Edexcel Biology A2 2009 June Ms All | Ribosome | Earth & Life Sciences

Mark Scheme Summer 2009

GCE

GCE Biology (8040/9040 & 8042/9042)

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Summer 2009 Publications Code UA021146 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Ltd 2009 ii 0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Contents

General Introduction Unit Codes and Unit Titles General Information

iv v vi

Mark Schemes
Unit 1 6101 Molecules and cells 1

Unit 2B Unit 2H

6102 6112

Exchange, transport and reproduction Exchange, transport and reproduction in humans

12 21

Unit 3

6103/02* 6103/03

Written alternative to coursework* Energy and the environment

31 35

Unit 4

Core material Option A Option B Option C

Respiration and coordination Microbiology and biotechnology Food science Human health and fitness

40 47 52 58

Unit 5B Unit 5H

6105 6115

Genetics, evolution and biodiversity Genetics, human evolution and biodiversity

63 75

Unit 6

6106/02 6106/03

Written alternative to coursework Synoptic Paper

86 92

iii

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GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiners and revised, together with the relevant questions, by a panel of senior examiners and subject teachers. The schemes are further amended at the Standardisation meetings attended by all examiners. The Standardisation meeting ensures as far as possible that the mark scheme covers the candidates' actual responses to questions and that every examiner understands and applies it in the same way. The schemes in this document are the final mark schemes used by the examiners in this examination and include the amendments made at the meeting. They do not include any details of the discussions that took place in the meeting, nor do they include all of the possible alternative answers or equivalent statements that were considered to be worthy of credit. It is emphasised that these mark schemes are working documents that apply to these papers in this examination. Every effort is made to ensure a consistent approach to marking from one examination to another but each marking point has to be judged in the context of the candidates' responses and in relation to the other questions in the paper. It should not be assumed that future mark schemes will adopt exactly the same marking points as this one. Edexcel cannot under any circumstances discuss or comment informally on the marking of individual scripts. Any enquiries about the marks awarded to individual candidates can be dealt with only through the official Enquiry about Results procedure.

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Unit Codes and Unit Titles
These Mark Schemes cover the units offered in this examination for Advanced Subsidiary Biology and Biology (Human) (8040 and 8042) and Advanced Biology and Biology (Human) (9040 and 9042). The units available in this examination series for the complete qualifications are listed in the table below.
Level AS Unit 1 2 3 A2 4 5 6 6101 6102 6103 6104 6105 6106 Biology Molecules and cells Exchange, transport and reproduction Exchange, transport and reproduction in humans Biology (Human) 6101 6112 6103 6104 6115 6106

Energy and the environment and Practical Assessment Respiration and coordination and Options Genetics, evolution and biodiversity Genetics, human evolution and biodiversity

Synoptic and Practical Assessment

Cashing in
The following tables show the units that must be taken in order to obtain an award for AS or Advanced GCE Biology, or for AS or Advanced GCE Biology (Human). Advanced Subsidiary Level AS Unit 1 2 3 8040 Biology 6101* 6102* 6103* 8042 Biology (Human) 6101* 6112* 6103*

Advanced GCE Level AS A2 Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 9040 Biology 6101* 6102* 6103* 6104# 6105# 6106# 9042 Biology (Human) 6101* 6112* 6103* 6104# 6115# 6106#

* No longer available – final resit opportunity was June 2009 # Available for final time in January 2010.

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GENERAL INFORMATION
The following symbols are used in the mark schemes for all questions:
Symbol ; semi colon eq / oblique {} curly brackets () round brackets [] square brackets [CE] or [TE] Crossed out work If a candidate has crossed out an answer and written new text, the crossed out work can be ignored. If the candidate has crossed out work but written no new text, the crossed out work for that question or part question should be marked, as far as it is possible to do so. Spelling and clarity Meaning of symbol Indicates the end of a marking point Indicates that credit should be given for other correct alternatives to a word or statement, as discussed in the Standardisation meeting Words or phrases separated by an oblique are alternatives to each other Indicate the beginning and end of a list of alternatives (separated by obliques) where necessary to avoid confusion Words inside round brackets are to aid understanding of the marking point but are not required to award the point Words inside square brackets are instructions or guidance for examiners Consecutive error / transferred error

In general, an error made in an early part of a question is penalised when it occurs but not subsequently. The candidate is penalised once only and can gain credit in later parts of the question by correct reasoning from the earlier incorrect answer. No marks are awarded specifically for quality of language in the written papers, except for the essays in the synoptic paper. Use of English is however taken into account as follows: • the spelling of technical terms must be sufficiently correct for the answer to be unambiguous
e.g. for amylase, ‘ammalase’ is acceptable whereas ‘amylose’ is not e.g. for glycogen, ‘glicojen’ is acceptable whereas ‘glucagen’ is not e.g. for ileum, ‘illeum’ is acceptable whereas ‘ilium’ is not e.g. for mitosis, ‘mytosis’ is acceptable whereas ‘meitosis’ is not

• •

candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. a correct statement that is contradicted by an incorrect statement in the same part of an answer gains no mark – irrelevant material should be ignored.

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Unit 1 (6101 /01) - Molecules and cells
Question Number 1 Answer Feature nuclear envelope cell surface membrane mitochondria Golgi apparatus Prokaryotic cell x Eukaryotic cell Mark

x x (4)

one mark for every two correct responses ;;;;

1

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Question Number 2

Answer 1. Benedict’s / Fehling’s ; 2. orange / red / brown / yellow / green ; 3. acid / named acid ; 4. alkali / named alkali ; 5. iodine (in KI) ;

Mark

(5)

2

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Question Number 3(a)

Answer 1. one glycerol, two fatty acids and one phosphate group drawn ; 2. fatty acid(s) joining to glycerol with ester bond / ester bond joining fatty acid(s) to glycerol ; 3. one phosphate group joined to glycerol with ester bond ;

Mark

(3)

Question Number 3(b)

Answer {soluble / can dissolve} in water / eq ;

Mark (1)

Question Number 3(c)

Answer 1. form a (phospholipid) bilayer / eq ; 2. {phosphate / hydrophilic region} {interacts / eq} with {aqueous environment / surroundings / cytoplasm} ; 3. {fatty acids / hydrophobic region } {restricts / eq} movement of {charged / polar / water soluble molecules} {into cell / out of cell / eq} ;

Mark

max (2)

3

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Question Number 4(a)

Answer A = starch grain ; B = granum ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 4(b)

Answer 1. correct measurement between X and Y ; (from 99 to 104 mm) 2. correct division by 5 ; 3. correct magnification e.g. 19800 to 20800 ;

Mark

(3)

Question Number 4(c)

Answer palisade / guard / spongy / mesophyll ;

Mark (1)

4

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Question Number 5(a)(i)

Answer 1. {root tip / shoot tip / meristematic tissue} / eq ; 2. dividing cells are present / eq ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 5(a)(ii)

Answer {acetic / acid} orcein / Feulgen’s / acetocarmine / Schiff’s reagent / lactoproprionic acid / toluidine blue / eq ;

Mark

(1)

Question Number 5(a)(iii)

Answer idea of getting {a single layer / eq} of cells ;

Mark (1)

Question Number 5(b)(i)

Answer BDAC;

Mark (1)

Question Number 5(b)(ii)

Answer A = anaphase ; C = telophase ;

Mark

(2)

5

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Question Number 6(a)

Answer 1. reference to kinetic energy of molecules /eq ; 2. idea that molecules are moving randomly / eq ; 3. idea that overall movement of molecules is down the concentration gradient ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 6(b)

Answer 1. (at beginning) there is a concentration gradient /eq ; 2. as concentration of A decreases on outside, it increases on inside / eq ; 3. substance A moves from outside to inside ; 4. as concentration {gradient / difference} gets smaller, rate of change decreases ; 5. {no change in concentration / eq} when equal on both sides / it reaches equilibrium ;

Mark

max (3)

6

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Question Number 6(c)(i)

Answer 1. active transport requires {energy / ATP} ; 2. active transport can move molecules against a concentration gradient ; 3. active transport requires a protein (pump) ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 6(c)(ii)

Answer

Mark

1. rate of change would be (almost) {linear / constant / eq} ; 2. (changes) would occur faster /eq ; 3. idea that (overall) movement of molecules would not stop when concentrations equal e.g. equilibrium would not be reached, concentration inside would be greater than outside ;

max (2)

7

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Question Number 7(a)(i)

Answer C A G U C A C G C ;;

Mark (2)

Question Number 7(a)(ii)

Answer gln, ser, arg ;

Mark (1)

Question Number 7(a)(iii)

Answer 1. 21 (amino acids) ; 2. correct multiplication by 3 (to give 63) ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 7(b)(i)

Answer 1. contains {protein / enzymes} ; 2. and (r)RNA ; 3. reference to two subunits ; 4. reference to appropriate binding sites e.g. for mRNA ;

