MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism

:

Te Ao Tawhito Tuhua

TE AO TAWHITO

UENUKU – Tribal Atua of Tainui,Wood, 267cm, Te Tipunga Period (1200-1500)Found at Lake Ngaroto 1906, Photography, Brian Brake, in „Maori Art‟.

THE ANCIENT WORLD OF MAORI
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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

Te Ao Tawhito Tuhua

TE AO TAWHITO
To try and analyse Maori Art making within a Western scientific and cultural context is to perpetuate the situating of indigenous knowledge as inferior, primitive, untruthful and immature. (Wereta, 2007) Pound says that “early 1900s Maori art was given toleration, as the comparative positioning with classical art of Europe situated it within Surrealist theorising that reflected a belief of a primitivism in art, as with the culture.” (Pound 1994, cit.in ibid p4)

Far from being primitive, Maori art making reflected a staggering depth of knowledge of the natural and spiritual realms and their integration that depended more on the manipulation of invisible forces than the simple rendition of what the physical eye registers.

THE ART MAKER AS TOHUNGA
In the Maori worldview the practice of art making was the province of the Metaphysician – the Tohunga. The word itself is symbolic, with multiple layers of meaning (as is most of Te Reo Maori in the language of the Tohunga). One interpretation is Tohu meaning sign or symbol, plus nga plural definitive article. This is apt because the Tohunga was expert at interpreting signs in the natural realm, and in dreams and visions. He was also learned in the visual language of symbology, referencing cosmology, whakapapa, whenua, star lore, heroes, deeds – in fact all the accumulated knowledge, lore and law of a people unique to Aotearoa and in the world. In the Tuhoe dialect the word is To-huna, meaning adept of the hidden, or Master of the spiritual realms. The equivalent in Christian theology would be Master of the Mysteries, or Priest depending on the following adjective describing functional office, e.g. Tohunga Ahurewa, Tohunga Whakairo and so on. Tuhoe Tohuna, Hohepa Kereopa explained that the word is derived from the phrase whakato huna, meaning to plant a seed, which is a very evocative symbol of the Tohuna‟s Art. (Moon 2003) The Rev. Maori Marsden and others are quite clear that the English translation of Tohunga as „expert‟ is a mistaken idea that arose from observing that Maori used the term in association with recognised experts in a particular field. Marsden adds that tohu also means manifestation and that Tohunga can also mean „a chosen one‟ or „appointed one‟, which is encouraging for those of us possessed of a need to make art. (Marsden, 2003, p1 4)

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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

Te Ao Tawhito Tuhua

ART AS SPIRITUAL PRACTICE
As a spiritual Adept, the Tohunga could not only hear, see and feel invisible energies and entities, but could with word, sound and gesture, manipulate spiritual forces. Because these forces are dangerous to non-initiates, the whole process of art making was bounded by laws of tapu and noa, balancing mauri and mana. This is an important concept when examining Maori Art, because it lifts art making and art objects out of the merely material and/or representational and even symbolic. In fact the second realm beyond the physical, the Tua-Uri, is considered the „real world‟ behind the world of sense perception “where the cosmic processes originated and continue to operate as a complex series of rhythmical patterns of energy to uphold, sustain and replenish the energies and life of the natural world” 1. (Marsden cit. in Bevan-Brown, 1998, p232). It is in this second realm that forces such as Mauri, Mana and Wairua reside, inciting the often quoted “Te ihi, te wehi, te wana” (spiritual power, awe, authority) when a true artwork surrounded with whakapapa, korero and karakia is encountered, especially in its original context (Brown, 2003) These rhythmical patterns of energy are clearly discernible to Matakite (prophets, seers) and anyone naturally sensitive, or guided by a Tohunga to feel the vibrations of living objects. For example Moon (2003) describes Tohunga Hohepa Kereopa guiding him to detect the difference in vibrancy of a healthy tree and a dying tree. These vibration s are still discernible in natural materials such as wood and stone and plant fi bres even when cut and shaped. Recently I was invited to hold the whalebone hei -tiki of Tohunga Whare-Huia. It felt ordinarily warm from skin contact, but what was extraordina ry was the strength of the buzzing vibration of this beautiful tupuna-wahine taonga, and the peace and acceptance it imparted.

