SPM CHEMISTRY

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY

Panel : 1. 2. 3. 4. June Ling S J Chen Soo Chien Felix Ngui Jong Kah Yin SMK St Joseph, Kuching Kolej DPAH Abdilah, Kuching SMK Tabuan Jaya, Kuching SM Sains Kuching

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY

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Compiled and edited by : Jong Kah Yin

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SPM CHEMISTRY

INDEX CONTENT 1 REVISION CHECK-LIST Form 4 Form 5 2 WRITING EQUATIONS 2.1 Charges of ions 2.2 Formulae of compounds 2.3 Reactions of Acid 2.4 Displacement of Metals 2.5 Double decomposition reaction 2.6 Others 3 CALCULATIONS 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4 Relative Masses Mole and Number of particles Mole and Mass & Volume of Gases Empirical and Molecular Formulae Calculations involving Acids and Alkali Thermochemistry 23 24 24 – 25 26 27 – 29 29 - 30 17 17 18 – 19 20 20 21 4 - 10 11 - 15 PAGE

GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Chemical Bond – Ionic bond Chemical Bond – Covalent bond Preparation of Salt – Insoluble salt Preparation of Salt – Soluble salt Rate of Reaction Heat of Combustion 32 33 34 35 36 – 37 38 – 39

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WRITTEN PRACTICAL PAPER - PAPER 3 5.1 Structure Questions 5.2 Essay Questions SUGGESTED ANSWERS 41 – 47 48

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6.2 Written Practical Paper – Paper 3
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6.1 Guided Essay for Paper 2

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SPM CHEMISTRY

STUDENTS’ REVISION CHECKLIST FOR SPM CHEMISTRY

By : JONG KAH YIN SM SAINS KUCHING

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY

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Synthesis (Experiment) 12) Solid Z has a melting point of 65oC. 8) Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the freezing process. Explain the changes in energy content. State one example to support the kinetic theory of matter 2) What are atom. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the freezing point of W. 9) A solid compound is heated until it converts into gas. Compare and contrast the relative atomic masses and the relative charges of the subatomic particles of an atom. and arrangement of particles. 11) 27 13 Al is the symbol of aluminium. Understanding / Application / Analysis 7) Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the melting process. 6) State the uses of isotopes such as carbon-14 and cobalt-60. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 4 . meaning and facts) 1) State the kinetic theory of matter. forces of attraction between the particles. (b) Draw the electron arrangement of aluminium. 10) State the subatomic particles of an atom.SPM CHEMISTRY Chapter 2: The Structure of the Atom A. Check B. (a) Determine the number of neutron of aluminium. molecule and ion? 3) What is melting point? 4) Define proton number and nucleon number. Your answer should show how the melting point of Z is determined. C. 5) State the meaning of isotopes. Knowledge (Definition. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the melting point of Z. 13) Compound W has a freezing point of 82oC.

8 g of hydrogen to form a compound. Understanding / Application / Analysis 7) Explain why we could not determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide by heating copper powder in a crucible. (b) Given that the relative molecular mass of the compound is 88 g. 6) State the meaning of molecular formula. [Relative atomic mass: Mg. H.6 g of carbon reacted with 0.16. 1] 11) Hydrogen gas is reacted with 20 g of hot copper(II) oxide powder to produce solid copper and water. Knowledge (Definition. 3) State the meaning of molar mass 4) State the meaning of molar volume of gas. 9) Vinegar is a dilute ethanoic acid with a molecular formula of CH3COOH. (b) Calculate the maximum mass of solid copper formed. meaning and facts) 1) State the meaning of relative atomic mass based on carbon-12 scale. (a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction. Check B. H. 24. 10) 3. Synthesis (Experiment) 12) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.16] REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 5 . 8) Compare and contrast empirical formula with molecular formula using ethane as an example. 2) Define mole. O. 64.1] C. Your answer should include all the precautions and calculations involved. find its molecular formula.12.SPM CHEMISTRY Chapter 3: Chemical Formulae and Equations A. (b) Find the percentage composition by mass of carbon in ethanoic acid. O. [Relative atomic mass: C . (a) Find the empirical formula of ethanoic acid. [Relative atomic mass: Cu. 5) State the meaning of empirical formula. (a) Determine the empirical formula of the compound formed.

Explain. Explain. the electronegativity increases. 9) The reactivity of Group 1 increases when going down the group. 7) When going across Period 3 from sodium to argon. 11) Why helium gas is not reactive? 12) X is an element from Group 1. 13) Chlorine gas is dissolved in water. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 6 . 8) When going across Period 3 from sodium to argon. State the observation and write the chemical equation involve. 14) W is an element from Group 1. 2) State the physical properties of Group 1. b) Oxygen. Knowledge (Definition. Synthesis (Experiment) 15) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of elements in Group 1: lithium. Explain. X is burnt in oxygen and the product is dissolved in water. meaning and facts) 1) State the basic principle of arranging the elements in the Periodic Table from its proton number.SPM CHEMISTRY Chapter 4: Periodic Table of Elements A. Understanding / Application / Analysis 6) State the position of element 39 20 Check X in Periodic Table. What can you observe if a piece of blue litmus paper is immersed into the solution formed? Explain. 16) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of chlorine. C. 3) State the physical properties of Group 17. 10) The reactivity of Group 17 decreases when going down the group. 4) State the changes in the atomic size and electronegativity of elements across Period 3. sodium and potassium. Explain your answer. Explain. 5) State three special properties of transition elements? B. the atomic size decreases. bromine and iodine in the reaction with iron wool. State the observation and write the chemical equations involve in reactions. Predict the chemical reaction of W with: a) water. What is the property of the solution formed? Explain.

At room condition. NaCl. magnesium chloride exists as a solid but hydrogen chloride exists as a gas. Explain why. Understanding / Application / Analysis 5) Explain why sodium chloride can conduct electricity in aqueous state but cannot conduct electricity in solid state. 7) Describe the formation of ionic bond in sodium chloride. e) Hydrogen and chlorine. B. Check REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 7 . meaning and facts) 1) What is anion? 2) What is cation? 3) State two physical properties of ionic compounds. Knowledge (Definition. C. c) Magnesium and chlorine. describe the formation of covalent bond between element from Group 14 and element from Group 17.SPM CHEMISTRY Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds A. b) Carbon and oxygen. f) Sodium and oxygen. d) Carbon and hydrogen. 4) State two physical properties of covalent compounds. 6) Magnesium chloride and hydrogen chloride are two compounds of chlorine. a) Nitrogen and hydrogen. 8) By using example. Synthesis 9) Draw electron arrangement of the compound formed from the following elements.

SPM CHEMISTRY

Chapter 6: Electrochemistry A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)
1) State the meaning of electrolyte. 2) State the meaning of electrolysis. 3) State three factors affecting electrolysis of an aqueous solution.

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B. Understanding / Application / Analysis
4) Explain why solution of hydrogen chloride in water can conduct electricity but solution of hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene cannot conduct electricity. 5) By using example, explain how the following factors can determine the selective discharge of ions at the electrodes. a) Types of electrodes, b) Concentration of the ions. 6) Describe the electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide. 7) Describe the extraction of aluminium by electrolysis. 8) Draw the structure of Daniell cell and explain how it can produce electricity. 9) Draw the structure of a dry cell and explain how it can produce electricity. C. Synthesis 10) Describe a laboratory experiment to extract lead from lead(II) oxide by using electrolysis. 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that types of electrodes affect the selective discharge of ions in electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution. 12) You are given magnesium ribbon, copper plate, magnesium nitrate solution, copper(II) sulphate solution, connecting wires with crocodile clips, 250 cm3 beaker, voltmeter and porous pot. Construct a voltaic cell by using the above materials. Explain how the voltaic cell can produce electricity. Your answer must include observation and half equations for reaction at anode and cathode. 13) Describe a laboratory experiment to construct the electrochemical series of magnesium, copper, zinc and lead.

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SPM CHEMISTRY

Chapter 7: Acids and Bases and Chapter 8: Salts A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)
1) State the meaning of acid and alkali. 2) What is the meaning of strong acid and weak alkali? 3) What is neutralisation? 4) What is salt? 5) What is double decomposition reaction?

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B. Understanding / Application / Analysis
6) The pH value of solution ammonia in water is 9 but the pH value of solution of ammonia in trichlomethane is 7. Explain why the pH values of the two solutions are different. 7) 80 cm3 of distilled water is added to 20 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 solution of HCl. Find the molarity of the dilute solution. 8) In a titration, 40 cm3 of 0.25 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide, KOH solution is needed to neutralise 20 cm3 of nitric acid, HNO3. Calculate the molarity of the nitric acid, HNO3. 9) Given dilute nitric acid and dilute sulphuric acid have the same concentration of 0.5 mol dm-3. In a neutralisation experiment, 20 cm3 of nitric acid is required to neutralise 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution but only 10 cm3 of sulphuric acid is required to neutralise 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution. Explain why.