Mark

max (2)

8

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Question Number 7(b)(ii)

Answer 1. ribosome {attaches/eq} to mRNA ; 2. two tRNA molecules (held in ribosome) /eq ; 3. (each) carrying a {specific/eq} amino acid / eq ; 4. reference to anticodons on tRNA /eq ; 5. reference to complementary {bases / codon} on mRNA /eq ; 6. peptide bonds form between amino acids /eq ; 7. ribosome moves along mRNA /eq ; 8. correct reference to {start / stop} codons ;

Mark

max (5)

9

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Question Number 8(a)(i)

Answer 1. {protein / substrate} and enzyme {collide / bind} / reference to enzymes-substrate complex being formed/ eq ; 2. peptide bonds {broken / eq} ; 3. {reference to / description of} hydrolysis ; 4. reference to formation of {smaller peptide chains / amino acids} ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 8(a)(ii)

Answer idea that {smaller peptides / amino acids} dissolve whereas protein did not / eq ;

Mark

(1)

Question Number 8(b)(i)

Answer 1. activity increases between pH 5 and 8 / eq ; 2. most active at pH 8 / eq ; 3. activity drops between pH 8 and 10 ; 4. correct manipulation of figures ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 8(b)(ii)

Answer 1. pH is determined by {H+ concentration / eq} ; 2. reference to ionisation of {R groups / side chains} ; 3. reference to {bonds / appropriate named bond} {breaking / eq} ; 4. reference to change in shape of active site ; 5. {substrate / protein} cannot bind to active site / eq ;

Mark

max (3)

10

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Question Number 8(c)

Answer 1. to keep the temperature (of the reaction) constant ; 2. reference to {(45 °C) optimum temperature of trypsin / fastest rate} ; 3. reference to a change in the temperature changes the rate of reaction e.g. idea that change in temperature {changes the kinetic energy of the molecules / changes the {number / energy / frequency} of the collisions};

Mark

max (2)

11

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Unit 2B (6102/01) - Exchange, transport and reproduction
Question Number 1 Answer 1. Graafian / ovarian ; 2. luteinising hormone / LH ; 3. corpus luteum / yellow body ; 4. endometrium / lining of the uterus ; (4) Mark

12

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Question Number 2(a)

Answer A B C sinoatrial node / sinuatrial node / SAN / pacemaker ; atrioventricular node / AVN ; Purkyne fibres / Purkyne tissue / bundle of His ;

Mark

(3)

Question Number 2(b)

Answer 1. reference to more muscle ; 2. increased force of contraction / increased pressure / eq ; 3. left ventricle pumps blood round the whole body / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 2(c)

Answer 1. {oxygen / blood} supply to the heart muscle / eq ; 2. consists of coronary artery / coronary arteries ; 3. capillaries / cardiac {vein / veins} / coronary sinus ;

Mark

max (2)

13

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Question Number 3(a)

Answer 1. {single layer of epithelium / simple epithelium / thin epithelium} to reduce diffusion distance / eq ; 2. (presence of) microvilli to increase surface area ; 3. (presence of) capillaries to transport absorbed products / maintain {diffusion / concentration} gradients ; 4. {lacteal / eq} for absorption of fats / eq ; 5. reference to carrier proteins explained ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 3(b)(i)

Answer 1. {greater / faster / more steady / eq} uptake when sodium ions are present ; 2. comparative, manipulated data comment – e.g. ‘total uptake is 23 times higher in the presence of sodium ions’ or ‘684 µmol more taken up in presence of sodium ions’ ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 3(b)(ii)

Answer 1. reference to sodium-glucose cotransport / eq ; 2. membrane contains transporter proteins (for glucose and sodium) / eq ; 3. without sodium, uptake is by (facilitated) diffusion only / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

14

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Question Number 4(a)

Answer 1. diaphragm contracts / eq ; 2. (and) moves downwards / flattens ; 3. external intercostal muscles contract ; 4. (and) raise the rib cage / pull ribs upwards / pull ribs outwards ; 5. reference to increase in volume of the thorax / decrease in pressure ;

Mark

max (4)

Question Number 4(b)

Answer 1. consists of {flattened epithelial cells / squamous epithelium / type I pneumocytes} / thin epithelium / thin wall ; 2. type II pneumocytes / surfactant-secreting cells / eq ; 3. (alveolus is) surrounded with {connective tissue / collagen / elastic fibres} ; 4. (alveolus is) surrounded with capillaries / eq ; 5. credit correct reference to presence of macrophages / eq ; 6. reference to presence of basement membrane;

Mark

max (3)

15

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Question Number 4(c)(i)

Answer 1. as concentration of carbon dioxide increases, pulmonary ventilation increases / eq ; 2. reference to less change from 0% to 3% / greater change from 4% to 6% ; 3. credit manipulated, quantitative comment, e.g. overall increase in pulmonary ventilation of 26 dm3 min-1 ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 4(c)(ii)

Answer {carbon dioxide / reduced pH / increased acidity} stimulates the respiratory centre / eq ;

Mark

(1)

16

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Question Number 5(a)

Answer Mark as paired points i.e. adaptation ; function ; 1. presence of {haemoglobin / respiratory pigment} ; 2. with a high affinity for oxygen ;

Mark

3. presence of breathing tube / eq ; 4. to obtain oxygen from the air ;

5. presence of gills ; 6. to increase surface area (for gas exchange) ; max (4)

Question Number 5(b)

Answer 1. flattened body / streamlined shape / eq ; 2. to reduce resistance to water / eq ; 3. presence of hooks / claws / eq ; 4. to hold on to substrate / eq ;

Mark

(4)

17

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Question Number 6(a)

Answer 1. vessels / vessel elements ; 2. tracheids ; 3. presence of pits ; 4. fibres / sclerenchyma ; 5. lignified / eq ; 6. parenchyma / packing tissue ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 6(b)(i)

Answer 1. stomata open ; 2. increase in {light intensity / temperature / wind speed} / decrease in humidity ; 3. (therefore) transpiration rate increases ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 6(b)(ii)

Answer 1. stomata close ; 2. decrease in {light intensity / temperature / wind speed} / increase in humidity ; 3. (therefore) transpiration rate decreases ;

Mark

max (2)

18

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Question Number 7(a)

Answer Pollination 1. {transfer / eq} of pollen (grains) ; 2. (from an anther) to a stigma / eq ; Protandry 3. stamen ripens / anthers mature / pollen released / eq ; 4. before carpels (mature) / eq ;

Mark

(4)

Question Number 7(b)(i)

Answer 1. 90 – 45 or 45 ; 2. ÷ 6 ; 3. = 7.5 ;

Mark

(3)

Question Number 7(b)(ii)

Answer 1. (with boron) pollen tubes grow faster / longer / eq ; 2. (with boron) keep growing / no levelling off AND (without boron) stops growing / levels off / eq ; 3. manipulated quantitative comparison, e.g. at the end of experiment, pollen tubes are 3 times longer ;

Mark

max (2)

19

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Question Number 8(a)

Answer

Mark

Description

Name of leucocyte neutrophil /polymorph ; monocyte ; eosinophil / acidophil ; (3)

Question Number 8(b)(i)

Answer 1. reference to decrease in the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen ; 2. haemoglobin releases oxygen / eq ; 3. {at the same / at a given} partial pressure of oxygen / eq ; 4. idea that this makes oxygen available to {cells / tissues / organs} ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 8(b)(ii)

Answer 1. curve shifts to the right ; 2. oxygen released more readily / more oxygen released / eq / idea that temperature increases in active tissues ;

Mark

(2)

20

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Unit 2H (6112/01) - Exchange, transport and reproduction in humans
Question Number 1 Answer 1. Graafian / ovarian ; 2. luteinising hormone / LH ; 3. corpus luteum / yellow body ; 4. endometrium / lining of the uterus ; (4) Mark

21

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Question Number 2(a)

Answer A B C sinoatrial node / sinuatrial node / SAN / pacemaker ; atrioventricular node / AVN ; Purkyne fibres / Purkyne tissue / bundle of His ;

Mark

(3)

Question Number 2(b)

Answer 1. reference to more muscle ; 2. increased force of contraction / increased pressure / eq ; 3. left ventricle pumps blood round the whole body / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 2(c)

Answer 1. {oxygen / blood} supply to the heart muscle / eq ; 2. consists of coronary artery / coronary arteries ; 3. capillaries / cardiac {vein / veins} / coronary sinus ;

Mark

max (2)

22

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Question Number 3(a)

Answer 1. {single layer of epithelium / simple epithelium / thin epithelium} to reduce diffusion distance / eq ; 2. (presence of) microvilli, to increase surface area ; 3. (presence of) capillaries, to transport absorbed products / maintain {diffusion / concentration} gradients ; 4. {lacteal / eq} for absorption of fats / eq ; 5. reference to carrier proteins explained ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 3(b)(i)