THE USE OF FIRE IN ART MAKING
All things were named according to their physical properties and mauri, admitting sentience to all the children of Papatuanuku and Ranginui, which leads me to speculate that perhaps Maori had reason not to develop metallurgy, or pottery to any great degree. Fire has the power to destroy Mauri (although it has a mauri of its own), most obviously in cook ed food, which was used to disperse tapu. Some Tohunga would only bathe in cold water so that their state of tapu was maintained.

1

A belief seconded by Einstein, and the New Physicists.

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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

Te Ao Tawhito Tuhua

In regard to using fire to change the nature of natural material, a parallel clue in the Hebrew‟s book of Enoch records that the art of metallurgy was forbidden to humans preflood and under Mosaic Law the mixing of fibres and certain foods was forbidden especially to the Priesthood. Why should this be so? The Book of Enoch and other Biblical texts refer to a technologically sophisticated non human civilisation out of control, and Maori and other Polynesian peoples have pre -historic oral records of the devastating explosion of an 8 th planet between Mars and Neptune (now an asteroid belt) due to out of control technology. 2 Or, perhaps it simply has to do with the detectable change in vibrational energy of the raw materials as much as any philosophical considerations. However, fire was used by Tohunga to alter art materials in the making of charcoal, Ta Moko pigments from the ash of certain plants, and lime from seashells for making symbols in highly tapu rituals (Robinson, 2005)

KAUWAKATANGA – THE ARTIST AS SPIRITUAL VESSEL
The Tohunga Artist was also known to be an Atua Kauwaka. (Ibid) Atua are spiritual entities, kau means to swim, and waka is a vessel, so the artist was a spiritual channel or medium as well as being attuned to natural and cosmic forces. With the energies of gesture and sound – kupu, karakia and waiata, the Tohunga was able to bind, loose and shape spiritual forces into material objects by the weaving of Te Aho – threads of cosmic energies symbolised by the puwerewere, the spider‟s web kissed by dew being a material likeness of what the Matakite sees, and part of the esoteric information imbedded within traditional carving patterns.3

HEI-TIKI
Taking the example of an iconic Maori symbol, the hei-tiki, usually rendered in pounamu, gives an insight into traditional processes. Usually understood to symbolise primeval man and referencing the creation of mankind, fertility, whakapapa and the foetus, the tiki is also an object of sacred power. First of all the stone itself had a sacred whakapapa tracing back to the union of Tane and Rangahore, with Poutini being the Atua of pounamu. The Tohunga was able to detect the vibrational energy (mauri) of stone as well as being familiar with its physical properties. In shaping the pounamu, the Tohunga would be in a state of tapu. Using his own wairua with the recitation of appropriate karakia, he would imbue the Tiki with mana, from himself and from Atua.4
2

I will not cite sources at this time, as I intend to research this fascinating subject for later publication. A little of the lore of the Whare Maire.

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4

For a superb treatise on the use of symbolism by Tohunga to gain an understanding of the forces of nature and the cosmos, see Rev. Maori Marsden‟s The Woven Universe, pp30-32

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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

Te Ao Tawhito Tuhua

Because the Tiki was a sacred and beautiful object, it was most often worn by a person who also possessed great mana, and usually a woman as the bearer and protector of the human foetus. Because of its nature, the Tiki absorbed mana from its wearer and all subsequent owners, so its force became greater and more tapu over time. Such a tiki could become dangerous if it was misappropriated by a person with less mana than the object had accumulated, or whose whakapapa was not attuned to it.

