeller series: Amongst the series.3 to 1. Wageningen B and Gawn Series. P/D varied BAR & Z varied kept constant There are several series developed over the years. We will be dealing with the most acceptable two series. They have modern sections and have good performance characteristics. These are Wageningen B Series (or Troost Series). Ma Series. The series were generated from a parent form such that certain parameters influencing the performance of the propeller were varied systematically. The basic form of B-series is simple. AU Series. The family of models of fixed diameter was generated by varying: P/D Z AE/A0 0. merchant ship (slow to medium speed) model propeller series is the WAGENINGEN OR TROOST B SERIES. About 210 propellers were tested in Wageningen (today known as MARIN) model tank in the Netherlands. Schaffran Series.4 2 to 7 0. Gawn Series.5 to 1. These parameters are: Diameter.

05) For example B-4.0 0. 13 . The most widely used diagrams are KT-KQ-J diagrams Bp-Bu-δ diagrams and μ-σ-φ diagrams.4 to 2.20D no cavitation characteristics given iii- Representation of Series The representation of systematic open water diagrams may differ depending on the design options.3 to 1.y where B represents series type (B) Z represents the number of blades (2 to 7) y represents BAR=AE/A0 (0.85 ii- Gawn series This series of propellers comprised a set of 37 three-bladed propellers covering a range of pitch ratios and BAR: P/D BAR 0.2 to 1.• no consideration of cavitation Each B-Series is designated by BZ. UK and presented by Gawn.1 The entire series were tested in the No:2 towing tank at Admiralty Experimental Works (AEW) Haslar. These series have: • • • • • a diameter of 508 mm (20 inches) segmental blade sections constant blade thickness ratio si/D=0.06 a hub diameter of 0.

5 B p = 1.46 KQ J5 SI units N (rps) PD (W) Va (m/s) N (rpm) U=PT (HP) Va (knots) Thrust coefficient Bu = or NU 1 / 2 Va2.KT-KQ-J diagrams: KT = T ρn 2 D 4 KQ = Q ρn 2 D 5 In addition to the above coefficients Taylor presented the following constants with the following units: Power coefficient Bp = or 1 NPD / 2 Va2.5 N (rpm) PD (HP) Va (knots) 1 NPD / 2 Va2.5 14 .158 or N (rpm) PD (kW) Va (knots) B p = 33.

158 or Bu = 13. 15 .35 NU 1 / 2 Va2.5 KT J4 N (rpm) PD (kW) Va (knots) SI units N (rps) PD (W) Va (m/s) N (rpm) D (feet) Va (knots) SI units N (rps) D (m) Va (m/s) Advance constant δ = or ND Va 101.Bu = 1.23 J PT PD δ = Propeller efficiency η0 = Bp-δ and Bu-δ diagrams were obtained from KT-KQ-J diagrams.

16 .

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