Answer 1. {greater / faster / more steady / eq} uptake when sodium ions are present ; 2. comparative, manipulated data comment – e.g. ‘total uptake is 23 times higher in the presence of sodium ions’ or ‘684 µmol more taken up in presence of sodium ions ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 3(b)(ii)

Answer 1. reference to sodium-glucose cotransport / eq ; 2. membrane contains transporter proteins (for glucose and sodium) / eq ; 3. without sodium, uptake is by (facilitated) diffusion only / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

23

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Question Number 4(a)

Answer 1. diaphragm contracts / eq ; 2. (and) moves downwards / flattens ; 3. external intercostal muscles contract ; 4. (and) raise the rib cage / pull ribs upwards / pull ribs outwards ; 5. reference to increase in volume of the thorax / decrease in pressure ;

Mark

max (4)

Question Number 4(b)

Answer 1. consists of {flattened epithelial cells / squamous epithelium / type I pneumocytes} / thin epithelium / thin wall ; 2. type II pneumocytes / surfactant-secreting cells / eq ; 3. (alveolus is) surrounded with {connective tissue / collagen / elastic fibres} ; 4. (alveolus is) surrounded with capillaries / eq ; 5. credit correct reference to presence of macrophages / eq ; 6. reference to presence of basement membrane;

Mark

max (3)

24

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Question Number 4(c)(i)

Answer 1. as concentration of carbon dioxide increases, pulmonary ventilation increases / eq ; 2. reference to less change from 0% to 3% / greater change from 4% to 6% ; 3. credit manipulated, quantitative comment, e.g. overall increase in pulmonary ventilation of 26 dm3 min-1 ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 4(c)(ii)

Answer {carbon dioxide / reduced pH / increased acidity} stimulates the respiratory centre / eq ;

Mark

(1)

25

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Question Number 5(a)

Answer 1. reference to damage to cartilage ; 2. reference to change in bone ; 3. in joints / knees / hips / spine / hands / feet ; 4. causes swelling / pain / reduced movements (in joints) ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 5(b)

Answer 1. in postmenopausal women / eq ; 2. {tablets / skin patches / eq} contain oestrogen (and progesterone) ; 3. reference to use in preventing bone loss / reducing the risk of fractures ; 4. due to loss of calcium / eq ;

Mark

max (3)

26

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Question Number 6(a)

Answer Any two from: 1. air pressure ; 2. partial pressure of oxygen / pO2 ; 3. temperature ; 4. humidity ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 6(b)(i)

Answer 1. reference to increase in birth weight as atmospheric pressure increases ; 2. more effect 60 to 80 kPa / little difference 80 to 100 kPa / levels out 80 or 87 or 93 to 100 kPa ; 3. credit manipulated quantitative comment e.g. overall increase of 0.31 kg ;

Mark

(3)

Question Number 6(b)(ii)

Answer 1. suggest that birth weight decreases as altitude increases ; 2. reference to greater effect at high altitude / less effect at low altitude / eq ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 6(b)(iii)

Answer lower pO2 at high altitude / reference to {hypoxia / eq }/ babies develop more slowly ;

Mark

(1)

27

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Question Number 6(b)(iv)

Answer Any two from: 1. age of mother ; 2. nutrition / diet ; 3. genetic factors / eq ; 4. smoking ; 5. alcohol intake ;

Mark

max (2)

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Question Number 7(a)

Answer 1. sweat glands {secrete / eq} sweat ; 2. water in sweat evaporates / eq ; 3. evaporation has a cooling effect / eq ; 4. reference to latent heat ; 5. reference to change in rate of sweating in relation to changes in body temperature ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 7(b)(i)

Answer 1. calculation ; 2. 36.8 ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 7(b)(ii)

Answer 1. temperature higher (in the afternoon) ; 2. {exercise / activity} increases {metabolic rate / metabolism} ; 3. (which) generates heat / eq ;

Mark

(3)

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Question Number 8(a)

Answer

Mark

Description

Name of leucocyte neutrophil / polymorph ; monocyte ; eosinophil ; (3)

Question Number 8(b)(i)

Answer 1. reference to decrease in the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen ; 2. oxygen released more readily / more oxygen released / eq ; 3. {at the same / at a given} partial pressure of oxygen / eq ; 4. idea that this makes oxygen available to (respiring) tissues ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 8(b)(ii)

Answer 1. curve shifts to the right ; 2. oxygen released more readily / more oxygen released / eq / idea that temperature increases in active tissues ;

Mark

max (2)

30

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Unit 3 (6103/02) - Written Alternative to Coursework (International candidates ONLY)
Question Number 1(a) Answer Snail density snails per 625 cm2 10 20 35 50 Mortality % Juvenile Adult 10.0 0 8.6 7.0 15.0 37.5 48.6 58.0 Mark

neat table correctly formatted ; correct rows and columns with labels and units ; adult percentages correct ; juvenile percentages correct ; (4)

Question Number 1(b)

Answer A axes correctly orientated & labelled scale correct ; F line graph format ; P all points correctly plotted ; L accurately drawn line passing through all points ;

Mark

(4)

31

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Question Number 1(c)

Answer 1. adult mortality increases with population density eq ; 2. juvenile mortality not affected by population density ; 3. reference to large difference (51%) at highest density / suitable manipulation of figures ; 4. all juveniles at 20 snails per 625 cm2 survive / eq ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 1(d)

Answer 1. dead snails in cage may affect live snails ; 2. difficult to control environmental factors for each cage ; 3. some adult snails may die off naturally / may have only short life span / may give birth / eq ; 4. difficult to {define ‘juvenile’ / determine age of} snails ; 5. reference to effect on percentage mortality in low density (death of one snail causes large change in percentage) ;

Mark

max (3)

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Question Number 2(a)

Answer 1. control of growth medium - any TWO of same soil/compost, same volume, same containers, seed sown at same density / eq ; 2. TWO named abiotic factors standardised for growth e.g. light, temperature, water ; 3. standard sampling e.g. same mass / volume / use of cork borer ; 4. sampling at intervals of growth ; 5. {grind / homogenise / blend / eq} sample ; 6. filter extract ; 7. add {stated / same} volume of sucrase / add fixed volume of dilute HCl ; 8. incubate at fixed temperature (max 50 °C) {for fixed time / until equilibrated} / boil then neutralise ; 9. add {stated /same} volume of Benedict’s solution /use of test strip e.g. Diabur ; 10. reference to Benedict’s solution in excess / allow time for test strip colour to develop / eq ; 11. boil / heat above 60 °C for fixed time ; 12. filter dry and weigh precipitate / use of colorimeter / compare with colour chart ; 13. repeat at least 3 times in total ;

Mark

max (9)

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Question Number 2(b)

Answer 1. suitable table with raw data and units to match method plan ; 2. reference to rate of production ; 3. line graph format / alternative matching plan ; 4. correct orientation and labelling of axes ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 2(c)

Answer Limitations 1. different regions of the root might contain different concentrations of sucrose ; 2. presence of other reducing sugars in {either / both} varieties ; 3. mass of precipitate very small / precipitate can give inaccurate colorimeter readings / test strip colours difficult to match to standard ; 4. difficult to ensure that all sucrose is {broken down by sucrase / hydrolysed by HCl / eq} ; Further work 5. conduct field trials of both varieties / test both varieties in different climatic conditions ; 6. extract sucrose in normal way and check actual mass / measure sugar content at maturity / eq (if not in method); 7. more detailed analysis for other sugars present ;

Mark

max (6)

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Unit 3 (6103/03) - Energy and the environment
Question Number 1(a)(i) Answer suitable named ruminant e.g. cow / sheep / deer / moose ; Mark

(1)

Question Number 1(a)(ii)

Answer 1. reference to microorganisms / bacteria / eq ; 2. reference to cellulase / cellulose-digesting enzyme / eq ; 3. into {sugars / monosaccharides / glucose / fatty acids / eq} ; 4. that can be absorbed / are soluble / eq ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 1(b)(i)

Answer cross in box under tooth A ;

Mark (1)

Question Number 1(b)(ii)

Answer 1. {side-to-side / rotational / circular / eq} movement of jaw ; 2. sharp ridges on tooth ; 3. idea of interlocking of upper and lower molar teeth ; 4. reference to {grinding / eq} ; 5. {increase surface area / release cell contents / break cell walls} for {digestion / enzyme action} ;

Mark

max (3)

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Question Number 2(a)(i)

Answer ((295 - 55) ÷ 295) x 100 ; 81.4 ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 2(a)(ii)

Answer 1. A, B and C more-or-less same / eq ; 2. D (significantly) less efficient than A, B & C / eq ; 3. any other valid comparison ; 4. manipulated data to support any comparison ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 2(b)(i)

