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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY, OFFICE OF THE CHIEF, Washington, D. C., April 15, 1911. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith and to recommend for publication as Bulletin No. 219 of the series of this Bureau the accompanying manuscript, entitled "American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs." This paper was prepared by Miss Alice Henkel, Assistant in Drug-Plant Investigations, and has been submitted by the Physiologist in charge with a view to its publication. Thirty-six plants furnishing leaves and herbs for medicinal use are fully described, and in some instances brief descriptions of related species are included therewith. Of the above number, 15 are official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. This bulletin forms the third installment on the subject of American medicinal plants and has been prepared to meet the steady demand for information of this character. It is intended as a guide and reference book for those who may be interested in the study or collection of the medicinal plants of this country. The first bulletin of this series treats of American root drugs, and the second of American medicinal barks. Respectfully, WM. A. TAYLOR, Acting Chief of Bureau. Hon. JAMES WILSON, Secretary of Agriculture.

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AMERICAN MEDICINAL LEAVES AND HERBS.
INTRODUCTION. Less difficulty will be encountered in the collection of leaves and herbs than in the case of other portions of plants, for not only is recognition easier, since, especially in the matter of herbs, these parts are usually gathered at a time when the plants are in flower, but the labor is less arduous, for there are no roots to dig or barks to peel. Of the three dozen medicinal plants mentioned in this bulletin, 15 are recognized as official in the Eighth Decennial Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia. This is more than half of all the leaves and herbs included in the Pharmacopoeia. Among the plants included in this bulletin are peppermint and spearmint, which are found not only in the wild state but the cultivation of which for the distillation of the oil constitutes an important American industry. Especially is this true of peppermint? thousands of acres being devoted to the cultivation of this plant, principally in the States of Michigan and New York. A number of other plants mentioned in this paper furnish useful oils, such as oil of wintergreen, pennyroyal, fleabane, tansy, wormwood, and fire-weed. As in the case of other bulletins of this series, an effort has been made to include in it only such plants as seem most in demand, lack of space forbidding a consideration of others which are or have been used to a more limited extent. With two or three exceptions the illustrations have been reproduced from photographs taken from nature by Mr. C. L. Lochman. COLLECTION OF LEAVES AND HERBS. Leaves are usually collected when they have attained full development and may be obtained by cutting off the entire plant and stripping the leaves from the stem, using a scythe to mow the plants where they occur in sufficient abundance to warrant this, or the leaves may be picked from the plants as they grow in the field. Whenever the plants are cut down in quantity they must be carefully looked over afterwards for the purpose of sorting out such other plants as may have been accidentally cut with them. Stems should be discarded as much as possible, and
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where a leaf is composed of several leaflets these are usually detached from the stems. In gathering herbs only the flowering tops and leaves and the more tender stems should be taken, the coarse and large stems being rejected. All withered, diseased, or discolored portions should be removed from both leaves and herbs. In order that they may retain their bright-green color and characteristic odor after drying, leaves and herbs must be carefully dried in the shade, allowing the air to circulate freely but keeping out all moisture; dampness will darken them, and they must therefore be placed under cover at night or in rainy weather. A bright color is desirable, as such a product will sell more readily. To dry them the leaves and herbs should be spread out thinly on clean racks or shelves and turned frequently until thoroughly dry. They readily absorb moisture and when perfectly cured should be stored in a dry place. Leaves and herbs generally become very brittle when they are dry and must be very carefully packed to cause as little crushing as possible. They should be firmly packed in sound burlap or gunny sacks or in dry, clean boxes or barrels. Before shipping the goods, however, good-sized representative samples of the leaves and herbs to be disposed of should be sent to drug dealers for their inspection, together with a letter stating how large a quantity the collector has to sell. With the changes in prices that are constantly taking place in the drug market it is, of course, impossible to give definite prices in this paper, and only approximate quotations are therefore included in order that the collector may form some idea concerning the possible range of prices. Only through correspondence with drug dealers can the actual price then prevailing be ascertained. PLANTS FURNISHING MEDICINAL LEAVES AND HERBS. Each section contains synonyms, the pharmacopoeial name (if any), the common names, habitat, range, descriptions, and information concerning the collection, prices, and uses of the plants.
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The medicinal uses are referred to in a general way only, since it is not within the province of a publication of this kind to give detailed information in regard to such matters. Advice concerning the proper remedies to use should be souglit only from physicians. The statements made in this paper as to medicinal uses are based on information contained in various dispensatories and other works relating to materia medica. SWEET FERN. Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coulter. Synonyms.—Comptonia asplenifolia Gaertn.; Myrica asplenifolia L.; Liquidambar asplenifolia L.; Liquidambar peregrina L. Other common names.—Fern gale, fern bush, meadow fern, shrubby fern, Canada sweet gale, spleenwort bush, sweet bush, sweet ferry. Habitat and range.—Sweet fern is usually found on hillsides, in dry soil, in Canada and the northeastern United States. It is indigenous. Description.—The fragrant odor and. the resemblance of the leaves of this plant to those of a fern have given rise to the common name "sweet fern." It is a shrub with reddish-brown bark, growing from about 1 to 3 feet in height, with slender, erect or spreading branches, the leaves hairy when young. The thin narrow leaves are borne on short stalks and are linear oblong or linear lance shaped, about 3 to 6 inches
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—(1) Round-leaved hepatica. while the heart liverleaf occurs from Quebec to Ontario. slightly bitter. common liverleaf. (2) heart liverleaf. herb-trinity. 1. Synonyms.. Description. the margins of which are generally entire or sparingly toothed. and uses. kidney liver-leaf. shining. The whole plant has a spicy. south to Georgia (but rare near the coast). acuta Pursh. and west to Iowa and Minnesota. Other common names. which is more pronounced when the leaves are bruised. heart liverwort. lightbrown nut.com . LIVERLEAF. (2) Hepatica acuta (Pursh) Britton. (Fig. Hepatica acutiloba DC. ivy flower.) Karst. mouse-ears. The pistillate or female flowers are borne in egg-shaped or roundish-oval catkins.—The hepaticas are among the earliest of our spring American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . Sweet fern belongs to the bayberry family (Myricaceae).—(1) Hepatica triloba Chaix.Page 6 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the kidney-shaped scales overlapping. three-leaved liverwort. Habitat and range.—The common liverleaf is found in woods from Nova Scotia to northern Florida and west to Iowa and Missouri. giving it a burlike appearance. liverwort (incorrect).. aromatic odor. deeply divided into many lobes. The catkins expand with the leaves. Anemone hepatica L. the eight awl-shaped bractlets persisting and surrounding the one-seeded.swsbm. prices. noble liverwort. It has a fragrant. Collection. and astringent taste. spicy odor and an aromatic. liverweed. squirrel cup. sharp-lobed hepatica. but especially the leaves and tops.long and from one-fourth to half an inch wide. sharp-lobed liverleaf. The present price of sweet fern is about 3 to 5 cents a pound.—The entire plant is used. as a remedy in diarrheal complaints. principally in a domestic way. acute-lobed liverleaf. golden trefoil.) The staminate or male flowers are produced in cylindrical catkins in clusters at the ends of the branches and are about an inch in length. (1) Hepatica hepatica (L. (2) Hepatica triloba var. It is used for its tonic and astringent properties.