In Icons – Nga Taonga (2004, p16) a story is related about an unusual hei-tiki acquired by collector T.E. Donne, who showed it to a (unnamed) Nga Puhi Tohunga. He would not handle the hei-tiki because it was tapu. Pointing to it he said “I do not like that one, and I would not own it, as it is full of duplicity – it is two-faced.” Donne than turned it over and showed him that it was two-faced in reality.

INTRINSIC SPIRITUALITY OF ART OBJECTS
The same principles apply to Whakairo Rakau depending on the purpose of the work and the amount of tapu involved. There was no religious symbology as such, because spirituality was intrinsic to all aspects of life, especially art that served as a nexus between the physical and metaphysical realms and was capable of habitating atua or tupuna. (Plate 11 Whakapakoko) The three realms relating to Tane‟s three baskets of knowledge – Aro-nui (secular knowledge and the natural world surrounding us and apprehended by the senses), Tua-uri (cosmic processes and energies) and Te Ao Tua-atea (the spiritual world beyond space-time, infinite and eternal) was perceived as an integrated whole. (Marsden cit. in Bevan-Brown, 1998) In Te Maori (p32) Moko-Mead talks about Art or a Mountain being clothed with kupu and korero. He says that Taonga contain immanent power on which are pinned a host of powerful words, and that (some) go to a priest to protect themselves from the “power of the words clinging to the objects”, i.e. the karakia, rituals, and incantations that act as bridges between the living and the dead, or the temporal and spiritual realms.

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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

Te Ao Tawhito Tuhua

SYMBOLISM, SURREALISM AND REPRESENTATION OF
SPIRITUAL BEINGS AND FORCES
A TUA
The Te Maori Exhibition was led by the Atua Uenuka, and for the first time the Western World was able to encounter in a real way the true meaning of mahi-toi, not just as a visual curiosity, but as a means of entering into a different realm and encountering a living spiritual entity. The symbolism of the artwork was not wholly revealed by Tohunga at the time of the exhibition, and because of the actual use of symbolism, visual and aural, as mnemonic devices for the recall and recitation of lore, they could not. There also remains much esoteric knowledge requiring protection. However, Timoti Robinson is one of the first Tohunga to have written about the most tapu lore of the Tohunga Ahurewa. According to Robinson (2005), the negative space inside the circle at the top of tokotauwaka, (mnemonic devices used for the teaching and recitation of lore) speaks of the realm of Te Kore and the infinite, unfathomable attributes of Io (and he presents compelling evidence for a pre-contact Io cult, as do Marsden and Pere). The seven bands of the rainbow are represented in the crest of the carving. Uenuku was the Pacific equivalent of the Angel that led the Israelites out of Egypt and through the wilderness, mentioned in many accounts of the migrations of nga Iwi Maori from Hawaaiki contained in tribal narratives. It should be noted that the sculpture in no way equates to the concept of an Idol, anymore than a light bulb equates to electricity. Kaumatua and Contemporary Maori Artist, Sandy Adsett, explained that like many other cultures believing in a Creator God, Maori refused to emulate the work of Atua by creating naturalistic images. (Toi Awhio Hui, 2008)

L IZARDS – M OKO , T UATARA , K AWEAU , T ANIWHA , M ANAIA
It is noteworthy that apart from representations of made objects such as patu, almost the only realistic form rendered was that of the Moko (Lizard). The Lizard is an ancient symbol for mana, tapu and mauri. It is the guardian of the spirit world, guardian of wisdom and knowledge and is also the symbol of the tapu of Chiefs. ... Moko (is) also the word for tattooing. Chiefs were referred to as

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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

Te Ao Tawhito Tuhua

tuatara and kaweau, and taniwha. The green lizard symbolised the personification of death and disease, though generally speaking their role was guardianship. (Source uncited) 5