Answer 1. nitrification is oxidation, denitrification is reduction ; 2. nitrification requires {oxygen / aerobic conditions}, denitrification requires anaerobic conditions / removal of ammonium must take place in aerobic conditions, removal of nitrate in anaerobic conditions ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 2(b)(ii)

Answer 1. ammonium ; 2. ammonium is {oxidised / converted / nitrified} to nitrites ; 3. to nitrates ; 4. nitrates then need to be removed (by denitrification) ;

Mark

max (3)

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Question Number 2(c)(i)

Answer the {enrichment / increase / eq} of {nutrients / minerals / eq} ;

Mark

(1)

Question Number 2(c)(ii)

Answer 1. increased {algae / plant} growth / reference to algal bloom ; 2. {algae / plants} die ; 3. reference to increased {decomposition / eq} by aerobic {bacteria / fungi / eq} ; 4. uses up oxygen (in water) / BOD increases ; 5. fish suffocate / eq ; 6. reference to toxins (from algae) killing fish ; 7. reference to lack of food for fish ;

Mark

max (4)

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Question Number 3(a)(i)

Answer 87 528 – 50 304 OR 22 953 + 14 271 ; 37 224 ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 3(a)(ii)

Answer 1. biomass can vary {seasonally / eq} ; 2. idea of fluctuations in different trophic levels may not coincide / eq ; 3. energy flow {takes account of time / cancels out fluctuations} / biomass only at one time / eq ; 4. reference to variable content of {biomass / organic} material ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 3(b)

Answer 1. reference to {biomass / organisms / bodies / eq} washed away (as stream flows) ; 2. reference to decay / eq ; 3. excretion ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 3(c)(i)

Answer 1. nitrate decreased, ammonium and phosphate increased ; 2. phosphate increased more than ammonium ; 3. nitrate decrease much larger than increase in other two ions ; 4. suitable manipulation of data to support a comparison ;

Mark

max (3)

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Question Number 3(c)(ii)

Answer 1. numbers of primary consumers {increase / decrease} if producers {increase / decrease} ; 2. tertiary consumers {depend / feed} on secondary consumers which {depend / feed} on primary consumers ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 3(d)

Answer 1. (increase in) {grazing animals / cattle} may lead to {overgrazing / increased trampling} ; 2. {overgrazing / trampling} removes {plant cover / eq} ; 3. deforestation removes protective canopy / eq ; 4. reference to {plant / tree} roots {bind / stabilise} soil ; 5. soil exposed to {heat / rain / wind} ; 6. (therefore) soil {dries out / washes away / blows away} ; 7. reference to changes in local weather pattern (due to plant loss) ; 8. reference to salinisation caused by increased evaporation from surface of exposed soil ;

Mark

max (4)

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Unit 4 (6104/Core) - Respiration and coordination
Question Number 1(a) Answer outer segment labelled R / rhodopsin ; Mark (1)

Question Number 1(b)

Answer 1. rhodopsin is {bleached / broken down / split / eq} (in bright light) ; 2. (re-)synthesized / eq in {dark / dim / eq} ; 3. this takes time / eq ; 4. reference to dark adaptation ;

Mark

max (3)

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Question Number 2(a)(i)

Answer sensory / afferent / pseudo-unipolar (neurone ) ;

Mark (1)

Question Number 2(a)(ii)

Answer 1. {receive / eq} the {impulse / stimulus / eq } from {receptor /sense} {organ / cell} ; 2. {pass impulse to / eq} {CNS / brain / spinal cord / {relay / effector /eq} neurone} ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 2(a)(iii)

Answer arrow drawn points upwards from dendrite to synaptic knob ;

Mark

(1)

Question Number 2(b)

Answer 1. depolarisation of (neurone) membrane ; 2. {rapid / brief / sudden / temporary} / reference to changes from negative to positive (on the inside) ; 3. caused by {inflow / eq} of sodium ions / increased permeability to Na+ ;

Mark

max (2)

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Question Number 3(a)(i)

Answer B matrix ; C crista / inner membrane ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 3(a)(ii)

Answer C;

Mark (1)

Question Number 3(b)(i)

Answer 1. reference to reaction components used up / not available, e.g. glucose, ADP, phosphate ; 2. no source of {electrons / hydrogen} to {react with / eq} oxygen / eq ; 3. yeast switch to anaerobic respiration / aerobic respiration stops / eq ; 4. this is because oxygen levels are too low / eq ; 5. idea of oxygen dissolving into solution from the air / oxygen levels (in suspension) are maintained / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 3(b)(ii)

Answer 1. (antimycin A) prevents {electrons / H+} {reaching oxygen / pass along chain} / eq} ; 2. oxygen is not reduced / does not form water / does not act as (final) electron acceptor / eq ;

Mark

(2)

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Question Number 3(b)(iii)

Answer 1. ATP production {decreases / slows down} / eq ;

Mark

Then any two from: 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. idea of electron transport chain is where {most / eq} ATP produced ; {oxidative phosphorylation / eq} {stops / eq} ; Krebs cycle {stops / eq} ; idea that {NADH / eq} cannot be reoxidised ; reference to {yeast switches to anaerobic respiration / ATP produced in glycolysis} ; max (3)

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Question Number 4(a)(i)

Answer 1. increase in age, slower rate / eq ; 2. credit quantitative manipulation of figures e.g at age 30 there is a decrease of 2.7 mmol dm-3 / at age 80 the decrease is 0.6 mmol dm-3 ; 3. credit quantitative comparison of two ages e.g. 80 is 4½ times lower than 30 / rate at 30 is 2.7 mmol dm-3 but at 80 it is much slower at 0.6 mmol dm-3 ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 4(a)(ii)

Answer change in activity in {pancreas / liver} {change / decrease} in amount of insulin, change in {sensitivity / uptake} by body cells ;

Mark

(1)

Question Number 4(b)(i)

Answer 1. 2. 3. correct readings from graph (8.8 and 4.8) ; correct subtraction (4.0) and x 100 ; correct division (÷ 4.8) to give 83(.3) ;

Mark

(3)

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Question Number 4(b)(ii)

Answer 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. stimulates the conversion of {glycogen to glucose / glycogenolysis} / eq ; reference to activation of enzymes ; stimulates uptake of amino acids (into cells) / eq ; (amino acids / fatty acids) are converted into glucose / gluconeogenesis / eq ; glucose released into {blood / hepatic vein / eq} ; (glucagon) inhibits insulin production / eq ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 4(b)(iii)

Answer any appropriate named hormone e.g. adrenaline ;

Mark (1)

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Question Number 5(a)

Answer 1. {active transport / eq} of {Na+ / Cl-} out of ascending limb ; 2. correct reference to {water potential / eq} (in medulla) ; 3. water passes out of {collecting duct / descending limb} (into blood / vasa recta / medulla) / eq ; 4. correct reference to osmosis ; 5. reference to counter-current mechanism ; 6. the longer the loop the greater the effect / eq ; 7. reference to ascending limb being impermeable to water ;

Mark

max (5)

Question Number 5(b)

Answer 1. reference to reduces dehydration ; 2. (ADH) increases permeability {of collecting duct / distal convoluted tubule} to water ; 3. reference to {aquaporins / water channels / eq} ; 4. more water {reabsorbed / absorbed into the blood} ; 5. correct reference to osmosis ; 6. idea that a more concentrated solution is produced ;

Mark

max (4)

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Unit 4A (6104/01) - Microbiology and biotechnology
Question Number 6 Answer Appearance of Gram negative bacteria Appearance of Gram positive bacteria Mark

Stage of Gram stain

purple purple colourless pink / red

purple purple purple purple

any 2 correct boxes for 1 mark ;;;;

(4)

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Question Number 7(a)

Answer 1. reference to infection / bacteria entering {cells / macrophases / tissues} ; 2. reference to tissue destruction ; 3. credit correct details of tuberculosis ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 7(b)(i)

Answer 1. (overall) decrease in number of cases / eq ; 2. {sharp / fast / eq} decrease between 1980 and {1984 to 1988} ; 3. idea of {fluctuation / smaller decrease} between {1987 / 1988} and {2003 / 2004} ; 4. credit correct manipulation of figures ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 7(b)(ii)

Answer 1. treatment is not improving / eq ; 2. bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics / eq ; 3. idea that pulmonary TB does not account for {all / majority} of deaths ;

Mark

max (2)

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Question Number 8(a)(i)

Answer 1. a drop in pH to {5.5 to 5.3} has no effect on viscosity ; 2. drop in pH from {5.5 to 5.3} causes an increase in viscosity / eq ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 8(a)(ii)

Answer 1. reference to lactic acid {fermentation / production} ; 2. by {bacteria / Lactobacilli} ; 3. (appropriate acid) causes drop in pH ; 4. (fall in pH) causes {coagulation / eq} of (milk) proteins / eq ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 8(b)

