You are on page 1of 64

SPM CHEMISTRY

REVISION MODULE
FOR THE
MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN
SPM CHEMISTRY

Panel :

1. June Ling S J SMK St Joseph, Kuching


2. Chen Soo Chien Kolej DPAH Abdilah, Kuching
3. Felix Ngui SMK Tabuan Jaya, Kuching
4. Jong Kah Yin SM Sains Kuching

Compiled and edited by :


1

Jong Kah Yin


Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

INDEX

CONTENT PAGE

1 REVISION CHECK-LIST

Form 4 4 - 10
Form 5 11 - 15

2 WRITING EQUATIONS
2.1 Charges of ions 17
2.2 Formulae of compounds 17
2.3 Reactions of Acid 18 – 19
2.4 Displacement of Metals 20
2.5 Double decomposition reaction 20
2.6 Others 21
3 CALCULATIONS

3.1 Relative Masses 23


3.2 Mole and Number of particles 24
3.3 Mole and Mass & Volume of Gases 24 – 25
3.4 Empirical and Molecular Formulae 26
3.5 Calculations involving Acids and Alkali 27 – 29
3.6 Thermochemistry 29 - 30

4 GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2


4.1 Chemical Bond – Ionic bond 32
4.2 Chemical Bond – Covalent bond 33
4.3 Preparation of Salt – Insoluble salt 34
4.4 Preparation of Salt – Soluble salt 35
4.5 Rate of Reaction 36 – 37
4.6 Heat of Combustion 38 – 39

5 WRITTEN PRACTICAL PAPER - PAPER 3

5.1 Structure Questions 41 – 47


5.2 Essay Questions 48

6 SUGGESTED ANSWERS

6.1 Guided Essay for Paper 2 50 – 57


2

58 - 64
Page

6.2 Written Practical Paper – Paper 3

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

STUDENTS’
REVISION
CHECKLIST

FOR
SPM
CHEMISTRY

By :

JONG KAH YIN


3

SM SAINS KUCHING
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 2: The Structure of the Atom
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) State the kinetic theory of matter.
State one example to support the kinetic theory of matter

2) What are atom, molecule and ion?

3) What is melting point?

4) Define proton number and nucleon number.

5) State the meaning of isotopes.

6) State the uses of isotopes such as carbon-14 and cobalt-60.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


7) Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the melting process.

8) Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the freezing process.

9) A solid compound is heated until it converts into gas. Explain the changes in energy
content, forces of attraction between the particles, and arrangement of particles.

10) State the subatomic particles of an atom.


Compare and contrast the relative atomic masses and the relative charges of the
subatomic particles of an atom.

27
11) 13 Al is the symbol of aluminium.
(a) Determine the number of neutron of aluminium.
(b) Draw the electron arrangement of aluminium.

C. Synthesis (Experiment)
12) Solid Z has a melting point of 65oC. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the
melting point of Z. Your answer should show how the melting point of Z is determined.

13) Compound W has a freezing point of 82oC. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine
the freezing point of W.

4
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 3: Chemical Formulae and Equations
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) State the meaning of relative atomic mass based on carbon-12 scale.

2) Define mole.

3) State the meaning of molar mass

4) State the meaning of molar volume of gas.

5) State the meaning of empirical formula.

6) State the meaning of molecular formula.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


7) Explain why we could not determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide by heating
copper powder in a crucible.

8) Compare and contrast empirical formula with molecular formula using ethane as an
example.

9) Vinegar is a dilute ethanoic acid with a molecular formula of CH3COOH.


(a) Find the empirical formula of ethanoic acid.
(b) Find the percentage composition by mass of carbon in ethanoic acid.

10) 3.6 g of carbon reacted with 0.8 g of hydrogen to form a compound.


(a) Determine the empirical formula of the compound formed.
(b) Given that the relative molecular mass of the compound is 88 g, find its molecular
formula.
[Relative atomic mass: C ,12; H, 1]

11) Hydrogen gas is reacted with 20 g of hot copper(II) oxide powder to produce solid copper
and water.
(a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction.
(b) Calculate the maximum mass of solid copper formed.
[Relative atomic mass: Cu, 64; O,16; H,1]

C. Synthesis (Experiment)
12) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.
Your answer should include all the precautions and calculations involved.
[Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; O,16]

5
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 4: Periodic Table of Elements
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) State the basic principle of arranging the elements in the Periodic Table from its proton
number.

2) State the physical properties of Group 1.

3) State the physical properties of Group 17.

4) State the changes in the atomic size and electronegativity of elements across Period 3.

5) State three special properties of transition elements?


B. Understanding / Application / Analysis
39
6) State the position of element 20 X in Periodic Table. Explain your answer.

7) When going across Period 3 from sodium to argon, the atomic size decreases. Explain.

8) When going across Period 3 from sodium to argon, the electronegativity increases. Explain.

9) The reactivity of Group 1 increases when going down the group. Explain.

10) The reactivity of Group 17 decreases when going down the group. Explain.

11) Why helium gas is not reactive?

12) X is an element from Group 1. X is burnt in oxygen and the product is dissolved in water.
What is the property of the solution formed? Explain.

13) Chlorine gas is dissolved in water.


What can you observe if a piece of blue litmus paper is immersed into the solution formed?
Explain.

14) W is an element from Group 1. Predict the chemical reaction of W with:


a) water,
b) Oxygen,
State the observation and write the chemical equation involve.

C. Synthesis (Experiment)
15) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of elements in Group 1: lithium,
sodium and potassium.

16) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of chlorine, bromine and iodine
in the reaction with iron wool. State the observation and write the chemical equations
involve in reactions. 6
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) What is anion?

2) What is cation?

3) State two physical properties of ionic compounds.

4) State two physical properties of covalent compounds.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


5) Explain why sodium chloride can conduct electricity in aqueous state but cannot conduct
electricity in solid state.

6) Magnesium chloride and hydrogen chloride are two compounds of chlorine. At room
condition, magnesium chloride exists as a solid but hydrogen chloride exists as a gas.
Explain why.

7) Describe the formation of ionic bond in sodium chloride, NaCl.

8) By using example, describe the formation of covalent bond between element from Group
14 and element from Group 17.

C. Synthesis
9) Draw electron arrangement of the compound formed from the following elements.
a) Nitrogen and hydrogen,
b) Carbon and oxygen,
c) Magnesium and chlorine,
d) Carbon and hydrogen,
e) Hydrogen and chlorine,
f) Sodium and oxygen.

7
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 6: Electrochemistry
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) State the meaning of electrolyte.

2) State the meaning of electrolysis.

3) State three factors affecting electrolysis of an aqueous solution.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


4) Explain why solution of hydrogen chloride in water can conduct electricity but solution of
hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene cannot conduct electricity.

5) By using example, explain how the following factors can determine the selective discharge
of ions at the electrodes.
a) Types of electrodes,
b) Concentration of the ions.

6) Describe the electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide.

7) Describe the extraction of aluminium by electrolysis.

8) Draw the structure of Daniell cell and explain how it can produce electricity.

9) Draw the structure of a dry cell and explain how it can produce electricity.

C. Synthesis
10) Describe a laboratory experiment to extract lead from lead(II) oxide by using electrolysis.

11) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that types of electrodes affect the selective
discharge of ions in electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution.

12) You are given magnesium ribbon, copper plate, magnesium nitrate solution, copper(II)
sulphate solution, connecting wires with crocodile clips, 250 cm3 beaker, voltmeter and
porous pot.
Construct a voltaic cell by using the above materials.
Explain how the voltaic cell can produce electricity. Your answer must include observation
and half equations for reaction at anode and cathode.

13) Describe a laboratory experiment to construct the electrochemical series of magnesium,


copper, zinc and lead.

8
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 7: Acids and Bases and Chapter 8: Salts
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) State the meaning of acid and alkali.

2) What is the meaning of strong acid and weak alkali?

3) What is neutralisation?

4) What is salt?

5) What is double decomposition reaction?

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


6) The pH value of solution ammonia in water is 9 but the pH value of solution of ammonia in
trichlomethane is 7. Explain why the pH values of the two solutions are different.

7) 80 cm3 of distilled water is added to 20 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 solution of HCl. Find the molarity
of the dilute solution.

8) In a titration, 40 cm3 of 0.25 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide, KOH solution is needed to
neutralise 20 cm3 of nitric acid, HNO3. Calculate the molarity of the nitric acid, HNO3.

9) Given dilute nitric acid and dilute sulphuric acid have the same concentration of
0.5 mol dm-3. In a neutralisation experiment, 20 cm3 of nitric acid is required to neutralise
20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution but only 10 cm3 of sulphuric acid is required to
neutralise 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution. Explain why.

C. Synthesis
10) Describe a chemical test to show that a given solution is an acid.

11) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide by


using titration process. You are given 0.2 moldm-3 of dilute sulphuric acid, phenolphthalein,
burette, pipette and conical flask.

12) You are given solid sodium chloride. Describe how you can prepare sodium chloride
solution of 0.2 mol dm-3 in laboratory by using 250 cm3 volumetric flask.

13) Describe the preparation of zinc sulphate .

14) Describe the preparation of lead(II) chloride.

15) Describe the preparation of potassium nitrate.