(Fig. The price at present paid for them is about 4 to 5 cents a pound. blossoming about March." often given to these plants. is incorrect. hairy stalks arising from the root. The flowers. when mature to almost 3 inches across. they should be collected in April.Page 7 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.) The heart liverleaf is very similar to the common liverleaf. since it belongs to an entirely different genus.flowers. and uses. the young leaves are pale green and soft hairy. and also of a purplish color on the under surface. sometimes with a purplish tinge. which are about one-half inch in diameter. prices. oval. expanding. but the older ones become leathery and smooth. Immediately beneath the flower are three small. are the parts employed. blunt lobes. which are thickly covered with soft. They lose about threefourths of their weight in drying. The thick and leathery evergreen leaves are kidney shaped or roundish and deeply divided into three oval. stemless. and frequently before that time. 2.swsbm. The name "liverwort. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . are borne singly on slender.com . and vary in color from bluish to purple or white.—The leaves. It grows perhaps a trifle taller and the lobes of the leaf and the small leaflets or bracts immediately under the flower are more sharply pointed. They grow only about 4 to 6 inches in height. which were official in the United States Pharmacopoeia from 1830 to 1880. and blunt leaflets or bracts. Collection. silky hairs. The hepaticas are members of the crowfoot family (Ranunculacese) and are perennials. with leaves produced from the roots on long soft-hairy stalks and spreading on the ground. they are dark green above.

cockfoot.—Chelidonium. and wavy or round toothed. is found in rich damp soil along fences and roadsides near towns from Maine to Ontario and southward. brittle stems arising from a reddishbrown. naturalized from Europe. which are lyre shaped in outline. wart flower. killwart. tetter-wort. 4-petaled.swsbm. blunt. wartweed. sparingly hairy herb. which has rather weak. devil's-milk. the lobes thus formed being oval. Description. CELANDINE. or rather deeply cut. Chelidonium majus L. swallow-wort. Jacob's ladder. branched.—This plant.Page 8 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It is an erect.com . greater celandine. wretweed. Habitat and range.Liverleaf is employed for its tonic properties and is said to be useful in affections of the liver. sulphuryellow flowers of the celandine American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . is a biennial belonging to the poppy family (Papaveraceae) and. The leaves. from about 1 to 2 feet in height with thin leaves 4 to 8 inches in length. like other members of this family. are deeply and variously cleft. contains an acrid juice. felonwort.—Celandine. Other common names. They have a grayish-green appearance. especially on the lower surface. garden celandine. which in this species is colored yellow. branching root. The small. wartwort. It is common from southern Maine to Pennsylvania.

3. when its branches are destitute of leaves. prices. wych-hazel.—Hamamelidis folia. and uses. promotes perspiration. winterbloom. its crooked stem and long forking branches covered with smoothish brown bark sometimes with an addition of lichens.are produced from about April to September. 3 to 5 inches long. while it may grow to 25 feet in height.—This shrub. It has cathartic and diuretic properties. which was official in the United States Pharmacopoeia for 1890.com . is more frequently found reaching a height of only 8 to 15 feet. The juice has been employed externally for warts. thick. is used. acrid odor when bruised. followed by smooth.swsbm. and some forms of skin diseases. and has been used as an. Habitat and range. and borne on short stalks. Hamamelis virginiana L. long. Celandine is an old remedy. pod-shaped capsules crowned with the persistent style and stigma and containing numerous seeds. striped alder. The fresh plant has an unpleasant. The leaves are rather large. sometimes pointed American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . At present it brings about 6 or 8 cents a pound. Pharmacopoeial name. WITCH-HAZEL. Description.Page 9 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.—The entire plant.—The home of this native shrub is in low damp woods from New Brunswick to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas. A peculiar feature about witchhazel is its flowering in very late fall or even early winter. Other common names. (Fig.—Snapping hazel. spotted alder.) Collection. corns. It should be collected when the herb is in flower. tobacco wood.expectorant. It has a persistent acrid and somewhat salty taste. the seed forming but not ripening until the following season. but in the dried state it is odorless. they are broadly oval or heart-shaped oval.

Formerly the leaves alone were recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia.—Witch-hazel leaves are official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. 4. prices. Collection. Cassia marilandica L. somewhat bitter. The older leaves are smooth. and wavy margins. are rather odd looking and consist of a 4-parted corolla with four long. hard seeds. with prominent veins.and sometimes blunt at the apex. They bring about 2 to 3 cents a pound.) This interesting shrub is a member of the witch-hazel family (Hamamelidaceae). They should be collected in autumn and carefully dried. locust plant. The soothing properties of witch-hazel were known among the Indians. which appear very late in autumn.com .swsbm. Other common names. but when young they are covered with downy hairs. AMERICAN SENNA. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. narrow.Page 10 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.—Senna marilandica Link.—Wild senna. Synonym. scattering with great force and to a considerable distance the large. (Fig. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . strap-shaped petals. which are twisted in various ways when in full flower. when the beaked and densely hairy seed case bursts open elastically. and uses. The upper surface of the leaves is a light-green or brownishgreen color. but now the bark and twigs are also official. and aromatic taste. and it is still employed for the relief of inflammatory conditions. The threadlike brightyellow flowers. The leaves have a faint odor and an astringent. shining-black. while the lower surface is pale green and somewhat shining. with uneven sides at the base.

Page 11 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the upper surface is of a pale-green color.com . the stalks supporting them being rather short. which are borne on long.swsbm. borne on a stalk. dark-brown seeds. On the upper surface of the leaf stem.Habitat and range. The numerous yellow flowers are borne on slender. somewhat bristly hairy stalks. (Fig.) Collection. somewhat curved and drooping. which is closely related to the pea family. is a prominent club-shaped gland. rounded at the base and from 1 to U inches long. produced in clusters in the axils of the leaves at the top of the plant and appearing from about August to September. They contain numerous small. are the parts employed and should be gathered at flowering time. slightly hairy at first. hairy stems. linear. flat. stiff point. They were official in the United States American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . blunt at the top but terminating with a short. while underneath it is still lighter in color and covered with a bloom. a member of the senna family (Caesalpiniaceae). and narrowed on the sides between the seeds. flat. near its base.—The leaves. and uses.—This is a native species. The pods are about 3 inches in length. Description.—American senna generally frequents wet or swampy soils from New England to North Carolina and westward to Louisiana and Nebraska. It is a perennial herb. Each leaflet is oblong or lanceshaped oblong. prices. The leaves. 5. or rather the leaflets. which usually occurs during July and August. are 6 to 8 inches long and consist of from 12 to 20 leaflets placed opposite to each other on the stem. its round grooved stems reaching about 4 to 6 feet in height.

It usually frequents fields and waste places. tree primrose.— Common evening primrose. simple or American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . Synonyms. large rampion.Page 12 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. remaining open all night and closing the next morning. Oenothera biennis L. king's cure-all.—This is a widely distributed herb. fever plant. from 1 foot to about 5 feet in height. field evening primrose. like that.) Scop. having.—The evening primrose is a coarse annual or biennial weed. It is used for purposes similar to the well-known senna of commerce imported from abroad. It is generally stout and erect in growth. cathartic properties.swsbm. EVENING PRIMROSE.—Onagra biennis (L. night willow-herb.Pharmacopoeia from 1820 to 1880. American senna leaves have a very slight odor and a rather disagreeable taste. wild evening primrose. occurring in dry soil. scurvish. Description. scabish. which has the peculiarity that its flowers do not open until evening. its range extending from Labrador south to Florida and west to the Rocky Mountains.com . Oenothera muricata L.. Other common names. but not expanding again. The price at present paid for American senna is about 6 to 8 cents a pound. somewhat like that of the foreign senna. Habitat and range.

They are borne at the end of the stem and are interspersed with leafy bracts. Pharmacopoeial name. The seed capsules are oblong and hairy. Synonym. Eriodictyon californicum (H. The stem is smooth.branched. tarweed. and narrowed at the top. YERBA SANTA. The spikes of fragrant sulphur-yellow flowers are produced from about June to October and. The dark-green leaves are from 3 to 4 inches in length. most of them are stemless.—This evergreen shrub. reaches a height of from 3 to 4 feet.swsbm. as already stated and as indicated by the name "evening" primrose. with depressed veins. bearing glutinous leaves. (Fig. It has been used for coughs and asthmatic troubles. bringing about 5 cents a pound.) This plant belongs to the evening primrose family (Onagraceae). but no odor. Other common names. The herb has a somewhat astringent and mucilaginous taste. It is collected about flowering time.) Greene. The leaves are 1 to 6 inches in length. prices. bear'sweed. lance shaped and sharp pointed at the top. The leaves are coated with a resinous substance.Page 13 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. leathery. but exudes a gummy substance.—The entire plant is used. and with margins generally toothed. gum plant.—Eriodictyon. narrowing gradually into a short stalk. and A. and uses.—Mountain balm. placed alternately on the stem. consumptive's weed. the prominent veins on the under surface forming a strong network and the spaces between the veins covered with short felty hairs. Collection. and an ointment made therefrom has been employed as an application in skin affections.—Eriodictyon glutinosum Benth. about an inch in length. With the exception of some of the leaves near the base. The rather American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . except perhaps at the base: the upper surface is smooth. Description. they are open late in the evening and during the night. making them appear as if varnished. giving it a white appearance. 6. oblong or oval lance shaped. Each flower has four spreading petals and measures about 1 to 2 inches across. a member of the waterleaf family (Hydrophyllaceae).com . usually hairy and leafy. with wavy toothed margins narrowing toward the base.

rheumatism weed. shady woods.) The seed capsule is oval.com . Other common names. The price paid for them is about 5 cents a pound. and contains small. grayish brown.. shriveled seeds. Collection.Page 14 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The odor is aromatic and the taste balsamic and sweetish. noble pine. Chimaphila Nutt. and its range extends from American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . pine tulip. the tubular. love-in-winter.—Pipsissewa is a native of this country.—Chimaphila. prices. especially in pine forests. funnel-shaped corolla measuring about half an inch in length and having five spreading lobes. Yerba santa has expectorant properties and is employed for throat and bronchial affections.—Prince's pine. (Fig. Synonyms. ground holly.—Pyrola umbellata L. reddish-brown. and uses. Habitat and range. growing in dry. Chimaphila corymbosa Pursh.) Pharmacopoeial name. PIPSISSEWA. 7. bitter wintergreen.swsbm. pyrola.—The leaves are the parts collected for medicinal use and are official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. king's cure.showy whitish or pale-blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. It is also used as a bitter tonic. umbellata (L.