Answer 1. reference to use of Penicillium ; 2. reference to {(fed) batch fermentation / secondary metabolite / production at end of growth phase} ; 3. reference to {nutrients / carbon source / named carbon source / nitrogen source / named nitrogen source} (at start) ; 4. reference to {maintaining temperature (2527°C) / use of water jacket} ; 5. reference to maintaining pH (6.8-7.7) ; 6. reference to aeration / eq ; 7. reference to addition of {growth factor / phenylacetic acid} ; 8. reference to {extraction from / secretion} of penicillin into culture fluid ;

Mark

max (4)

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Question Number 9(a)

Answer reference to or description of {absorbance / transmission} ;

Mark (1)

Question Number 9(b)

Answer 1. 0.09 – 0.07 x 100(%) ; 2. divided by 0.07 = 28.57(%) ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 9(c)

Answer 1. no change in turbidity from {0 – 1 / 3 – 4 / 9 – 10} cell numbers remain constant / eq ; 2. (0 – 1 hour) bacteria {acclimatises / synthesises enzymes} / eq ; 3. (3 – 4 hours) synthesis different enzymes ; 4. (9 – 10 hours) nutrient {run out / eq} / toxin built up / eq ; 5. turbidity increases from {1 – 3 / 4 – 9} cell numbers are increasing ; 6. (1 -3 hours (first)) first nutrient metabolised ; 7. (4 – 9 hours) {second nutrient / carbon source} used ;

Mark

max (4)

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Question Number 9(d)

Answer 1. reference to serial dilution / description of two steps ; 2. (0.1 – 1 cm3) bacterial suspension {onto / into} solid agar ; 3. reference to plating technique / eq ; 4. range of dilutions plated / replicates used ; 5. count colonies and multiply by dilution factor for cells/cm3 ; 6. reference to sampling at regular time intervals ; 7. reference to agitation of culture ; 8. reference to aseptic technique ;

Mark

max (4)

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Unit 4B (6104/02) - Food science
Question Number 6 Answer Mark

Method of preservation

Means of reducing food spoilage prevents growth of aerobic microorganisms / delays growth of facultative anaerobes ;

decreases pH / increases acidity / eq ; prevents rancidity (of lipids) / prevents oxidation / reference to reduction of free radicals; heat treatment / high temperature (62 - 72ºC) ; (4)

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Question Number 7(a)

Answer 1. energy needed (by an individual) for {essential body processes / at rest / eq} ; 2. named example of body process e.g. pumping of heart / ventilation / maintenance of body temperature / chemical processes ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 7(b)(i)

Answer 1. (energy expenditure of) males is greater than that for females (for all activities) / eq ; 2. the greatest difference is during running and swimming / eq ; 3. manipulation of figures to compare males and females (with units) ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 7(b)(ii)

Answer 1. idea that males could be putting in more effort than females ; 2. males were heavier than females / eq ; 3. males have faster metabolic rate ; 4. reference to activity not standardised / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

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Question Number 8(a)

Answer 1. cholesterol increases the chances of developing coronary heart disease / eq ; 2. HDL cholesterol decreases the chances of developing coronary heart disease / eq ; 3. credit quantitative manipulated figures ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 8(b)

Answer Maximum of two marks from either list Cause an increase in coronary heart disease: high levels of LDL ; high levels of cholesterol ; high levels of saturated fat ; high levels of salt ; excess energy intake ; Cause a decrease in coronary heart disease: HDL ; NSPs / pectins / gums ; antioxidants / vitamin C ; unsaturated fat ;

Mark

max (3)

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Question Number 8(c)

Answer 1. help to reduce incidence of cancer / eq ; 2. decreases transit time of stools / eq (in large intestine) ; 3. idea of reduces contact time of carcinogens with wall of intestine ; 4. reference to digestion (of NSP) by bacteria ; 5. producing metabolites that help to prevent cells becoming cancerous / eq ; 6. reference to reducing {constipation / IBS / diverticulitis} ; 7. softens stools / eq ; 8. idea of reducing pressure on walls of intestine ; 9. which would form tears / pouches (in diverticulitis) ;

Mark

max (4)

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Question Number 9(a)(i)

Answer cabbage ; salt / sodium chloride ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 9(a)(ii)

Answer any 2 from: Enterobacter (chloacae), Leuconostoc (mesanteroides), {Lactobacillus / eq} (plantarum), {Lactobacillus / eq} (brevis) lactic acid bacteria ;;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 9(b)(i)

Answer 1. correct subtraction ; 2. correct division to give answer of 1 ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 9(b)(ii)

Answer 1. up to two days no change in pH ; 2. due to bacteria acclimatising / synthesising enzymes ; 3. decrease in pH between {2 and 6 / 8 and 13} days ; 4. due to bacteria producing (organic) acid; 5. increase in pH between {6 and 8 / 13 and 15} days ; 6. due to bacterial {breakdown/ metabolism }of some of the acids produced ;

Mark

max (4)

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Question Number 9(b)(iii)

Answer reference to lowest pH reached / to allow cabbage to absorb acid / to allow changes to occur to the flavour / to allow gas production to stop before packaging / eq ;

Mark

(1)

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Unit 4C (6104/03) - Human health and fitness
Question Number 6 One location synapse / terminal bouton / synaptic cleft / {neurotransmitter / eq}/ motor end plate / neuromuscular junction (skeletal) muscle One function initiate muscle contraction / slows down heartbeat / eq {phosphorisation of ADP / eq} / energy store / eq (mechanical) strength / eq oxygen store / eq (4) Answer Mark

bone / teeth

muscle

any 2 correct boxes for 1 mark ;;;;

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Question Number 7(a)

Answer 1. (individuals training have) higher energy demands / carbohydrates provide {energy / ATP} ; 2. reference to supplies carbohydrate to glucose ; 3. reference to conversion of glucose to glycogen ; 4. reference to glycogen stores in muscle ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 7(b)(i)

Answer 1. both decrease during exercise and increase after exercise ; 2. (during exercise) {greater / faster} decrease in glycogen in individual on high carbohydrate diet / eq ; 3. (after exercise) {more glycogen replaced / glycogen replaced faster} in individual on high carbohydrate diet / eq ; 4. correct comparative manipulation of data ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 7(b)(ii)

Answer 1. high carbohydrate reference to more glucose (available) ; 2. high carbohydrate idea that {surplus / eq} glucose remains from glycogen breakdown during exercise ;

Mark

(2)

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Question Number 8(a)(i)

Answer 1. (during first two minutes / up to 5 minutes) {both increase / rise in oxygen consumption as increase in energy expenditure / eq} ; 2. (after this) {great / eq} decrease in energy expenditure but oxygen consumption {rises a little and falls / plateaus / changes very little / eq} ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 8(a)(ii)

Answer 1. idea that during exercise oxygen demand of muscles exceeds supply ; 2. reference to anaerobic respiration ; 3. produces lactic acid / eq ; 4. (lactic acid) results in muscle fatigue ; 5. oxygen needed to remove lactic acid / eq ; 6. oxidising it to carbon dioxide and water / eq ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 8(b)

Answer 1. ATP is source of energy that can be used (by muscles) directly / eq ; 2. (during muscle contraction) myosin binds to actin / eq ; 3. myosin head {swivels / eq} to move actin / eq ; 4. and this uses ATP ; 5. ATP needed to detach myosin (from actin) / eq ; 6. so that process can continue / eq ;

Mark

max (4)

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Question Number 9(a)(i)

Answer 1. (occupational) lung diseases / eq ; 2. (caused due to) inhalation of dust / eq ; 3. occurs over time / effects not seen for at least 10 years / eq ; 4. dust particles engulfed by macrophages / eq ; 5. formation of nodular lesions / eq ; 6. ref to fibrosis / collagen network ; 7. leads to necrosis / cavities (within the lungs) / eq ; 8. severe cases ischaemia / shortage of oxygen / hypoxemia / eq ;

Mark

max (4)

Question Number 9(a)(ii)

Answer asbestosis/ silicosis / bauxite fibrosis / berylliosis / siderosis / labrador lung / byssinosis ;

Mark

(1)

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Question Number 9(b)(i)

Answer 1. (1020 - 435) x 100(%) ; 2. divided by 435 = 134.48(%) ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 9(b)(ii)

Answer 1. 1993 to 2001 no real pattern / numbers fluctuate / eq ; 2. 2001 to 2002 {largest / eq} increase in numbers / eq ; 3. 2002 to 2004 number relatively steady / eq ; 4. 2004 to 2005 {large / eq} decrease / eq ; 5. no overall trend / eq ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 9(c)

Answer most miners are men / eq ;

Mark (1)

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Unit 5B (6105/01) - Genetics, evolution and biodiversity
Question Number 1(a) Answer coppice / coppiced / coppicing ; Mark (1)

Question Number 1(b)

Answer 1. woodland divided into {areas / blocks / fells / eq} ; 2. idea of different {areas / blocks / fells / eq} harvested in {rotation / each year /eq} ; 3. reference to cutting down trees (close) to ground level ; 4. to form {stools / stump / eq} ; 5. reference to (side) {shoots / poles / eq} allowed to grow / eq ; 6. for several years / at least 3 years ;

Mark

max (4)

Question Number 1(c)

Answer 1. different {environmental / abiotic / named abiotic} factor(s) within the {wood / eq} ; 2. (because) {areas / eq} are at different stages of development / eq ; 3. idea of a {range of / new / diversity of} {habitats / niches / food sources} {created / maintained / eq} ;

Mark

max (2)

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Question Number 2(a)

Answer (plant) growth substances / PGS / growth regulator / PGR ;

Mark

(1)

Question Number 2(b)(i)

Answer 1. A is largest / A has {developed / grown} the most / A is larger than {B / C / both} ; 2. B shows no signs of {development / growth / eq} / very small / eq ; 3. C {grown / developed} to approximately 2/3 to 3/4 the size of A / eq ; 4. reference to another visible difference e.g. shape, depth of colour ;

Mark

max (2)

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Question Number 2(b)(ii)

Answer 1. {auxin / PGS} needed for strawberry {development / ripening / growth / eq} ; 2. {auxin / PGS} {formed / eq} by {achenes / eq} ; 3. (diffuses) into {flesh / cells / strawberry / eq}; [NB if awarded, do not award mp7] 4. no {auxin /PGS} when {achenes /eq} removed ; 5. (therefore) strawberry does not {develop / ripen / grow / eq} in B ; 6. auxin (in paste) {stimulates / causes / eq} strawberry {development / ripening / growth / eq} in C ; 7. (diffuses) into {flesh / cells / strawberry / eq}; [NB do not award if mp3 given] 8. reference to another PGS involved in {development / ripening / growth / eq} ; 9. named example of another suitable PGS ; 10. reference to enhanced effect on auxin with another PGS ; 11. reference to synergism ;

Mark

max (5)

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Question Number 3(a)

Answer 1. reference to {controlled / eq} by a pair of alleles ; 2. reference to {different / alternative} forms of alleles / eq ; 3. reference to same locus ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 3(b)

Answer 1. all {offspring / F1} are heterozygous for both characteristics / eq ; 2. colour shows codominance / eq ; 3. bilateral is dominant (over radial) / accept converse ; 4. correct use of term {genotype / phenotype} ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 3(c)

Answer 1. key {showing / use of} symbols ; 2. genotypes of F1 and white, radial given ; 3. correct gametes for both ; 4. genotypes of expected offspring ; 5. phenotypes linked to genotypes of offspring ; 6. 1 :1 :1 :1 ;

Mark

max (4)

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Question Number 4(a)(i)

Answer 1. ATP as a source of energy ; 2. reference to active {transport / uptake} / eq ; 3. for {proton pumps / protein carriers / transport proteins / eq} in membrane ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 4(a)(ii)

Answer 1. increases surface area / large SA : V ; 2. (increased SA) {increases / maximises / eq} uptake ; 3. reference to more {proton pumps / protein carriers / transport proteins / eq} ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 4(b)(i)

Answer mp 1 2 3 4 g/mass g/area g/area g/area pigment plant sun abc a/c b b both both M T less or more or same or less or shade more less same more ; ; ; ;

Mark

max (3)

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Question Number 4(b)(ii)

Answer 1. idea of less light available to shaded plants / eq ; 2. more pigment able to absorb more light (in shade) ; 3. more pigment per mass means less light passes through leaf / eq ; 4. pigments absorb different wavelengths ; 5. light in sun and shade may have different wavelengths / eq ; 6. examples quoted ; 7. idea of photosynthesis rates maintained in shade plants ;

Mark

max (4)

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Question Number 5(a)(i)

Answer 1. produces {sucrase / carbohydrase} ; 2. reference to {hydrolysis / breakdown} of glycosidic bond ; 3. to form glucose and fructose ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 5(a)(ii)

Answer 1. proteins used for growth, carbohydrates for energy ; 2. larva (needs more protein because it) is main growth stage ; 3. adult (needs more carbohydrate because it) is {more active / flies} ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 5(b)

Answer 1. biological (control) ; Then any TWO from: 2. crops not {contaminated / toxic / eq} / no bioaccumulation ; 3. pesticides less specific / eq ; 4. long-term balance can be established / pesticides may need to be applied several times / reference to resurgence / reference to resistance ; 5. no health risk to glasshouse workers / eq ; 6. adult lacewings might aid pollination / eq ; 7. suitable for organic crops ;

Mark

max (3)

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Question Number 5(c)

Answer 1. reference to sympatric speciation ; 2. reference to prezygotic mechanism ; 3. sub-populations are reproductively isolated / eq ; 4. gene flow {inhibited / restricted / eq} (between sub-populations) ; 5. mutations arise (in sub-populations) ; 6. (cause) gene pools diverge / eq ; 7. sub-populations become {phenotypically / physically / physiologically} different from each other ; 8. so that successful mating cannot occur between them / no fertile offspring / eq ;

Mark

max (5)

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Question Number 6(a)

Answer 1. carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas / eq ; 2. idea of fossil fuels release carbon dioxide removed from atmosphere {long ago / eq} and biofuels release carbon dioxide removed {recently / eq} ; 3. fossil fuel use increases carbon dioxide in atmosphere and biofuels {maintain balance / are carbon neutral / eq} ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 6(b)

Answer 1. {mixed / eq} with {petrol / petroleum / eq} ; 2. {10 / 20} % ethanol to {90 / 80} % petrol / eq ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 6(c)(i)

Answer 1. reference to {many times greater / a lot higher / eq} ; 2. mean from other sources = 1000 dm3 (per hectare) ; 3. palm seeds approximately {4 times / 300%} greater than other sources ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 6(c)(ii)

Answer 1. more income / eq ; 2. create more employment / eq ; 3. prevents increased urbanisation / maintains rural population / eq ; 4. reduce dependency on fossil fuels / eq ; 5. reduce need to import fuels / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

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Question Number 6(d)

Answer 1. reference to legislation / eq ; 2. reference to {EU Habitats Directive / Natura 2000} ; 3. promotes conservation of (natural) habitats / eq ; 4. to {maintain / encourage} biodiversity eq ; 5. example of specific {ecosystems / habitats} in annexe 1 ;

Mark

max (3)

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Question Number 7(a)

Answer biotic are caused by living organisms, abiotic by nonliving ;

Mark

(1)

Question Number 7(b)

Answer 1. named animal in suitable named habitat ; 2. suitable abiotic factor and how it is measured ; 3. suitable technique ;

Mark

(3)

Question Number 7(c)(i)

Answer 1. haemoglobin is found in {red blood cells / erythrocytes} ; 2. haemoglobin can bind {temporarily / reversibly} to oxygen / haemoglobin has high affinity for oxygen ; 3. reference to (haemoglobin molecule has) four {iron-containing / haem} groups ; 4. each {iron-containing / haem} group combines with one oxygen molecule / four oxygen molecules can combine with each haemoglobin molecule ;

Mark

max (3)

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Question Number 7(c)(ii)

Answer 1. at{low altitudes / high ppO2}, no difference in % saturation (between the two mice) ; 2. {as altitude increases / ppO2 falls} dissociation curve of high altitude {haemoglobin / mice} is {to the left / above} ; 3. (so) oxygen combines more easily with high altitude haemoglobin / eq ; 4. credit manipulation of figures ; 5. at high altitudes, mice with high altitude haemoglobin are at an {advantage / eq} ; 6. (high altitude haemoglobin) allows mice to {be active / move around / eq} ;

Mark

max (4)

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Unit 5H (6115/01) - Genetics, human evolution and biodiversity
Question Number 1(a) Answer coppice / coppiced / coppicing ; Mark (1)

Question Number 1(b)

Answer 1. woodland divided into {areas / blocks / fells / eq} ; 2. idea of different {areas / blocks / fells / eq} harvested in {rotation / each year /eq} ; 3. reference to cutting down trees (close) to ground level ; 4. to form stools / stump / eq ; 5. reference to (side) {shoots / poles / eq} allowed to grow / eq ; 6. for several years / at least 3 years ;

Mark

max (4)

Question Number 1(c)

Answer 1. different {environmental / abiotic / named abiotic} factor(s) within the {wood / eq} ; 2. (because) {areas / eq} are at different stages of development / eq ; 3. idea of a {range of / new / diversity of} {habitats / niches / food sources} {created / maintained / eq} ;

Mark

max (2)

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Question Number 2(a)(i)

Answer chorionic villus sampling / amniocentesis ;

Mark (1)

Question Number 2(a)(ii)

Answer 1. miscarriage / abortion /eq ; 2. damage / injury to { mother / fetus} ; 3. infection to {mother / fetus} ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 2(b)

Answer 1. Down’s syndrome ; Then any four from: 2. reference to {extra chromosome / trisomy / three chromosomes} at 21 ; 3. reference to non-disjunction ; 4. chromosomes fail to separate / eq ; 5. during anaphase 1 / meiosis 1 ; 6. {egg / oocyte / ovum} has 24 chromosomes / has an extra chromosome ;

Mark

max (5)

76

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Question Number 3(a)

Answer 1. reference to {controlled / eq} by a pair of alleles ; 2. reference to {different / alternative} forms of alleles / eq ; 3. reference to same locus ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 3(b)

Answer 1. all {offspring / F1} are heterozygous for both characteristics / eq ; 2. colour shows codominance / eq ; 3. bilateral is dominant (over radial) / accept converse ; 4. correct use of term {genotype / phenotype} ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 3(c)

Answer 1. key {showing / use of} symbols ; 2. genotypes of F1 and white, radial given ; 3. correct gametes for both ; 4. genotypes of expected offspring ; 5. phenotypes linked to genotypes of offspring ; 6. 1 :1 :1 :1 ;

Mark

max (4)

77

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Question Number 4(a)(i)

Answer 1. sequence of {nucleotides / bases} on DNA / {length / section} of DNA ; 2. codes for {sequence of amino acids / polypeptide} ; 3. reference to triplet of bases corresponds to an amino acid ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 4(a)(ii)

Answer 1. formed by condensation (reaction) ; 2. between (two) amino acids ; 3. between carboxyl group (of amino acid 1) and amino group (of amino acid 2) ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 4(b)

Answer 1. Neanderthals, (modern) human and chimpanzee most closely related ; 2. (because) sequences identical ; 3. idea of orang-utan, gorilla and monkey relationship rank order ; 4. (because) orang-utan has 1 difference, gorilla 2 differences and monkey 3 differences ; 5. one difference described ; 6. idea of number of differences indicates divergence related to geological time ;

Mark

max (4)

78

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Question Number 4(c)

Answer 1. reference to {carbon / potassium-argon} dating ; 2. reference to decay of {radio-isotope / 40 K} is {predictable / eq} ;
14

Mark

C/

3. reference to {carbon / potassium} taken into skull material when Neanderthal was {alive / eq} ; 4. reference to how skull is aged by reference to data from decay of isotopes ; max (3)

79

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Question Number 5(a)(i)

Answer 1. produces {sucrase / carbohydrase} ; 2. reference to {hydrolysis / breakdown} of glycosidic bond ; 3. to form glucose and fructose ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 5(a)(ii)

Answer 1. proteins used for growth, carbohydrates for energy ; 2. larva (needs more protein because it) is main growth stage ; 3. adult (needs more carbohydrate because it) is {more active / flies} ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 5(b)

Answer 1. biological (control) ; Then any TWO from: 2. crops not {contaminated / toxic / eq} / no bioaccumulation ; 3. pesticides less specific / eq ; 4. long-term balance can be established / pesticides may need to be applied several times / reference to resurgence / reference to resistance ; 5. no health risk to glasshouse workers / eq ; 6. adult lacewings might aid pollination / eq ; 7. suitable for organic crops ;

Mark

max (3)

80

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 5(c)

Answer 1. reference to sympatric speciation ; 2. reference to prezygotic mechanism ; 3. sub-populations are reproductively isolated / eq ; 4. gene flow {inhibited / restricted / eq} (between sub-populations) ; 5. mutations arise (in sub-populations) ; 6. (cause) gene pools diverge / eq ; 7. sub-populations become {phenotypically / physically / physiologically} different from each other ; 8. so that successful mating cannot occur between them / no fertile offspring / eq ;

Mark

max (5)

81

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 6(a)

Answer 1. carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas / eq ; 2. idea of fossil fuels release carbon dioxide removed from atmosphere {long ago / eq} and biofuels release carbon dioxide removed {recently / eq} ; 3. fossil fuel use increases carbon dioxide in atmosphere and biofuels {maintain balance / are carbon neutral / eq} ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 6(b)

Answer 1. {mixed / eq} with {petrol / petroleum / eq} ; 2. {10 / 20} % ethanol to {90 / 80} % petrol / eq ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 6(c)(i)

Answer 1. reference to {many times greater / a lot higher / eq} ; 2. mean from other sources = 1000 dm3 (per hectare) ; 3. palm seeds approximately {4 times / 300%} greater than other sources ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 6(c)(ii)

Answer 1. more income / eq ; 2. create more employment / eq ; 3. prevents increased urbanisation / maintains rural population / eq ; 4. reduce dependency on fossil fuels / eq ; 5. reduce need to import fuels / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

82

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Question Number 6(d)

Answer 1. reference to legislation / eq ; 2. reference to {EU Habitats Directive / Natura 2000} ; 3. promotes conservation of (natural) habitats / eq ; 4. to {maintain / encourage} biodiversity eq ; 5. example of specific {ecosystems / habitats} in annexe 1 ;

Mark

max (3)

83

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 7(a)

Answer biotic are caused by living organisms, abiotic by nonliving ;

Mark

(1)

Question Number 7(b)

Answer 1. named animal in suitable named habitat ; 2. suitable abiotic factor and how it is measured ; 3. suitable technique ;

Mark

(3)

Question Number 7(c)(i)

Answer 1. haemoglobin is found in {red blood cells / erythrocytes} ; 2. haemoglobin can bind {temporarily / reversibly} to oxygen / haemoglobin has high affinity for oxygen ; 3. reference to (haemoglobin molecule has) four {iron-containing / haem} groups ; 4. each {iron-containing / haem} group combines with one oxygen molecule / four oxygen molecules can combine with each haemoglobin molecule ;

Mark

max (3)

84

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 7(c)(ii)

Answer 1. at{low altitudes / high ppO2}, no difference in % saturation (between the two mice) ; 2. {as altitude increases / ppO2 falls} dissociation curve of high altitude {haemoglobin / mice} is {to the left / above} ; 3. (so) oxygen combines more easily with high altitude haemoglobin / eq ; 4. credit manipulation of figures ; 5. at high altitudes, mice with high altitude haemoglobin are at an {advantage / eq} ; 6. (high altitude haemoglobin) allows mice to {be active / move around / eq} ;

Mark

max (4)

85

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Unit 6 (6106-02) - Written Alternative to Coursework
Question Number 1(a) Number of Mimosa seeds / 0.25 m-2 In floodplain In woodland habitat habitat Without With Without With mining mining mining mining moth moth moth moths 500 194 22 32 505 200 28 34 605 241 29 35 606 255 33 38 729 306 33 39 751 340 38 48 758 805 825 830 900 751 350 369 400 491 512 340 42 46 48 51 61 38 52 55 60 62 65 48 Answer Mark

Median number

Median number

neat tables correctly formatted including medians (only if medians identified) ; correctly labelled columns with units ; numbers ranked ; all medians correct ; (4)

86

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Question Number 1(b)

Answer A F graph correctly orientated with labelled axes and key ; bar chart {for medians / for means (if calculated)} OR histogram for size classes ; Floodplain Infected 2 2 5 1 1

Mark

Number classes 101 – 200 201 – 300 301 – 400 401 – 500 501 – 600 601 – 700 701 – 800 801 – 900

Not infected

2 2 3 4

Number classes 21 – 30 31 – 40 41 – 50 51 – 60 61 – 70 P

Not infected 3 3 3 1 1

Woodland Infected 0 5 1 3 2 (3)

data plotted correctly ;

Question Number 1(c)

Answer there is no significant difference between {the number of seeds produced in uninfected and infected Mimosa in either the floodplain or woodland habitats / the effect of mining moths in the two habitats / eq} ;

Mark

(1)

87

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 1(d)

Answer there is a significant difference between {the (median) number of seeds produced in the floodplain, but not in the woodland / the effect of the mining moths in the two habitats / eq} ; since the smallest U / U2 value is less than 30 in the floodplain habitat, but not in woodland ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 1(e)

Answer biological control is effective in the floodplain, but not in the woodland ;

Mark

(1)

88

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 2(a)

Answer General methodology 1. plant buttercups at different densities / eq ; 2. 3. 4. TWO named abiotic factors for growth controlled ; stated area for each density (at least 1m x 1m) ; sampling using quadrat of stated size (max 1m2) / method of determining suitably sized quadrat ; suitable method of random sampling described ; number of samples for each density (minimum 10) ; use of key to identify buttercups ; count / tally total number of parent plants in quadrat and number with runners / eq (note parent counts not needed if fixed densities used) ;

Mark

5. 6. 7. 8.

Specific precautions 9. any suitable precaution to ensure validity of counts in the context of quadrat use e.g. only runners inside quadrat counted ; 10. parent plant definition in the context of runners (e.g. plant with no incoming runners / no intact runners to older plants) ; defining a runner (in the context of this investigation) e.g. runner with a young plant OR developing bud attached ; reference to sound environmental protection ; repeat two more times {not in different season etc}; max (8)

11.

Repeats 12. 13.

89

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Style account is concise and well-organised, there is good use of technical vocabulary and almost no spelling errors – 2 marks there is some lack of organisation, limited vocabulary and a number of spelling errors – 1 mark the account lacks organisation, there is little or no technical vocabulary and many spelling errors – 0 marks

(2) Total (10)

Question Number 2(b)

Answer 1. appropriate null hypothesis described (in terms of significant correlation / significant difference linked to method) {accept in method} ; 2. table with all raw data (and repeats if carried out) and units ; 3. density (shown / calculated) with SI units i.e.. m-2; 4. means calculated ; 5. suitable graphical format (scatter gram / line of best fit / bar chart) ; 6. axes with units (that correspond to summary data) correct way round ; 7. use of (named) appropriate statistical test ;

Mark

max (5)

90

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 2(c)

Answer Limitations 1. 2. 3. 4.

Mark

difficulty in identifying plant as a parent ; difficulty in identifying runners ; plants not evenly distributed / eq ; influence of {other density-dependent factors / intra-specific competition / species} not considered ; unsuitable time / season for asexual reproduction ; difficult to control one named abiotic factor {not if method suggests greenhouse or similar} ;

5. 6.

Further work 7. investigate (density-dependent) asexual reproduction in other species OR types of plants ; 8. carry out laboratory-based investigation (on density of plants and asexual reproduction) ; find density at which asexual reproduction stops ; investigate further details of density effect e.g. number of runners / young plants per parent / average length of runners ; investigate relationship between density and sexual reproduction / fruits / flowers / seeds ; max (6)

9. 10.

11.

91

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Unit 6 (6106/03) - Synoptic Paper
Question Number 1(a)(i) Answer 1. {stimulates / eq} {ovulation / eq} ; 2. {stimulates / eq} {development of the corpus luteum / eq} ; 3. {stimulates /eq} secretion of {progesterone / oestrogen / testosterone / androgens} ; max (2) Mark

Question Number 1(a)(ii)

Answer exocytosis / a description of this process ;

Mark (1)

Question Number 1(a)(iii)

Answer negative ;

Mark (1)

Question Number 1(a)(iv)

Answer 1. GnRH transported {directly / faster / straight / short distance} to the (anterior) pituitary ; 2. LH transported {in the general circulation / round the body / longer distance / slowly} ;

Mark

(2)

92

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 1(b)

Answer 1. concentration of oestrogen increases, concentration of progesterone decreases / eq ; 2. credit a comment on the relative change in each e.g. change in oestrogen concentration is {less / slower} than the change in progesterone / percentage change in oestrogen is greater ; 3. credit a manipulated quantitative comparative comment (e.g. change in oestrogen is 8.5 ng per cm3, change in progesterone is 56 ng per cm3 / change in oestrogen is 85%, change in progesterone is 35%) ;

Mark

max (2)

93

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 2(a)(i)

Answer 1. feed on dead or decaying (organic) matter / eq ; 2. {secrete / releases} enzymes / reference to extracellular digestion ; 3. {absorb / eq} products of digestion / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 2(a)(ii)

Answer 1. {obtain nutrients / eq} from {a host / living organism} ; 2. reference to {harm / eq} to host ; 3. (only) the parasite benefits / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 2(b)(i)

Answer 1. aphids {obtain nutrients from crop plants / suck sap / feed on crop} ; 2. reduce crop yield / reduce productivity / eq ; 3. spread diseases / spread viruses / eq ; 4. reduce value of crop / eq ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 2(b)(ii)

Answer 1. use of {one organism / predator / parasite} ; 2. idea of reduce number of {pests / prey} ;

Mark

(2)

94

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 2(c)(i)

Answer 1. use of quadrat of suitable stated area ; 2. reference to the use of {Lincoln Index / capture-mark-recapture method} ; 3. credit correct formula for Lincoln Index ; 4. use of (sweep) net / pooter / pitfall trap ; 5. reference to counting ladybirds ; 6. population density = number (of ladybirds) per unit area / number ÷ area ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 2(c)(ii)

Answer 1. harlequin ladybirds have increased / eq ; 2. both other species have decreased / eq ; 3. reference to {competition / niche / competitive exclusion / breed faster / able to exploit other food sources / fewer predators / disease resistant / eat native species / eq} ;

Mark

(3)

95

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Synoptic Essay mark scheme Scientific Content (S) 11 (Good) Descriptor The essay demonstrates a sound understanding of the topic and contains a significant amount of material from most areas of the mark scheme, including A2 content. Suitable examples are included and the candidate has clearly and coherently linked together information from different parts of the specification. An above average essay, with accurate content. The essay includes a good balance of material from several areas of the mark scheme, including A2 content, and examples where appropriate. There may be some minor factual errors. The essay includes relevant information from some areas of the mark scheme, including A2 content. The candidate links together some facts and principles. Some examples are included. There may be some minor factual errors. The essay includes some generally factually accurate and relevant material, and there is some attempt to link material from more than one area of the mark scheme. The A2 content, in particular, lacks depth and accurate details. There are some correct facts, but the essay lacks depth and accuracy. The essay contains little or no relevant information from the A2 content. There are very few correct facts. The essay is generally superficial and inaccurate. No correct or relevant material is included.

9 (Above average)

7 (Average)

5 (Below average)

3 (Poor)

1 (Poor) 0 (Poor) Notes

Marks

If a scientific content mark of 0, 1, or 3 is awarded, it is very unlikely that a balance mark of more than 1 is appropriate. An essay containing AS content only can be awarded a max of 3 for scientific content. An essay containing A2 content only can be awarded a max of 7 for scientific content. S = (11)

96

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Balance(B) 2

Descriptor Most of the main topic areas outlined are covered Some discussion of each of the areas chosen, illustrated with suitable examples where appropriate Material included is all relevant to the topic and the candidate has linked information from more than one area of the specification. Few, if any, errors Some of the main topic areas outlined are covered. Some discussion of each of the areas chosen. Some irrelevant material included. There are some examples which link together different areas of the specification. Some errors Very limited account, possibly only one aspect chosen Material mostly irrelevant No examples of the candidate linking information from different topics Large number of errors

Marks

(2)

1

(1)

0

(0)

Coherence(C) 2

Descriptor Material logically presented, with little or no repetition Essay has coherence, ideas are developed well; continuous prose used throughout Essay has an introduction and a conclusion, summing up the main points Technical terms have been used correctly Spelling, punctuation and grammar are sound Material is presented in an orderly way and some ideas developed Continuous prose used throughout The introduction and conclusion may be present, but brief Technical terms are used and generally in the correct context Spelling, punctuation and grammar are generally sound Essay style not used Material in note form or numbered points Very poor standard of spelling, punctuation and grammar

Marks

(2)

1

(1)

0

(0)

97

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 3

Answer introduction could include outline structure of DNA and explanation of term GMO – basic structure of a nucleotide – phosphate – deoxyribose – purine and pyrimidine bases – DNA as a polynucleotide complementary base pairing and the double helix – use of plasmids as vectors – isolation of gene – roles of endonuclease and ligase – isolation of mRNA and role of reverse transcriptase introduction of recombinant plasmid to host cell – plasmid replication – use of marker genes credit references to specific examples e.g. production of chymosin and use of Agrobacterium –

Mark

(15)

98

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 4B

Answer introduction could include outline of transport in flowering plants and need for mineral ions – uptake of ions, root hairs and active transport – diffusion of ions – pathways across root – apoplast pathway – symplast pathway – vacuolar pathway – structure and role of endodermis – structure of xylem in relation to transport – cohesion tension, transport of mineral ions in xylem – specific references to: nitrate – phosphate – magnesium – could also include a reference to transport of phosphate in phloem –

Mark

(15)

99

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Question Number 5H

Answer introduction could include outline of protein structure and how proteins are used as evidence for human evolution – amino acids and the formation of a peptide bond – polypeptides – primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure, quaternary structure – bonding – reference to globular proteins and fibrous proteins – haemoglobin and collagen – references to analysis of amino acid sequences in haemoglobin / cytochrome ; immunological studies of blood sera – serum protein precipitation as evidence for phylogenetic relationships –

Mark

(15)

100

0906 8040/9040, 8042/9042

Further copies of this publication are available from Edexcel Publications, Adamsway, Mansfield, Notts, NG18 4FN Telephone 01623 467467 Fax 01623 450481 Email publications@linneydirect.com Order Code UA021146 Summer 2009 For more information on Edexcel qualifications, please visit www.edexcel.com/quals Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales no.4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London, WC1V 7BH

101

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