C. Synthesis
10) Describe a chemical test to show that a given solution is an acid. 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide by using titration process. You are given 0.2 moldm-3 of dilute sulphuric acid, phenolphthalein, burette, pipette and conical flask. 12) You are given solid sodium chloride. Describe how you can prepare sodium chloride solution of 0.2 mol dm-3 in laboratory by using 250 cm3 volumetric flask. 13) Describe the preparation of zinc sulphate . 14) Describe the preparation of lead(II) chloride. 15) Describe the preparation of potassium nitrate. 16) Solid W is a salt. Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm the presence of zinc ions and nitrate ions in the salt 17) Solid X is a metal carbonate. Beside heating, describe chemical tests that you would carry out to confirm that X consists of carbonate ions. . 18) You are given four test tubes filled with solution consisting zinc ions, lead(II) ions, aluminium ions and magnesium ions respectively. Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm the ion that is present in each test tube. 19) You are given potassium chloride solution, lead(II) oxide powder and dilute nitric acid. Describe how you would prepare lead(II) chloride salt from the given materials.

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY

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20) You are given dilute sulphuric acid, copper(II) nitrate solution and sodium carbonate solution. Describe how you would prepare copper(II) sulphate salt from the given materials.

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SPM CHEMISTRY

Chapter 9: Manufactured Substance in Industry A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)
1) What is the meaning of alloy? State the aims of making alloys. 2) What is the meaning of composite materials? State the components of the following composite materials: a) Reinforced concrete, b) Superconductor, c) Fibre optic, d) Fibre glass, e) Photochromic glass. 3) State the catalyst, temperature and pressure of the following process: a) Contact process b) Haber process 4) What is the meaning of polymers? Name the monomer of polythene and polyvinyl chloride. 5) State four types of glass and their compositions. List the uses of each glass. 6) What is ceramics? State the properties and list the uses of ceramics.

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B. Understanding / Application / Analysis
7) Bronze is an alloy consisting of copper and tin. Explain why bronze is harder than copper. 8) Explain how acid rain is formed. Describe how acid rain causes environmental pollution. 9) Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Write all the chemical equations involved.

10) Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of ammonia gas. Write all the chemical equations involved.

C. Synthesis
11) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ammonium sulphate (ammonium fertiliser) 12) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the hardness of brass and copper.

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11) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that an increase in temperature will increase the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and sulphuric acid. 10) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that the presence of catalyst will increase the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. 6) Based on collision theory. 7) Based on collision theory. C. the higher the rate of reaction.SPM CHEMISTRY Chapter 10: Rate of Reaction A. explain how temperature can increase the rate of reaction. 8) Explain why hydrochloric acid of 2. Knowledge (Definition.0 mol dm-3 is reacted faster with zinc compare to hydrochloric acid of 0. explain how catalyst can increase the rate of reaction. meaning and facts) 1) What is rate of reaction? 2) What is stated in the collision theory? 3) What is activation energy? 4) What is effective collision? Check B. Synthesis 9) Hypothesis: The smaller the size of solid reactant.5 mol dm-3 . Describe a laboratory experiment to confirm the hypothesis by using the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Understanding / Application / Analysis 5) Explain how total surface area (size of reactant) can increase the rate of reaction based on collision theory. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 11 .

(a) State two physical properties of ethyl propanoate. 6) Explain why ethene gas can decolourises the acidified potassium mangante(II) solution whereas ethane cannot decolourises acidified potassium mangante(II) solution. Your answer must include a diagram of the apparatus set-up and the chemical equation involved. 15) Ethyl propanoate is a product from reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid. Knowledge (Definition. 16) Explain how to prepare propanoic acid from propene. Synthesis 12) Describe a test to differential hexene and hexane. 4) What are saturated and unsaturated fats? Check B. 3) What is polymer? State an example of polymer and its monomer. 14) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethanoic acid from ethanol. 9) Propanol and propanoic acid are dissolved in water. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 12 . 11) Explain how to prevent coagulation of latex. meaning and facts) 1) What is homologous series? 2) What is saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon? State an example of each of them. (b) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethyl propanoate. 7) Explain why both hexane and hexane having six carbon atoms per molecule but hexene burns with a more sooty flame than hexane 8) Pentane and propane are members from the alkane family. Understanding / Application / Analysis 5) Explain what is isomers and isomerism by using butane as an example.SPM CHEMISTRY Chapter 11: Carbon compounds A. 13) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethane gas from ethanol. C. It is found that propanol solution is a neutral but propanoic acid is an acidic solution. 10) Explain the coagulation process of latex. Explain why the melting point of pentane is higher than propane.

The colour of 1. 7) Determine whether the reaction between lead(II) nitrate and copper(II) is a redox reaction. 11) A mixture of copper(II) oxide and aluminium powder is heated strongly. 12) Chlorine water is added to potassium iodide solution in a test tube. 9) When bromine water is added to the potassium iodide solution.1. The mixture burns brightly. Explain your answer based on changes in oxidation number. meaning and facts) 1) What is oxidation and reduction based on loss or gain of oxygen? 2) What is oxidation and reduction based on transfer of electrons? 3) What is oxidation and reduction based on changes in oxidation number? 4) What are redox reactions? State an example of redox reactions. 5) What is oxidising agent and reducing agent? State an example of oxidising agent and reducing agent. the solution changes colour from colourless to brown. 2 cm3 of 1. 10) Describe the rusting of iron. zinc. Explain. Synthesis 13) Describe a laboratory experiment to change the oxidation number of iron from +2 to +3.1. Explain the observation. copper and their oxides. Explain the observation. 8) The reaction between zinc and copper(II) sulphate solution is a redox reaction.1-trichloroethene changes from colourless to purple. Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of these metals toward oxygen. 16) You are given lead. How would you confirm that iron(III) is formed? 14) Describe a laboratory experiment to change the oxidation number of iron from +3 to +2 by using zinc. Knowledge (Definition. Explain your answer based on changes in oxidation number.1trichloroethene is added to the test tube and the mixture is shaken thoroughly. C. Explain this observation based on oxidation and reduction. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 13 . 15) Describe the extraction of iron.SPM CHEMISTRY Chapter 12: Oxidation and Reduction A. Check B. Understanding / Application / Analysis 6) Determine whether the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide is a redox reaction.

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 14 . The temperature increases t oC. meaning and facts) 1) What is exothermic reaction and endothermic reaction? State an example for each reaction. predict the increase in temperature. that is -57kJmol-1 9) Explain why the heat of neutralisation between ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide is less than -57kJmol-1 10) 50 cm3 of 2 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. a) If 100 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 100 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. the higher is the heat of combustion” Describe a laboratory experiment to prove that the above statement is true by using methanol. predict the increase in temperature.SPM CHEMISTRY Chapter 12: Thermochemistry A. 2) What is heat of precipitation? 3) What is heat of displacement? 4) What is heat of neutralisation? 5) What is heat of combustion? Check B. 12) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of neutralisation between strong acids and strong alkalis. Understanding / Application / Analysis 6) Explain how exothermic reaction and endothermic are formed based on energy change during formation and breaking of chemical bonds. propan-1-ol. butan-1-ol and pentan-1-ol. C. 14) “The higher the number of carbon atoms per molecule. b) If 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. Synthesis 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of displacement of copper by zinc. 7) Explain why the heat of combustion of butanol is higher than ethanol. c) If 50 cm3 of 4 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 4 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. predict the increase in temperature. ethanol. 8) Explain why the heat of neutralisation between strong acids and strong alkalis is a constant. 13) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of methanol. Knowledge (Definition.

Antipsychotic) 8) State the side effects of paracetamol and aspirin. Streptomycin) c) Psychotherapeutic medicine ( Stimulant. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 15 . a) Whitening agent(example: sodium perborate) b) Optical whitener(fluorescent dyes) c) Biological enzyme (Example: amylases. meaning and facts) 1) What is soap? 2) What is saponification process? 3) What is detergent? 4) State the functions of each of the following additives in detergent.SPM CHEMISTRY Chapter 13: Chemicals for Consumers A. a) Analgesics ( Aspirin. Understanding / Application / Analysis 9) Describe the cleansing action of soap. sodium benzoate) b) Antioxidants (Ascorbic acid) c) Flavourings (Monosodium glutamate (MSG). Paracetamol. lipases. Check B. Aspartame) d) Stabilisers e) Thickeners 7) State the functions of the following modern medicines. 12) Describe a laboratory experiment to investigate the cleansing action of a soap and a detergent in hard water. 10) Explain why the cleansing action of a detergent is more effective than a soap in hard water. proteases and cellulases) d) Fragrance 5) What is hard water? 6) State the function of each of the following food additives: a) Preservatives ( Sodium nitrite. Synthesis 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare soap from palm oil using the saponification process. C. Knowledge (Definition. Antidepressant. Codeine) b) Antibiotics ( Penicillin.

1 FORMULAE OF IONS 2.SPM CHEMISTRY 2.5 DOUBLE DECOMPOSITION REACTION 2.4 DISPLACEMENT OF METALS 2.3 REACTIONS OF ACIDS 2. WRITING EQUATIONS 2.6 OTHERS By : REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 16 JONG KAH YIN SM SAINS KUCHING .2 CHEMICAL FORMULAE OF COMPOUNDS 2.