16) Solid W is a salt. Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm the presence of zinc ions
and nitrate ions in the salt

17) Solid X is a metal carbonate. Beside heating, describe chemical tests that you would carry
out to confirm that X consists of carbonate ions.
.
18) You are given four test tubes filled with solution consisting zinc ions, lead(II) ions, aluminium
ions and magnesium ions respectively. Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm the
ion that is present in each test tube.

19) You are given potassium chloride solution, lead(II) oxide powder and dilute nitric acid.
Describe how you would prepare lead(II) chloride salt from the given materials.
9

20) You are given dilute sulphuric acid, copper(II) nitrate solution and sodium carbonate
Page

solution. Describe how you would prepare copper(II) sulphate salt from the given materials.

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 9: Manufactured Substance in Industry
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) What is the meaning of alloy?
State the aims of making alloys.

2) What is the meaning of composite materials?


State the components of the following composite materials:
a) Reinforced concrete,
b) Superconductor,
c) Fibre optic,
d) Fibre glass,
e) Photochromic glass.

3) State the catalyst, temperature and pressure of the following process:


a) Contact process
b) Haber process

4) What is the meaning of polymers?


Name the monomer of polythene and polyvinyl chloride.

5) State four types of glass and their compositions. List the uses of each glass.

6) What is ceramics? State the properties and list the uses of ceramics.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


7) Bronze is an alloy consisting of copper and tin. Explain why bronze is harder than copper.

8) Explain how acid rain is formed.


Describe how acid rain causes environmental pollution.

9) Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of sulphuric acid.


Write all the chemical equations involved.

10) Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of ammonia gas.
Write all the chemical equations involved.

C. Synthesis
11) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ammonium sulphate (ammonium fertiliser)

12) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the hardness of brass and copper.

10
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 10: Rate of Reaction
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) What is rate of reaction?

2) What is stated in the collision theory?

3) What is activation energy?

4) What is effective collision?

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


5) Explain how total surface area (size of reactant) can increase the rate of reaction based on
collision theory.

6) Based on collision theory, explain how temperature can increase the rate of reaction.

7) Based on collision theory, explain how catalyst can increase the rate of reaction.

8) Explain why hydrochloric acid of 2.0 mol dm-3 is reacted faster with zinc compare to
hydrochloric acid of 0.5 mol dm-3 .

C. Synthesis
9) Hypothesis: The smaller the size of solid reactant, the higher the rate of reaction.
Describe a laboratory experiment to confirm the hypothesis by using the reaction between
calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

10) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that the presence of catalyst will increase the
rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

11) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that an increase in temperature will increase the
rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and sulphuric acid.

11
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 11: Carbon compounds
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) What is homologous series?

2) What is saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon? State an example of each of


them.

3) What is polymer? State an example of polymer and its monomer.

4) What are saturated and unsaturated fats?

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


5) Explain what is isomers and isomerism by using butane as an example.

6) Explain why ethene gas can decolourises the acidified potassium mangante(II) solution
whereas ethane cannot decolourises acidified potassium mangante(II) solution.

7) Explain why both hexane and hexane having six carbon atoms per molecule but hexene
burns with a more sooty flame than hexane

8) Pentane and propane are members from the alkane family. Explain why the melting point
of pentane is higher than propane.

9) Propanol and propanoic acid are dissolved in water. It is found that propanol solution is a
neutral but propanoic acid is an acidic solution.

10) Explain the coagulation process of latex.

11) Explain how to prevent coagulation of latex.

C. Synthesis
12) Describe a test to differential hexene and hexane.

13) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethane gas from ethanol.

14) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethanoic acid from ethanol.

15) Ethyl propanoate is a product from reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid.
(a) State two physical properties of ethyl propanoate.
(b) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethyl propanoate.
Your answer must include a diagram of the apparatus set-up and the chemical equation
involved.

16) Explain how to prepare propanoic acid from propene.


12
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 12: Oxidation and Reduction
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) What is oxidation and reduction based on loss or gain of oxygen?

2) What is oxidation and reduction based on transfer of electrons?

3) What is oxidation and reduction based on changes in oxidation number?

4) What are redox reactions? State an example of redox reactions.

5) What is oxidising agent and reducing agent? State an example of oxidising agent and
reducing agent.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


6) Determine whether the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide is a redox
reaction. Explain your answer based on changes in oxidation number.

7) Determine whether the reaction between lead(II) nitrate and copper(II) is a redox reaction.
Explain your answer based on changes in oxidation number.

8) The reaction between zinc and copper(II) sulphate solution is a redox reaction. Explain.

9) When bromine water is added to the potassium iodide solution, the solution changes colour
from colourless to brown. Explain the observation.

10) Describe the rusting of iron.

11) A mixture of copper(II) oxide and aluminium powder is heated strongly. The mixture burns
brightly. Explain this observation based on oxidation and reduction.

12) Chlorine water is added to potassium iodide solution in a test tube. 2 cm3 of 1,1,1-
trichloroethene is added to the test tube and the mixture is shaken thoroughly. The colour
of 1,1,1-trichloroethene changes from colourless to purple. Explain the observation.

C. Synthesis
13) Describe a laboratory experiment to change the oxidation number of iron from +2 to +3.
How would you confirm that iron(III) is formed?

14) Describe a laboratory experiment to change the oxidation number of iron from +3 to +2 by
using zinc.

15) Describe the extraction of iron.

16) You are given lead, zinc, copper and their oxides. Describe a laboratory experiment to
compare the reactivity of these metals toward oxygen. 13
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 12: Thermochemistry
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) What is exothermic reaction and endothermic reaction?
State an example for each reaction.

2) What is heat of precipitation?

3) What is heat of displacement?

4) What is heat of neutralisation?

5) What is heat of combustion?

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


6) Explain how exothermic reaction and endothermic are formed based on energy change
during formation and breaking of chemical bonds.

7) Explain why the heat of combustion of butanol is higher than ethanol.

8) Explain why the heat of neutralisation between strong acids and strong alkalis is a
constant, that is -57kJmol-1

9) Explain why the heat of neutralisation between ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide is less
than -57kJmol-1

10) 50 cm3 of 2 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3
hydrochloric acid. The temperature increases t oC.
a) If 100 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 100 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3
hydrochloric acid, predict the increase in temperature.

b) If 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3
hydrochloric acid, predict the increase in temperature.

c) If 50 cm3 of 4 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 4 mol dm-3
hydrochloric acid, predict the increase in temperature.

C. Synthesis
11) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of displacement of copper by zinc.

12) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of neutralisation between strong
acids and strong alkalis.

13) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of methanol.

14) “The higher the number of carbon atoms per molecule, the higher is the heat of
combustion”
Describe a laboratory experiment to prove that the above statement is true by using
methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol and pentan-1-ol.
14
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Chapter 13: Chemicals for Consumers
A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts) Check
1) What is soap?

2) What is saponification process?

3) What is detergent?

4) State the functions of each of the following additives in detergent.


a) Whitening agent(example: sodium perborate)
b) Optical whitener(fluorescent dyes)
c) Biological enzyme (Example: amylases, lipases, proteases and cellulases)
d) Fragrance

5) What is hard water?

6) State the function of each of the following food additives:


a) Preservatives ( Sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate)
b) Antioxidants (Ascorbic acid)
c) Flavourings (Monosodium glutamate (MSG), Aspartame)
d) Stabilisers
e) Thickeners

7) State the functions of the following modern medicines.


a) Analgesics ( Aspirin, Paracetamol, Codeine)
b) Antibiotics ( Penicillin, Streptomycin)
c) Psychotherapeutic medicine ( Stimulant, Antidepressant, Antipsychotic)

8) State the side effects of paracetamol and aspirin.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


9) Describe the cleansing action of soap.

10) Explain why the cleansing action of a detergent is more effective than a soap in hard water.

C. Synthesis
11) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare soap from palm oil using the saponification
process.

12) Describe a laboratory experiment to investigate the cleansing action of a soap and a
detergent in hard water.