Pipsissewa has slightly tonic. They are dark green. partly underground stem. but a bitter.—This small perennial herb. has a long. (Fig. consisting of five rounded. prices. and uses.com . each one with a dark-pink spot at the base. a foot or less in height. running. The brown capsules contain numerous very small seeds. astringent taste. south to Georgia. From about June to August the pipsissewa may be found in flower.—Although the United States Pharmacopoeia directs that the leaves be used. Pipsissewa leaves have no odor. Description. It belongs to the heath family (Ericaceae) and has shining evergreen leaves of a somewhat leathery texture placed in a circle around the stem. the entire plant is frequently employed. astringent. they are from about 1 to 2 inches long and about three-eighths to a little more than half an inch wide at the broadest part.swsbm. narrowing toward the base and with margins sharply toothed. with a sharp or blunt apex. concave petals. and California. its pretty waxy-white or pinkish fragrant flowers.) Collection. nodding in clusters from the top of the erect stem. 8. Mexico. Externally it has been applied to ulcers. Another species.Nova Scotia to British Columbia. as all parts of it are active. broader at the top.Page 15 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and diuretic properties and is sometimes employed in rheumatic and kidney affections. They bring about 4 cents a pound.—The leaves of the spotted wintergreen (Chimaphila maculata Pursh) were official in the Pharmacopoeia of the United American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . usually near the top or scattered along it. It also occurs in Europe and Asia.

—This is an evergreen shrub from about 4 to 20 feet in height. wood laurel. clammy-hairy clusters of flowers. rose laurel. and having terminal.Page 16 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. expanding into saucershaped. which appear from about May to June. smooth and bright green on both sides. bigleaved ivy. with leathery leaves. with margins entire. mostly alternate. umbellata. small laurel. MOUNTAIN LAUREL. ivy bush. The buds are rather oddly shaped and fluted.States from 1830 to 1840. spoonwood. Kalmia latifolia L. Habitat and range. and Louisiana. They are lance shaped in outline and are broadest at the base instead of at the top as in C. and when in flower it is one of the most beautiful and showy of our native plants. umbellata (pipsissewa) by their olive-green color marked with white along the midrib and veins.—The mountain laurel is found in sandy or rocky soil in woods from New Brunswick south to Ohio.—Broad-leaved laurel. kalmia.swsbm. Each saucer-shaped flower is American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs .com . American laurel. sheep laurel. spoon-hunt. Florida. broad-leaved kalmia. calico bush. These may be distinguished from the leaves of C. pointed at both ends. whitish-pink flowers. It has very stiff branches and leathery oval or elliptical leaves borne on stems. Other common names. more delicately tinted. at first of a deep rose color. calmoun. Description. wicky. spurge laurel.

swsbm. Epigaea repens L. GRAVEL PLANT. but from which these free themselves elastically when the flower is fully expanded. and uses.—The gravel plant is one of our early spring flowers. being found especially under evergreen trees from Florida to Michigan and northward.—The leaves. the calyx and threadlike style remaining attached until the capsules open. The leaves American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs .) The seed capsule is somewhat globular. prices. (Fig. Other common names. are collected in the fall. Gravel plant is the name that is generally applied to it in the drug trade. which bring about 3 to 4 cents a pound. Habitat and range. They are used for their astringent properties.com .provided with 10 pockets holding the anthers of the stamens. 9. which belongs to the heath family (Ericaceae). ground laurel.Page 17 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. waxy blossoms with their faint yet spicy fragrance. shad-flower. Collection. Mountain laurel. and under its more popular name "trailing arbutus" it is greatly prized on account of its delicate shellpink. Mayflower. is poisonous to sheep and calves. mountain pink.—Trailing arbutus. It spreads on the ground with stems 6 inches or more in length and has rustcolored hairy twigs bearing evergreen leaves. Description.—This shrubby little plant spreads out on the ground in sandy soil. winter pink.

5-lobed corolla. and uses. ivory plum. lighter colored underneath. boxberry. prices.redberrytea. Early in the year. wax cluster. (Fig. the top pointed. red pollom. thick and leathery. the lower part of which is smooth and naked. the flower clusters appear.Page 18 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. partridge berry. teaberry. blunt. ivyberry. They have a bitter.—Gaultheria. while the lower surface is somewhat hairy.are green above and below. chickenberry. drunkards.com . hillberry. oval or roundish. chinks. 1 to 11/2 American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs .—The leaves are collected at flowering time and are worth about 3 or 4 cents a pound. evergreen plant with an underground or creeping stem producing erect branches not more than 6 inches in height. occurring especially under evergreen trees in Canada and the northeastern United States.—This small native perennial frequents sandy soils in cool damp woods. grouseberry. creeping wintergreen. or having a short stiff point and a rounded or heart-shaped base. oval and narrowing toward the base. spicy. WINTERGREEN. These are borne in the axils of the leaves and at the ends of the branches and consist of several waxy. Canadian tea. thick and leathery. deerberry. The margins are unbroken and the upper surface is smooth. mountain tea. The gravel plant. spiceberry. pinkish-white. spring wintergreen. belongs to the heath family (Ericaceae) and is a perennial. aromatic wintergreen. fragrant flowers with saucer-shaped. These are alternate. astringent taste and are said to possess astringent and diuretic properties. shining dark green above. Other common names. spicy wintergreen.—Wintergreen is an aromatic. the hairy stalks supporting them ranging from one-fourth of an inch to 2 inches in length. 10. groundberry. Habitat and range. Gaultheria procumbens L. flattened. sometimes with. and contains numerous seeds. the throat of the corolla tube being very densely hairy within. Description. Collection. while near the ends are bome the crowded clusters of evergreen leaves.) The seed capsule is somewhat roundish.swsbm. The leaves measure from 1 to 3 inches in length and are about half as wide. rapper dandies. five celled. from about March to May. checkerberry.

11. Sometimes the entire plant is pulled up and. bear's-grape. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L. From about June to September the solitary. and of varying width. sometimes until spring. however. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . BEARBERRY. kinnikinnic. mountain cranberry. mountain box. rock-berry. mealy. They are bright red. antiseptic. Its chief use. Collection. distilled from the leaves. somewhat flattened berries.inches in length.) Spreng. after drying. foxberry. (Fig. or gaultheria. Other common names. borne on recurved stems in the axils of the leaves. and spicy. and diuretic properties.—Red bearberry. bear's bilberry. The leaves should be collected in autumn.—The leaves of wintergreen. five celled. and uses. somewhat urn-shaped and five-toothed white and waxy flowers appear. is so regarded. seems to be as a flavoring agent. Wintergreen has stimulant. which ripen in autumn and remain on the plant. upland cranberry. are aromatic. which belongs to the heath family (Ericaceae).Page 19 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. All parts of the plant. prices.) These are followed by globular. The price paid to collectors ranges from about 3 to 4 cents a pound. crowberry. killikinic. were at one time official in the United States Pharmacopoeia.swsbm. bear's whortleberry. Pharmacopoeial name. the leaves readily shake off.—Uva ursi. mealberry.com . but now only the oil of wintergreen.