A BSTRACTION
Another major feature of Maori Art is abstraction and transformations, especially bird features merging with human. Part of that whakapapa could refer to the demi-god Maui‟s transformation into a kahu and kereru to enter the underworld undetected. Another famous legend of Te Arawa recounts the adventures of Hatupatu and his encounters with the „birdwoman‟, who may have been a member of another man-like species, extinct and consigned to legend, as are tipua – goblins, and Patupaiarehe, Te Hapu Oneone with the ability to turn to stone, and other ancient races that from time to time are said to have bred with humans.6 Birds were very strong Tohu and messengers. Kaiako Whakairo Shannon (?surname) says that Ruru (owls) were considered particularly capable of traversing the spiritual realm and that is the probable symbology of Koruru placed at the apex of Whare Tupuna. Tohunga Matakite and Ahurewa could also merge their consciousness with the Kahu for astral travel. Within Tuhoe kahu feathers were highly prized for heru and as much symbolic of Mana Rangatira as those of the Huia.

M ANAIA – MYTHOLOGICAL BEINGS ?
Dr D.H. Skinner considers that Manaia relate to a distant Avian culture somewhere in early Maori History (cf 7below). Dr Barrow agrees, noting the belief that birds are omens – intermediaries between man and spirits. Kendell, in his early writings mentioned that these were protective spirits surrounding the chiefly person representing his mana, aura, prestige and charisma. The word Manaia means „containing mana‟ and the symbol is used to 1. Reinforce or acknowledge the spiritual state, 2. Express mana, aura, power, charisma of the chiefly person, and 3. Fills the various spaces artistically. (ibid) These beaked or bird-like figures may not be based on actual birds, and could be symbolic of an extinct species perhaps related to pterodactyl, in the same way that Taniwha were actual creatures related to dinosaurs and the dragons of Celtic and Chinese mythology. A recent Television One News item announced the discovery of dinosaur footprints in the Tasman Nelson region (October 2009), which is no surprise at all to Maori who have always asserted their existence in Aotearoa dating from the time that New Zealand was part of Gondwanaland, knowledge of which has been retained in the

5

These quotes from uncited photocopied notes that had done the rounds of Whakairo students and made their way into the Rauangi studio, but containing valuable information for my own areas of inquiry.
6

In the case of Patupaiarehe and Te Hapu Oneone it now seems pakeha claim these early races for their own with their apparent Celtic links. This is an area that I have been reviewing for a year or so, and I am beginning to form some other hypotheses. Whatever the outcome of the debate, Tuhoe as an Indigenous Nation, claims whakapapa to these and other legendary peoples, as well as links to other migratory route nations .

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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

Te Ao Tawhito Tuhua

most ancient recitations of the indigenous nations of Tuhoe and Waitaha.7 Brown (2003) notes the use of serpentine forms in Taitokerau carvings which may be symbolic of Taniwha. All waka have their oral records of interaction with these legendary and spiritual creatures. Whether there was ever a physical species of that form or not, many matakite Maori are aware of manaia as one of the etheric forms of kaitiaki (spiritual guardians). Another fascinating figure in carving is that of the Marakihau – a benevolent fish eating creature of the deep, somewhat resembling the early European sailors‟ tales of mermaid. As yet I know little of the mythology surrounding these beings, and I look forward to being enlightened by learned kaumatua.

T UPUNA – A NCESTRAL F IGURES
To Western eyes most of the carved images looked surreal, but “Ancestral figures were abstracted symbolising their spiritual state. These were developed because the artist cannot visualise something with no prototype in this world. They have the same symbolic integrity as the angel with wings 8 ... Prof.McMillan Brown (1907) said that two old carvers in the Urewera considered it tapu to represent the true human figure as ancestors are spirit s and the features must be obscured.” (ibid)

T HREE FINGERS
J.P.S. Graham (1921) related a myth about the convention of figures being carved with three fingers, “Pere-tu had only three fingers; this was not a deformity but a sign of his god-like descent from a reptilian ancestor 9”. Thus three fingers symbolises men of god -like descent. Elsdon Best (1924) said that the three fingered hand appears in many ancient cultures – on Etruscan tombs, Japanese sculptures, in Peru, and Babylonia etc. It was the ancient Chinese ideograph for Man and was also found in old carvings of Greece and India. Fatima‟s hand placed over Mohammedan doors to ward off evil had three fingers, and ancient sculptures of Ninevah display the three haohao seen on Maori fingers, and is so old

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E.g. in Robinson

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I find the above quote particularly interesting, as many years ago I had personal experience of the prejudice of some religious‟ believing that carvings of tupuna were demonic and should be burnt as “idols”. My thought at the time (as an admittedly uneducated Maori) was that if that was the case, then pakeha should also burn their photo albums and ancestral portraits of their dead ancestors. I hadn‟t carried that thought further at that time to the European portrayals of spiritual entities such as Angels, and I was unaware of the actual destruction of carvings that is now part of New Zealand‟s shameful post-contact history.
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A belief also held by many ancient peoples in legend, and some latter day psychics, such as European spiritualist, Madam Blavatsky who also posits a Polynesian avian culture. It is a concept that has also shown up in my own art practice of kauwakatanga, of which I intend to publish more later.

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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

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the origin is lost. (ibid) The three fingers are also said to symbolise the three states of existence: 1. The embryonic or suspended state, 2. The earthly state, and 3. The state of death or perfection. Also a. The state of Noa, b. The state of Tapu, and c. The state of birth into this world. (Kendall in Binney, ibid) 10

G ENDER DEPICTION , GENDER FUNCTION , SEXUALITY
Sexual attributes were freely depicted in ancestral poupou, and an understanding of the symbology tells us a lot about the pragmatism and honour accorded sexuality and the balance of male and female within Maori society and cosmology. Some ancestral figures have a smaller tiki figure between the legs in place of genitals. This represents the line of offspring from that Tupuna. An erect penis grasped in the hand represents the power of procreation, mana, whakapapa and ancestral connection. Female genitalia symbolise the power to give birth and sustain life, and refer to the mana and tapu of women “who attend to the beginning of life, the welfare of humankind, and the soul after death” (Icons Nga Taonga, 2004, p46). An extremely important element of a Tupuna Whare, or Wharenui, is the female figure over the pare (door lintel). In this case the genitals perform whakanoa. This is a sacred female function to remove tapu and make safe. This female figure also occurs above the window space where tupapaku are passed in and out of the wharenui, symbolic of our tupuna kuia, Hine-nuite-po, atua of the underworld and caretaker of the dead. This use of the feminine forces is also part of the ritual associated with the opening of a new wharenui and the releasing of Tohunga Whakairo from the tapu of their mahi. “The first woman crossing the threshold of a new wharenui (opening ceremony) is removing tapu from every carved piece in the building and releasing from each piece the guardian spirits and returning them to their forest home. No tree in the forest was touched without first approaching and propitiating the guardians of the tree and the forest god Tane Mahuta.” (Source uncited) With the opening of Tuhoe‟s Mataatua Marae in Rotorua, the first person to cross the threshold was a young Puhi, a noble maiden. With the understanding that a virgin has the ability to tuia, to raise and neutralise tapu without harm to herself or others, I was proud to have my own daughter be the first to cross the threshold of an 1998 art exhibition at Hamurana Springs Gallery “Taonga”, where some of the exhibits were ancient treasures of Te Arawa.

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This quote from Binney‟s Legacy of Guilt.