15
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

2. WRITING EQUATIONS

2.1 FORMULAE OF IONS

2.2 CHEMICAL FORMULAE OF COMPOUNDS

2.3 REACTIONS OF ACIDS

2.4 DISPLACEMENT OF METALS

2.5 DOUBLE DECOMPOSITION REACTION

2.6 OTHERS

By :

JONG KAH YIN


16

SM SAINS KUCHING
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

2.1 Charges of cations and anions

Ions Formula Ions Formula


Ammonium ion NH4+ Nitrate ion NO3-
Carbonate ion CO32- Sulphate ion SO42-
Sulphide ion S2- Phosphate ion PO43-
Sodium ion Na+ Magnesium ion Mg2+
Oxide ion O2- Iron(II) ion Fe2+
Aluminium ion Hydroxide ions
Bromide ion Silver ions
Lead(II) ions Calcium ion

2.2 Formulae of compounds

Type of Type of particles


SUBSTANCE Formula
compound
Naphthalene C10H8 Covalent Molecules
Nitric acid HNO3 Covalent Molecules
Zinc carbonate ZnCO3 Ionic Ions
Silver chloride Ions
Magnesium Mg - Atoms
Lead(II) chloride PbCl2 Ionic Ions
Sulphur trioxide SO3 Covalent Molecules
Ammonia gas NH3 Covalent Molecules
Sulphuric acid H2SO4 Covalent Molecules
Zinc carbonate ZnCO3 Ionic Ions
Iron(II) sulphate FeSO4 Ionic Ions
Hydrogen chloride
Aluminium sulphate
Calcium hydroxide
Copper(II) nitrate
17
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

2.3 WRITING CHEMICAL/ IONIC / HALF EQUATIONS


A. Chemical Properties of Acid
2.3.1 Metal + Acid  Hydrogen + Salt
Example :
Chemical Equation : Fe + 2HCl  H2 + FeCl2
Ionic equations : Fe (s) + 2HCl (aq)  H2 (g) + FeCl2 (aq)
Fe + 2H + + 2 Cl-  H2 + Fe2+ + 2 Cl-

Half Equations : Fe  Fe2+ + 2e


2 H+ + 2e  H2

Applicable in topics :
a. Acid & Bases b. Preparation of Salts c. Rate of reaction

1. Nitric acid + Lead


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation

Half equations

2. Hydrochloric acid + Zinc


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation

Half equations

3. Sulphuric acid + Magnesium


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation

Half equations

4. Nitric acid + Aluminium


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation
18

Half equations
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

2.3.2 Acid + Base  Water + Salt

Example : H2SO4 + 2KOH  2 H2O + K2SO4


2HNO3 + ZnO  H2O + Zn(NO3)2

Applicable in topics:
a. Acid & Bases b. Preparation of salts c. Thermochemistry

5. Hydrochloric acid + Calcium oxide


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation

6. Nitric acid + Barium hydroxide


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation

7. Sulphuric acid + Sodium hydroxide

2.3.3 Acid + Metal Carbonate  Water + Carbon dioxide + Salt

Example : 2HCl + ZnCO3  H2O + CO2 + ZnCl2


Applicable in topics:
a. Acid & Bases b. Preparation of salts and qualitative analysis of salt c. Rate of reaction

8. Sulphuric acid + Sodium carbonate solution


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation

9. Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate granules


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation

10. Nitric acid + copper(II) carbonate


Chemical reaction
19

Ionic equation
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

2.4. Displacement of metal reactions


Example : Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + Zn (s)  Cu (s) + Zn(NO3)2(aq)
Applicable in topics:
1. Electrochemistry 2. Redox 3. Thermochemistry

11. Silver nitrate solution + Iron metal


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation
Half equations

12. Copper(II) sulphate solution + Magnesium metal


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation
Half equations

2.5. Double decomposition


Example : AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq)  AgCl (s) + NaNO3(aq)
Applicable in topics:
1. Salts preparation 2. Thermochemistry

13. Lead(II) nitrate solution + Potassium chloride solution


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation

14. Copper(II) nitrate solution + sodium carbonate solution


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation

15. Barium chloride solution + sulphuric acid


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation

16. Calcium nitrate solution + potassium sulphate solution


20

Chemical reaction
Ionic equation
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

2.6 Others

17. Potassium iodide solution + Bromine water


Chemical reaction
Ionic equation
Half equations

18. Magnesium + chlorine gas


Chemical reaction

Half equations

19. Complete combustion of ethanol


Chemical reaction

20. Complete combustion of propene


Chemical equation

21. Heating of zinc nitrate


Chemical Equation

22. Heating of copper(II) carbonate


Chemical Equation

21
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

3. CALCULATIONS

3.1 RELATIVE MASSES

3.2 MOLE AND NO. OF PARTICLES

3.3 MOLE AND MASS & VOLUME OF GASES

3.4 EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAE

3.5 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING ACIDS & ALKALI

3.6 THERMOCHEMISTRY

By :
22

JUNE LING S J
SMK ST JOSEPH, KUCHING
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

3.1 Calculate Relative Molecular Mass(Mr) or Relative Formula Mass(Mr) from Relative Atomic Mass(Ar)

Relative Atomic Mass of an element, Ar = Average mass of one atom of an element


1/12 x mass of one atom of carbon-12

Example 1 : How may times is one calcium atom heavier than one oxygen atom?
[RAM O,16; Ca,40]

Solution:
Mass of one Ca atom
Mass of one O atom
= 40
16
= 2.5

The mass of one Ca atom is 2.5 times heavier than one oxygen atom.

Example 2 : How may calcium atoms have the same mass as two atoms of bromine?
[RAM Br, 80]

Solution:
Mass of two atoms of bromine = 2 x 80 = 160

Number of calcium atoms = 160 = 4


40

Relative Molecular Mass of a molecule, Mr, = Average mass of one molecule ______
1/12 x mass of one atom of carbon-12

• For ionic compounds, the term Relative Formula Mass, is used in place of relative molecular
mass.

• Calculate Mr by adding up all the Ar of all the atoms present in the covalent molecule or one
formula unit of the ionic compound.

• Ar and Mr have no units.

Example 1 : Find the RMM and RFM of the following substances :

Molecular Substances Molecular Formula Relative Molecular Mass (RMM)


Oxygen O2 2(16) = 32
Hydrochloric acid HCl
Water H2O
Sulphuric acid H2SO4
Ammonia NH3

[Ar: S, 32; O, 16; H, 1; Cl, 35.5; N, 14]

Ionic Compounds Chemical Relative Formula Mass (RFM)


Formula
Sodium chloride NaCl 23 + 35.5 = 58.5
Aluminium oxide Al2O3
Calcium carbonate CaCO3
23

Hydrated Copper(II) Sulphate CuSO4.5H2O


[Ar: Na, 23; Cu, 64; Al, 27; Ca, 40; O, 16; H, 1; Cl, 35.5; S, 32]
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

3.2 The Mole and the Number of Particles

1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 number of particles.

There are three kinds of particles:


• atoms
• molecules
• ions

where n = number of moles


Number of particles = n x NA NA = Avogadro’s Constant, 6.02 x 1023

Example 1
How many zinc atoms are there in 0.5 moles of zinc powder?

Solution:
The number of zinc atoms in 0.5 moles of zinc powder = 0.5 x 6.02 x 1023
= 3.01x 1023

Example 2
(a) How many water molecules are there in a glass containing 3.5 moles of water?
(b) How many hydrogen atoms are there in the glass?

Solution:
(a) The number of water molecules in 3.5 moles of water = 3.5 x 6.02 x 1023
= 2.17 x 1024

(b) One molecule of water, H2O, contains two hydrogen atoms.


The number of hydrogen atoms in 3.5 moles of water = 2 x 3.5 x 6.02 x 1023
= 2 x 2.17 x 1024
= 4.21 x 1024

Example 3
(a) Find the number of moles of oxygen gas, O2, containing 3.01x 1023 molecules of oxygen gas.

Solution: Number of particles = n x NA


number of moles of oxygen gas, O2, n = Number of particles
NA

= 3.01x 1023
6.02 x 1023
= 0.5
Example 4
A beaker contains 0.2 moles of MgCl2. Find the total number of ions in the beaker.

Solution:
1 mole of MgCl2 gives 1mole of Mg2+ and 2 moles of Cl- ions i.e. 3 moles of ions in total.
Number of moles of ions in 0.2 moles of MgCl2 = 0.2 x 3 = 0.6
Number of ions = 0.6 X NA = 0.6 x 6.02 x 1023 = 3.61 x 1023

C) Equations for calculating the number of moles, n, in:

a) Substances
24

n = _ m____ m= mass of a subatance


Molar mass Molar mass = Ar or Mr in grams
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
b) Solutions
n = MV M = molarity in mol dm-3
V = volume of the solution in dm3

When the volume of the solution is given in cm3,

n = MV V = volume of the solution in cm3


1000

c) Gases

n= Volume of a gas volume of a gas in dm3


Molar volume Molar volume, Vm = 22.4 dm3 at STP or 24 dm3 at room conditions

Note:

Molar Mass = mass of 1 mole of a substance in gmol-1 = Ar or Mr in grams

Molar Volume = volume occupied by 1 mole of all gases


[i.e. 22.4dm3 at STP or 24dm3 at room conditions]

Review Question 1: Calculating number of moles, mass in substances. Use equations in (a) above

1. Zinc, Zn Ar = 65 Calculate
a) Mass of 1 mole b) Mass of 2 moles c) Mass of ½ moles d) Mass of 3.01 x 1023 Zn
atoms

2. Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH Mr = 23+16+1 = 40


a) Mass of 3 moles of NaOH: b) Number of moles in 20g of NaOH:

3. Carbon dioxide gas, CO2 , Mr =


a) Mass of 2.5 moles of CO2 gas: b) Number of molecules in 1.5 c) Number of atoms in 2 moles of
moles of CO2 gas: CO2 gas:

4. Sodium chloride, NaCl Mr =


a) Mass of 0.65 moles :

5. Copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 Mr =


a) Number of moles in 56.4g of copper(II) nitrate
25
Page

[Ar: Zn, 65; Na, 23; Cu, 64; O, 16; H, 1; C, 12; Cl, 35.5; N, 14]

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

Example 2: Calculate the molarity of the solution obtained when 14 g of potassium hydroxide is
completely dissolved in distilled water to make up 500cm3 of solution. [Ar: K,39 H,1; O,16]
Solution: Use equation in (b) above.
Molarity of KOH, M = n x 1000
Number of moles of KOH, n = 14 v
[39+16+1]
= 0.25 x 1000
= 0.25 500
= 0.5 mol dm-3

Example 3 Calculate the volume occupied by the following gases at STP.


i) 2 moles of carbon dioxide gas
ii) 16g of oxygen gas

Solution: Use equation in (c) above.

i) Number of moles, n = _Volume of the gas, V ii) n = mass of oxygen gas, O2


molar volume, Vm Mr of oxygen gas,O2
= 16
Volume occupied by 2 moles of CO2, V = n x Vm 32
= 2 X 22.4 = 0.5 mol
= 44 .8 dm3
Volume occupied by 16g of O2 gas, v
= n x 22.4

= 0.5 x 22.4

= 11.4 dm3
3.5 Using Empirical Formula to find Molecular Formula

Empirical Formula is the simplest whole number ratio of number of atoms of each element in the
compound.