Bearberry leaves have a bitter. They are followed by smooth. borne in short drooping clusters at the ends of the branches. four or five lobed.Page 20 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. growing in dry sandy or rocky soil from the Middle Atlantic States north to Labrador and westward to California and Alaska. Description. astringent taste and a faint odor. evergreen leaves. (Fig. containing five nutlets. globular fruits. red.— Bearberry is a native of this country. blunt and widest at the top and narrowing at the base. They act on the kidneys and bladder and have astringent and tonic properties. sagachomi. evergreen. It is a member of the heath family (Ericaceae) and produces its pretty waxy flowers about May.swsbm.) Collection. rapper dandies (fruit). with a network of fine veins. with an insipid. The numerous crowded leaves are thick and leathery. and uses. 12.—Bearberry or uva ursi leaves. creashak. and with margins entire. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . Collectors receive from about 2 to 4 cents a pound for them.com . prices.universe vine. much-branched shrub trailing over the ground and having leathery. and are ovoid or somewhat bell shaped in form. about one-half to 1 inch in length. smooth. The flowers are few. rather dry pulp. Habitat and range.—The bearberry is a low. white with a pinkish tinge. burren myrtle. are collected in autumn. official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. brawlins.

They are of a leathery texture.swsbm. It is also native in Europe. a shrub-like tree. The leaves consist of three oblong-oval or broadly oval leaflets 11/2 to 3 inches long.—The leaves of manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca Lindl.—Bog bean. The flower cluster is produced American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . moonflower. with unbroken margins. Minnesota. brook bean. Menyanthes trifoliata L. bean trefoil. Habitat and range. in dry rocky districts on the western slopes of the Sierras.Page 21 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.—The buck bean is a marsh herb occurring in North America as far south as Pennsylvania. Other common names. Manzanita grows in California. with the thick midrib light in color. scaly rootstock. bitterworm. black. blunt at the top. ovate oblong in shape. marsh clover. somewhat fleshy and smooth. and about 2 inches in length.—This perennial herb arises from a long. marsh trefoil.com . water trefoil. bog hop. water shamrock.). bitter trefoil. and California. the leaves being produced from the end of the same on erect sheathing stems measuring about 2 to 10 inches in height. the upper surface is pale green and the lower surface somewhat glossy. bog myrtle. BUCK BEAN. with margins entire and narrowed toward the base. have properties similar to uva ursi and are also used in medicine for similar purposes. creeping.Another species. 9 to 25 feet high. Description. bog nut. pale green.

fevers. each with a funnel-shaped tube terminating in five segments which are pinkish purple or whitish on the outside and whitish and thickly bearded with white hairs within. but the principal use of buck-bean leaves is as a bitter tonic. Other common names. mad-dog skullcap. thick. branching stem ranging from 8 inches to 2 feet in height. Scutellaria lateriflora L.—American skullcap. 13. naked stalk arising from the rootstock It bears from 10 to 20 flowers.Page 22 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.—The leaves are generally collected in spring. Large doses are said to have cathartic and sometimes emetic action. smooth and light brown. Collection. or sometimes hairy at the top. leafy. blunt at the top.) The capsules which follow are ovate. rheumatic and skin affections. The price paid per pound is about 6 to 8 cents.—The lip-shaped flowers and squarish stems of the skullcap indicate that it is a member of the mint family (Menthaceae). hoodwort. (Fig. smooth. and Washington. its square.—This species is native in damp places along banks of streams from Canada southward to Florida. The leaves are placed opposite to each other on the stem on American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . They have been employed in dyspepsia. and uses. Pharmacopoeial name. Buck bean is a perennial belonging to the buck-bean family (Menyanthaceae). New Mexico. and also as a remedy against worms. Buck-bean leaves have a very bitter taste. It is a perennial of slender. Habitat and range.from May to July on a long. madweed. They lose more than three-fourths of their weight in drying.—Scutellaria. blue pimpernel. SKULLCAP. Description.swsbm. hooded willow-herb. erect habit. but no odor. blue skullcap. and contain numerous smooth and shining seeds. The rootstock is also sometimes employed medicinally and was recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia from 1830 to 1840. side-flowering skullcap. prices.com .

oblong or lance shaped. This plant was once considered valuable for the prevention of hydrophobia. whence the names "mad-dog skullcap " and "madweed.slender stalks and are about 1 to 3 inches in length and about one-third as wide. It is used principally as a tonic and to a limited extent for allaying nervous irritation of various kinds. the upper lip shaped like a helmet and closing in fruit. The flowers are borne in narrow. but frequently also at the top. The tubular.com . 14.) Collection. The entire plant is collected when in flower and should be carefully dried in the shade. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . 2-lipped flowers are about a quarter of an inch in length. Very frequently collectors will gather some other species in place of the official plant." but it is now known to be useless for that purpose.—The dried plant is at present official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. (Fig. prices. They gradually become smaller toward the top. with margins coarsely toothed.swsbm. spikelike. with broader leaves and much larger flowers. They appear from about July to September and are blue. The price ranges from about 3 to 4 cents a pound. shading off to whitish. and uses. is also two lipped. most of those thus wrongly finding their way into the market being generally of stouter growth. or outer green covering of the flower. and are interspersed with leafy bracts. and the calyx.Page 23 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. onesided clusters. and sometimes those at the very top have the margins unbroken. generally in the axils of the leaves. thin in texture.

Texas. Marrubium vulgare L.Page 24 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. wrinkled. oval or nearly round. placed opposite each other on the stem. having a pleasant aromatic odor. and westward to California and Oregon.HOREHOUND. It is very abundant in pastures in Oregon and California. the upper surface is wrinkled and somewhat hairy. These are borne in dense woolly clusters in the axils of the leaves and American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . and pastures. show that it is a member of the mint family (Menthaceae). oval or roundish. It is found from Maine to South Carolina. It has been naturalized from Europe. with opposite. woolly appearance.swsbm. and is about 1 to 3 feet high. Description.—Horehound grows in dry sandy or stony soil in waste places. marvel. covering vast areas and in such dense masses as to crowd out all other vegetation. Other common names. marrube. and very hoary leaves. The leaves are about 1 to 2 inches in length.—Houndsbene.—The entire plant is thickly covered with hairs. the margins round toothed. which appear from June to September. and especially in southern California. where it is a very trouble-some weed. strongly veined. in fields. It is a bushy. and narrowed or somewhat heart shaped at the base. along roadsides and near dwellings. which give it a whitish. somewhat blunt at the apex. Habitat and range. branching herb.—Marrubium. Pharmacopoial name. The lip-shaped flowers. with many woolly stems rounded below and four angled above. while the lower surface is very hoary and prominently veined.com .

They should be carefully dried in the shade. and branched stems. catwort.—Catnip. The odor is pleasant. It is well known as a domestic remedy for colds and is also used in dyspepsia and for expelling worms.swsbm. prices.—The fine white hairs on the stems of this plant give it a somewhat whitish appearance. two lipped. occurs in rather dry soil in waste places and cultivated land from Canada to Minnesota and south to Virginia and Arkansas.) Collection. field mint. catrup. but diminishes in drying. a common weed naturalized from Europe. Description.—The leaves and tops are the parts used in medicine and are official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. the upper lip two lobed.are whitish. resulting in the scattering of the seeds. catmint. The hooked calyx teeth of the mature flower heads cling to the wool of sheep.—Cataria.com . and uses. 15.Page 25 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the lower three lobed. These are gathered just before the plant is in flower. It is a perennial belonging to the mint family (Menthaceae). CATNIP. Other common names. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . the coarse stalks being rejected. with erect. Horehound at present brings about 1/2 to 2 cents a pound. rather aromatic. Catnip reaches about 2 to 3 feet in height. square. Habitat and range. The taste is bitter and persistent. (Fig. Nepeta cataria L.

About June to September the many-flowered. with a pointed apex. The rough.—Motherwort. are two lipped. The price ranges from 3 to 5 cents a pound. rather thick spikes are produced at the ends of the stem and branches. dark-green leaves are borne on long stems.—Throwwort. about 2 to 4 inches wide and three to five lobed. The whitish flowers. which have a strong odor and a bitter taste.—The leaves and flowering tops. 16). the pale-purple or pinkish lip-shaped blossoms produced in the axils of the leaves being arranged in dense circles around the stem.com . and has upright branches. naturalized from Europe and a native also of Asia. Catnip was official in the United States Pharmacopoeia from 1840 to 1880. Collection. erect. Minnesota. Habitat and range.swsbm. MOTHERWORT. toothed. are collected when the plant is in flower and are carefully dried. prices. Other common names. —The rather stout.Page 26 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.The opposite leaves are heart shaped or oblong. the lobes pointed. The coarser stems and branches should be rejected. Motherwort flowers in summer. is sparingly hairy. the lower one with three lobea. (Fig. lion's-ear. the middle lobe broadest and sometimes two cleft. dotted with purple. lion's-tail. the upper lip notched or two cleft. It also has a quieting effect on the nervous system. Synonym. the upper narrower ones three cleft with lance-shaped lobes. the margins finely scalloped and 1 to 21/2 inches in length. Leonurus cardiaca L. the upper surface green. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . or variously cut. Catnip is used as a mild stimulant and tonic and as an emmenagogue. and Nebraska. and uses. is found about dwellings and in waste places. cowthwort. its range in this country extending from Nova Scotia to North Carolina. 4-angled stem of this perennial herb attains a height of from 2 to 5 feet. Description. the lower grayish green with fine white hairs.—Cardiaca vulgaris Moench. the lower ones rounded.

They have an aromatic odor and a very bitter taste. scarcely exceeding three-fourths of an inch in length and becoming smaller toward the top of the plant. They American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . At present they bring about 3 to 5 cents a pound. PENNYROYAL. mock pennyroyal.the upper lip is densely covered with white. (Fig. erect. prices. mosquito plant. woolly hairs on the outside and the lower lip is three lobed and mottled. being a low-growing plant.com .—American pennyroyal. slightly tonic properties and is used also to promote perspiration.swsbm. Description. with a slender.) Motherwort belongs to the mint family (Menthaceae). pulegioides (L. Motherwort has stimulant. Pharmacopoeial name. tick-weed. Other common names. Habitat and range.Page 27 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The opposite leaves are small. Collection. stinking balm.—Pennyroyal is found in dry soil from Nova Scotia and Quebec to Dakota and southward. much-branched and somewhat hairy stem. Hedeoma.—Hedeoma. 'about 6 inches to a foot or so in height. 17.)Pers. and uses.— The leaves and flowering tops are collected during the flowering season. squaw mint.—This very strongly aromatic annual of the mint family (Menthaceae) is of rather insignificant appearance.

They should be collected while in flower.swsbm.are borne on short stems and are oblong ovate in shape. Other common names. the erect upper one entire or slightly notched or two lobed. Paul's betony. wolf foot. and pennyroyal is therefore much used for keeping away mosquitoes and other troublesome insects. blunt at the apex. consist of a few pale-bluish flowers with 2lipped corolla. appearing from July to September in the axils of the leaves. wood betony. (Fig. prices. sweet bugleweed. The price paid to collectors ranges from about 11/4 to 21/2 cents a pound. The odor is very repulsive to insects. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . Virginia horehound.—Buglewort. green archangel.—The leaves and flowering tops are official in the United States Pharmacopoeia.Page 28 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. as is also the oil of pennyroyal distilled from them. gypsy herb. and emmenagogue. while the lower spreading lip is three cleft. and with margins sparingly toothed. BUGLEWEED. and the loose flower clusters. water bugle. carminative. narrowed at the base.com . thin. gypsywort. gypsyweed. 18. carpenter's herb. American water horohound. Lycopus virginicus L. The branchlets are four angled and somewhat hairy. purple archangel. Pennyroyal has a strong mintlike odor and pungent taste and is used as an aromatic stimulant.) Collection. and uses.

—The entire herb.swsbm. Missouri. 4-lobed flowers are purplish and are produced from about. lamb mint.Habitat and range.— Bugleweed is a native herb frequenting wet.—Mentha piperita. mintlike odor. The small. July to September They are borne in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves and are followed by 3-sided nutlets. brandy mint. shady places from Canada to Florida.—This perennial herb of the mint family (Menthacese) has long. The plant has a rather pleasant. prices. tubular. It brings about 3 to 4 cents a pound. about 2 inches in length. 19. but the taste is bitter and disagreeable. Description. PEPPERMINT. long pointed at the apex and narrowed toward the base. and Nebraska. the upper portion of the margin being toothed.) Collection. Other common names.—American mint. Pharmacopoeial name. Mentha piperita L. and astringent properties. The leaves are dark green or of a purplish tinge. smooth. and uses.Page 29 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It has sedative. threadlike runners and a bluntly 4-angled. erect or ascending stem from 6 inches to 2 feet in height. (Fig. tonic.com . American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . which was official from 1830 to 1880. should be gathered during the flowering period. bell-shaped. slender.

and uses. State mint (in New York). prices. or sometimes the veins on the lower surface are hairy. square stems. They are placed in circles around the stem. from 1 to 3 feet in height. they are smooth on both sides. principally in Michigan and New York. pointed at the apex and rounded or narrowed at the base. and also in parts of Indiana. from which are produced smooth. blunt. 5-toothed calyx and a 4-lobed corolla. 1 to 2 inches in length and about half as wide. erect and branching. terminal spikes. where the distillation of the plants for the oil is carried on commercially on a very extensive scale. with margins sharply toothed. (Fig. These must be collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and should be American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs .—Pepper-mint propagates by means of its long.Page 30 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.lammint. and Wisconsin. It is largely cultivated. running roots. Iowa.—Peppermint is naturalized from Europe and is found in damp places from Nova Scotia to Minnesota and south to Florida and Tennessee. Description. 20. Habitat and range. This aromatic perennial of the mint family (Menthaceae) is in flower from July to September.swsbm.com .) Collection. forming thick.—The dried leaves and flowering tops are the parts directed to be used by the United States Pharmacopoeia. The dark-green leaves arc borne on stalks and are lance shaped. the small purplish blossoms havinga tubular.

The oil. name.—Mentha viridis L. and the crop is estimated to have amounted to about 200. as is likewise the agreeable taste.carefully dried in the shade.85 to $2. The pungent odor of peppermint is familiar.Page 31 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. which is obtained by distillation with water from the fresh or partially dried leaves and flowering tops. brown mint.000 pounds. mackerel mint. Other common names. The wholesale quotations for peppermint oil in the spring of 1911 ranged from $2.95 a pound. While a less acreage was devoted to peppermint during 1910. lamb mint. the spearmint has also been naturalized from Europe and may be found in moist fields and waste places from Nova Scotia to Utah and south to Florida.com .swsbm.— Mint. Dried peppermint leaves and tops bring about 3 1/2 to 41/2 cents a pound. Our Lady's mint. sage of Bethlehem.—Like peppermint.— Synonym. is also official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. Mentha spicata L. SPEARMINT. It is also cultivated to some extent for the distillation of the oil and is a familiar plant in gardens for American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . Pharmdcopoeial Menthas viridis. It is a well-known remedy for stomach and intestinal troubles. conditions were favorable to its growth. burning at first and followed by a feeling of coolness in the mouth. garden mint. Habitat and range.

the lance-shaped leaves are generally stemless or at least with very short stems. the upper surface dark green. Habitat and range. The leaves are from 3 to 8 inches long. stinkwort. (Fig.—Spearmint very much resembles peppermint. Datura stramonium L. veiny. fireweed. and the flowering spikes are narrow and pointed instead of thick and blunt. apple of Peru. but a difference may be detected. The flowers are large American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . poisonous annual belonging to the nightshade family (Solanaceae). smooth. yellowish-green stems are about 2 to 5 feet high. Other common names. Description. while the lower surface is a lighter green. The price at present is about 31/2 cents a pound. Description. thorn apple. It does not grow perhaps quite so tall. Oil of spearmint is also official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. It is widely scattered in nearly all warm countries. Pharmacopceial name. The odor and taste closely resemble those of peppermint. dewtry. and leat'y with large.—Jamestown weed (from which the name "jimson weed " is derived). Its stout. stinkweed. Jamestown lily. the flavor of spearmint being by some regarded as more agreeable. prices.—The dried leaves and flowering tops are official in the United States Pharmacopoeia and should be collected before the flowers are fully developed. devil's apple. and uses. somewhat lobed or irregularly toothed and waved.com . It is obtained from the fresh or partially dried leaves and flowering tops.) The flowering period is the same as for peppermint—from July to September.—This is a very common weed in fields and waste places almost everywhere in the United States except in the North and West.domestic use.—Jimson weed is an ill-scented. thin.—Stramonium.Page 32 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. devil's-trum-pet. Spearmint is used for similar purposes as peppermint. much forked.swsbm. wavy-toothed leaves. Collection. 21. although its action is milder. thin. JIMSON WEED. pointed at the top and usually narrowed at the base. mad-apple.

The collector may receive from 2 to 5 cents a pound for the leaves.) Collection. prickly capsules. white. Drying diminishes the disagreeable odor. oval. nauseous taste. and the seed pods which follow are dry. which upon ripening burst open into four valves containing numerous black. are official under the name "Stramonium. In asthma they are frequently employed in the form of cigarettes. kidney-shaped seeds.Page 33 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Jimson weed is in flower from about May to September. anodyne. narcotic odor and a bitter. or the fumes are inhaled. when assayed by the United States Pharmacopoeia process. (Fig. funnel shaped." They are collected at the time jimson weed is in flower. yielding.(about 3 inches in length). not less than 0. which are poisonous. and diuretic properties.com . American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . antispasmodic. The seeds are also used in medicine. which are poisonous. cause dilation of the pupil of the eye and also have narcotic.—The leaves of the jimson weed. and uses.35 per cent of its alkaloids. They have an unpleasant. which are smoked. the entire plant being cut or pulled up and the leaves stripped and carefully dried in the shade. about as large as a horse-chestnut. prices.swsbm. rather showy. The leaves. wrinkled. 22. and with a pronounced odor.

which brings from 3 to 4 cents a pound. fishmouth. In late summer or early fall the showy clusters of whitish or pinkish flowers are produced.—Turtlehead. and uses. Habitat and range. Each flower is about an inch in length. inflated corolla. which are from 3 to 6 inches in length. erect herb. with a tubular.swsbm. snake-head.—This native perennial grows in swamps and along streams from Newfoundland to Manitoba and south to Florida and Kansas. and contains numerous small seeds.com . Collection. narrowing toward the base and with margins furnished with sharp. with a 4angled stem 1 to 3 feet in height. Other common names.—The herb (especially the leaves). while the lower lip is three lobed. Description. occasionally branched.BALMONY. and the throat bearded with woolly hairs. The short-stemmed leaves. should be collected during the American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . shell flower. with the mouth slightly open and resembling the head of a turtle or snake. its broad arched upper lip is keeled in the center and notched at the apex. Chelone glabra L. are narrowly lance shaped to broadly lance shaped. bitter herb. salt-rheum weed. prices.) The seed capsule is oval. 23. the lower ones sometimes broadly oval. close-lying teeth. turtle bloom. (Fig.Page 34 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.—Balmony is a slender. the smallest lobe in the center. codhead. about half an inch in length.

on short stalks. and is used as a tonic. but no odor. Other common names. ground-hele.Page 35 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. for its cathartic properties. spikelike flower clusters are produced from the leaf axils.—Paul's betony.com . Veronica officinalis L. upland speedwell. triangular.) The capsule is obovate.—This little herb frequents dry fields and woods from Nova Scotia to Michigan and south to North Carolina and Tennessee. It also occurs in Europe and Asia. and about one-half to an inch in length.flowering period. grayish green and soft hairy. Balmony has a very bitter taste. and for expelling worms. Description. narrow.—The common speedwell creeps over the ground by means of rather woody stems rooting at the joints and sends up branches from 3 to 10 inches in height.swsbm. The speedwell is a perennial American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . It is hairy all over. fluellin. oblong or oval in shape. (Fig-24. with margins saw toothed and narrowing into the stalks. The leaves are opposite to each other on the stem. Habitat and range. and contains numerous flat seeds. pale-blue flowers. they are blunt at the apex. From about May to July the elongated. crowded with small. COMMON SPEEDWELL. and compressed.

com . cottagers. finger flower. When fresh they have a faint. lady's-glove. and West Virginia. Habitat and range. should be collected about May or June. fairy fingers. and diuretic properties. Collection.—Originally introduced into this country from Europe as an ornamental garden plant. agreeable odor. lady's-thimble.Page 36 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Washington. rabbit's-flower. lion's-mouth. Other common names. flop dock. which is lacking when dry. fairy thimbles. tonic. dog's-finger. throatwort.swsbm.—Purple foxglove.belonging to the figwort family (Scrophulariaceae). having escaped from cultivation and assumed the character of a weed. flap dock.—The leaves and flowering tops. fairy bells. in small cleared places. The taste is bitter and aromatic and somewhat astringent. popdock. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . Speedwell has been used for asthmatic troubles and coughs and also for its alterative. and on the borders of timber land. Pharmacopoeial name. Digitalis purpurea L. and uses. Scotch mercury. lady'sfinger. fairy cap. FOXGLOVE. foxglove may now be found wild in a few localities in parts of Oregon.—Digitalis. It occurs along roads and fence rows. thimbles. prices. which bring about 3 to 5 cents a pound.

which are official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. prices. rather peculiar odor and a very bitter. The basal leaves are rather large. are narrowed at the base into long winged stalks. during the first year of its growth produces only a dense rosette of leaves. about June.Description. it is a most handsome plant. winter clover. Other common names.—Foxglove.swsbm. nauseous taste. squaw-berry. twinberry. cowberry. the lower surface of the leaves shows a thick network of prominent veins and is grayish. The ovate or oval leaves. preserving them in dark. 25. When foxglove is in flower. deerberry. a biennial or perennial belonging to the figwort family (Scrophulariaceae). The apex is blunt or pointed and the margins are round toothed. partridge vine. with soft. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . wild running box. bell-shaped flowers making a very showy appearance. The leaves soon lose their medicinal properties if not properly dried or if exposed to light and moisture. Foxglove has a faint.Page 37 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. boxberry. Collection. 4 to 12 inches long and about half as wide. but in the second season the downy and leafy flowering stalk. hive vine. but they are poisonous and should be used only on the advice of a physician. are collected from plants of the second year's growth just about the time that they are coming into flower. the upper surface of which is dull green and wrinkled. short hairs. At present most of the foxglove or digitalis used comes to this country from Europe. with long stalks. chickenberry. airtight receptacles. Mitchella repens L.) The capsule is ovoid. oneberry. reaching a height of 3 to 4 feet. Foxglove brings about 6 to 8 cents a pound.—Checkerberry. partridgeberry. (Fig. while the upper ones gradually become smaller and are borne on shorter leafstalks. and many seeded. white hairs. foxberry. where the plant grows wild and is also cultivated. the long terminal clusters (about 14 inches in length) of numerous tubular. Preparations made from it are of great value in affections of the heart. SQUAW VINE. with crimson spots and furnished with long. the inside of the lower lobe is white. appears.com . two celled.—The leaves. The individual flowers are about 2 inches long and vary in color from whitish through lavender and purple. and uses. They should be very carefully dried in the shade soon after collection and as rapidly as possible. soft.

resulting in a double.Page 38 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. astringent. and uses. snakeberry. (Fig.) They remain on the vine through the winter and are edible. creeping or trailing evergreen herb.swsbm. bony nutlets. producing fragrant whitish. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . two borne together on a stalk and having the ovaries (seed-bearing portion) united. Collection. Squaw vine has tonic. prices. The leaves have no odor and are somewhat astringent and bitter. rooting at the joints. with margins entire. darkgreen opposite leaves about half an inch in length. shining. berry like fruit. These fruits are red and contain eight small. where it is generally found creeping about the bases of trees. two-eyed berry. has stems 6 to 12 inches long. 26. and roundish-oval. Description. squaw-plum. though practically tasteless. and diuretic properties.—The leaves and stems (herb) are collected at almost any time of the year and range in price from about 31/2 to 4 cents a pound. which are blunt at the apex and rounded or somewhat heart shaped at the base. rather thick. sometimes pale-purplish. funnel-shaped and 4-lobed flowers.—The squaw vine is common in woods from Nova Scotia to Minnesota and south to Florida and Arkansas.—This slender. Habitat and range. a member of the madder family (Rubiaceae). The plant flowers from about April to June. Sometimes the leaves show whitish veins.com .pigeonberry.

Other common names.com . blunt at the apex. They are pale green and thin in texture. Lobelia inflata L. bladder pod.—Lobelia. wild tobacco.—Lobelia may be found in sunny situations in open woodlands. vomit-wort. and both upper and lower surfaces furnished with short hairs. Its simple stem has but few short branches and is smooth above.swsbm. gagroot. and along roadsides nearly everywhere in the United States. The leaves are placed alternately along the stem.LOBELIA.—Indian tobacco. low belia. Habitat and range. puke weed.—This poisonous plant. Pharmacopoeial name. from 1 to about 2 inches in length. old fields and pastures. asthma weed. milky juice. Lobelia may be found in American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . contains an acrid. emetic herb. while the lower part is rough hairy. the margins irregularly saw toothed. those on the upper portion small and stemless and the lower leaves larger and borne on stalks. an annual belonging to the bellflower family (Campanulaceae). but especially east of the Mississippi River. oblong or oval. eyebright.Page 39 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Description.

acts upon the nervous system and bowels. wet ground. which makes it appear as though they were one. They are borne on very short stems in the axils of the upper leaves.Page 40 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. while very numerous. prices. along streams. wild Isaac.— Boneset is a common weed in low. thorough-wax. The leaves and tops should be dried in the shade and when dry kept in covered receptacles. Eupatorium perfoliatum L. from the center of which the tube is cleft to the base. and is erect.flower from summer until frost. are very small and inconspicuous. Indian sage. crosswort. Synonym. The price paid for the dried leaves and tops is about 3 cents a pound. sweating plant. Pharmacopoeial name. Lobelia has expectorant properties. causes vomiting. vegetable antimony. The inflated capsules are nearly round. Other common names. Habitat and range. but joined together at the base.) Collection. wood boneset.—Eupatorium. and is poisonous. Not too much of the stemmy portion should be included.—Thoroughwort. It is a perennial plant belonging to the aster family (Asteraceae). thorough-stem. and on the edges of swamps and in thickets from Canada to Florida and west to Texas and Nebraska. feverwort. tearal.com . with the stem passing through the center. and uses. agueweed.—The Pharmacopoeia directs that the leaves and tops be collected after some of the capsules have become inflated. BONESET. (Fig.—Eupatorium connatum Michx. but its pale-blue flowers.swsbm. wild sage. Description. The lower lip of each flower has three lobes and the upper one two segments. teasel.—This plant is easily recognized by the peculiar arrangement of the leaves. growing rather American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . The seed of lobelia is also employed in medicine. and contain very numerous extremely minute dark-brown seeds. which are opposite to each other. 27. marked with parallel grooves.

official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. and carefully dried.united at the base. In large doses it acts as an emetic and cathartic. Boneset leaves and tops have a bitter. scaly grindelia. Boneset is also employed in colds. (1) Grindelia robusta Nutt. astringent taste and a slightly aromatic odor.swsbm. and as a tonic. (2) Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal. GUM PLANT. jaundice.tall. lance shaped. very prominently veined.) Collection.and the leaves. They form an old and popular remedy in the treatment of fever and ague. (Fig. Other common names. as implied by some of the common names given to the plant.. lighter green and downy beneath. are collected when the plants are in flower.—The leaves and flowering tops. The price per pound for boneset is about 2 cents. wrinkled. stripped from the stalk. tapering to a point.com . The stout stems are rough hairy. flat-topped clusters of flowers are produced from about July to September and consist of numerous white tubular flowers united in dense heads.—(2) Broad-leaved gum plant. dyspepsia. and uses. prices. The crowded. Habitat and range.—Grindelia. from 1 to 5 feet in height.Page 41 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. are rough. They lose considerable of their weight in drying.—The gum plant (Grindelia robusta) occurs in the American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . dark green above. Pharmacopoeial name. and with bluntly toothed margins. 28.

It is more sparingly branched near the top and the branches seem more American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . rounded top gradually narrowing toward the base—clasping the stem and with margins somewhat saw toothed The plant branches freely near the top. thick.—The name "gum plant" is applied especially to Grindelia robusta on account of the fact that the entire plant is covered with a resinous substance. robusta. and are about an inch in length. about 11/2 feet in height. The yellow flowers are about three-fourths of an inch in diameter.Page 42 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. varnished appearance. the whole heavily coated with resin. broader than long. leathery in texture and rather rigid. Immediately beneath the flower is a set of numerous. In outline they are oblong spatulate—that is. south to Texas and Mexico. and are borne singly at the ends of the branches. The leaves are pale green. the tips of which are rolled forward.States west of the Rocky Mountains. each branch somewhat reddish and terminating in a large yellow flower.com . except that it is smaller and less gummy in appearance. and westward to California. coated with resin and showing numerous translucent dots.swsbm. Description. while the broadleaved gum plant (G. having a broad. being of common occurrence on the plains and prairies from the Saskatchewan to Minnesota. overlapping scales (the involucre). The broad-leaved gum plant (Grindelia squarrosa) is very similar to G. It is an erect perennial herb belonging to the aster family (Asteraceae) and has a round smooth stem. giving it a gummy. squarrosa) is more widely distributed.

with margins toothed. bloodstanch. the lower ones 1 to 4 inches long. horseweed. and in the larger plants usually branched near the top. and externally in cases of poisoning by poison ivy. The leaves are usually somewhat hairy. This weed.) Britton. Conyza canadense (L. colt's-tail. tonic. and broader. sharply aromatic. Other common names. being more prevalent. but they are longer. thinner in texture and not rigid. and slightly bitter. The leaves are also clasping. broader at the top and narrowing toward the base. The drug is sometimes used in asthmatic and similar affections. fireweed.—The leaves and flowering tops of both species of Grindelia are official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. the recurved tips of which are longer and more slender. scabious. bitter-weed. which is an annual. The smaller flower heads are generally longer than broad and have narrower involucral scales.—The size of this weed. Habitat and range. Synonym.—Erigeron canadensis L. cow's-tail. the leaves and tops of Grindelia squarrosa. depends upon the kind of soil in which it grows. as a stomachic. The erect stem is bristly hairy or sometimes smooth. or unbroken.) Collection. 29. prices.— Erigeron. and more prominently toothed. The odor of grindelia is balsamic and the taste resinous.Page 43 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. CANADA FLEABANE. The price ranges from about 5 to 10 cents a pound. mare's-tail. about 2 inches in length. butterweed. While both species are official. produces from June to American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . and uses. which belongs to the aster family (Asteraceae).com .—Canada fleabane is common in fields and waste places and along roadsides almost throughout North America. the height varying from a few inches only to sometimes 10 feet in favorable soil.swsbm.reddish. prideweed. while those scattered along the stem are rather narrow with margins generally entire. (Fig. Canada erigeron. are generally used. hogweed. and should be collected about the time that the flowers have come into full bloom. Description. lobed. It is also widely distributed as a weed in the Old World and in South America.

gordolobo. The price paid is about 5 to 6 cents a pound. Habitat and range. which has a faint agreeable odor and an astringent and bitter taste. cammock. is also used for hemorrhages from various sources and the bleeding of wounds. old-man's-pepper. thousand-leaf.swsbm. nosebleed. milfoil.com . but the oil alone is now recognized as official. followed by an abundance of seed.November numerous heads of small. it should be collected during the flowering period and carefully dried. It is also employed in diarrhea and dropsy. inconspicuous white flowers.) Collection. and uses.Page 44 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.—Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields. Achillea millefolium L. The leaves and tops were formerly official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. Other common names. (Fig. known as oil of fleabane or oil of erigeron. The herb. By distillation of the fresh flowering herb a volatile oil is obtained. which is sometimes employed in attempting to control hemorrhages and diarrheal affections. soldier's wound-wort. YARROW. pastures. sanguinary. from 1820 to 1880. prices.— Millefolium. thousandleaf clover. 30. green arrow. bloodwort.— The entire herb is used. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . dog daisy. and meadows from the New England States to Missouri and in scattered localities in other parts of the country. carpenter's grass.