SPM CHEMISTRY 2.2 Formulae of compounds Formula NH4+ CO32S2Na+ O2Ions Nitrate ion Sulphate ion Phosphate ion Magnesium ion Iron(II) ion Hydroxide ions Silver ions Calcium ion Formula NO3SO42PO43Mg2+ Fe2+ SUBSTANCE Naphthalene Nitric acid Zinc carbonate Silver chloride Magnesium Lead(II) chloride Sulphur trioxide Ammonia gas Sulphuric acid Zinc carbonate Iron(II) sulphate Hydrogen chloride Aluminium sulphate Calcium hydroxide Formula C10H8 HNO3 ZnCO3 Type of compound Covalent Covalent Ionic Type of particles Molecules Molecules Ions Ions Mg PbCl2 SO3 NH3 H2SO4 ZnCO3 FeSO4 Ionic Covalent Covalent Covalent Ionic Ionic Atoms Ions Molecules Molecules Molecules Ions Ions REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 17 Copper(II) nitrate .1 Charges of cations and anions Ions Ammonium ion Carbonate ion Sulphide ion Sodium ion Oxide ion Aluminium ion Bromide ion Lead(II) ions 2.

3. Rate of reaction 2. Chemical Properties of Acid 2.3 WRITING CHEMICAL/ IONIC / HALF EQUATIONS A. Hydrochloric acid + Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations Zinc 3. Nitric acid + Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations Lead b. Preparation of Salts c.1 Metal + Acid Hydrogen + Salt Example : Chemical Equation : Fe + 2HCl H2 + FeCl2 Ionic equations : Fe (s) + 2HCl (aq) H2 (g) + FeCl2 (aq) Fe + 2H + + 2 ClH2 + Fe2+ + 2 ClHalf Equations : Fe Fe2+ + 2e 2 H+ + 2e H2 Applicable in topics : a.SPM CHEMISTRY 2. Sulphuric acid Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations + Magnesium 4. Nitric acid + Aluminium Chemical reaction Ionic equation REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page Half equations 18 . Acid & Bases 1.

Thermochemistry Example : H2SO4 2HNO3 Applicable in topics: a.2 Acid + Base Water + 2KOH + ZnO + Salt 2 H2O + H2O + K2SO4 Zn(NO3)2 c. Nitric acid + Barium hydroxide Chemical reaction Ionic equation 7. Preparation of salts 5.3 Acid + Metal Carbonate Water + Carbon dioxide + Salt Example : 2HCl + ZnCO3 H2O + CO2 + ZnCl2 Applicable in topics: a.3. Nitric acid + copper(II) carbonate Ionic equation REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 19 Chemical reaction . Preparation of salts and qualitative analysis of salt c. Acid & Bases b. Acid & Bases b.SPM CHEMISTRY 2. Rate of reaction 8. Sulphuric acid + Sodium hydroxide 2. Sulphuric acid Chemical reaction Ionic equation + Sodium carbonate solution 9.3. Hydrochloric acid + Calcium oxide Chemical reaction Ionic equation 6. Hydrochloric acid Chemical reaction Ionic equation + calcium carbonate granules 10.

Thermochemistry 13. Lead(II) nitrate solution + Potassium chloride solution Chemical reaction Ionic equation 14. Copper(II) nitrate solution + sodium carbonate solution Chemical reaction Ionic equation 15. Salts preparation 2. Barium chloride solution + sulphuric acid Chemical reaction Ionic equation 16.5. Displacement of metal reactions Example : Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + Zn (s) Cu (s) + Zn(NO3)2(aq) Applicable in topics: 1. Silver nitrate solution + Iron metal Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations 12.SPM CHEMISTRY 2. Copper(II) sulphate solution + Magnesium metal Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations 2. Redox 3. Calcium nitrate solution + potassium sulphate solution Chemical reaction Ionic equation REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 20 . Double decomposition Example : AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) + NaNO3(aq) Applicable in topics: 1.4. Thermochemistry 11. Electrochemistry 2.

Magnesium + chlorine gas Chemical reaction Half equations 19. Potassium iodide solution + Bromine water Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations 18.6 Others 17. Complete combustion of ethanol Chemical reaction 20. Heating of copper(II) carbonate Chemical Equation REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 21 . Heating of zinc nitrate Chemical Equation 22.SPM CHEMISTRY 2. Complete combustion of propene Chemical equation 21.

5 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING ACIDS & ALKALI 3.3 MOLE AND MASS & VOLUME OF GASES 3. OF PARTICLES 3.4 EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAE 3.1 RELATIVE MASSES 3. CALCULATIONS 3.SPM CHEMISTRY 3.6 THERMOCHEMISTRY By : JUNE LING S J SMK ST JOSEPH. KUCHING REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 22 .2 MOLE AND NO.

is used in place of relative molecular mass. 1.1 Calculate Relative Molecular Mass(Mr) or Relative Formula Mass(Mr) from Relative Atomic Mass(Ar) Relative Atomic Mass of an element. 80] Solution: Mass of two atoms of bromine = 2 x 80 = 160 Number of calcium atoms = 160 = 4 40 Relative Molecular Mass of a molecule. 35. 1. Cl.40] Solution: Mass of one Ca atom Mass of one O atom = 40 = 2. H. Ca. 32] Ionic Compounds REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 23 .5.5H2O [Ar: Na. Mr. O. O. 35. Calculate Mr by adding up all the Ar of all the atoms present in the covalent molecule or one formula unit of the ionic compound. 23. 16. the term Relative Formula Mass.5 = 58. Ca.5 Aluminium oxide Al2O3 Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Hydrated Copper(II) Sulphate CuSO4.5 times heavier than one oxygen atom. Cu. 16. Example 2 : How may calcium atoms have the same mass as two atoms of bromine? [RAM Br. Example 1 : Find the RMM and RFM of the following substances : Molecular Substances Oxygen Hydrochloric acid Water Sulphuric acid Ammonia Molecular Formula O2 HCl H2O H2SO4 NH3 Relative Molecular Mass (RMM) 2(16) = 32 [Ar: S. Cl. 64. N.5.5 16 The mass of one Ca atom is 2. 32.SPM CHEMISTRY 3.16. Ar and Mr have no units. 40. S. Al. H. 14] Chemical Relative Formula Mass (RFM) Formula Sodium chloride NaCl 23 + 35. 27. Ar = Average mass of one atom of an element 1/12 x mass of one atom of carbon-12 Example 1 : How may times is one calcium atom heavier than one oxygen atom? [RAM O. = • • • Average mass of one molecule ______ 1/12 x mass of one atom of carbon-12 For ionic compounds.

2 The Mole and the Number of Particles 1 mole = 6.6 x 6. Solution: 1 mole of MgCl2 gives 1mole of Mg2+ and 2 moles of Cl.5 moles of water = 2 x 3.SPM CHEMISTRY 3.6 X NA = 0. in: a) Substances n = REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page _ m____ Molar mass m= mass of a subatance Molar mass = Ar or Mr in grams 24 . Solution: Number of particles = n x NA number of moles of oxygen gas.5 Example 4 A beaker contains 0.5 x 6.5 moles of zinc powder = 0.17 x 1024 (b) One molecule of water.5 moles of water = 3. H2O.2 moles of MgCl2.e. There are three kinds of particles: • atoms • molecules • ions Number of particles = n x NA where n = number of moles NA = Avogadro’s Constant.02 x 1023 = 0.17 x 1024 = 4.5 x 6. O2.5 moles of zinc powder? Solution: The number of zinc atoms in 0.21 x 1024 Example 3 (a) Find the number of moles of oxygen gas.61 x 1023 C) Equations for calculating the number of moles.02 x 1023 Example 1 How many zinc atoms are there in 0. The number of hydrogen atoms in 3.2 moles of MgCl2 = 0. containing 3.02 x 1023 = 2 x 2. O2.5 x 6. 6.01x 1023 Example 2 (a) How many water molecules are there in a glass containing 3.2 x 3 = 0. n. 3 moles of ions in total.02 x 1023 number of particles. Find the total number of ions in the beaker. contains two hydrogen atoms.6 Number of ions = 0.01x 1023 molecules of oxygen gas. Number of moles of ions in 0.ions i.02 x 1023 = 2.01x 1023 6. n = Number of particles NA = 3.02 x 1023 = 3.5 moles of water? (b) How many hydrogen atoms are there in the glass? Solution: (a) The number of water molecules in 3.02 x 1023 = 3.

4g of copper(II) nitrate [Ar: Zn. Sodium Hydroxide. 12. 16. Cu(NO3)2 Mr = a) Number of moles in 56. 22. 64. O. Zn Ar = 65 Calculate a) Mass of 1 mole b) Mass of 2 moles c) Mass of ½ moles d) Mass of 3. 35. 23. C.e. NaOH a) Mass of 3 moles of NaOH: Mr = 23+16+1 = 40 b) Number of moles in 20g of NaOH: 3. Zinc.5. Mr = a) Mass of 2.5 moles of CO2 gas: c) Number of atoms in 2 moles of CO2 gas: 4. Cu. CO2 . Na. 14] REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 25 . N.SPM CHEMISTRY b) Solutions n = MV M = molarity in mol dm-3 V = volume of the solution in dm3 When the volume of the solution is given in cm3. H. 65. n = MV 1000 V = volume of the solution in cm3 c) Gases n= Volume of a gas Molar volume volume of a gas in dm3 Molar volume. Cl. Copper(II) nitrate. NaCl a) Mass of 0. Use equations in (a) above 1. Sodium chloride.4dm3 at STP or 24dm3 at room conditions] Review Question 1: Calculating number of moles.5 moles of CO2 gas: b) Number of molecules in 1. 1.65 moles : Mr = 5. Carbon dioxide gas.4 dm3 at STP or 24 dm3 at room conditions Note: Molar Mass = mass of 1 mole of a substance in gmol-1 = Ar or Mr in grams Molar Volume = volume occupied by 1 mole of all gases [i. mass in substances.01 x 1023 Zn atoms 2. Vm = 22.

5 x 22.25 x 1000 500 = 0.14 1 14.28 = 2 7. Per 100 g Divide the mass of each element by its molar mass Divide each number by the smallest number Get the simplest whole number ratio .14 12 7. Vm Volume occupied by 2 moles of CO2.14 2 Question gives % by mass instead of the mass of each elements in the compound. Molarity of KOH. i) Number of moles.28 1 14.39 H.SPM CHEMISTRY Example 2: Calculate the molarity of the solution obtained when 14 g of potassium hydroxide is completely dissolved in distilled water to make up 500cm3 of solution. V molar volume. n = 14 [39+16+1] = 0. n = _Volume of the gas.8 dm3 ii) n = mass of oxygen gas. O.4 dm3 3.72 = 7.14 = 1 7. Element Percentage composition by mass/% Per 100 g Number of moles of atoms Mole ratios Simplest mole ratios C 85.4 = 0. [Ar: K.1.28 14.72 H 14.28% hydrogen. V = n x Vm = 2 X 22.28 = 14.5 Using Empirical Formula to find Molecular Formula Empirical Formula is the simplest whole number ratio of number of atoms of each element in the compound. M = n x 1000 v Number of moles of KOH. Molecular Formula = (Empirical Formula)n % composition by mass of an element in a compound = Total mass of the element in the compound Mr of the compound Example 1: When 100grams of a hydrocarbon gas is analysed.O2 = 16 32 = 0. v = n x 22. i) 2 moles of carbon dioxide gas ii) 16g of oxygen gas Solution: Use equation in (c) above.25 = 0. Molecular Formula shows the actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of the compound. O2 Mr of oxygen gas.4 = 11.4 = 44 .72 85. it is found to contain 85.5 mol Volume occupied by 16g of O2 gas.16] Solution: Use equation in (b) above.5 mol dm-3 Example 3 Calculate the volume occupied by the following gases at STP.28 Empirical Formula = CH2 REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 26 85.72% carbon and 14.

18 3 7 H Write down the mass of the elements as given by the question Divide the mass of each element by its molar mass Divide each number by the smallest number Get the simplest whole number ratio Simplest mole ratios Empirical Formula = C3H7 Step 2: Find the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon Molecular Formula = (Empirical Formula)n = (C3H7)n Mr = (Sum of the Ar of all atoms in the Empirical Formula) x n 86 = [ 3(12) + 7(1)] x n n = 86 = 2 43 Molecular formula : (C3H7)2 = C6H14 3.5 Calculations in Acids and alkalis Concentration can be expressed in two ways: i) Concentration of a solution (g dm-3) = ii) Molarity of a solution (mol dm-3) = Mass of solute in gram/g Volume of solvent /dm3 Number of moles of solute/mol Volume of solvent /dm3 n V iii)Conversion between Molarity (mol dm-3) and concentration in (g dm-3): M = Molarity (mol dm ) -3 x Molar Mass Concentration (g dm-3) REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 27 ÷ Molar Mass .18 3 0.42 = 2.16g of carbon. C.18 = 1 0. Solution: Step 1: Find the Empirical Formula by using the table below.SPM CHEMISTRY Example 2: 2.12 ] Find the empirical formula and determine the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon.1.18 12 0.42 = 0. [Ar: H.16 = 0. Element Mass of element/g Number of moles of atoms Mole ratios C 2.58g of a hydrocarbon contains 2.42 1 0. The relative molecular mass of the hydrocarbon is 86.42 0.16 2.33 = 7 0.

Solution: Step 1: Write the chemical equation for neutralization: H2SO4 + 2 NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O Step 2: List down the values given by the question for each letter in the formula: b REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page MAVA MBVB = a MA = 0. Cl.0cm3 28 .15 mol dm-3 H2SO4 completely neutralizes 25. Calculate the molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution.15 mol dm3 VA = 27. [Ar: H.5 x 500 1000 = 0.5 mole of hydrogen chloride.0 cm3 of NaOH.5 moldm3 sodium hydroxide solution? [Ar:H.25 moles of NaOH = number of moles x molar mass = 0. O.25 x [23+16+ 1] = 0.SPM CHEMISTRY Example 1: Calculate:a)the molarity of a solution which is prepared by dissolving 0.1. MAVA MBVB = a b salt and water products MA = Molarity of acid A MB = Molarity of alkali B VA = Volume of acid A VB = Volume of alkali B a = mole ratio of acid A to alkali B b Note: Make sure that VA and VB are in the same units. Na.16] Solution: Number of moles of NaOH.23. in distilled water to make up to 250 cm3 solution. both in cm3 or both in dm3 Example 1: 27.1.50 cm3 a =1 b 2 MB = ? VB = 25.25 x 40 = 10g Neutralisation Neutralisation is a reaction between an acid and a base to form salt and water only.5 x 1000 250 = 2 mol dm-3 Example 2: Find the mass of sodium hydroxide that should be dissolved in water to produce 500cm3 of 0.50cm3 of 0.25 Mass of 0. HCl. n = MV 1000 = 0. Acid A + alkali B aA + bB Then.35.5 ] Solution: a)From n = MV 1000 M = n x 1000 V = 0.

15 x 27.5 x 2. ∆Hdisp • heat of neutralization.15 moldm3 hydrochloric acid. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 29 Step 4: ∆H = ___H___ n x 1000 Units of ∆H is in KJ mol-1 but units for H is in J Add a negative sign in front of ∆H for exothermic reaction and a positive sign in front of ∆H for endothermic reaction. of the products formed in displacement. What is the molarity of the diluted acid solution? (Ans: 0.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. Molarity of NaOH. Step 3 : Calculate number of moles.5 dm3 V1 = M2V2 = 0. ∆Hppt • heat of displacement. HCl. M1 = 2.00cm3.5 mol dm-3 V2 = 2. Substitute the values into the formula to calculate the required molarity.5 mol dm3 sulphuric acid.2J g-1 0C-1 θ = temperature change/0C H = heat released or absorbed in joules. note that HCl is a monoprotic acid whereas H2SO4 is a diprotic acid ) Preparation of a solution by dilution method Moles of solute before dilution = moles of solute after dilution M1 = molarity of the solution before water is added M1V1 = M2V2 V1 = volume of the solution before water is added M2 = molarity of the solution after water is added V2 = volume of the solution after water is added Note: Make sure that V1 and V2 are of the same unit.5cm3 M1 2. 200 cm3 of 1. MB = b x MAVA = 2 x 0.5 mol dm-3 of the same acid solution.50 a VB 1 25. Example 1: Calculate the volume of 2. H2SO4.0 Review questions: 1. ∆Hneut (exothermic) heat of combustion. H2SO4. needed to prepare 100 cm3 0.33 mol dm3 Review Question 1: Repeat the above reaction by using 0.0 mol dm-3 V1 = ? M1V1 = M2V2 M2 = 0.6 Calculations in Thermochemistry Calculate: • heat of precipitation. Find the volume of the acid required to completely neutralize 25.8 mol dm-3) 3.5 dm3 of 0. precipitation neutralization reactions and the number of moles of the reactant burnt in combustion.0 = 0. . (Ans: 25cm3) 2.0cm3 of 0. (Ans: 55.33 mol dm3 of NaOH solution.SPM CHEMISTRY Step 3: Rearrange the formula above. Distilled water is then added to make 250 cm3 of solution.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. is poured into a 250 cm3 volumetric flask. n.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid.625 dm3 or 62. needed to prepare 2.5 = 0. ∆Hcomb (exothermic) • Step 1: Write the chemical equation for the reaction Step 2: Calculate H= mcθ m= total mass of solution or water/g c = specific heat capacity of water= 4. H2SO4. Find the volume of 2.

which is the same for both reacting solutions: n = MV 1000 = 2.2 x 1000 = 37.2 1000 Step 4 : ∆H = ___H___ n x 1000 = 7560___ 0.8 kJ mol-1 Example 2: When 30 g of butane C4H10 is completely burnt in air. the temperature of the mixture increases by 9 0C. What is the heat of precipitation? Step 1: Write the chemical equation for the precipitation reaction:Pb(NO3)2(aq) + K2SO4(aq) PbSO4 (s) + 2KNO3(aq) m = total mass of solution = (100+100) cm3 c = specific heat capacity of water = 4. Mr [C4H10] = 4(12) + 10(1) = 58 Number of moles of butane = mass___ Molar mass = _____?_______ Step 3 : ∆H = ___H___ n x 1000 = ?______ _?_ x 1000 = ___________kJ mol-1 (Remember to add the negative sign for exothermic reaction) (Answer: . ( Ans: .284.2 x 70 = ? J Step 2 : Calculate number of moles. Calculate the heat of neutralization of the solution.0 mol dm-3 potassium sulphate solution.0 x 100 = 0.2x 9 = 7560J Step 3 : Calculate number of moles.0mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution is added to 100 cm3 of 2.33 kJ mol-1) Review Question: 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 nitric acid is added to 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide.SPM CHEMISTRY Example 1: When 100cm3 of 2.54.5 0C.2J g-1 0C-1 θ = temperature change/0C = 9 0C Step 2: Calculate H= mcθ = 200x4. n of butane. The temperature of the mixture increases by 6. Find the heat of combustion of butane.6 kJ mol-1 ) REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 30 . n. Step 1:Calculate H= mcθ = 500 x 4. the heat energy released increases the temperature of 500 cm3 of water by 70 0C.

3 4.6 CHEMICAL BOND – IONIC BOND CHEMICAL BOND – COVALENT BOND PREPARATION OF SALT – INSOLUBLE SALT PREPARATION OF SALT – SOLUBLE SALT RATE OF REACTION HEAT OF COMBUSTION By : CHEN SOO CHIEN KOLEJ DPAH ABDILLAH. GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2 4.SPM CHEMISTRY 4. KUCHING REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 31 .5 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.

(i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed. Element Proton number A 3 B 9 The reaction between atoms A and B forms an ionic compound.SPM CHEMISTRY 4. (i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed. [A → ] 2. A+ is formed. A has electron arrangement of ……. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed.1 CHEMICAL BONDS: IONIC BOND Guided Exercise 1. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. atom A ………….is formed. Answer: Exercise ………… B has electron arrangement of ……….. arrangement.. atom B …………. To achieve the …………. electron arrangement // ………… arrangement. B. Answer: (i) ………. one electron and a ……………… ion. Element Proton number C 12 D 8 The reaction between atoms C and D forms an ionic compound... (ii) REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 32 . To achieve the …………. electron arrangement // ………. [B → ] A+ and B.. one valence electron and a …………… ion.ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces to form an ionic compound AB.

SPM CHEMISTRY 4. has electron arrangement of …………. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. A nitrogen atom needs ………. (i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed. valence electron. Each hydrogen atom needs ………. // A hydrogen atom has …………. more electron to achieve the …………. electron arrangement // ………… arrangement. NH3 2. has electron arrangement of …………. Answer: Exercise REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 33 . to form a covalent compound. // A nitrogen atom has ………… valence electrons. (i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed.. Answer: A nitrogen ………. more electrons to achieve the …………. Element No of protons N 7 H 1 The reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen atoms forms a covalent compound. electron arrangement // ………… arrangement. Each of the three hydrogen atoms contributes ………… electron and one nitrogen atom contributes ………… electrons for ………………..2 CHEMICAL BONDS: COVALENT BOND Guided Exercise 1. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. A hydrogen …………. Element No of protons C 6 Cl 17 The reaction between carbon and chlorine atoms forms a covalent compound.

……… 50 cm3 of ……. 3. Describe the preparation of lead(II) chloride in the laboratory. In your description. …………. Answer: Procedure: 1. cylinder. 4. include the chemical equation involved. filter …………… Exercise 2. ……………………. Add ……… cm3 of 1. 6. filter funnel. …………. Answer: Substances: ……………………………………solution.0 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution. mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution into a beaker. In your description. include the chemical equation involved.3 PREPARATION OF SALT: INSOLBULE SALT Guided Exercise 1. the salt by pressing between pieces of filter paper. the salt / precipitate with distilled water. water Apparatus: …………………. beaker. Describe the preparation of calcium sulphate in the laboratory. 5. ………. the mixture. Equation: Pb(NO3)2 + NaCl → + REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 34 . ……………………………………solution. 2. ………… the mixture with a glass rod.SPM CHEMISTRY 4.

water Exercise 2.. Describe the preparation of copper(II) sulphate in the laboratory.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid into a beaker. the crystals by pressing between 2 pieces of …………… paper. 4. …. 8.4 PREPARATION OF SALT: SOLUBLE SALT Guided Exercise 1. ………… the sulphuric acid. the saturated solution until crystals are formed. Use a spatula to add ………………… powder a little at a time into the acid.………………. include the chemical equation involved.. powder. copper(II) ……………… // copper(II) ……………. Equation: CuO + H2SO4 → + REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 35 . ……… 50 cm3 of 1. …………… the crystals with a little ………… distilled water. Apparatus: ……………… cylinder. 3.. dish. beaker. filter paper Procedure: 1. Answer: Substances: ……………… acid. …………. filter …………. ………. tripod stand. wire gauze. …………. // copper(II) ……………. burner. 9. …………. rod.. include the chemical equation involved. ………… the solution until the final volume is 1/3 the initial volume // to produce a saturated solution. Describe the preparation of zinc nitrate in the laboratory. the mixture with a glass rod. ………. 5. the solution into an evaporating dish to remove the unreacted copper(II) oxide. ……………. …………. Continue adding copper(II) oxide until some of it no longer …………….. In your description. ………. 2. spatula. 6.. the solution to obtain the copper(II) sulphate crystals. 7..SPM CHEMISTRY 4.... In your description.

ions in in Experiment II is ……….. (ii) In Experiment II.. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment ……. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory.5 RATE OF REACTION : Guided Exercise 1. atoms in Experiment II is …………… than in Experiment I... zinc powder has a ………… total surface area exposed to ……………….. excess CaCO3 chips Experiment II Reactants: 100 cm3 of 1. excess CaCO3 chips 2.in Experiment II is ……….. in Experiment II is …………. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 36 .. excess granulated zinc Experiment II Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1. Frequency of………………. collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I. excess zinc powder Exercise Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. Frequency of collision between ………… ions and ……………. than Experiment I.. than in Experiment I. collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I. Frequency of collision between ………… ions and……………….5 mol dm-3 HCl. than Experiment I. The number of H+ ions per unit ………. Experiment I Reactants: 100 cm3 of 0. than granulated zinc in Experiment I.. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment …….. is higher than Experiment ………… (ii) The concentration of acid / ………….0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 .0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 .0 mol dm-3 HCl.. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory.. Experiment I Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1.SPM CHEMISTRY 4. Frequency of……………….is higher than Experiment ………. Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II.

than in Experiment I. Frequency of …………………. ions and ………………... Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II... 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. Exercise Experiment I Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1. the presence of catalyst enables the reaction to take place through an …………… path which requires a …………. more often with S2O32. energy of H+ ions and S2O32. excess zinc powder CuSO4 solution Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II...SPM CHEMISTRY Guided Exercise 3.. ions and .. whereas no catalyst is used in Experiment I In Experiment II. (ii) ……………… of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I …………. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory. ions in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I.. more ……………... between ………. Temperature: 45 oC 4. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory... activation energy..ions in Experiment II is than in Experiment I.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 ... 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. In Experiment II.. Temperature: 30 oC Experiment II Reactants: 50 cm3 of 0. . The H+ ions move ……….. than in Experiment I. excess zinc powder Experiment II Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1. collision in Experiment II is ………. collision in Experiment II is …………. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is …………… than Experiment I. Experiment I Reactants: 50 cm3 of 0. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is ………… than Experiment I. atoms are able to achieve the ……………… activation energy than Experiment I. (ii) Copper(II) sulphate solution in Experiment II acts as a …………….0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 .1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution. Frequency of …………………. Frequency of …………….ions in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution. and ………. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 37 ...

Record the …………… temperature reached by the water. include the following: [Relative atomic mass : C=12 . The copper can is placed on a tripod stand. 2. can. H=1] o diagram showing the set-up of apparatus o procedures of the experiment o tabulation of data o calculation to obtain the heat of combustion o Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate result Answer: thermometer Wind shield Copper can water Tripod stand Spirit p Wooden block Procedure: 1. 8. temperature of the water. …………… the water in the can continuously throughout the experiment 6. C2H5OH. Put out the flame when the temperature of the water …………… by about 30 0C 7. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of ethanol. Place the spirit lamp under the ……….. can and ……. Weigh a spirit lamp with …………… and record its ………...6 HEAT OF COMBUSTION Heat of combustion is the heat change when one mole of alcohol is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions. 4. 3.. 5.… the wick of the lamp immediately. / oC The initial temperature of ………… / oC T2 T1 m2 m1 …………… of spirit lamp and its content after burning / g REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page …………. Record the ………….SPM CHEMISTRY 4. ethanol Tabulation of Data: The highest temperature of …………. Measure 100 cm3 of ………… and pour into a …………. In your description. of spirit lamp and its content before burning / g 38 . O=16 . Weigh the spirit lamp and its content ………………… and record the mass.

.mcθ J mol-1 n = …………. = x J Heat of combustion of ethanol. ………… the spirit lamp and its content ………………….. Use a wind ………… during experiment. [Any two] REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 39 .. when the flame has been put out. Stir the water in the copper can ………………. ∆H = .SPM CHEMISTRY Calculation steps: Increase in temperature of water Mass of ethanol burnt = = ……………… oC ……………… g Number of mole of C2H5OH = m 46 = n The heat energy given out during combustion by ethanol = the heat energy absorbed by water = mcθ = ……………. Make sure the flame touches the …………. of the copper can // Place the spirit lamp very close or just beneath the ………….. throughout the experiment. of the copper can. 2. J mol-1 Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate result: 1. 3. 4.

1 STRUCTURE QUESTIONS 5.SPM CHEMISTRY 5.2 ESSAY QUESTIONS By : FELIX NGUI SMK TABUAN JAYA . WRITTEN PRACTICAL PAPER – PAPER 3 5. KUCHING REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 40 .

1 The voltmeter readings for each pair of metals are shown in Diagram 1.1. 1 A student carried out an experiment to construct the electrochemical series by measuring the voltage of copper and metal T in a simple voltaic cell as shown in Diagram 1.2 DIAGRAM 1.SPM CHEMISTRY Answer all the questions.2.1 [3 marks] REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Voltage / V 41 . The time suggested for answering Question 1 is 45 minutes. R and S. record the voltmeter readings for each pair of metals in Table 1. The experiment is repeated by replacing metal T with metals P.1. Pair of metals Cu and P Cu and Q Cu and R Cu and S Cu and T Negative terminal P Q Cu S Cu Page TABLE 1.2 (a) Based on Diagram 1. Q. Cu T Copper(II) sulphate solution DIAGRAM 1.

.......................................... (iii) The way to maintain the controlled variable: ...... ....................................................... (i) .2 (d) State a hypothesis for this experiment.................. [6 marks] .................................................. S and T in descending order of electropositivity......................................................................................................................................... Q.......... R......... [3 marks ] REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 42 ......... ............................................................................................................................................................... Variables Manipulated variable: Action to be taken (i) The way to manipulate variable: . ................................. …………………………………........ TABLE 1................SPM CHEMISTRY (b) Based on the voltmeter readings.............................................. (ii) Responding variable: …………………………….. P............................................................................................... (ii) What to observe in the responding variable: .........2 for the experiment. (iii) Controlled variable: ... _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ ________ Descending order of electropositivity of metal. . ……………………………............................ arrange the metals Cu........... ................................................................. [3 marks] (c) Complete Table 1.........................................................

3 ……………………………………. Pair of metals P and S P and T Q and R [3 marks] (g) Classify metals P.. ………………………………………. ………………………………………. R. ………………………………………..…….…… ………………………………………. ………………………………………. 2 ………………………………. ………………………………………. ………………………………………. Q.. Write your answers in the table provided.. Voltage/ V [3 marks] REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 43 . Inference 1 …………………………………….. …………………………………. 2 ……………………………………. ……………………………………….1(Cu and metal T). [6 marks] (f) Predict the voltage of the cells which contain the following pair of metals. 3 ……………………………………. S and T into more electropositive than copper and less electropositive than copper. ……………………………………….SPM CHEMISTRY (e) State three observations and corresponding inferences that can be obtained from the cell in Diagram 1. ………………………………………. Observation 1 …………………………………….. ……………………………………….

SPM CHEMISTRY (h) Explain why the voltage of cell of copper and metal S is larger than the cell of copper and metal P. [3 marks] REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 44 .... [3 marks] (i) Another example of a chemical cell is Daniell Cell.. Draw the apparatus set-up of the Daniell Cell of copper and metal T. ……………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………….

0 mol dm-3.SPM CHEMISTRY 2. The student repeated the experiment using sodium thiosulphate solution with the concentration of 1. 10. The conical flask was then placed on a mark “X” on a piece of white paper.0 mol dm-3 and 2.5 mol dm-3. Diagram 2 (a) Record the time for each reaction in the spaces provided in Diagram 2. At the same time. Diagram 2 shows the readings of the stopwatch for each of the reactions at different concentrations. [3 marks] REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 45 . 1.0 cm3 of 1. A student carried out an experiment to investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction.5 mol dm-3 .0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid was added to the sodium thiosulphate solution and shaken. 2. The stopwatch was stopped as soon as the mark “X” on the piece of white paper was no longer visible.5 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution into a 250 cm3 conical flask. He poured 50cm3 of 0. the stopwatch was started.

……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. [3 marks] . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. time [3 marks] (c) State the operational definition for rate of reaction for this experiment.0 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution....... state the relationship between concentration and the rate of reaction. [3 marks] (ii) Using the graph drawn in (b)(i). ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Explain your answer. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. [3 marks] State one observation for the experiment. (f) REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 46 …………………………………………………………………………………………….SPM CHEMISTRY (b) Construct a table and record the concentration.. time and 1 of this experiment. [3 marks] 1 (d) (i) Draw a graph of concentration against time on a graph paper. [3 marks] (e) Predict the time taken for the mark “X” to be no longer visible if the experiment is repeated using 3. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

......... [3 marks] ……………………………………..... ……………………………………………... (ii) Responding variable: (ii) What to observe in the responding variable: ……………………………........ .......................... ............................... …………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………................................ Using your knowledge of chemistry............................................ REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 47 ....SPM CHEMISTRY (g) Suggest a hypothesis for this experiment.................... [3 marks] (h) (i) Variables Manipulated variable: Action to be taken (i) The way to manipulate variable: .......... ……………………………………………………………………………………………..... …………………………………………………………………………………………….. ........... ……………………………………………………………………………………………......... ……………………………......................................... …………………………………………………………………………………………….... ……………………………………………………………………………………………........................................ [6 marks] (i) The relationship between concentration and rate of reaction can be applied in our daily life.................. …............. explain why fanning glowing charcoal will cause the charcoal to ignite................... (iii) Controlled variable: (iii) The way to maintain the controlled variable: ……………………………………………..................... ............................................................ ……………………………………………………………………………………………...............

” Plan a laboratory experiment to compare the elasticity of vulcanised rubber and unvulcanised rubber. “Soaps and detergents are cleansing agents but their effectiveness in hard water is different. Your planning should include the following aspects: (a) Statement of the problem (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) All the variables Statement of the hypothesis List of substances and materials Procedure of the experiment Tabulation of data (17 marks) 5. Your planning should include the following aspects: (a) Statement of the problem (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) All the variables Statement of the hypothesis List of substances and materials Procedure of the experiment Tabulation of data (17 marks) 4. “Vulcanised rubber is more elastic than unvulcanised rubber.” In an experiment to compare the effectiveness of a soap and a detergent in hard water. “ Plan a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of other metals on the rusting of iron. “If iron is exposed to oxygen and water. Your planning should include the following aspects: (a) Statement of the problem (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) All the variables Statement of the hypothesis List of substances and materials Procedure of the experiment Tabulation of data REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 48 (17 marks) . rusting is inhibited. rusting will occur but if iron is in contact with a more electropositive metal.SPM CHEMISTRY 3.

SUGGESTED ANSWERS 6.SPM CHEMISTRY 6.1 GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2 6.2 WRITTEN PRACTICAL PAPER REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 49 .

atom C receives two electrons and a negative ion. Answer: (i) Atom C has electron arrangement of 2.] A+ and B. [ D + 2e → D2.2 To achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement. To achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement.SPM CHEMISTRY 6. atom A donates one valence electron and a positive ion.1.8. Answer: (i) Atom A has electron arrangement of 2.ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces to form an ionic compound CD. Element Proton number A 3 B 9 The reaction between atoms A and B forms an ionic compound. (ii) X X Exercise 2. [ A → A+ + e ] Atom B has electron arrangement of 2. [ B + e → B.ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces to form an ionic compound AB.6.] C2+ and D2. atom B receives one electron and a negative ion. To achieve the stable electron arrangement // duplet arrangement.1 GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2 6.1 CHEMICAL BONDS: IONIC BOND Guided Exercise 1. [ C → C2+ + 2e ] Atom D has electron arrangement of 2.1.is formed. (i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed.is formed. (i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed. atom C donates two valence electrons and a positive ion. D2. To achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement. (ii) X X XX X X XX X X + X X XX X X XX X X _ 2+ _ X X 2XX X X XX X X A+ B- C2+- D2-- REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 50 . A+ is formed. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. Element Proton number C 12 D 8 The reaction between atoms C and D forms an ionic compound. B. C2+ is formed.7.

A carbon atom needs four more electrons to achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement. (i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. Element Proton number N 7 H 1 The reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen atoms forms a covalent compound. (i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed.7 // A chlorine atom has seven valence electrons.4 // A carbon atom has four valence electrons.5 // A nitrogen atom has five valence electrons. Answer: A nitrogen atom has electron arrangement of 2.2 CHEMICAL BONDS: COVALENT BOND Guided Exercise 1. Each of the three hydrogen atoms contributes one electron and one nitrogen atom contributes three electrons for sharing to form a covalent compound. CCl4 XX XX X Exercise H H X X XX X N N X XX X X H XX XX X XX XX XX XX X X X X XX Cl X X C X X X X XX XX XX XX X XX XX X X Cl X X X XX XX XX XX Cl XX XX XX XX X XX Cl X X X XX XX REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 51 .SPM CHEMISTRY 6.8. A nitrogen atom needs three more electrons to achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement.1. NH3 2. Each hydrogen atom needs one more electron to achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement. Each chlorine atom needs one more electron to achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement. A hydrogen atom has electron arrangement of 1 // A hydrogen atom has one valence electron. Element Proton number C 6 Cl 17 The reaction between carbon and chlorine atoms forms a covalent compound. A chlorine atom has electron arrangement of 2. Each of the four chlorine atoms contributes one electron and one carbon atom contributes four electrons for sharing to form a covalent compound. Answer: A carbon atom has electron arrangement of 2.

Pour 50 cm3 of 1. 4. Filter the mixture.0 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution. Rinse / wash the salt / precipitate with distilled water. Add 50 cm3 of 1.SPM CHEMISTRY 6.3 PREPARATION OF SALT: INSOLBULE SALT Guided Exercise 1. filter paper Procedure: 1. 6. Describe the preparation of lead(II) chloride in the laboratory. sodium chloride solution. 5. Rinse / wash the salt / precipitate with distilled water. Dry the salt by pressing between 2 pieces of filter paper. Equation: Ca(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 → CaSO4 + 2NaNO3 REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 52 .1. Answer: Substances: Lead(II) nitrate solution. beaker. 6. 2. Filter the mixture. 3. filter paper Procedure: 1. Add 100 cm3 of 1. 3. include the chemical equation involved. Equation: Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → PbCl2 + 2NaNO3 Exercise 2. beaker.0 mol dm-3 sodium sulphate solution.0 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution into a beaker. sodium sulphate solution. include the chemical equation involved. Answer: Substances: Calcium nitrate solution. 4. filter funnel. In your description. Stir the mixture with a glass rod. Describe the preparation of calcium sulphate in the laboratory. Dry the salt by pressing between 2 pieces of filter paper. 5. distilled water Apparatus: Measuring cylinder. 2. distilled water Apparatus: Measuring cylinder. Pour 50 cm3 of 1. In your description.0 mol dm-3 calcium nitrate solution into a beaker. Stir the mixture with a glass rod. filter funnel.

tripod stand. Filter the solution into an evaporating dish to remove the unreacted copper(II) oxide. spatula. Stir the mixture with a glass rod. wire gauze. 5. 3. 2. Cool the saturated solution until crystals are formed. Heat the solution until the final volume is 1/3 the initial volume // to produce a saturated solution.0 mol dm-3 nitric acid into a beaker. 6. Answer: Substances: Nitric acid. glass rod. 8. Dry the crystals by pressing between 2 pieces of filter paper. Continue adding copper(II) oxide until some of it no longer dissolves. Answer: Substances: Sulphuric acid. Equation: CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O Exercise 2. Stir the mixture with a glass rod. tripod stand. zinc // zinc oxide // zinc carbonate // zinc hydroxide powder. Filter the solution to obtain the zinc nitrate crystals. K+ OR NH4+ SALT) Guided Exercise 1. Bunsen burner. Warm the nitric acid. spatula. include the chemical equation involved. Continue adding zinc oxide until some of it no longer dissolves. Filter the solution into an evaporating dish to remove the unreacted zinc oxide. Heat the solution until the final volume is 1/3 the initial volume // to produce a saturated solution. filter funnel. 7.SPM CHEMISTRY 6. wire gauze. Rinse the crystals with a little cold distilled water. 8. filter funnel. Pour 50 cm3 of 1. Pour 50 cm3 of 1. 7. Dry the crystals by pressing between 2 pieces of filter paper. distilled water Apparatus: Measuring cylinder. filter paper Procedure: 1. Describe the preparation of copper(II) sulphate in the laboratory. distilled water Apparatus: Measuring cylinder.1. 4. Warm the sulphuric acid. 4.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid into a beaker.4 PREPARATION OF SALT: SOLUBLE SALT (NOT Na+. Equation: ZnO + 2HNO3 → Zn(NO3)2 + H2O REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 53 . glass rod. copper(II) oxide // copper(II) carbonate // copper(II) hydroxide powder. include the chemical equation involved. Filter the solution to obtain the copper(II) sulphate crystals. Use a spatula to add copper(II) oxide powder a little at a time into the acid. evaporating dish. beaker. 5. Cool the saturated solution until crystals are formed. Describe the preparation of zinc nitrate in the laboratory. 2. Bunsen burner. 3. 6. 9. beaker. Rinse the crystals with a little cold distilled water. Use a spatula to add zinc oxide powder a little at a time into the acid. filter paper Procedure: 1. evaporating dish. In your description. In your description. 9.

0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 . (ii) The concentration of acid / hydrogen ions in in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. The number of H+ ions per unit volume in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. Experiment I Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory.1. Frequency of effective collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I. Frequency of collision between H+ ions and CaCO3 in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.0 mol dm-3 HCl. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 54 . Experiment I Reactants: 100 cm3 of 0. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory. excess granulated zinc Experiment II Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1. Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 . (ii) In Experiment II.5 mol dm-3 HCl. zinc powder has a larger total surface area exposed to collision than granulated zinc in Experiment I. excess zinc powder Exercise Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. excess CaCO3 chips 2.SPM CHEMISTRY 6.5 RATE OF REACTION : Guided Exercise 1. excess CaCO3 chips Experiment II Reactants: 100 cm3 of 1. Frequency of effective collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I. Frequency of collision between H+ ions and zinc atoms in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.

0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 . + Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. excess zinc powder Experiment II Substances: 50 cm3 of 1. Frequency of collision between H ions and S2O32. Frequency of effective collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 . Temperature: 45 oC 4.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution. Experiment I Reactants: 50 cm3 of 0. The H+ ions move faster and collide more often with S2O32. 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. Temperature: 30 oC Experiment II Reactants: 50 cm3 of 0. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I.SPM CHEMISTRY Guided Exercise 3. (ii) Copper(II) sulphate solution in Experiment II acts as a catalyst whereas no catalyst is used in Experiment I In Experiment II. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 55 . more H+ ions and zinc atoms are able to achieve the lower activation energy than Experiment I.ions in Experiment II is than in Experiment I. Experiment I Substances: 50 cm3 of 1.ions in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I. the presence of catalyst enables the reaction to take place through an alternative path which requires a lower activation energy. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory. 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid.ions in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. (ii) Temperature of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I Kinetic energy of H+ ions and S2O32. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. excess zinc powder. In Experiment II. Frequency of effective collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I. CuSO4 solution Exercise Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution.

Stir the water in the can continuously throughout the experiment.6 HEAT OF COMBUSTION Heat of combustion is the heat change when one mole of alcohol is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions. Weigh the spirit lamp and its content immediately and record the mass. Record the initial temperature of the water. 8. Put out the flame when the temperature of the water increases by about 30 0C. Record the highest temperature reached by the water. 4. 7.SPM CHEMISTRY 6. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of ethanol. Measure 100 cm3 of water and pour into a copper can.1. C2H5OH. 6. Weigh a spirit lamp with ethanol and record its mass. 5. Tabulation of Data: The highest temperature of water / oC The initial temperature of water / oC T2 T1 m2 m1 Mass of spirit lamp and its content after burning / g Mass of spirit lamp and its contents before burning / g REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 56 . The copper can is placed on a tripod stand. In your description. 2. O=16 . H=1] o diagram showing the set-up of apparatus o procedures of the experiment o tabulation of data o calculation to obtain the heat of combustion o Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate result Answer: Thermometer Wind shield Copper can water Pipe clay triangle ethanol Spirit lamp Wooden block Procedure: 1. include the following: [Relative atomic mass : C=12 . Place the spirit lamp under the copper can and light the wick of the lamp immediately. 3.

mcθ J mol-1 n = . 4. Weigh the spirit lamp and its content immediately when the flame has been put out. 2. Stir the water in the copper can continuously throughout the experiment.m2) g Number of mole of C2H5OH = m 46 = n The heat energy given out during combustion by ethanol = the heat energy absorbed by water = mcθ = mc(T2-T1) = x J Heat of combustion of ethanol.SPM CHEMISTRY Calculation steps: Increase in temperature of water Mass of ethanol burnt = = (T2 . Use a wind shield during experiment. 3. ∆H = .x n J mol-1 Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate results: 1.T1) oC (m1 . Make sure the flame touches the base of the copper can // Place the spirit lamp very close or just beneath the base of the copper can. [Any two] REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 57 .

Cu. the higher is the voltage / the voltmeter reading. R.2 Score 3 1 (b) [Able to arrange the position of all metals in descending order of electropositivity correctly] Suggested answer: S.2 MARKING SCHEME CHEMISTRY PAPER 3 Question 1(a) Rubric [Able to record all the five readings accurately]: Suggested answer: Pairs of electrodes Cu and P Cu and Q Cu and R Cu and S Cu and T Voltage/V 1. Q. S and T Reading of the voltmeter// voltage 6 Use the same electrolyte / concentration of electrolyte / CuSO4 // use the same voltmeter // use copper electrode in all experiments.5 1.7 0.3 1. R. T 3 1 (c) [Able to state three variables and the way to control them correctly] Suggested answer: Manipulated variable: Pair of metals Responding variable: Voltmeter reading Controlled variable: Electrolyte / copper(II) sulphate solution // concentration and volume of electrolyte // same voltmeter // copper electrode Substituting the electrode T with different metals // P. Q. P. 1 (d) [Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable and the direction correctly] Suggested answer: The further apart / the distance of the pair of metals in the electrochemical series.5 2.SPM CHEMISTRY 6. 3 REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 58 .

T [Able to explain the difference in the voltage of the cell] Suggested answer: The distance between Cu and metal S is further / greater than the distance between Cu and metal P in the electrochemical series. S 1(h) Less electropositive R.4 3 [Able to classify all the metals correctly] Suggested answer: 3 More electropositive P. 3 [Able to draw the labeled apparatus set-up completely] 1(i) Suggested answer: 3 Copper Metal T Salt bridge REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 59 Copper(II) sulphate solution T nitrate solution . Brown solid is deposited at metal T 3. Q. SPM CHEMISTRY Maximum score 6 1(f) [Able to predict the voltage of the three cells accurately] Suggested answer: Pair of metals P and S P and T Q and R 1(g) Voltage/ V 0. The intensity of the blue coloured solution remains unchanged Inference Copper is oxidised / loses electron to form copper(II) ion // Copper is more electropositive than P. Copper strip / rod / metal dissolves / becomes thinner 2.7 2. Copper is formed // Cu2+ is reduced to copper The concentration of Cu2+ in the solution remain unchanged // the rate of Cu2+ formed at anode is the same as the rate of discharge of Cu2+ at the cathode.Question 1(e) Explanation [Able to state three observations and three inferences correctly] Observation 1.8 2.

05 1 / s-1 time 3 REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 1 / s-1 time 60 .04 0.5 (c) Time / s 3 55. t5 = 33.0 1.02 0.01 0.024 0.0 48.0 s.06 0.0 [Able to give the operational definition correctly] Rate of reaction is inversely proportional to the time taken for the mark “X” to be no longer visible // Rate of reaction ∝ 1 time (d) [ Able to do the following: • Draw a graph of suitable size / using suitable scale (occupying about 75% of graph paper) • Label the axes concentration / mol dm-3 and • Plot the five points correctly from the table constructed in (b) • Draw a straight line (linear) graph ] (i) concentration / mol dm-3 0.0 2.0 s.03 0.01 0 0.08 0.03 0.0 s.0 37.018 0.05 0.027 0. [Able to construct a table and transfer all the five readings from (a) correctly with unit for each heading.5 2.04 0.0 s. t2 = 48.0 33.07 0.021 0. t3 = 42.0 s. The values for Score 3 1 must be given to three time 1 / s-1 time 0. Concentration / mol dm-3 0..0 42.030 3 decimal places].SPM CHEMISTRY Question 2 (a) (b) Rubric [Able to record all the five readings accurately to one decimal point]: t1 = 55.5 1.09 0. t4 = 37.02 0.

0 mol dm-3 and 2. (i) 6 Solutions of same temperature are used // use conical flasks of same size // use the same concentration and volume of hydrochloric acid // keep the total volume of reacting mixture the same. Time taken for the mark “X” to be no longer visible Responding variable: Time taken for the mark “X” to be no longer visible // Rate of reaction Controlled variable: Temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution // size of conical flask // concentration and volume of hydrochloric acid used // total volume of reacting mixture Reject : Use of “Quantity” or “amount of “ hydrochloric acid / reacting mixture. Thus. REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page [Able to explain phenomena using relevant knowledge of chemistry] Suggested answer : Fanning increases the concentration of oxygen blown over glowing charcoal // Fanning causes the glowing charcoal to be exposed to more oxygen. 2.SPM CHEMISTRY (d) [ Able to state the relationship between concentration and the rate of reaction correctly] (ii) An increase in concentration (of sodium thiosulphate solution) will increase the rate of reaction. [Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable and the direction correctly] The higher / lower the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution. the shorter / longer the time taken for the mark “X” to be no longer visible. the glowing charcoal ignites. The reaction of hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate solution produces sulphur.5 mol dm-3 . (e) (f) [Able to predict the time taken using the graph drawn] Suggested answer : 30 s [Able to state and explain the observation correctly. sulphur dioxide and water.5 mol dm-3.0 mol dm . 3 3 3 (g) 3 (h) 1.] A yellow precipitate is formed. // The sulphur produced from the reaction forms the yellow precipitate. [Able to state three variables and the way to control them correctly] Suggested answer: Manipulated variable: Concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution Repeat the experiment using sodium thiosulphate solution with -3 concentrations of 1. 3 61 .

sandpaper. copper foil. Procedure : 1. 5. hot jelly solution containing potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution. The three nails are each put / dip / immersed into labelled test tubes A.SPM CHEMISTRY Question 3(a) Rubric How do different metals in contact with iron affect the rusting of iron? // What is the effect of different metals in contact with iron on the rusting of iron nails ? Iron nail rusts when it is in contact with a less electropositive metal. temperature Name one metal more electropositive (magnesium) than iron and one metal less electropositive (copper) than iron. Tabulation of data : Suggested answer(any one ) Pair of metal Iron nail only Iron nail coiled with magnesium ribbon Iron nail coiled with copper foil Observation Score 3 (b) (c) 3 3 (d) 3 (e) 3 (f) 3 Tets tube A B C Pair of metal Iron nail only Iron nail coiled with magnesium ribbon Iron nail coiled with copper foil Observation REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 62 . 4. 2. 3. Two iron nails are coiled / wound separately with magnesium ribbon and copper foil. Apparatus : test tubes. B and C containing hot jelly solution with potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution separately . The test tubes are put on a test tube rack under room condition for a few days. test tube rack. magnesium ribbon. Materials : Iron nails. Clean / Rub three iron nails with sandpaper. The test tubes are observed and the results are recorded. Iron nail does not rust when it is in contact with a more electropositive metal MV : Different metals in contact with iron nail RV: Rusting of iron CV: Type of (iron) nail. medium in which iron nail is kept.

40g and 50g weights to replace the 10 g weights. (Using bulldog clips. 5. ruler.SPM CHEMISTRY Question 4 (a) Rubric Is vulcanised rubber more elastic than unvulcanised rubber ? // How does the elasticity of vulcanised rubber differ from unvulcanised rubber ? // Does vulcanisation increase the elasticity of rubber? MV : Types of rubber // Vulcanised and unvulcanised rubber RV: Length of rubber strip CV : Size of rubber strip. Procedure : 1. 40 g and 50 g weights.) hang a vulcanised rubber strip and an unvulcanised rubber strip onto a retort stand each. Materials : Vulcanised rubber strip. unvulcanised rubber strip Apparatus: Retort stand and clamp. 2. Steps 3 and 4 are repeated using 20g. 30g. 10 g. 3. 20 g. The (initial) lengths of the two rubber strips are measured. (bulldog) clips. 4. The weights are removed and the lengths of the rubber strips are measured and recorded. 30 g . A 10 g weight is hung to each of the two strips and the lengths of the two strips are measured and recorded. Score 3 (b) 3 (c) (d) 3 3 (e) 3 (f) Tabulation of data Weights /g Length of vulcanised rubber Length of unvulcanised strip / cm rubber strip / cm Without With Weight Without With Weight weight weight removed weight weight removed 3 10 20 30 40 50 REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 63 . mass of weight Vulcanised / Unvulcanised rubber is more elastic than unvulcanised / vulcanised rubber.

temperature of magnesium sulphate // calcium sulphate solution. The cleansing action of the soap and detergent is observed and compared // The oily stain remaining on the cloth is observed and compared. magnesium sulphate // calcium sulphate solution Apparatus : measuring cylinder. Tabulation of data : Beaker X Y Observation Score 3 (b) 3 (c) 3 (d) 3 (e) 3 (f) or Cleansing agent Soap solution Detergent solution Observation 3 REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY Page 64 . detergent solution. volume and concentration of detergent and soap. Each cloth is washed with the cleansing agent / soap or detergent in the beaker. Soaps are less / not effective in hard water. 5. 2. type of stain / oil stain on cloth. basin // [any suitable container such as a basin] Procedure : 1. 50 cm3 of 5% soap solution and 50 cm3 of 5% detergent solution are separately poured into two beakers containing 20 cm3 of magnesium sulphate solution / hard water. // Detergent is a more effective cleansing agent than soap in hard water. Materials : Soap solution. 4. A small piece of cloth with oily stains is dipped / immersed / put into each beaker. two pieces of cloth with oily stains. MV : Different types of cleansing agent / Detergent and soap RV: (Removal of) oily stain on a cloth CV: Volume and concentration of magnesium sulphate solution.SPM CHEMISTRY Question 5(a) Rubric How effective are // How is the effectiveness of soaps and detergents in hard water ? // What is the effectiveness of soaps and detergents in hard water ? // Is the cleansing action of a detergent / soap more effective than that of a soap / detergent in hard water ? // Is soap as effective as detergent in hard water ? Detergents are effective in hard water. The results are recorded in a table. 3.

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