Molecular Formula shows the actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of the
compound.

Molecular Formula = (Empirical Formula)n

% composition by mass of an element in a compound = Total mass of the element in the compound
Mr of the compound

Example 1: When 100grams of a hydrocarbon gas is analysed, it is found to contain 85.72% carbon
and 14.28% hydrogen.

Element C H
Percentage 85.72 14.28 Question gives % by mass
composition by instead of the mass of each
mass/% elements in the compound.
Per 100 g 85.72 14.28 Per 100 g
Number of moles of 85.72 = 7.14 14.28 = 14.28 Divide the mass of each element
atoms 12 1 by its molar mass
Mole ratios 7.14 = 1 14.28 = 2 Divide each number by the
7.14 7.14 smallest number
26

Simplest mole ratios 1 2 Get the simplest whole number


ratio
Page

Empirical Formula = CH2

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

Example 2: 2.58g of a hydrocarbon contains 2.16g of carbon. The relative molecular mass of the
hydrocarbon is 86. [Ar: H,1; C,12 ] Find the empirical formula and determine the molecular formula of
the hydrocarbon.

Solution:

Step 1: Find the Empirical Formula by using the table below.

Element C H
Mass of element/g 2.16 0.42 Write down the mass of the elements as
given by the question
Number of moles of 2.16 = 0.18 0.42 = 0.42 Divide the mass of each element by its
atoms 12 1 molar mass
Mole ratios 0.18 = 1 0.42 = 2.33 = 7 Divide each number by the smallest
0.18 0.18 3 number

Simplest mole ratios 3 7 Get the simplest whole number ratio

Empirical Formula = C3H7

Step 2: Find the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon

Molecular Formula = (Empirical Formula)n


= (C3H7)n

Mr = (Sum of the Ar of all atoms in the Empirical Formula) x n

86 = [ 3(12) + 7(1)] x n
n = 86 = 2
43

Molecular formula : (C3H7)2 = C6H14

3.5 Calculations in Acids and alkalis

Concentration can be expressed in two ways:

i) Concentration of a solution (g dm-3) = Mass of solute in gram/g


Volume of solvent /dm3

ii) Molarity of a solution (mol dm-3) = Number of moles of solute/mol


Volume of solvent /dm3

M n =
V
iii)Conversion between Molarity (mol dm-3) and concentration in (g dm-3):

x Molar Mass
Molarity Concentration
-3
(mol dm ) (g dm-3)
÷ Molar Mass
27
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

Example 1: Calculate:-
a)the molarity of a solution which is prepared by dissolving 0.5 mole of hydrogen chloride, HCl, in
distilled water to make up to 250 cm3 solution. [Ar: H,1; Cl,35.5 ]

Solution:
a)From n = MV
1000

M = n x 1000
V
= 0.5 x 1000
250
= 2 mol dm-3

Example 2: Find the mass of sodium hydroxide that should be dissolved in water to produce 500cm3
of 0.5 moldm3 sodium hydroxide solution? [Ar:H,1; Na,23; O,16]

Solution:
Number of moles of NaOH, n = MV
1000
= 0.5 x 500
1000
= 0.25

Mass of 0.25 moles of NaOH = number of moles x molar mass


= 0.25 x [23+16+ 1]
= 0.25 x 40
= 10g

Neutralisation

Neutralisation is a reaction between an acid and a base to form salt and water only.

Acid A + alkali B  salt and water


aA + bB  products
MA = Molarity of acid A
Then, MAVA = a MB = Molarity of alkali B
MBVB b VA = Volume of acid A
VB = Volume of alkali B
a = mole ratio of acid A to alkali B
b

Note: Make sure that VA and VB are in the same units; both in cm3 or both in dm3

Example 1: 27.50cm3 of 0.15 mol dm-3 H2SO4 completely neutralizes 25.0 cm3 of NaOH. Calculate the molarity
of the sodium hydroxide solution.

Solution:
Step 1: Write the chemical equation for neutralization:

H2SO4 + 2 NaOH  Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Step 2: List down the values given by the question for each letter in the formula:
28

MAVA MA = 0.15 mol dm3 MB = ?


= a
VA = 27.50 cm3 VB = 25.0cm3
Page

MBVB b
a =1
b 2
REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY
SPM CHEMISTRY

Step 3: Rearrange the formula above. Substitute the values into the formula to calculate the required
molarity.

Molarity of NaOH, MB = b x MAVA = 2 x 0.15 x 27.50


a VB 1 25.0
= 0.33 mol dm3

Review Question 1: Repeat the above reaction by using 0.15 moldm3 hydrochloric acid, HCl. Find the volume
of the acid required to completely neutralize 25.0cm3 of 0.33 mol dm3 of NaOH solution. (Ans: 55.00cm3; note
that HCl is a monoprotic acid whereas H2SO4 is a diprotic acid )

Preparation of a solution by dilution method

Moles of solute before dilution = moles of solute after dilution


M1 = molarity of the solution before water is added
M1V1 = M2V2 V1 = volume of the solution before water is added
M2 = molarity of the solution after water is added
V2 = volume of the solution after water is added
Note: Make sure that V1 and V2 are of the same unit.

Example 1: Calculate the volume of 2.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4, needed to prepare 2.5 dm3 of 0.5 mol
dm-3 of the same acid solution.
M1 = 2.0 mol dm-3 V1 = ?
M1V1 = M2V2 M2 = 0.5 mol dm-3 V2 = 2.5 dm3

V1 = M2V2 = 0.5 x 2.5 = 0.625 dm3 or 62.5cm3


M1 2.0

Review questions:
1. Find the volume of 2.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4, needed to prepare 100 cm3 0.5 mol dm3 sulphuric
acid. (Ans: 25cm3)

2. 200 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4, is poured into a 250 cm3 volumetric flask. Distilled water is
then added to make 250 cm3 of solution. What is the molarity of the diluted acid solution?
(Ans: 0.8 mol dm-3)

3.6 Calculations in Thermochemistry


Calculate:
• heat of precipitation, ∆Hppt
• heat of displacement, ∆Hdisp
• heat of neutralization, ∆Hneut (exothermic)
• heat of combustion, ∆Hcomb (exothermic)

Step 1: Write the chemical equation for the reaction


Step 2: Calculate H= mcθ m= total mass of solution or water/g
c = specific heat capacity of water= 4.2J g-1 0C-1
θ = temperature change/0C
H = heat released or absorbed in joules.

Step 3 : Calculate number of moles, n, of the products formed in displacement, precipitation neutralization
reactions and the number of moles of the reactant burnt in combustion.

Step 4: ∆H = ___H___ Units of ∆H is in KJ mol-1 but units for H is in J


29

n x 1000 Add a negative sign in front of ∆H for exothermic reaction and a


positive sign in front of ∆H for endothermic reaction.
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

Example 1: When 100cm3 of 2.0mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution is added to 100 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3
potassium sulphate solution, the temperature of the mixture increases by 9 0C. What is the heat of
precipitation?

Step 1: Write the chemical equation for the precipitation reaction:-

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + K2SO4(aq)  PbSO4 (s) + 2KNO3(aq)

Step 2: Calculate H= mcθ m = total mass of solution = (100+100) cm3


= 200x4.2x 9 c = specific heat capacity of water = 4.2J g-1 0C-1
= 7560J θ = temperature change/0C = 9 0C

Step 3 : Calculate number of moles, n, which is the same for both reacting solutions:

n = MV = 2.0 x 100 = 0.2


1000 1000

Step 4 : ∆H = ___H___
n x 1000

= 7560___
0.2 x 1000
= 37.8 kJ mol-1

Example 2: When 30 g of butane C4H10 is completely burnt in air, the heat energy released increases the
temperature of 500 cm3 of water by 70 0C. Find the heat of combustion of butane.

Step 1:Calculate H= mcθ


= 500 x 4.2 x 70
= ? J

Step 2 : Calculate number of moles, n of butane.