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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

Te Ao Tawhito Tuhua

Whakanoa is also one of the functions of the Tohunga Ruahine, and of women in general to balance the tapu forces of men, not, as is often misunderstood as a violation of male tapu, or „contamination‟ by unclean females (a Victorian European attitude). The feminine force is highly protective, capable of cleansing and healing harmful influences, including the tapu of death and disease. Traditionally males involved in carving were required to refrain from intercourse to maintain their state of tapu. Because of the power of the neutralising forces (whakanoa), understood as the 6th chakra in Indian traditions, women were customarily trained not to step over a man‟s body, or anything under the protection of tapu, such as mahi toi raranga, or whakairo. This is probably the origin of the traditions in some Iwi of banning women from entering the workplace of Tohunga Whakairo, although there are instances of Mareikura and Tohunga Wahine being engaged in carving11 and ta moko, as well as the mainly feminine domains of raranga, tukutuku, and less well known, kowhaiwhai. The other symbolism to do with sexuality that has often been misinterpreted is conjugality. PoetWriter Hone Tuwhare wrote a classic piece about a carving on top of a gateway, of his tipuna in a sexual embrace: “Totem thoughts – She was seated between his thighs with her legs wrapped around his hips in classic style – a style not unknown to the Ngati Tarawhai carvers – her feet locked together behind his back, twiddling her toes. She looked arch. I guess she was comfortable. “My male Ancestor looked fearsome ... as if I were some kind of truant intruder – a Jack Nohi. He said „...well, if the pa is NOT under attack, why don‟t you piss off then? “The pa was about to be taken over I am bound to say – by a GLIB COMMERCIAL INTEREST. But who cares for that? For lovers – like my ancestors, it was a period of supreme self containment: a timely and a timeless happening – history, art, more sex: me.” (Maori Artists of the South Pacific, p80) At Tatahoata Marae, Ruatahuna, there is a carving of a large male figure sexually connected to a small female figure. I was told by a man who should have known better, that it was a disgusting carving showing a man having incestuous sex with a child. In fact it depicts the sacred union of an atua (big) with a human woman (small) so symbolising our divine lineage. This art record parallels the Hebrew book of Genesis: 6v4 “In those days, and for some time after, giant Nephilim lived on the earth, for whenever the sons of God had intercourse with the daughters of

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See Brown (2003) Tai Tokerau Whakairo Rakau for instance

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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

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men, they gave birth to children who became the heroes and famous warriors of ancient times.” In Maori mythology, our most famous cultural hero, Maui Tikitiki-a-Taranga was of this „nephilim‟ type. Judging from the size of some of the taiaha held in Te Papa‟s collection, the wielders of these weapons must indeed have been giants - perhaps evidence of the veracity of ancient legends of the interbreeding of an extra-terrestial race („sons of God‟, Atua) with humans.12

WHAKAIRO - SURFACE PATTERNS
In carving, surface patterns may have been ideographic as well as mnemonic. Certainly they were used with enough consistency to be on a par with American Indian pictograms, and ancient Celtic symbolism. Whether Maori symbology counts as “writing” is debatable in that it is not a phonetic language as Western Society understands literacy. However, the pattern symbology of carvings, kowhaiwhai, and tukutuku as combined in the Wharenui is clearly discerned as “language” by learned kaumatua and Tohunga, and that is certainly the case with the practice of Ta Moko, especially kanohi (facial moko). For specifics on whakairo symbology, Hirini Moko-Mead‟s book Te Toi Whakairo is recommended basic reading.

KOWHAIWHAI
Post contact the practice of painting kowhaiwhai has been consistently underrated in comparison to the mana of the practice of carving, and generally interpreted as simple patterns with little understanding of its distinctive sacred function within the wharenui. This is because the function of the Tohunga Ruahine has been overlooked in the colonial anthropologic literature, and paint practice assumed to have been a male preserve. Symbolically the whole Wharenui represents Tupuna, Whanau and Hapu. Every part of its construction and decoration functions together as a whole, as the various members of our body form a smoothly functioning interdependent whole. The Tahuhu, or spine of the ancestral body, symbolises the main ancestral line of descent, and the heke (rafters) represent other descent lines as in the whakatauki “Te Iho Makawerau” (Iho of a hundred hairs). Iho can be translated as the umbilical cord connecting us to the whenua of the Mother. Salmond in Te Maori explains the whakatauki as saying that the lines of descent come down to a person like the hundred hairs of the head, bringing power from the ancestors and effective force into the world.
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Certainly interesting to speculate on, especially for Maori who hold creation legends in common with the Hebrew and other non-western nations – perhaps more palatable than believing in descent from a fish, or monkey, although creationism and evolution theories are not mutually exclusive, especially to an Artist. Here‟s a quote from Kaiako Darren Keith: “How many Surrealists does it take to change a lightbulb?” answer: “Fish”.

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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

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Some of the symbolism of kowhaiwhai speaks of the concerns of the Ruahine, for example Pitau-aManaia, the foetus nestled within the ponga frond referencing continuation of descendants – life and death, as in the whakatauki associated with ponga „When an old Chief dies, a new Chief will arise‟. Functionally, painted kowhaiwhai serves the mainly feminine function of tuia to raise tapu and keep the wharenui free of curses and witchcraft. This should be of interest to painters, as the word for „drawing‟ is tuhia. In the sacred language of the Whare Maire tuia is pronounced with a whistled „h‟.13 Kaiako Rauangi and contemporary Maori Artist, Chris Bryant (Toi Awhio hui, 2008), explained that the Manawa (heart) line of kowhaiwhai and the curls of the koru (kawai) represent the vine and tendrils of the hue (calabash), and he poked gentle fun at Te Arawa telling tourists that the koru originated from the fern frond. Thus kowhaiwhai traces our whakapapa back to Africa, the origin of the gourd, most likely brought as seed from recent (5000 years) migration routes.

GENERAL COMMENT
There is so much more information available on the symbolic significance of other Artworks – weaponry, architecture, waka, use of colour, waka tupapaku, highly abstracted kowhaiwhai, dress, adornment and so on. The best sources of information remain with the oral traditions of Kaumatua and the Tohunga currently engaged in traditional and contemporary art making. A new generation of Maori intellectuals are applying huge energies into researching and articulating the way the world looks to Maori, and Maori experience of the world, and reclaiming Matauranga Maori as by Maori, for Maori and the world. It is an exciting privilege to be part of this ongoing cultural and intellectual renaissance, exploring the realm of

TE AO TAWHITO
THE ANCIENT WORLD OF NGA IWI MAORI O AOTEAROA.

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Lore of the Whare Maire

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MAORI ART Symbolism and Surrealism:

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References Binney, Judith, 1968, A Legacy of Guilt: a Life of Thomas Kendall, Oxford U.P., Auckland. Brake, Brian, 1984, Maori Art: The Photography of Brian Brake, Penguin, NZ Brown, Deidre, 2003, Tai Tokerau Whakairo Rakau Northland Maori Wood Car ving, Reed, Auckland. Mataira, Katerina, 1984, Maori Artists of the South Pacific, New Zealand Maori Artists and Writers Society, Raglan NZ Moko Mead, Hirini, 1986, Te Toi Whakairo The Art of Maori Carving, Reed, Auckland. Moon, Paul, 2003, Tohunga: Hohepa Kereopa, David Ling, Auckland Pere, Rose, 1991, Te Wheke: a Celebration of Infinite Wisdom, Ao Ako Global Learning NZ Robinson, Samuel Timoti, 2008, Tohunga: The Revival: Ancient Knowledge for the Modern Era, Penguin NZ Royal, Charles (Ed), 2003, The Woven Universe: Selected Writings of Rev. Maori Marsden, The Estate of Rev. Maori Marsden, NZ Te Papa, 2009, Icons Nga Taonga: from the Collection of the Museum of Te Papa Tongarewa, Te Papa Press, Wellington Wereta, 2007, Essay on Maori Art (source uncited)

Whetumarama Tuhua, cc2009
Tohunga: Adept of the Whare Maire, Artist, Healer Introductory Essay on the Tohungatanga of Maori Art

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