It has a strong. for its action upon the bladder.—The entire plant is collected at the time that it is in flower and is carefully dried. The prices paid for yarrow are from about 3 to 5 cents a pound. Collection. From about June to September the flat-topped flowering heads are produced in abundance and consist of numerous small. narrowly oblong or lance shaped in outline and very finely divided into numerous crowded parts or segments.Description. the plant losing about four-fifths of its weight. Considerable shrinkage takes place in drying.com . and for checking excessive discharges. Some of the leaves. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . (Fig. The leaves toward the top of the plant become smaller and stemless. a perennial of the aster family (Asteraceae). Yarrow was official in the United States Pharmacopoeia from 1860 to 1880.—This weed.) Yarrow has a strong odor. The coarser stems are rejected. white (sometimes rose-colored).Page 45 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. is about 10 to 20 inches in height and has many dark-green feathery leaves. are as much as 10 inches in length and about half an inch or an inch in width. and when it is eaten by cows the odor and bitter taste are transmitted to dairy products.swsbm. and uses. which are borne on stems. very much like chamomile. It has been used as a stimulant tonic. and a sharp. densely crowded flowers. especially the basal ones. bitter taste. prices. aromatic odor. 31.

swsbm. which like the terminal one are again divided for about twothirds of the distance to the midvein into smaller lobes having saw-toothed margins. The entire leaf is about 6 inches long. and belongs to the aster family (Asteraceae). usually smooth. fernlike leaves and yellow buttonlike flowers. 11/2 to 3 feet high. are roundish and flat topped. hindheal.) Tansy is in flower from about July to September. its general outline oval.—This is another garden plant introduced into this country from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. or lobes.TANSY.com . Tanacetum vulgare L. surrounded by a set of dry.— Tanacetum. giving to the leaf a somewhat feathery or fernlike appearance. 32.Page 46 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. English cost. (Fig. parsley fern. borne in terminal clusters. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . The yellow flowers. scented fern. Habitat and range. erect stem. ginger plant. but it is divided nearly to the midrib into about seven pairs of segments. —Tansy is strongscented perennial herb with finely divided. It has a stout. Description. bitter buttons. somewhat reddish. and branching near the top. Other common names. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. overlapping scales (the involucre).

WORMWOOD.Page 47 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.—This shrubby.swsbm. warmot. the upper leaves gradually becoming more simple and stemless and borne on short American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . the lower long-stalked ones two to three times divided into leaflets with lance-shaped lobes. tonic. and uses. It is occasionally cultivated. Habitat and range. Other common names. It has stimulant.com . Synonym. the young shoots silvery white with fine silky hairs. mingwort. Artemisia absinthium L.— Wormwood. They lose about four-fifths of their weight in drying. hoary. Description.—The leaves and flowering tops of tansy are collected at the time of flowering and are carefully dried. absinth. aromatic. much-branched perennial of the aster family (Asteracese) is from 2 to 4 feet in height. prices.Collection. The grayish-green leaves are from 2 to 5 inches long. mugwort. Tansy has a strong. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. madderwort. It is poisonous and has been known to produce fatal results. and emmenagogue properties and is also used as a remedy against worms. Their price ranges from about 3 to 5 cents a pound. aromatic odor and a bitter taste.—Artemisia vulgaris Lam. old-woman.—Absinthium. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country.

and is found along brooks and in wet places and moist clayey soil along roadsides from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Massachusetts. flat-globular. however. dove-dock. Other common names. clayweed.—In spring the white-woolly.com . yellow heads.) Collection. and for expelling worms. stomachic. after flowering nodding. An oil is obtained from wormwood by distillation which is the main ingredient in the dangerous liqueur known as absinth. prices. colt-herb. and uses.stems and the uppermost linear with unbroken margins. These were official in the United States Pharmacopoeia for 1890. and Minnesota. cleats. They have a honeylike odor. ginger. horsefoot.Page 48 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. assfoot. The bright-yellow flowers only open in sunshiny weather. and again erect in fruit. insignificant. which are tubular. horsehoof.—Coltsfoot has been naturalized in this country from Europe. gowan. and is used as a tonic. the leaves not being produced until the seed has formed or at least toward the latter part of the flowering stage. appearing from July to October.—Coughwort. large yellow head. the use of the oil is now prohibited except by pharmacists in making up prescriptions. arising from the root.33. gingerroot. bull'sfoot. The flower clusters. British tobacco. The flowering stalks are several. Tussilago farfara L. each one bearing at the top a single. foalfoot. reminding one of a dandelion. and are from 3 to 18 inches in height. Description.swsbm. stimulant. dummyweed. New York. scaly flowering stalks with their yellow blossoms are the first to appear." The flowering heads are erect. having in the center what are called disk flowers. long a popular drink in France. (Fig. consist of numerous small. Wormwood has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. drooping. against fevers. and surrounded by what are known as ray flowers.—When the plant is in flower the leaves and flowering tops are collected. in which country. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . hoofs. which are strap shaped. The price paid for wormwood is about 4 cents a pound. Habitat and range. When the seed is ripe the head looks somewhat like a dandelion "blow. sowfoot. COLTSFOOT.

while the lower is white with densely matted woolly hairs. The flowers are also used. and Nebraska. Erechthites hieracifolia (L.The leaves.com . 34. or. erect stalks.—Senecio hieracifolius L. Another common name. All the leaves arise from the root and are borne on long. the margins are slightly lobed and sharply toothed. When dry. Collectors are paid about 31/2 cents a pound. appear when the flowers are almost through blossoming. (Fig. FIREWEED. almost round or heart shaped in outline. having a soothing effect on irritated mucous membranes. Habitat andrange. prices. The upper surface is smooth and green. they should be collected in June or July.—Pilewort.swsbm. and waste places from Canada to Florida. likewise the root. Synonym. but the leaves are mostly employed. Louisiana. as already stated. 3 to 7 inches wide.) Raf. Coltsfoot leaves form a popular remedy in coughs and other affections of the chest and throat. or about the time when they are nearly full size. according to some of the names applied to it. springing up American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs .Page 49 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. shaped like a horse's hoof.) Collection.— All parts of coltsfoot are active. They are large. and uses. fields. or even afterwards. they break very readily.—Fireweed is found in woods.

The price paid to collectors ranges from about 2 to 3 cents a pound. lance shaped or oval lance shaped. Fireweed has a disagreeable taste and odor.com . from 2 to 8 inches long. prices. 35.Page 50 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. An oil is obtained by distillation from the fresh plant. tonic. and alterative properties.—The entire plant is used and is gathered in summer. The leaves turn black in drying. branched. and uses. and juicy. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . grooved. thin in texture. the margins toothed or sometimes deeply cut." Description. The stem is from 1 to 8 feet in height.—This weed is a native of this country and is an ill-smelling annual belonging to the aster family (Asteraceae). The upper ones usually have a clasping base or are at least stemless.in especial abundance where land has been burned over.) The seed is furnished with numerous soft whitebristles. whence the name "fire-weed. while the margins of those lower down narrow into the stems. The green outer covering of each flower head is cylindrical. The lightgreen leaves are rather large. the flat-topped clusters of greenish-white or whitish heads being produced from the ends of the stem and branches. Collection. It has astringent. (Fig.swsbm. Fireweed is in flower from about July to September. with the base considerably swollen.

Synonyms.—In height this annual plant of the aster family (Asteracese) scarcely exceeds 2 feet. spotted cardus. It is cultivated in many parts of Europe. while those near the top are stemless and clasping. uncultivated localities from Nova Scotia to Maryland and the Southern States. with margins wavy lobed and spiny. 3 to 6 inches long or more. and are about an inch and a half in length. spotted thistle. thin.com .—The blessed thistle is a weed which has been introduced into this country from southern Europe and is found in waste places and stony. St. L. branched and rather woolly. Description.—Centaurea benedicta Carbenia benedicta Adans. cursed thistle.BLESSED THISTLE. are situated at the ends of the branches. Other common names. Benedict's thistle.—Holy thistle.swsbm. Habitat and range. also on the Pacific coast. Cnicus benedictus L. Our Lady's thistle. The lower leaves and those at the bottom are narrowed toward the base into winged stems.. blessed cardus. bitter thistle. with coarse erect stems.. more or less hairy. oblong lance shaped. Carduus benedictus Cam.Page 51 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The leaves are large. which appear from about May to August. almost hidden by the upper leaves. Immediately surrounding the yellow flower American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs . The yellow flower heads.

(Fig. The taste of the blessed thistle is very bitter and salty and somewhat acrid. tipped with. branching. yellowish-red spines.heads are scales of a leathery texture.long. They are bright green when fresh and grayish green and woolly when dry. It.) Collection. 36. hard.swsbm. prices.—The leafy flowering tops and the other leaves are gathered preferably just before or during the blossoming period and then are thoroughly and quickly dried. is used principally as a bitter tonic.com . which they lose on drying. In the fresh state the leaves and tops have a rather disagreeable odor. American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs .Page 52 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and uses. Collectors receive about 6 to 8 cents a pound.