Mr [C4H10] = 4(12) + 10(1) = 58

Number of moles of butane = mass___


Molar mass
= _____?_______

Step 3 : ∆H = ___H___
n x 1000

= ?______
_?_ x 1000
= ___________kJ mol-1 (Remember to add the negative sign for exothermic reaction)

(Answer: - 284.33 kJ mol-1)

Review Question: 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 nitric acid is added to 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide. The
temperature of the mixture increases by 6.5 0C. Calculate the heat of neutralization of the solution.
( Ans: - 54.6 kJ mol-1 )
30
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

4. GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2

4.1 CHEMICAL BOND – IONIC BOND


4.2 CHEMICAL BOND – COVALENT BOND
4.3 PREPARATION OF SALT – INSOLUBLE SALT
4.4 PREPARATION OF SALT – SOLUBLE SALT
4.5 RATE OF REACTION
4.6 HEAT OF COMBUSTION

By :
31

CHEN SOO CHIEN


KOLEJ DPAH ABDILLAH, KUCHING
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

4.1 CHEMICAL BONDS: IONIC BOND

Guided Exercise Exercise


1. 2.
Element Proton number Element Proton number
A 3 C 12
B 9 D 8
The reaction between atoms A and B forms an The reaction between atoms C and D forms an
ionic compound. ionic compound.

(i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed. (i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed.
(ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the
compound formed. compound formed.

Answer: Answer:

(i) ……….. A has electron arrangement of ……..


To achieve the …………. electron arrangement //
……….. arrangement, atom A …………. one
valence electron and a …………… ion, A+ is
formed.
[A → ]

………… B has electron arrangement of ………..


To achieve the …………. electron arrangement //
………… arrangement, atom B ………….. one
electron and a ……………… ion, B- is formed.

[B → ]

A+ and B- ions are attracted to each other by


electrostatic forces to form an ionic compound
AB.

(ii)

32
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

4.2 CHEMICAL BONDS: COVALENT BOND

Guided Exercise Exercise


1. 2.
Element No of protons Element No of protons
N 7 C 6
H 1 Cl 17
The reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen The reaction between carbon and chlorine atoms
atoms forms a covalent compound. forms a covalent compound.

(i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed. (i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed.
(ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the
compound formed. compound formed.

Answer: Answer:

A nitrogen ……….. has electron arrangement of


…………. // A nitrogen atom has ………… valence
electrons.
A nitrogen atom needs ………. more electrons to
achieve the …………. electron arrangement //
………… arrangement.

A hydrogen …………. has electron arrangement of


…………. // A hydrogen atom has ………….
valence electron.
Each hydrogen atom needs ……….. more electron
to achieve the …………. electron arrangement //
………… arrangement.

Each of the three hydrogen atoms contributes


………… electron and one nitrogen atom
contributes ………… electrons for ……………….
to form a covalent compound, NH3

33
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

4.3 PREPARATION OF SALT: INSOLBULE SALT

Guided Exercise Exercise


1. 2.
Describe the preparation of lead(II) chloride in the Describe the preparation of calcium sulphate in
laboratory. In your description, include the the laboratory. In your description, include the
chemical equation involved. chemical equation involved.

Answer: Answer:

Substances:
……………………………………solution,
……………………………………solution,
……………………. water

Apparatus:
…………………. cylinder, beaker, filter funnel,
filter ……………

Procedure:
1. ……… 50 cm3 of ……. mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate
solution into a beaker.
2. Add ……… cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium
chloride solution.
3. ………… the mixture with a glass rod.
4. …………. the mixture.
5. …………. the salt / precipitate with distilled
water.
6. ………. the salt by pressing between pieces of
filter paper.

Equation:
Pb(NO3)2 + NaCl → +

34
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

4.4 PREPARATION OF SALT: SOLUBLE SALT

Guided Exercise Exercise


1. 2.
Describe the preparation of copper(II) sulphate in Describe the preparation of zinc nitrate in the
the laboratory. In your description, include the laboratory. In your description, include the
chemical equation involved. chemical equation involved.

Answer:

Substances:
……………… acid, copper(II) ……………… //
copper(II) …………….. // copper(II) …………….
powder, …………….. water

Apparatus:
……………… cylinder, beaker, spatula, ………..
rod, ….……………….. dish, ………….. burner,
tripod stand, wire gauze, filter …………., filter
paper

Procedure:
1. ……… 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid
into a beaker. ………… the sulphuric acid.
2. Use a spatula to add ………………… powder
a little at a time into the acid. ……….. the
mixture with a glass rod.
3. Continue adding copper(II) oxide until some of
it no longer …………….
4. …………. the solution into an evaporating dish
to remove the unreacted copper(II) oxide.
5. ………… the solution until the final volume is
1/3 the initial volume // to produce a saturated
solution.
6. ……….. the saturated solution until crystals
are formed.
7. ………….. the solution to obtain the copper(II)
sulphate crystals.
8. …………… the crystals with a little …………
distilled water.
9. ………….. the crystals by pressing between 2
pieces of …………… paper.

Equation:
CuO + H2SO4 → +
35
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

4.5 RATE OF REACTION :

Guided Exercise Exercise


1. 2.
Experiment I Experiment II Experiment I Experiment II
Reactants: Reactants: Reactants: Reactants:
100 cm3 of 100 cm3 of 50 cm3 of 50 cm3 of
0.5 mol dm-3 HCl, 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl, 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 ,
excess CaCO3 chips excess CaCO3 chips excess granulated excess zinc powder
zinc
Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I
and II. Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I
(i) Which experiment has a higher rate of and II.
reaction? (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of
(ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to reaction?
the collision theory. (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to
the collision theory.

Answer: Answer:

(i) Rate of reaction in Experiment ……. is higher (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment …….is higher
than Experiment ………… than Experiment ………...

(ii) The concentration of acid / …………. ions in (ii) In Experiment II, zinc powder has a …………
in Experiment II is ……….. than Experiment I. total surface area exposed to ………………..
than granulated zinc in Experiment I.
The number of H+ ions per unit ……….. in
Experiment II is ………….. than Experiment I. Frequency of collision between ………… ions
and …………….. atoms in Experiment II is
Frequency of collision between ………… ions …………… than in Experiment I.
and………………..in Experiment II is ………...
than in Experiment I. Frequency of……………….. collision in
Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.
Frequency of……………….. collision in
Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.

36
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

Guided Exercise Exercise


3. 4.
Experiment I Experiment II Experiment I Experiment II
Reactants: Reactants: Reactants: Reactants:
50 cm3 of 50 cm3 of 50 cm3 of 50 cm3 of
0.1 mol dm-3 sodium 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 ,
thiosulphate solution, thiosulphate solution, excess zinc powder excess zinc powder
5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 CuSO4 solution
sulphuric acid, sulphuric acid,
Temperature: 30 oC Temperature: 45 oC
Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I
and II.
Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I
and II. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of
(i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction?
reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to
(ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory.
the collision theory.

Answer: Answer:
(i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is ……………
(i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is ………… than Experiment I.
than Experiment I.
(ii) Copper(II) sulphate solution in Experiment II
(ii) ……………… of reaction in Experiment II is acts as a …………….. whereas no catalyst is
higher than Experiment I used in Experiment I

…………. energy of H+ ions and S2O32- ions In Experiment II, the presence of catalyst
in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. enables the reaction to take place through an
…………… path which requires a ………….
The H+ ions move ………. and ………. more activation energy.
often with S2O32- ions in Experiment II is
than in Experiment I. In Experiment II, more …………….. ions
and ................ atoms are able to achieve
Frequency of …………….. between ………. the ……………… activation energy than
ions and ………………. ions in Experiment II Experiment I.
is higher than Experiment I.
Frequency of ………………….. collision in
Frequency of …………………. collision in Experiment II is ………….than in Experiment I.
Experiment II is ……….. than in Experiment I.
.
37
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

4.6 HEAT OF COMBUSTION

Heat of combustion is the heat change when one mole of alcohol is completely
burnt in oxygen under standard conditions.

Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of ethanol, C2H5OH.


In your description, include the following:
[Relative atomic mass : C=12 ; O=16 ; H=1]

o diagram showing the set-up of apparatus


o procedures of the experiment
o tabulation of data
o calculation to obtain the heat of combustion
o Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate result
Answer:

thermometer
Wind
shield Copper can

water

Tripod
stand
ethanol
Spirit p
Wooden block

Procedure:
1. Measure 100 cm3 of ………… and pour into a ………….. can. The copper can is placed
on a tripod stand.
2. Record the ………….. temperature of the water.
3. Weigh a spirit lamp with …………… and record its ……….
4. Place the spirit lamp under the ……….. can and …….… the wick of the lamp immediately.
5. …………… the water in the can continuously throughout the experiment
6. Put out the flame when the temperature of the water …………… by about 30 0C
7. Record the …………… temperature reached by the water.
8. Weigh the spirit lamp and its content ………………… and record the mass.

Tabulation of Data:

The highest temperature of …………. / oC T2

The initial temperature of ………… / oC T1

…………… of spirit lamp and its content after burning / g m2


38

………….. of spirit lamp and its content before burning / g m1


Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

Calculation steps:

Increase in temperature of water = ……………… oC

Mass of ethanol burnt = ……………… g

m
Number of mole of C2H5OH = 46 = n

The heat energy given out during combustion by ethanol = the heat energy absorbed by water
= mcθ

= …………….. = x J

Heat of combustion of ethanol, ∆H = - mcθ J mol-1


n

= ………….. J mol-1

Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate result:

1. Make sure the flame touches the ………….. of the copper can // Place the spirit lamp very
close or just beneath the ………….. of the copper can.
2. Stir the water in the copper can ………………. throughout the experiment.
3. ………… the spirit lamp and its content …………………. when the flame has been put out.
4. Use a wind ………… during experiment.

[Any two]

39
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

5. WRITTEN PRACTICAL PAPER – PAPER 3

5.1 STRUCTURE QUESTIONS


5.2 ESSAY QUESTIONS

By :
40

FELIX NGUI
SMK TABUAN JAYA , KUCHING
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Answer all the questions.

The time suggested for answering Question 1 is 45 minutes.

1 A student carried out an experiment to construct the electrochemical series by measuring


the voltage of copper and metal T in a simple voltaic cell as shown in Diagram 1.1. The
experiment is repeated by replacing metal T with metals P, Q, R and S.

Cu T

Copper(II) sulphate
solution

DIAGRAM 1.1

The voltmeter readings for each pair of metals are shown in Diagram 1.2

DIAGRAM 1.2

(a) Based on Diagram 1.2, record the voltmeter readings for each pair of metals in Table 1.1.

Pair of metals Negative terminal Voltage / V


Cu and P P
Cu and Q Q
Cu and R Cu
Cu and S S
Cu and T Cu
41

TABLE 1.1
Page

[3 marks]

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

(b) Based on the voltmeter readings, arrange the metals Cu, P, Q, R, S and T in descending
order of electropositivity.

_________ _________ _________ _________ _________ ________

Descending order of electropositivity of metal.


[3 marks]

(c) Complete Table 1.2 for the experiment.

Variables Action to be taken


(i) Manipulated variable: (i) The way to manipulate variable:

........................................................... .................................................................

........................................................... ................................................................

(ii) Responding variable: (ii) What to observe in the responding


variable:

…………………………….............. .................................................................

…………………………….............. .................................................................

(iii) Controlled variable: (iii) The way to maintain the controlled


variable:

.......................................................... .................................................................

…………………………………...... .................................................................

TABLE 1.2 [6 marks]

(d) State a hypothesis for this experiment.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
[3 marks ]
42
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

(e) State three observations and corresponding inferences that can be obtained from the cell
in Diagram 1.1(Cu and metal T).

Observation Inference

1 …………………………………….. 1 ……………………………………..

………………………………………. ……………………………………….

………………………………………. ……………………………………….

2 ……………………………….……. 2 ……………………………………..

………………………………….…… ……………………………………….

………………………………………. ……………………………………….

3 …………………………………….. 3 ……………………………………..

………………………………………. ……………………………………….

………………………………………. ……………………………………….

[6 marks]

(f) Predict the voltage of the cells which contain the following pair of metals..

Pair of metals Voltage/ V


P and S
P and T
Q and R

[3 marks]

(g) Classify metals P, Q, R, S and T into more electropositive than copper and less
electropositive than copper. Write your answers in the table provided. 43

[3 marks]
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

(h) Explain why the voltage of cell of copper and metal S is larger than the cell of copper and
metal P.

……………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………...
[3 marks]

(i) Another example of a chemical cell is Daniell Cell. Draw the apparatus set-up of the
Daniell Cell of copper and metal T.

[3 marks]

44
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

2. A student carried out an experiment to investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of
reaction. He poured 50cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution into a 250 cm3 conical
flask. The conical flask was then placed on a mark “X” on a piece of white paper.

10.0 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid was added to the sodium thiosulphate solution and
shaken. At the same time, the stopwatch was started. The stopwatch was stopped as soon as
the mark “X” on the piece of white paper was no longer visible.

The student repeated the experiment using sodium thiosulphate solution with the concentration
of 1.0 mol dm-3, 1.5 mol dm-3, 2.0 mol dm-3 and 2.5 mol dm-3 .

Diagram 2 shows the readings of the stopwatch for each of the reactions at different
concentrations.

Diagram 2
45

(a) Record the time for each reaction in the spaces provided in Diagram 2.
Page

[3 marks]

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

(b) 1
Construct a table and record the concentration, time and of this experiment.
time
[3 marks]

(c) State the operational definition for rate of reaction for this experiment.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..
[3 marks]
1
(d) (i) Draw a graph of concentration against time on a graph paper.
[3 marks]

(ii) Using the graph drawn in (b)(i), state the relationship between concentration and the
rate of reaction.
……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..
[3 marks]

(e) Predict the time taken for the mark “X” to be no longer visible if the experiment is
repeated using 3.0 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..
[3 marks]
(f) State one observation for the experiment. Explain your answer.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..
46

[3 marks]
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
(g) Suggest a hypothesis for this experiment.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..
[3 marks]

(h) Variables Action to be taken


(i) Manipulated variable: (i) The way to manipulate variable:

........................................................... ......................................................................

........................................................... .......................................................................

(ii) Responding variable: (ii) What to observe in the responding


variable:

……………………………............... .......................................................................

……………………………............... …...................................................................

(iii) Controlled variable: (iii) The way to maintain the controlled


variable:

……………………………………. …………………………………………….

…………………………………….. ……………………………………………..

[6 marks]

(i) The relationship between concentration and rate of reaction can be applied in our daily
life. Using your knowledge of chemistry, explain why fanning glowing charcoal will
cause the charcoal to ignite.
……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..
[3 marks]
47
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

3.
“If iron is exposed to oxygen and water, rusting will occur but if iron is in contact
with a more electropositive metal, rusting is inhibited. “

Plan a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of other metals on the rusting of iron.
Your planning should include the following aspects:

(a) Statement of the problem


(b) All the variables
(c) Statement of the hypothesis
(d) List of substances and materials
(e) Procedure of the experiment
(f) Tabulation of data
(17 marks)

4. “Vulcanised rubber is more elastic than unvulcanised rubber.”

Plan a laboratory experiment to compare the elasticity of vulcanised rubber and unvulcanised
rubber. Your planning should include the following aspects:

(a) Statement of the problem


(b) All the variables
(c) Statement of the hypothesis
(d) List of substances and materials
(e) Procedure of the experiment
(f) Tabulation of data
(17 marks)

5.
“Soaps and detergents are cleansing agents but their effectiveness
in hard water is different.”

In an experiment to compare the effectiveness of a soap and a detergent in hard water.


Your planning should include the following aspects:

(a) Statement of the problem


(b) All the variables
(c) Statement of the hypothesis
(d) List of substances and materials
(e) Procedure of the experiment
(f) Tabulation of data
(17 marks)
48
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

6. SUGGESTED ANSWERS

6.1 GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2

6.2 WRITTEN PRACTICAL PAPER

49
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

6.1 GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2

6.1.1 CHEMICAL BONDS: IONIC BOND

Guided Exercise Exercise


1. 2.
Element Proton number Element Proton number
A 3 C 12
B 9 D 8
The reaction between atoms A and B forms an The reaction between atoms C and D forms an
ionic compound. ionic compound.

(i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed. (i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed.
(ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the
compound formed. compound formed.

Answer: Answer:
(i) Atom A has electron arrangement of 2.1. (i) Atom C has electron arrangement of 2.8.2
To achieve the stable electron arrangement // To achieve the stable electron arrangement //
duplet arrangement, atom A donates one octet arrangement, atom C donates two valence
valence electron and a positive ion, A+ is formed. electrons and a positive ion, C2+ is formed.
[ A → A+ + e ] [ C → C2+ + 2e ]

Atom B has electron arrangement of 2.7. Atom D has electron arrangement of 2.6.
To achieve the stable electron arrangement // To achieve the stable electron arrangement //
octet arrangement, atom B receives one octet arrangement, atom C receives two
electron and a negative ion, B- is formed. electrons and a negative ion, D2- is formed.
[ B + e → B- ] [ D + 2e → D2- ]

A+ and B- ions are attracted to each other by C2+ and D2- ions are attracted to each other by
electrostatic forces to form an ionic compound electrostatic forces to form an ionic compound
AB. CD.

(ii) _ (ii) 2+ 2-
+
_
XX XX XX
X X X X
X X X X X X
X X X X X X
X X X X
XX XX XX

A+ B- C2+- D2--

50
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

6.1.2 CHEMICAL BONDS: COVALENT BOND

Guided Exercise Exercise


1. 2.
Element Proton number Element Proton number
N 7 C 6
H 1 Cl 17
The reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen The reaction between carbon and chlorine atoms
atoms forms a covalent compound. forms a covalent compound.

(i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed (i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed
(ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the
compound formed. compound formed.

Answer: Answer:
A nitrogen atom has electron arrangement of 2.5 A carbon atom has electron arrangement of 2.4 //
// A nitrogen atom has five valence electrons. A carbon atom has four valence electrons.
A nitrogen atom needs three more electrons to A carbon atom needs four more electrons to
achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet
arrangement. arrangement.

A hydrogen atom has electron arrangement of 1 A chlorine atom has electron arrangement of
// A hydrogen atom has one valence electron. 2.8.7 // A chlorine atom has seven valence
Each hydrogen atom needs one more electron to electrons.
achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet Each chlorine atom needs one more electron to
arrangement. achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet
arrangement.
Each of the three hydrogen atoms contributes
one electron and one nitrogen atom contributes Each of the four chlorine atoms contributes one
three electrons for sharing to form a covalent electron and one carbon atom contributes four
compound, NH3 electrons for sharing to form a covalent
compound, CCl4

XX
XX
H XX
X
XX
XX XX Cl XX
X X
X X
H X
NN X
H XX XX XX
XX XX XX
X X X
XX XX X X XX
X XX
XX Cl X X C X X Cl X X
X X X
XX XX XX
XX XX XX
X
XX XX
X X Cl X X
X
XX
XX
51
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

6.1.3 PREPARATION OF SALT: INSOLBULE SALT

Guided Exercise Exercise


1. 2.
Describe the preparation of lead(II) chloride in the Describe the preparation of calcium sulphate in
laboratory. In your description, include the the laboratory. In your description, include the
chemical equation involved. chemical equation involved.

Answer: Answer:

Substances: Substances:
Lead(II) nitrate solution, sodium chloride solution, Calcium nitrate solution, sodium sulphate solution,
distilled water distilled water

Apparatus: Apparatus:
Measuring cylinder, beaker, filter funnel, filter Measuring cylinder, beaker, filter funnel, filter
paper paper

Procedure: Procedure:
1. Pour 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate 1. Pour 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 calcium nitrate
solution into a beaker. solution into a beaker.
2. Add 100 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium chloride 2. Add 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium sulphate
solution. solution.
3. Stir the mixture with a glass rod. 3. Stir the mixture with a glass rod.
4. Filter the mixture. 4. Filter the mixture.
5. Rinse / wash the salt / precipitate with distilled 5. Rinse / wash the salt / precipitate with distilled
water. water.
6. Dry the salt by pressing between 2 pieces of 6. Dry the salt by pressing between 2 pieces of
filter paper. filter paper.

Equation: Equation:
Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → PbCl2 + 2NaNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 → CaSO4 + 2NaNO3

52
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

6.1.4 PREPARATION OF SALT: SOLUBLE SALT (NOT Na+, K+ OR NH4+ SALT)

Guided Exercise Exercise


1. 2.
Describe the preparation of copper(II) sulphate in Describe the preparation of zinc nitrate in the
the laboratory. In your description, include the laboratory. In your description, include the
chemical equation involved. chemical equation involved.

Answer: Answer:

Substances: Substances:
Sulphuric acid, copper(II) oxide // copper(II) Nitric acid, zinc // zinc oxide // zinc carbonate //
carbonate // copper(II) hydroxide powder, zinc hydroxide powder, distilled water
distilled water

Apparatus: Apparatus:
Measuring cylinder, beaker, spatula, glass rod, Measuring cylinder, beaker, spatula, glass rod,
evaporating dish, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, evaporating dish, Bunsen burner, tripod stand,
wire gauze, filter funnel, filter paper wire gauze, filter funnel, filter paper

Procedure: Procedure:
1. Pour 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid 1. Pour 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 nitric acid
into a beaker. Warm the sulphuric acid. into a beaker. Warm the nitric acid.
2. Use a spatula to add copper(II) oxide powder 2. Use a spatula to add zinc oxide powder
a little at a time into the acid. Stir the mixture a little at a time into the acid. Stir the mixture
with a glass rod. with a glass rod.
3. Continue adding copper(II) oxide until some of 3. Continue adding zinc oxide until some of
it no longer dissolves. it no longer dissolves.
4. Filter the solution into an evaporating dish to 4. Filter the solution into an evaporating dish to
remove the unreacted copper(II) oxide. remove the unreacted zinc oxide.
5. Heat the solution until the final volume is 1/3 5. Heat the solution until the final volume is 1/3
the initial volume // to produce a saturated the initial volume // to produce a saturated
solution. solution.
6. Cool the saturated solution until crystals are 6. Cool the saturated solution until crystals are
formed. formed.
7. Filter the solution to obtain the copper(II) 7. Filter the solution to obtain the zinc nitrate
sulphate crystals. crystals.
8. Rinse the crystals with a little cold distilled 8. Rinse the crystals with a little cold distilled
water. water.
9. Dry the crystals by pressing between 2 pieces 9. Dry the crystals by pressing between 2 pieces
of filter paper. of filter paper.

Equation: Equation:
CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O ZnO + 2HNO3 → Zn(NO3)2 + H2O
53
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

6.1.5 RATE OF REACTION :

Guided Exercise Exercise


1. 2.
Experiment I Experiment II Experiment I Experiment II
Reactants: Reactants: Reactants: Reactants:
100 cm3 of 100 cm3 of 50 cm3 of 50 cm3 of
0.5 mol dm-3 HCl, 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl, 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 ,
excess CaCO3 chips excess CaCO3 chips excess granulated excess zinc powder
zinc
Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I
and II. Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I
(i) Which experiment has a higher rate of and II.
reaction? (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of
(ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to reaction?
the collision theory. (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to
the collision theory.

Answer: Answer:

(i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher
than Experiment I. than Experiment I.

(ii) The concentration of acid / hydrogen ions in (ii) In Experiment II, zinc powder has a larger
in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. total surface area exposed to collision than
granulated zinc in Experiment I.
The number of H+ ions per unit volume in
Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. Frequency of collision between H+ ions and
zinc atoms in Experiment II is higher than in
Frequency of collision between H+ ions and Experiment I.
CaCO3 in Experiment II is higher than in
Experiment I. Frequency of effective collision in
Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.
Frequency of effective collision in
Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.

54
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

Guided Exercise Exercise


3. 4.
Experiment I Experiment II Experiment I Experiment II
Reactants: Reactants: Substances: Substances:
50 cm3 of 50 cm3 of 50 cm3 of 50 cm3 of
0.1 mol dm-3 sodium 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 ,
thiosulphate solution, thiosulphate solution, excess zinc powder excess zinc powder,
5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 CuSO4 solution
sulphuric acid, sulphuric acid,
Temperature: 30 oC Temperature: 45 oC
Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I
and II.
Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of
and II. reaction?
(i) Which experiment has a higher rate of (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to
reaction? the collision theory.
(ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to
the collision theory.

Answer: Answer:

(i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher
than Experiment I. than Experiment I.

(ii) Temperature of reaction in Experiment II is (ii) Copper(II) sulphate solution in Experiment II


higher than Experiment I acts as a catalyst whereas no catalyst is used
in Experiment I
Kinetic energy of H+ ions and S2O32- ions in
Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. In Experiment II, the presence of catalyst
enables the reaction to take place through an
The H+ ions move faster and collide more alternative path which requires a lower
often with S2O32- ions in Experiment II is activation energy.
than in Experiment I.
In Experiment II, more H+ ions and zinc
+
Frequency of collision between H ions and atoms are able to achieve the lower
S2O32- ions in Experiment II is higher than in activation energy than Experiment I.
Experiment I.
Frequency of effective collision in
Frequency of effective collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.
Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.

55
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
6.1.6 HEAT OF COMBUSTION

Heat of combustion is the heat change when one mole of alcohol is completely
burnt in oxygen under standard conditions.

Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of ethanol, C2H5OH.


In your description, include the following:
[Relative atomic mass : C=12 ; O=16 ; H=1]

o diagram showing the set-up of apparatus


o procedures of the experiment
o tabulation of data
o calculation to obtain the heat of combustion
o Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate result
Answer:

Thermometer
Wind shield
Copper can

water

Pipe clay triangle


ethanol
Spirit lamp
Wooden block

Procedure:
1. Measure 100 cm3 of water and pour into a copper can. The copper can is placed on a
tripod stand.
2. Record the initial temperature of the water.
3. Weigh a spirit lamp with ethanol and record its mass.
4. Place the spirit lamp under the copper can and light the wick of the lamp immediately.
5. Stir the water in the can continuously throughout the experiment.
6. Put out the flame when the temperature of the water increases by about 30 0C.
7. Record the highest temperature reached by the water.
8. Weigh the spirit lamp and its content immediately and record the mass.

Tabulation of Data:

The highest temperature of water / oC T2

The initial temperature of water / oC T1

Mass of spirit lamp and its content after burning / g m2


56

Mass of spirit lamp and its contents before burning / g m1


Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Calculation steps:

Increase in temperature of water = (T2 - T1) oC

Mass of ethanol burnt = (m1 - m2) g

m
Number of mole of C2H5OH = 46 = n

The heat energy given out during combustion by ethanol = the heat energy absorbed by water
= mcθ
= mc(T2-T1) = x J

Heat of combustion of ethanol, ∆H = - mcθ J mol-1


n

= - x J mol-1
n

Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate results:

1. Make sure the flame touches the base of the copper can // Place the spirit lamp very close
or just beneath the base of the copper can.
2. Stir the water in the copper can continuously throughout the experiment.
3. Weigh the spirit lamp and its content immediately when the flame has been put out.
4. Use a wind shield during experiment.

[Any two]

57
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

6.2 MARKING SCHEME CHEMISTRY PAPER 3

Question Rubric Score


1(a) [Able to record all the five readings accurately]:
Suggested answer:
Pairs of electrodes Voltage/V

Cu and P 1.5
3
Cu and Q 1.7

Cu and R 0.5

Cu and S 2.3

Cu and T 1.2

1 (b) [Able to arrange the position of all metals in descending order of


electropositivity correctly]
Suggested answer: 3
S, Q, P, Cu, R, T
1 (c)
[Able to state three variables and the way to control them correctly]
Suggested answer:
Manipulated variable: Substituting the electrode T with
different metals //
Pair of metals
P, Q, R, S and T
Responding variable: Reading of the voltmeter// 6
voltage
Voltmeter reading

Controlled variable:
Electrolyte / copper(II) sulphate Use the same electrolyte /
solution // concentration and concentration of electrolyte /
volume of electrolyte // CuSO4 //

same voltmeter // use the same voltmeter //


copper electrode use copper electrode in all
experiments.

1 (d)
[Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable and the
responding variable and the direction correctly]
Suggested answer: 3
The further apart / the distance of the pair of metals in the electrochemical
58

series, the higher is the voltage / the voltmeter reading.


Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Question Explanation Maximum
score
1(e)
[Able to state three observations and three inferences correctly]
Observation Inference
1. Copper strip / rod / metal Copper is oxidised / loses electron
dissolves / becomes thinner to form copper(II) ion // Copper is
more electropositive than P.
6
2. Brown solid is deposited at Copper is formed // Cu2+ is reduced
metal T to copper

3. The intensity of the blue The concentration of Cu2+ in the


coloured solution remains solution remain unchanged // the
rate of Cu2+ formed at anode is the
unchanged
same as the rate of discharge of
Cu2+ at the cathode.

[Able to predict the voltage of the three cells accurately]


1(f)
Suggested answer:
Pair of metals Voltage/ V 3
P and S 0.8
P and T 2.7
Q and R 2.4

1(g) [Able to classify all the metals correctly]


Suggested answer: 3
More electropositive Less electropositive
P, Q, S R, T

[Able to explain the difference in the voltage of the cell]


1(h)
Suggested answer: 3
The distance between Cu and metal S is further / greater than the distance
between Cu and metal P in the electrochemical series.
[Able to draw the labeled apparatus set-up completely]
Suggested answer:
1(i)

3
Copper Metal T

Copper(II) T nitrate
sulphate solution
59

solution
Page

Salt bridge

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Question Rubric Score
2 (a)
[Able to record all the five readings accurately to one decimal point]: 3
t1 = 55.0 s, t2 = 48.0 s, t3 = 42.0 s, t4 = 37.0 s, t5 = 33.0 s,
(b)
[Able to construct a table and transfer all the five readings from (a) correctly
1
with unit for each heading.. The values for must be given to three
time
decimal places].
Concentration / Time / s 1
/ s-1
mol dm-3 time
3
0.5 55.0 0.018
1.0 48.0 0.021
1.5 42.0 0.024
2.0 37.0 0.027
2.5 33.0 0.030
(c) [Able to give the operational definition correctly]
Rate of reaction is inversely proportional to the time taken for the mark 3
1
“X” to be no longer visible // Rate of reaction ∝
time
(d) [ Able to do the following:
• Draw a graph of suitable size / using suitable scale (occupying about
75% of graph paper)
1 3
• Label the axes concentration / mol dm-3 and / s-1
time
• Plot the five points correctly from the table constructed in (b)
• Draw a straight line (linear) graph ]
(i) concentration / mol dm-3
0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01
60

1
0 / s-1
Page

time
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY
SPM CHEMISTRY

(d) [ Able to state the relationship between concentration and the


rate of reaction correctly]
(ii) An increase in concentration (of sodium thiosulphate solution) will 3
increase the rate of reaction.
(e) [Able to predict the time taken using the graph drawn]
Suggested answer : 30 s 3
(f) [Able to state and explain the observation correctly.]
A yellow precipitate is formed.
The reaction of hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate solution produces 3
sulphur, sulphur dioxide and water. // The sulphur produced from the reaction
forms the yellow precipitate.
(g) 3
[Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable and the
responding variable and the direction correctly]

The higher / lower the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution, the


shorter / longer the time taken for the mark “X” to be no longer visible.

[Able to state three variables and the way to control them correctly]
(h)
Suggested answer:
Manipulated variable: Repeat the experiment using
sodium thiosulphate solution with
Concentration of sodium -3
thiosulphate solution concentrations of 1.0 mol dm ,
1.5 mol dm-3, 2.0 mol dm-3 and
2.5 mol dm-3 .
Responding variable:
Time taken for the mark Time taken for the mark “X” to be
no longer visible
“X” to be no longer visible // 6
Rate of reaction
Controlled variable:
Temperature of sodium Solutions of same temperature are
thiosulphate solution // size of used // use conical flasks of same
conical flask // concentration and size // use the same concentration
volume of hydrochloric acid used and volume of hydrochloric acid //
// total volume of reacting keep the total volume of reacting
mixture mixture the same.
Reject : Use of “Quantity” or
“amount of “ hydrochloric acid /
reacting mixture.

(i) [Able to explain phenomena using relevant knowledge of chemistry]


Suggested answer :
61

Fanning increases the concentration of oxygen blown over glowing charcoal //


Fanning causes the glowing charcoal to be exposed to more oxygen. 3
Page

Thus, the glowing charcoal ignites.

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY
Question Rubric Score
3(a) How do different metals in contact with iron affect the rusting of iron? // What
is the effect of different metals in contact with iron on the rusting of iron nails 3
?
(b) Iron nail rusts when it is in contact with a less electropositive metal. Iron nail
3
does not rust when it is in contact with a more electropositive metal
(c) MV : Different metals in contact with iron nail
RV: Rusting of iron 3
CV: Type of (iron) nail, medium in which iron nail is kept, temperature
(d) Name one metal more electropositive (magnesium) than iron and one metal
less electropositive (copper) than iron.
Materials : Iron nails, magnesium ribbon, copper foil, hot jelly solution
3
containing potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution, sandpaper.
Apparatus : test tubes, test tube rack,

(e) Procedure :
1. Clean / Rub three iron nails with sandpaper.
2. Two iron nails are coiled / wound separately with magnesium ribbon
and copper foil.
3. The three nails are each put / dip / immersed into labelled test tubes
A, B and C containing hot jelly solution with potassium 3
hexacyanoferrate(III) solution separately .
4. The test tubes are put on a test tube rack under room condition for a
few days.
5. The test tubes are observed and the results are recorded.

(f) Tabulation of data : Suggested answer(any one )

Pair of metal Observation


Iron nail only
Iron nail coiled with
magnesium ribbon
Iron nail coiled with
copper foil
3

Tets tube Pair of metal Observation


A Iron nail only
B Iron nail coiled with
magnesium ribbon
C Iron nail coiled with
copper foil
62
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

Question Rubric Score


4 (a) Is vulcanised rubber more elastic than unvulcanised rubber ? //
How does the elasticity of vulcanised rubber differ from unvulcanised
rubber ? // 3
Does vulcanisation increase the elasticity of rubber?

(b) MV : Types of rubber // Vulcanised and unvulcanised rubber


RV: Length of rubber strip 3
CV : Size of rubber strip, mass of weight
(c) Vulcanised / Unvulcanised rubber is more elastic than unvulcanised /
3
vulcanised rubber.
(d) Materials : Vulcanised rubber strip, unvulcanised rubber strip
Apparatus: Retort stand and clamp, (bulldog) clips, ruler, 10 g, 20 g, 3
30 g , 40 g and 50 g weights,
(e) Procedure :
1. (Using bulldog clips,) hang a vulcanised rubber strip and an
unvulcanised rubber strip onto a retort stand each.
2. The (initial) lengths of the two rubber strips are measured.
3. A 10 g weight is hung to each of the two strips and the lengths of the
two strips are measured and recorded. 3
4. The weights are removed and the lengths of the rubber strips are
measured and recorded.
5. Steps 3 and 4 are repeated using 20g, 30g, 40g and 50g weights to
replace the 10 g weights.

(f) Tabulation of data

Weights Length of vulcanised rubber Length of unvulcanised


/g strip / cm rubber strip / cm
Without With Weight Without With Weight 3
weight weight removed weight weight removed
10
20
30
40
50
63
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY


SPM CHEMISTRY

Question Rubric Score


5(a) How effective are // How is the effectiveness of soaps and detergents in
hard water ? //
What is the effectiveness of soaps and detergents in hard water ? //
3
Is the cleansing action of a detergent / soap more effective than that of a
soap / detergent in hard water ? //
Is soap as effective as detergent in hard water ?
(b) Detergents are effective in hard water. Soaps are less / not effective in
hard water. // 3
Detergent is a more effective cleansing agent than soap in hard water.
(c) MV : Different types of cleansing agent / Detergent and soap
RV: (Removal of) oily stain on a cloth
CV: Volume and concentration of magnesium sulphate solution, volume
3
and concentration of detergent and soap, type of stain / oil stain on
cloth, temperature of magnesium sulphate // calcium sulphate
solution.
(d) Materials : Soap solution, detergent solution, two pieces of cloth with
oily stains, magnesium sulphate // calcium sulphate solution
3
Apparatus : measuring cylinder, basin // [any suitable container such as
a basin]
(e) Procedure :
1. 50 cm3 of 5% soap solution and 50 cm3 of 5% detergent solution are
separately poured into two beakers containing 20 cm3 of magnesium
sulphate solution / hard water.
2. A small piece of cloth with oily stains is dipped / immersed / put into
each beaker.
3. Each cloth is washed with the cleansing agent / soap or detergent in the 3
beaker.
4. The cleansing action of the soap and detergent is observed and
compared // The oily stain remaining on the cloth is observed and
compared.
5. The results are recorded in a table.

(f) Tabulation of data :

Beaker Observation
X
Y
3
or
Cleansing agent Observation
Soap solution
64

Detergent solution
Page

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY