afn Sna ca klxn]h:tf] gf}nf] s'/f /x]g .

kl5Nnf] b'O{ bzsdf g]kfndf afn Snasf]
b"|t ljsf; ePsf] 5 . xfdL :jo+ klg To;sf] s]xL xb;Dd ;fIfL 5f}+ . xfdLn] afn
Snadf sfd ubf{ gjnk/f;L lhNnfleq afn Snasf] ;ª\Vof Ps ;o eGbf klg sd
lyof] . clxn] em08} kfFr ;osf] xf/fxf/Ldf k'lu;s]sf] 5 . oBlk afn Snasf] ljsf;qmddf
logLx?sf] a9\bf] ;ª\Vofn] dfq km/skg NofPsf] 5}gÙ pgLx?sf cfGtl/s ;+/rgf,
sfo{qmdsf z}nL, ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx? / sfo{qmdsf bfo/fn] afn Sna cjwf/0ffdf gofF
cfofd yk]sf] 5 .
o; cWoog k':tsn] ToxL ablnFbf] cfofdnfO{ oxfFx?dfem Nofpg] k|oTg u/]sf] 5 .
tLg tn] lhNnfsf] ?kdf lrlgg] t/fO{, leqL dw]; / kxf8 ldn]/ ag]sf] gjnk/f;Ln]
g]kfnsf] lxdfn afx]ssf] ;du| kl/j]znfO{ k|ltlalDat ug]{ x'Fbf o; lhNnfnfO{ cfwf/
dfg]/ ;du| g]kfnsf] afn Snasf] cj:yf emNsfpg klg vf]lhPsf] xf] . …afn Snadf
lsg nfUg] <Ú, …afn Snan] sltv]/ xfd|} nflu ;d:of l;h{gf u5{ <Ú, …afn Snasf
;fyLx? s;/L ;+u7g ;+rfng ul//x]sf 5g <Ú, …xfd|f sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/x? s]
s] x'g\ <Ú h:tf afn Snasf ;b:ox?sf cg]sg lh1f;f o; k':tsdfkm{t w]/} xb;Dd
d]l6g]5g\ . To;afx]s afn SnanfO{ ;fem]bf/sf] ?kdf sfd ug]{ ;+3;+:yfx?n] cfufdL
lbgdf afn Sna ;DalGw gLlt lgod / sfo{qmdx? agfpFbf o; cWoognfO{ cfwf/
dfg]/ cfkm\gf sdL sdhf]/Ldf ;'wf/ NofpFb} yk k|efjsf/L 9+uaf6 cl3 a9\g ;xof]u
k'Ug]5 eGg] xfd|f] clek|fo xf] .
gjnk/f;L lhNnfsf] afn Snasf] OltxfF;df of] k':ts Pp6f P]ltxfFl;s b:tfj]hsf]
?kdf t /xg] 5 g} To; afx]s b]ze/sf cGo lhNnfsf afn Snax?n] ;d]t o;nfO{
;xof]uL k':tssf ?kdf lng]5g\ . /, afn Sna ;DalGw hfgsf/L lng rxfg] hf] sf]xLsf
nflu ;d]t of] k':ts pkof]uL dflgg]5 .
xfdLnfO{ o; k':ts tof/ ug]{ qmddf lg/Gt/ ;dLkdf /x]/ ;Nnfx ;'emfj Pj+ pTk|/] 0ff
lbg'x'g] k5f}6]kg pGd'ng ;dfhsf zflns/fd kf08] / lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltsf
lji0f' nfld5fg] ljz]if wGojfbsf kfq x'g'x'G5 . To;afx]s o; k':ts tof/Lsf qmddf
lkmN8df hfFbf ;xof]u tyf ;dGjo ug'x{ g' ] ;Dk"0f{ dxfg'efjx? / ljz]ifu/L afn Snadf
ljut / jt{dfgdf sfd ug'{x'g] ;Dk"0f{ JolQmx? h;sf] pT;fx / nugzLntfn] ubf{ g}
o; k':ts hGdg] cj;/ kfof], jxfFx? ;a}k|lt xfd|f] ljz]if :g]x tyf wGojfb 5 .
cfufdL ;+:s/0f yk kl/dfh{g;fy Nofpg ;sf/fTds ;Nnfxx? ;bf :jfutof]Uo /xg]5g\ .
Ÿ cWoogstf{x?

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

xfd|f] egfO{

;f/;+If]k
!= kl/ro
afn Sna
s_ ;+u7gsf] pTklt
v_ ;+u7gsf] cfGtl/s ;+/rgf
g]kfndf afn Snasf] ljsf;qmd
s_ hfu[lt afn Sna :yfkgf klxn]
v_ hfu[lt afn Sna :yfkgf kl5
@= afn Snasf] ;+/rgf / ;+rfng k|lqmof
afn Snasf] ;b:o ;+Vof
afn Snasf sfd
afn Snan] afnaflnsfsf hLjgdf NofPsf] /fd|f kl/jt{gx?
afn Sna;Fu} afn kqsfl/tf
afn Sna ;+rfng k|lqmofdf cfPsf r'gf}tL
k':tf x:tfGt/0fsf] cefj
#= afn Snadf x'g] k|hftflGqs cEof;
lgoldt a}7s, lgjf{rg, k|:tfj÷cg'df]bg, ;dfg'kflts ;xeflutf,
sfo{of]hgf
afn Snasf] btf{
$= ;kmntfsf syfx?
%= afn Snasf] ljwfg
^= lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltdf ;"rLs[t afn Snax?sf] ljj/0f
&= cWoogsf ;'emfjx?

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

ljifo;"rL

g]kfndf afn Snasf] ljsf;qmdnfO{ afn ;xeflutftkm{ ljZjdf ePsf yf]/} /fd|f
cEof;x?dWo] x]l/G5 . afnaflnsfdf ;f+u7lgs sfo{k|s[ofsf] ljsf; ;fg}b]lv
x'Fbf b]zn] hGdfpg] efjL g]t[Tjx?df k|hftflGqs Jojxf/ / cfr/0fsf] ljsf;
x'g k'Ub5 . csf]{tkm{ ;dfhdf afnaflnsfx? afn clwsf/sf If]qdf ;r]tgf
hufpg], afn clwsf/ k|a4{g ug]{ / clwsf/ xgg ePsf 7fpFdf To;nfO{
Go"lgs/0fb]lv pGd'ng ug]{ ;Ddsf] sfdsf nflu bafa ;d"xsf] ?kdf sfd ugf{n]
afn clwsf/ ;+/If0f / k|a4{gdf 6]jf k'U5 . o;sf cnfjf afnaflnsfx? :jo+ddf
afn Snas} sf/0f cfPsf /fd|f pbxf/0fx? klg 5g\ . JolQmTj ljsf;, ;/;kmfO{bl] v
lnP/ l;h{gzLntfsf] ljsf;df afn Sna ;xfos ag]sf] 5 eg] ;fg}b]lv s'nt
/ lj;+ultdf km:g] sfd lgs} sd x'g k'us
] f] 5 . o;f] eGb}df afn Snasf cWofF/f]
kf6f] g} gePsf eg] xf]Ogg\ . afn Snasf sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/nfO{ olsg ug{
g;Sbf pgLx?sf] k9fO{df x«f; cfpg], of}g / of}ghGo ljs[ltdf km:g] / ;fg}bl] v
;]jfd'vL eGbf klg k};fd'vL cfr/0fx? ljsf; x'g]h:tf w]/yf]/ ;d:ofx? klg
b]lvPsf 5g\ .
afn Snasf ;sf/fTds kIfb]lv r"gf}tL;Ddsf] ;du| s'/fnfO{ o; cWoog k':tsdf
;d]l6Psf] 5 . g]kfndf afn Snasf] If]qdf cu|0fL tyf pbxf/0fLo dflgPsf]
gjnk/f;L lhNnfnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ b]zs} afn Snasf] ;du| lrq ptfg{ vf]Hg'
o;sf] ljz]iftf xf] . If]qkmn, hftLo, ef}uf]lns, ;fF:s[lts cfwf/df klg ljljwtfk"0f{
x'gfn] gjnk/f;L lhNnfnfO{ g} o; cWoogsf] nflu pko'Qm lhNnf rog ul/Psf]
xf] .

!= kl/ro v08
afn SnaM
afn Sna afnaflnsfn] l;h{gf u/]sf] ;+u7g xf] h;\ :yfkgfsf] cfwf/ k|foM
v'sn
' f] x'gu] 5{ / lj:tf/} cfkm\g} cg'ejaf6 l;Sb}, ;lRrFb} / c?sf] b]vfl;sL u/]/
To;n] Jojl:yt ;+u7gsf] ?k lng k'U5 . To;}n] afn SnanfO{ afn efjgfx?sf]
;xL k|ltlglwTj x'g] plrt d~rsf] ?kdf a'em\g ;lsG5 . cfkm\gf efjgfTds
cleJolQm / l;h{gzLn kIfx? phfu/ ug]{ cj;/ ToxfF afnaflnsfn] kfpg] u5{g\
eg] pgLx?df ;dfhk|ltsf] bfloTjaf]wsf] ljsf; x'g k'U5 . ;du| ?kdf afnaflnsfx?
3/leqsf] jftfj/0faflx/ lg:s]/, /]l8of]÷l6eL / lel8of] u]d h:tf sfddf dfq
gcNem]/ Jojxf/xfl/s b'lgofdf /Db} :j:y lqmofsnfkx?dfkm{t cfkm\gf] bfo/f
lj:tf/ ug]{ cj;/ afn Snadfkm{t kfpF5g\ .

1

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

;f/;+If]k

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

s_ ;+u7gsf] pTklQM
;dfhdf cg]sg ljrf/, cfr/0f / ?lr ePsf afnaflnsfx? x'G5g\ . ;fg}df
cfkm\g} 3/leqsf] kl/j]zdf /dfpg] pgLx? la:tf/} lxF8\g, af]Ng ;Sg] ePkl5
cfkm\gf] ;fyLx?sf] ;s{n la:tf/ u5{g\ . pgLx? k9\g] :s'ndf, v]Ng], e]6g\ ] rf}tf/f,
rf}/df x]nd]n a9\b} hfFbf cfkm\gf ;femf ?lrx? klxrfg ug{ k'Ub5g\ . h;s}
sf/0f ;+u7gsf] ljsf; x'g k'U5 . /, ToxL ;fgf] ;d"xsf ;b:ox?n] cfkm\gf cGo
;fyLx?nfO{ klg ;d"xdf ld;fpFb} n}hfG5g\ / cGttM ToxL ;d"x g} afn Sna
aGg k'U5 .
Vf_ ;+u7gsf] cfGtl/s ;+/rgfM
;d"xdf slxNo} klg Ps}vfnsf afnaflnsfx? x'Fb}gg\ . ;a} k|foM km/s–km/s
Ifdtf / bIftf af]s]sf x'G5g\ . s;}df afx\o ?kdf g]t[Tj ug]{ Ifdtf x'G5 t
s;}df cfGtl/s Joj:yfkgsf] . s;}n] b:tfj]hLs/0f ug{ hfg]sf x'G5g\ t s;}n]
cfly{s Joj:yfkg . o:tf cg]svfn] Pj+ km/skm/s Ifdtf / bIftfs} sf/0f afn
Snan] k"0f{ cfsf/ kfpF5 . ;d"xdf /x]s} sf/0f pgLx? cfkm\gf] Ifdtfsf] klxrfg
ug]{ cj;/ klg kfpF5g\ . oBlk ;a}n] cfkm} cfkm\gf] Ifdtf k|bz{g gug{ ;S5g\
h;sf sf/0f ;fyLx?n] klxrfg u/fOlbg] Ifdtfn] klg pgLx?df g]t[Tj ljsf;
u/fO/fv]sf] x'G5 .
clwsf+z afn Snasf] cfGtl/s ;+/rgfx? z'?df cfk;L 5nkmn / ;xdltsf
cfwf/df lgdf{0f x'G5g\ eg] la:tf/} To;n] cGo k|hftflGqs k|s[ofx? -lgjf{rg
/ WjgL ;dy{g_ klg ln+b} hfG5 .

g]kfndf afnSnasf] lasf;qmdM
afn Snasf] lasf;qmdnfO{ oxfF b'O{ v08df ljefhg u/]/ x]g'{ plrt x'G5 .
gjnk/f;Ld} u7g ePsf] hfu[lt afn Sna–g]kfn clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff;fy
u7g ePsf] g]kfnsf] klxnf] afn Sna xf] h;otf afnSnax?sf] ljsf;qmd a9]sf]
kfOG5 . To;df ;b:ox? afnaflnsf g} ePtf klg To;cl3 klg leGg} tl/sfaf6
afnaflnsfsf ;+u7gx? lqmoflzn ePsf] kfOG5 . To;}n] hfu[lt afn SnanfO{
dWoljGb" dfg]/ To;cl3 / To;kl5sf] afn Snasf] lasf;qmdnfO{ oxfF k|:t't
ul/Psf] 5 .
s_ hfu[lt afn Sna :yfkgf x'g'eGbf klxn]
To;cl3 afnaflnsfsf ;+u7gx? k|foM ljBfno xftfleq s]lGb|t x'Gy] . h'lgo/
/]8qm; ;s{n, :sfp6 o;sf k|d'v pbxf/0f x'g\ . To;afx]s ;fF:s[lts ;d"x,
v]ns'b Pj+ cGo cltl/Qm lqmofsnfk ;+rfng ug{sf] nflu ;bgx? Uf7g x'Gy] .

2

v_ Hffu[lt afn Sna :yfkgf ePkl5
Affn clwsf/sf s'/fnfO{ s]Gb|df /fv]/ clwsf/d'vL tj/sf] afn Sna cfGbf]ngsf]
z'qkft hfu[lt afn Snan] u/]sf] kfOG5 . afn r]tgf ;d"xn] klg cfkm"nfO{
g]kfnsf] klxnf] afn Snasf] ?kdf bfaL ug]{u5{ . o;df cg]s ts{ljts{nfO{
s]nfpg' eGbf lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf btf{sf] lx;fan] hfu[lt g} klxnf] afn
Snasf] ?kdf w]/}n] a'em\g] u5{g\ . !((#÷!(($ otf z'?df g]kfnn] ;+o'Qm
/fi6«;l+ 3o afnclwsf/ dxf;lGwsf nflu /fli6«o k|ltj]bg tof/ kfbf{ afn Snasf]
clwsf/d'vL ;+u7gx? :yfkgsf] s'/f pNn]v kfOG5 . ;g\ !((! df Knfgn] cfˆgf]
sfo{ If]qdf x/]s ufpFdf Ps afnSnasf] k|lqmof, !((#÷!(($ df ;xefuLtfTds
cg';Gwfg sfo{qmd dfkm{t PS;g P8\ g]kfnn] / !((@÷)(# df ;]e b lrN8]g«
gj]{n] cfˆgf] sfo{If]qdf …afn aflnsf Ps csf{sf] nfluÚ sfo{qmd dfkm{t afn
Snax? agfPsf] kfOG5 . To;}u/L !((^ df xft]dfnf] afn ;d"x, To;}u/L !((^
af6 l;ljgn] afnclwsf/ d~r, OG;]sn] afnclwsf/ r]tgf ;d"xsf] gfdaf6
;d'bfo / ljBfnox? afnSnax? :yfkgf u/]sf] kfOG5 . oBlk @)$* ;fndf
gjnk/f;Lsf] k|ultgu/df :yfkgf ePsf] gjk|eft afn Sna g} @)%@ df cfˆgf]
gfd kl/jt{g u/L hfu[lt afn Sna gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] pgLx? atfpF5g\ . hfu[lt
afn Sna–g]kfn :yfkgfn] u/fPsf] Pp6f /fd|f] ;+st] afn Snax? :jt:km"t{ ?kdf
klg :yfkgf x'g ;S5g\ eGg] klg lyof] .

…afn Sna;Fusf] lttfld7f ef]ufOn]
dnfO{ Ps ;Ifd, cfTdlge{/ / ;jn
gful/s aGg ;bf 3r3RofO/xG5Ú
– uLtf zdf{
k"j{ cWoIf, hfu[lt afn Sna g]kfn, k|ultgu/

3

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

pgx?sf] d'Vo sfd ljBfno xftfleq ;x/;kmfO{, j[Iff/f]k0f, cltl/Qm lqmofsnfkx?df
;bgdfkm{t ;xeflu x'g] -slxn]sfxLF cfof]hgf tyf Jofj:yfkg ug]{ klg_
uYof]{ . ;dfhdf x'g] :jf:Yo lzlj/, cfd;ef h:tf ;fj{hlgs sfo{qmdx?df
pgLx?n] :jo+;]jssf] ?kdf klg sfd ug]{uy]{ h'g clxn];Dd klg ;fgf] ?kaf6
ePklg hf/L g} 5 .

@= afn Snasf] ;+/rgf / ;+rfng k|s[of
l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

afn Snasf] ;b:o ;+Vof M
afnSna ;~rfngsf] lglDt u7g ul/g] sfo{;ldlt
;ª\Vof slDtdf % b]vL lnP/ a9Ldf !( ;b:oLo;Dd
ePsf]nfO{ /fd|f] dflgG5 . afn Sna ;+rfngsf]
;xhtfnfO{ dWogh/ u/]/ of] ;ª\Vofsf] bfo/f
tf]lsPsf] xf] . oBlk ;b:o ;ª\Vofsf cfwf/df afn
Snax?sf kl5Nnf cEof;x? eg] ;f]xL cg'?k gePsf
klg 5g\ . gjnk/f;Lsf !^* afn Snadf ul/Psf]
cWoognfO{ x]g{] xf] eg] slDtdf $ b]lv al9df !@))
;ª\Vof ePsf afn Snax? klg e]l6P . ;fdfGotM
;f+u7lgs ?kdf afnaflnsfnfO{ sdhf]/ 7flgg] u/]tf
klg sltko afn Snax?df pQm k|so[ f pbxf/l0fo
g} kfOG5 . st} afn Snadf cfPsf ;a} hgf
;b:os} ?kdf x'G5g\ eg] st} …;fwf/0f ;b:oÚ /
…sfo{sf/0fL ;b:oÚ u/L b'O{ efudf ljeflht x'G5g\ .
/, lglZrt ;dosf] cGt/fndf ;fwf/0f ;b:o dWoaf6}
sfo{ s f/0fL ;ldltsf] nflu pgLx? lgjf{ l rt
x'G5g\ . sfo{sf/0fL ;ldltdf /xg] afn Snasf
;b:ox? afn Snasf d'Vo g]t[Tjstf{ x'G5g\ eg]
;fwf/0f ;b:ox? afn Snasf sfo{qmdx?df lg/Gt/
;xefuL x'Fb} eflj g]t[Tjsf nflu cfkm"nfO{ tof/
kfl//fv]sf x'G5g\ .
kl5Nnf] ;do ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+:yfx? afn
Sna;Fu sfd ugf{n] pgLx?sf] cfGtl/s ;+u7gdf
;d]t ;dfj]zL k|ltlglwTj al9/x]sf] 5 . :yfgLo
:t/df ePsf hghftL, efiff / wd{sf] cfwf/df ;a}nfO{
;d]6g\ ] k|of;x? al9/x]sf] kfOG5 .
k|hftflGqs k|so[ fsf] /fd|f] cEof; kfOPsf] afnSnadf

4

xfd|f] afn Snadf
!@ ;o al9
;b:ox? 5g\ .
Snasf] ;fwf/0f
;ef ufp“s} cGo
7"n} ;+u7gx?sf]
h:tf] x'g] u5{ .
xfd|f] oxL Ifdtf
b]v]/ xf]nf
SnanfO{ ufpFdf
ljz]if dxTj lbP/
x]l/G5 .

dw' wjt
;b:o,
afn ;r]tgf ;d"x
k|tfkk'/

afnSnasf sfdM
afn Snasf] b"|t ljsf;;Fu} pgLx?sf sfdx? klg
Aofks bfo/fdf a9\g yfln;s]sf 5g\ . ljBfno jf
;d'bfodf l;h{gfTds lqmofsnfkx?;Fu} afn clwsf/
k|j4{gsf] If]qdf pgLx?sf sfo{qmdx? Af9\tf s]Gb|Lt
ePsf] kfOG5 .
gjnk/f;L lhNnfdf ;fdfGotM afn Snan] ug]{ u/]sf
sfdx? lgDg 5g\M
• ljleGg /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo dxTjsf lbj;sf
cj;/df l;h{gfTds sfo{qmdx?
• hGd btf{, vf]k, ljBfno egf{ cleofgdf k|rf/k|;f/
cleofg
• :jf:Yo tyf ;/;kmfO{df hgr]tgf
• afnaflnsf dfyL x'g] afn>d zf]if0f, of}g zf]if0f,
j]rljvg, afnljjfx, ax'ljjfx, cgd]n ljjfx,
e]befj, oftgf, s'6lk6 nufotsf afnclwsf/
pNn+3gsf 36gfx? lj?4 bafa tyf lj/f]w
cleofgx?
• lgMz'Ns clgjfo{ lzIff tyf cfly{s ?kdf ljkGg
;fyLx?nfO{ z}lIfs ;xof]u ;+sng tyf l6p;g
sIff ;+rfng .
• klqsf tyf leQ] klqsf k|sfzg .
• ;/;kmfO{ tyf j[Iff/f]k0f sfo{qmd .
• afn k':tsfnosf] ;~rfng .
• ljleGg wfld{s, ;f+:s[lts tyf ;fdflhs sfo{df
:jo+;j] ssf] e"ldsf lgjf{x .

…dlxgfjf/L x'“bf
s]6Lx?n] :s'n g}
5f8\g' kg]{ ;d:ofn] ubf{
xfd|f] afn Snan] clxn]
cfkm} sf]if hDdf kf/]/
ljBfnodf ;]g6] /] L Kof8
ljt/0f ul//fv]sf] 5Ú
– /ljgf dNn
sf]iffWoIf, Hjfnf afn
Sna, b]p/fnL

…ufp“–6f]ndf gfnfdf
kmf]x/x? hd]/ b'3{Gw
km}lnPkl5 xfdLx?
cfkm}n
+ ] gfnf ;kmf u¥of}+
h;nfO{ kR5\ofpFb} klg
7"nfa9fx? klg cfPÚ
– k|bLk u'?Ë
cWoIf, gjr]tgf afn
Sna, lqj]0fL

…xfdLnfO{ ljBfnon]
cfkm\gf] j}7s /
of]hgfx? Afgfp“bf
lgoldt ?kdf
af]nfpg] u5{Ú
– lr/0f 7f8f
;lrj, gj k|ultzLn afn
Sna, -l;l4 lgDg dflj,
ldy's/d_

5

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

cWoIf, pkfWoI,f ;lrj, ;x;lrj, sf]iffWoIf / ;b:ox?
x'gu] 5{g\ . To;afx]s lglZrt sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug{
;xh x'g] eGb} ljleGg pk;ldltx? ;d]t agfOPsf
x'G5g\ . pk;ldltsf] g]t[Tj sfo{sfl/0fL ;ldltsf
;b:oaf6} x'g] kfOG5 . oBlk To;sf] ;b:odf ;fwf/0f
;b:o dWo]af6 ;d]t /fVg ;lsg] x'bF f To;n] qmda4
g]t[Tj ljsf;nfO{ a9fjf lbPsf] 5 .






l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna





hfF8, /S;L, r'/f]6 lj/f]wL cleofg .
/]l8of] sfo{qmd ;'Gg] / ;~rfng ug]{ .
¥ofnL, d]nf cGt/s[of -ljleGg ljifoj:t'df_ .
afnaflnsf zflGtIf]q x'g] cleofg .
hgr]tgfTds ;8s gf6s .
gofF ;+ljwfgdf cfˆgf] s'/fx? ;+ljwfg;efsf ;b:ox? Dffkm{t ;DalGwt
7fpFdf ;Dk|]if0f .
u|fdL0f:t/df x'g] ;fgf ljsf;sf] sfo{df cleefjs ;Fu} uP/ ;Sbf] ;xof]u
k|bfg ug]{ .
ljBfno Joj:yfkg ;ldlt, ufpF kl/ifb\, cfdlGqt ;b:osf] ?kdf ;xefuL
eO{ cfˆgf] ;d:of / /fo÷dt k|:t't ug{ .
ljleGg v]ns'bsf sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{ .
ljleGg cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd ;DkGg u/L To;sf] cg'udg u/L k|ult k|ltj]bg
tof/ u/L ;DalGw 7fpFdf k]z ug]{ .
af6f]3f6f], rf}tf/f, ljBfno lgdf{0f, cflb .

kl5Nnf] ;do afn Snax? ljleGg ;+3 ;+:yfx?sf] kxndf klg :yfkgf x'g
yfn]kl5 pgLx?sf sfo{qmdx?df ljs[lt tyf ;d:ofx? Kflg b]Vg yflnPsf] :jo+
afn Snasf afnaflnsfx? Kflg l:jsf5{g\ . lglZrt If]qdf sfd ug]{ ;+:yfx?n]
cfkm\gf] ;f]xL p2]Zok"lt{sf nflu afnaflnsfnfO{ k|of]u ubf{ To;n] ljs[lt klg
NofO/x]sf] kfOG5 . h:t}, jftfj/0fsf] If]qdf sfd ug]{ ;+:yfn] jftfj/0fLo d'2fd}
sfd ug{ afn Sna vf]lnlbG5g\ t jg;DaGwL sfd ug]{ ;+:yfn] jg ;+/If0fs}
p2]Zodf afn SnanfO{ k|of]u u5{g\ . ;f]sf] nflu pgLx?n] s]xL xb;Dd
afnaflnsfnfO{ cfly{s ;xof]u / cGo ;fdfu|Lx? Kflg pknAw t u/fO/fv]sf
5g\ t/ To;n] afn Snasf] jf:tljs cjwf/0ffnfO{ laufl//fv]sf] 5 . l;h{gzLn
sfddf nufOg'kg]{ afn Snasf] x}l;ot st} pkef]Qmf ;d"x ;/xsf] t eO/fv]sf]
5}g eGg] k|Zg klg ;fy;fy} hlGdPsf] 5 .

afnSnan] afnaflnsfsf] hLjgdf NofPsf /fd|f kl/jt{gx?


6

afnaflnsfx? cfˆgf] clwsf/x? klxrfg ug{ ;Sg] ePsf 5g\
afnaflnsfsf cGt/lglxt l;h{gzLn Ifdtfx? k|:km'6g x'g] cj;/ l;h{gf
eO{ JolQmTj ljsf;sf] cj;/x? l;h{gf ePsf 5g\ .
cfkm" / cfˆgf ;fyLx?sf] ;d:ofx? s]–s] 5g\÷x'G5g\ eGg] s'/fsf] 5nkmn
/ ljZn]if0f ug]{ ;xof]u ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ePsf 5g\ .






afnSnasf ;b:ox?df cfTdljZjf;sf] a9]sf] 5 .
g]t[Tj ljsf;sf cj;/x? l;h{gf ePsf 5g\ .
afnSnasf afnaflnsf jo:s x'Fbf cfTdljZjf;L nugzLn, ;Ddflgt /
cfTdlge{/ o'jfsf] ?kdf kl/lrt ePsf 5g\ .
of]hgf agfpg]b]vL ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts ljifosf ;fy :yfgLo >f]t /
;fwgsf] k|of]u;Fu} sfof{Gjog ug{ ;Ifd ePsf 5g\ .
k|hftflGqs tyf nf]stflGqs ;+:sf/sf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 .
;fd"lxs sfo{z}nLsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 .
afnclwsf/ ;a}sf] ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf] eGb} afnclwsf/ pNn+3gsf 36gfx?df
sdL Nofpg ;xhstf{ / kx/]bf/sf] ?kdf afnaflnsfx? sfd ul//fv]sf
5g\ .
;xdlt ;xsfo{ / cfˆgf clwsf/ ;DaGwL ultljlwx?df ;xefuLtf clej[l4
ub}{ afn arfj6, ;+/If0f, ljsf; / ;xefuLtfsf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug]{
sfo{df lhDd]jf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ cj;/ k|fKt u/]sf 5g\ .
jo:s ;dfh;]jL, a'l4hLjL, lzIfs nufotsf ;/f]sf/jfnf JolQmx?;Fusf]
lg/Gt/ e]63f6 / cGt/lqmofn] jo:sx?nfO{ klg ;fem]bf/sf] ?kdf lng
yfn]sf 5g\ .

Affn Sna;“u} afn kqsfl/tf
Gfjnk/f;LDff afn Snax?n] u/]sf pNn]vgLo lqmofsnfkx?
dWo] afn klqsf k|sfzgnfO{ klg lng ;lsG5 . z'?df
leQ] klqsfaf6 cg'ej ;+ufn]/ clxn] pgLx? Dofu]lhg;Dd
cfOk'u]sf 5g\ . o; k|of;n] afn clwsf/sf] k|j4{gdf 6]jf
t k'us
] f] 5 g}, To;afx]s pgLx?df ;'if'Ktj:yfdf n's/] /x]sf]
k|ltef aflx/ NofO{ x'sf{pg] sfo{sf] ljsf; ;d]t ePsf] 5 .
;fy;fy} afn Snasf ultljlw Pj+ s'/fx? hgdfg; / ;DalGwt
7fpF;Dd k'¥ofpg] d~rsf] sfd ;d]t u/]sf] 5 .
cfkm\gf kqklqsfnfO{ v'/fs k'¥ofpg] qmdd} afn Snasf afnaflnsfx? ;/f]sf/sf
lgsfo;Dd k'u/] cfkm\gf lh1f;fx? /fVg ;Sg] ePsf 5g\ . ;/sf/L sd{rf/Lx?,
Jofkf/Lx?, lj1fkgbftfx?, ;flxTosf/ Pj+ n]vsx?;dIf e]6]/ n]v/rgf tyf
lj1fkg p7fpg hfFbf x'g] k|ToIf e]63f6 / s'/fsfgLn] pgLx?df ;f] ;Lksf] ljsf;
klg ;fg}b]lv x'g kfPsf] 5 .
oBlk gjnk/f;Ldf yf]/} afn Snasf afnaflnsfx?n] dfq afn kqsfl/tf tflnd
kfPsf 5g\ . cfk;df ldn]/ n]v/rgfsf ljifoa:t' klxrfg ug]{ / k|sfzg of]Uo

7

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna



l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

agfpg] qmdd} pgLx?n] ;Dkfbg ;Lk ljsf; u/]sf 5g\ .
afn Snasf] d'vkqsf] ?kdf clwsf+z afn Snax?sf] cfkm\g}
leQ] klqsfx? 5g\ . h'g Ps ;o ?kofFeGbf sd vr{d}
tof/ x'g]u5{ . x:tlnlvt x'g] o:tf leQ] klqsfx? w]/}h;f]
ljBfnosf ;"rgf kf6Ldf 6fFl;G5g\ eg] sltko 7fpFdf afn
Snan] cfkm\g} ;"rgf kf6L{ agfP/ dflg;x? a9\tf hd36
x'g] lrof k;n / rf}tf/fdf ;d]t /fVg] Joj:yf u/]sf] x'G5 .
gjnk/f;LDff afn Sna :jo+n] Dofu]lhg lgsfNg] sfdsf] z'?jft eg] hfu[lt
afn Sna, k|ultgu/n] u/]sf] xf] . :yfkgf sfnb]lv g} lgoldt leQ]klqsf k|sfzg
ub}{ cfO/fv]sf pgLx?n] @)%* ;fnotf cw{jflif{s ?kdf k|sfzg x'g] u/L …afn
OGb|]0fLÚ afnklqsfsf] z'?jft u/] h'g kl5Nnf] $ aif{otf aflif{s ?kdf k|sfzg
e}/x]sf] 5 .
To;afx]sf gjnk/f;Lsf b'ud
{ kxf8L uflj;sf ultljlwx?
;d]6\g] eGb} @)^) otf lxdfnog ;fd'bflos ljsf; d~r
-lxsf]8]km_ n] …afn l;h{gfÚ afn klqsf k|sfzg ug]{
uYof]{ . o;/L afn OGb|]0fL / afn l;h{gfaf6 z'? ePsf]
sfdnfO{ kR5\ofpFb} klZrdf~rn ljsf; If]qd} klxnf]k6s
gjnk/f;Ldf :yfkgf ePsf] lhNnf e/sf afn Snax?sf]
;~hfn …afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltÚ n] …piffÚ afn
klqsfnfO{ q}dfl;s ?kdf k|sfzg z'? u¥of] . piff afn klqsfsf]
ljz]iftf eGg' afnaflnsfsf /rgfnfO{ eGbf a9\tf afnaflnsfsf ;/f]sf/sf
ljifonfO{ ;dfrf/ / lkmr/nfO{ pNn]Vo :yfg lbg' xf] . afnSnasf] ;~hfn
lhNnfJofkL ?kdf /x]s} sf/0f o;sf ;+jfbbftfx? Klg lhNnfe/d} 5g\ / klqsf
;a} afn Snax?dfem k'U5 .
dfly pNn]v ul/Psf …afn OGb|]0fLÚ, …afn l;h{gfÚ / …piffÚsf] ljz]iftf eGg' g}
To;df k|of]u x'g] z'4 afn k|of]u xf] . /rgfb]lv ;Dkfbg;Ddsf] sfd k"/}
afnaflnsfn] g} ;S5g\ . piffnfO{ kl5Nnf] ;do o'lg;]kmn] cw{aflif{s ?kdf
k|sfzgsf] nflu cfly{s ;xof]u pknAw u/fpF5 eg] …afn OGb|]0fLÚ cem} klg
afnaflnsfs} kxndf h'6g\ ] lj1fkgsf] e/df rn]sf] 5 . …afn l;h{gfÚ eg] kl5Nnf]
s]xL ;dootf k|sfzg eO/fv]sf] 5}g . afn Snasf log} k|of;af6 p7]/ kqsfl/tf
/ n]vgsf If]qdf /fi6«JofkL ?kd} VoftL sdfPsf / 7"nf ;~rf/u[xdf sfd ug]{
o'jfx?sf] ;ª\Vof klg clxn] nfdf] eO;s]sf] 5 .
To;afx]s lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldlt, k5f}6]kg pGd'ng ;dfh, OGb|]0fL ;dfh
s]Gb|n] klg afn klqsfx? k|sfzg ul//fv]sf 5g\ . t/ To;df ;Dkfbgsf] lhDdf
eg] cem} jo:sx?s} xftdf 5 .

8






afnSnanfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ ;+:yfx? / cfˆg} Snasf ultljlwx?sf] nflu slxn]
sfxLF sfo{qmdx?df efu lng hfFbf jf k7fpFbf 3/df cj]/ k'Ug], k9fO{ 5'6g\ ]
/ 3/ 5f]8]/ /ft sf6\g] u/L aflx/ hfg' kbf{, 3/ kl/jf/ ;d'bfodf
cleefjsx?nfO{ s'/f a'emfpg ufx|f] ePsf] .
k|To]s lhNnfdf afnSnax?nfO{ ;xlhs/0f ug]{ /fHosf] clwsfl/s lgsfo
lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldltdf dfgj ;|ft] / cfly{s ;|ft] sf] cefjn] afnSnasf,
ultljlwx? clen]v /fVg ;xof]u ;'emfj ;xeflutf hgfpg cK7\of/f] k/]sf]
5.
;jf]{Rr cbfntn] afnaflnsfsf] ;+:yfnfO{ sfg"gL dfGotf k|bfg ug]{ egL
lg0f{o u/]sf] ePtf klg To;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] lglDt /fHo / u}/ ;/sf/L
;+:yfx?n] plrt kxn ug{ g;Sgfn] afn Snasf] sfg"gL dfGotfsf] ;Gbe{df
cGof}n sfod} 5 .
afnSnax? kl/of]hgfd"vL ePsf / kl/of]hgf x'Fbf ;xof]u kfpg] tyf
kl/of]hgf ;lsgf;fy PSsf;L ;xof]u aGb ubf{ Sna ;d"x g} lgis[o x'g]
u/]sf] tyf sltko ;+:yfn] ;+:yfsf] p2]Zo k"/f ug{ sfo{qmd cfkm} th'{df
ug]{ u/]sf] cj:yf 5 .
sltko kl/l:yltdf afn aflnsfx?n] lzIff / 3/ kl/jf/ eGbf afnSnanfO{
a9L dxTj lbg] u/]sf]n] afnSnak|lt cleefjs gsf/fTds l6sf l6Kk0fL ug]{
u/]sf 5g\ .
afnaflnsf ;Fu} ;Fu} cleefjsx?nfO{ klg afn ;xeflutf / afnSna;Fu
;DalGwt sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{ g;Sgfn] ;d:of b]lvPsf] 5 .
;xof]u ug]{, ;xlhs/0f ug]{ u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt,
uf=lj=;=, ljBfno cflbdf afn ;xeflutf u/fpg] :ki6 gLlt / sfg'gsf]
cefj ePsf]n] sfd ug]{ ;dodf c;xof]u / s]6f s]6L s} ?kdf dfq x]g]{
u/]sf] cj:yf 5 .
afn Snasf] /fd|f sfdnfO{ k|fT] ;fxg k'/:s[t ug{ g;Sg' t/ sfd ug]{ ;jfndf
ePsf] ;fgf uNtLnfO{ 7"nf] d'2f agfOg] u/]sf] 5 .
;a} hfthflt efiff wd{ If]q lnËnfO{ ;dfg ?kn] ;xefuL u/fpg g;Sg' .
afnSnasf] :yfkgfsf] cf}lrTo, Joj:yfkg, ;~rfng k|s[of, clwsf/ /
st{Josf] ljifodf ;|f]t / ;fwgsf] cefjdf ;a}nfO{ k|:6 kfg{ g;Sg' .
afnSnadf ;+nUg afnaflnsfsf] ;Ifd x'g] ePsf]n] /fhg}lts kf6L{df eft[
;+u7gn] k|of]u ug{ vf]Hg' .
3/ kl/jf/sf] JolQmsf] gfd hf]8]/ afnaflnsfnfO{ klg /fhg}lts 9Ëaf6
x]l/g' / Jojxf/ ul/g' .

9

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

afnSna ;~rfng k|s[ofdf cfPsf r'gf}tL

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

k':tf x:tfgt/0fsf] cefj
lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldlt, gjnk/f;L;Fu kl5Nnf] ;do cfa4tf /]s8{Dff /x]sf]
tYof+snfO{ s]nfpg] xf] eg] $#) afn Snax? /x]sf] kfOG5 . t/ o; cWoogsf]
;dodf ul/Psf] s]xL cWoog e|d0fnfO{ x]g{] xf] eg] …s] TotL g} ;ª\Vofdf lhNnfe/
afn Snax? ;s[o 5g\ t <Ú eGg] ;jfnx? hlGdG5g\ . t/ sltko 7fpFdf afn
Snax? :yfkgf eP/ klg cfa4tfsf] bfo/f;Dd cfOk'u]sf 5}gg\ .
…afn Snax? lsg nfdf] ;do;Dd l6Sb}gg\ <Ú o; laifodf cg]sy/L ts{ p7\g]
u5{g\ . h;sf] pQ/ xfdLx?n] afn Snasf afnaflnsfx?b]lv lnP/ k"j{ afn Snasf
g]tfx?af6 vf]Hg] k|of; u/]sf lyof}+ . afn Snadf nfdf] ;do sfd u/]sf cfwf/df
sltko k"j{ g]tfx? afn Snax? lg/Gt/ x'g g;Sg'nfO{ ;fdfGo k|so[ fsf] ?kdf lng'
kg]{ 7fG5g\ . Pp6f sdhf]/ w/ftndf :yfkgf x'g] afn Snax? nfdf] ;do;Dd
/lx/xg'k5{ eGg] s'g} sf/0f gx'g] pgLx?sf] ts{ x'gu] 5{ . oBlk gjnk/f;Ldf :yfkgf
ePsf afn Snax? tLg tl/sfsf 5g\ . :jt:km't{ :kdf :yfkgf x'g,] ljBfnosf]
kxndf :yfkgf x'g] / u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] kxndf :yfkgf x'g] .
;d'bfodf :yfkgf ePsf w]/} afn Snax? 5g\ / nfdf] ;do;Dd lbuf] x'g] / lgs}
5f]6f] ;dod} x/fpg] afn Snax? klg oxL ;d'bfodf :yfkgf x'g]x? g} 5g\ .
o; k|sf/sf afn Snax? k"0f{tM :jtGq x'G5g\ / pgLx?sf lqmofsnfkx? klg
cGo s;}sf] cfjZostf eGbf pgLx? :jo+sf] rfxfgf / cfjZostfdf lge{/
/xG5 . oBlk g]tT[ j lasf;df dfldnfdf afn Snaleqsf s]xL ;lqmo afnaflnsfx?
g} a9\tf xfjL x'Fbf To;kl5 ljsl;t x'Fb} u/]sf] k':tfn] g]t[Tj ;Lksf] cg'ej g}
ug{ kfpFb}g . /, ltg} bfh'lbbLx? Ps txsf] :s'n ;s]/ k9\g cGoq uPkl5 jf
afNofj:yf k"/f u/]kl5 afn Sna lgl:qmo x'g k'U5 . t/ ckjfbsf ?kdf hfu[lt
afn Sna, afn ;r]tgf ;d"x, gGbefph' afn Sna, gd"gf afn Sna, afn of]hgf
;d"x klg o:t} ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t x'g\ h'g :yfkgfsf] bzs nfdf] ;do kf/
ul/;Sbf klg emg\ a9\tf ;+ul7t / ;s[o eP/ cl3 al9/x]sf 5g\ .
csf]{tkm{ ljBfnodf :yfkgf x'g] afn Snax? ljBfno k|zf;g jf lzIfx?sf]
;xof]udf :yfkgf x'G5g\ / pgLx?s} lgu/fgLDff rN5g\ . hxfF dflyNnf sIffsf
ljBfyL{x?nfO{ g]t[Tjsf] a9\tf cj;/ lbOG5 . /, jif]{gL ljBfnoaf6 aflxl/g] /
dflyNnf sIff pSng] afnaflnsfx?sf] rqm rln/xg] x'bF f oxfF k':tf x:tfgt/0f
;d:ofsf] laifo aGb}g .
To;}u/L cfkm\gf] sfo{qmdnfO{ ;xof]u k'Ug]u/L ljleGg u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?n] :yfkgf
ul/lbPsf afn Snax? klg sfo{qmd cjlw ;lsP;Fu} lgl:qmo eO/x]sf 5g\ .
sfo{qmd÷kl/of]hgf ;~rfng eO/xFbf pgLx? afn SnanfO{ a9\t} ;xof]u
-cfly{s÷ef}lts_ u5{g\ h;n] pgLx?df k/lge{/tf lgs} a9fpF5 . h;s} sf/0f
;fydf tL ;+:yfx? gx'Fbf pgLx? afn Snaaf6 lgl:s[o x'Fb} hfG5g\ .

10

#= afn Snadf x'g] k|hftflGqs cEof;
afn Snasf afnaflnsfsf] hd36 ;a}eGbf a9\tf Snasf] a}7sdf x'g]u5{ hxfF
pgLx? cfkm\gf sfdsf] ;ldIff tyf efjL of]hgfx? lgdf{0f u5{g\ . afn Snadf
afnaflnsfx?sf] ;a}eGbf a9\tf ;do g} a}7ssf] nflu vr{ x'g] kfOG5 . To;s}
xf/fxf/Ldf afnaflnsfn] afn Snadf nufpg] ;dosf] cg'dfg ;d]t ug{
;lsG5 . o; cWoog cg';f/ gjnk/f;Ldf em08} $) k|lt;t afn Snasf
;b:ox?sf] j}7s a:g] s'g} lglZrt ;do 5}g . pgLx? cfjZostf cg';f/ j}7s
tyf sfo{qmdsf nflu h'6\5g\ eg], @( k|lt;t dfl;s / @^ k|lt;t ;fKtflxs
?kdf h'6\5g\ .

lgjf{rgM
Snasf sfo{;ldlt rog ug]{ ;a}eGbf al9 k|hftflGqs k|so[ fsf] ?kdf o;nfO{ lng
;lsG5 . klxn] klxn] afn Snasf ;ldltx? jo:sx?sf] kxnsbdL dfkm{t jf
;kmntfsf] syf

;+u7lgs k|s[of / k|sfzgdf cufl8 hfu[lt afn Sna
hfu[lt afn Sna–g]kfn g]kfndf btf{ ePsf] klxnf] afn Sna xf] . afn clwsf/
dxf;lGwsf] wf/f !% cg';f/ afnaflnsfn] klg cGo ;/x lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf
;+:yf btf{ ug{ kfpg'k5{ eGg] ;jf{]Rr cbfntdf d'2f xfn]/ cGttM ;kmn ePsf]
sf/0f o; afn SnanfO{ w]/}n] ;lhn} lrGg] u5{g\ .
o; afn Snasf] csf]{ ljz]iftf eg]sf] ;+u7lgs k|s[of lg/Gt/ ;+rfng ug'{ xf] .
afn Snax?sf] ;ª\Vof al9/xg] t/ k':tf x:tfgt/0fdf ;d:of b]lvg] k|zu+ cfhsn
htftt} rNg]u5{ . t/ hfu[lt afn Sna eg] o; dfldnfdf :ki6 5 . k|To]s @
aif{sf] cGt/fndf ;fwf/0f ;ef ug]{ u5{ h;df aif{e/sf ultljlwx? ;d]6/] …;f+u7lgs
k|ltj]bgÚ / cfly{s n]vfhf]vf ;d]6/] …cfly{s k|ltj]bgÚ klg tof/ kf5{ h;sf] af]wfy{
:yflgo ;fdflhs ;+:yfx?, uflj; / ljBfnox?df klg k7fpg] x'Fbf k|ultgu/df
o; afn SnanfO{ ljz]if dxTj lbg] ul/G5 .
csf]t{ km{ :yfkgf sfnb]lv g} …afn OGb|0] fLÚ leQ] klqsf lgsfNg] sfd yfn]sf pgLx?n]
kl5Nnf] ;dodf eg] afn OGb|]0fL afn Dofu]lhgsf] ( j6f c+s g} lgsfnL ;s]sf
5g\ . h;n] ubf{ cfkm"x?df w]/} l;h{gzLn ;Lk ljsf; ePsf] afn Snasf ;b:ox?
7fG5g\ .

11

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

lgoldt a}7sM

cfk;L 5nkmn / ;dembf/Laf6 5flgGYof] eg] clxn] qmdzM lgjf{rg ug]{ qmd klg
lj:tf/} z'? x'Fb} 5 . oBlk cWoog cg';f/ cem} klg ($ k|lt;t afn Snasf
;ldltx? cfk;L 5nkmnaf6} to ePsf] kfOG5 eg] lgjf{rgaf6} 5flgg] k|lt;t
ce}m $ dfq 5 .

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

k|:tfj÷cg'df]bgM
k|hftflGqs k|so[ f dha't x'gd
' f sfo{;ldlt lgjf{rg k|so[ faf6 5flg'g' / lgoldt
a}7s ;+rfng x'g' dfq k|ofKt 5}g . h;df pgLx?n] sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf] qmddf
Nofpg] k|:tfjx? / To;sf] cg'df]bg ug]{ k|s[ofx? Kflg dxTjk"0f{ 5g\ . a}7sdf
s'g} Ps ;b:on] Nofpg] k|:tfj / To;dfly leGgleGg dt pTkGg ePdf ax'dtåf/f
kfl/t ug]{ rng kl5Nnf] ;do nf]slk|o x'g'n] klg afn Snadf k|hftflGqs
cEof;x? a9]sf] kfOG5 .
;dfg'kflts ;xeflutfM
afn Snadf cfkm}df Pp6f sdhf]/ w/ftndf :yfkgf x'g] ;+u7g x'bF f o;df olt
g} k|ltzt afnaflnsfx? km/s km/s If]qsf x'g'k5{ eGg] j}wflgs Joj:yf t
5}g . t/ s]6f / s]6L em08} a/fa/L x'g] afn SnanfO{ cfhsn cfbz{ afn Snasf]
?kdf x]g{ yflnPsf] 5 . To;df k5fl8 kfl/Psf] blnt, ckf¨nfO{ klg :yfg lb+b}
d'nk|jfxdf Nofpg] kxn eO/fv]sf] 5 .
cWoog cg';f/ k|ltztsf] cfwf/df n}+lus ;xeflutfsf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ afn
Snadf s]6Lx?sf] ;xeflutf &% k|ltztb]lv $ k|ltzt;Ddsf] bfo/fdf
e]l6of] . cWoogsf] bfo/fdf sltko afn Snax?df s]6f eGbf s]6L g} al9 x'g'
;dfg'kflts ;xeflutfsf] /fd|f] ;+s]t xf] eg] s]6L sd g} ePsf afn Snadf
klg s]6Lsf] ;xeflutf vf;} lg/fzfhgs rflxF 5}g . To;afx]s afn Snaleq
em08} @! k|lt;t blnt afnaflnsfsf] k|ltlglwTj 5 .

sfo{of]hgfM
afn Snax? h;/L cGo jo:sx?sf] ;+:yfsf] cf8df :yfkgf x'G5g\ / :jt:km't{
?kdf :yfkgf x'g]x? klg ljleGg ;dodf x'g] k|lzIf0fn] ubf{ sfo{of]hgf lgdf{0f
ub}{ sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug{ l;s]sf 5g\ . sfo{of]hgf cg';f/ sfd ubf{ lgDg
kmfObfx? x'g]u5{g\M
• sfo{qmdn] nlIft u/]sf] If]q olsg x'g'
• ck]Iff adf]lhd glthf dfkg ug{ ;lsg'
• of]hgf cg';f/ k|ltkmn k|fKt geP sdhf]/Lx? cf}+Nofpg ;lsg'
• sfo{qmd k|efjsf/L x'g' .

12

sfo{of]hgfsf] 9f“rfM
qm=;+ sfo{qmdsf] gfd nlIft If]q

;dofjwL ;DaGwLt JolQm ck]lIft k|ltkmn

Gfjnk/f;L lhNnfsf] lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltdf @)^& sflQs d;fGt;Dddf
$#) afn Snax?n] cfa4tfsf] k|df0fkq lnPsf 5g\ . afn Sna ;/sf/L lgsfodf
cfa4 x'g' eg]sf] pgLx?n] sfg'gL x}l;ot kfpg' xf] . oBlk o; laifo cem} klg
ax;s} r/0fdf 5 .
Gfjnk/f;L lhNnfs} hfu[lt afn Sna– g]kfnn] afn clwsf/ ;DaGwL dxf;GwL
!(*( sf] wf/f !% n] lbPsf] afnaflnsfsf] ;+u7g ;DaGwL :jtGqtfsf] clwsf/
k|of]u ub}{ afn SnanfO{ ;d]t cGo ;+3;+:yf ;/x lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nod} btf{
u/fpg kfpg'kg]{ ;jfn p7fPsf] lyof] . r/0fa4 ?kdf ;jf]R{ r cbfnt;Dd d'2fsf]
?kdf k'us
] f] o; ljifodf cbfntn] ;sf/fTds km};nf u/]tf klg o;sf] sfof{Gof]og
;a}lt/ eO/fv]sf] 5}g . b]zleqs} cj:yfnfO{ x]bf{ ckjfbsf ?kdf s]xL lhNnf
k|zf;gdf afn Sna btf{ ul/Ptf klg ;a}lt/ ToxL ;xhtfsf ;fy afn SnanfO{
lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf btf{ ul/Psf] 5}g . ljsNksf] ?kdf lhNnf afn sNof0f
;ldltdf ;"rLs[t ul/Psf] 5 .
xfd|f] o; cWoogsf qmddf lhNnfsf kxf8L e]udf ;s[o /x]tf klg w]/} afn
Snax? lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltsf] cfa4tf ;"lrdf c6fpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ .
h;sf] nflu pgLx? lhNnf ;b/d'sfd ;Dd cfpg klg ;Sb}gg\ . afn Snax?
:jefjt sdhf]/ w/ftndf /xg] x'Fbf pgLx? lhNnf k|zf;gd} btf{ ul/Fbf cfpg
;Sg] ;d:ofx? xfd|f] 5nkmnn] lgDg b]vfP–
• btf{sf] qmddf nfUg] k};f /
clws ;do
• lgoldt ug'{kg]{ gljs/0fsf]
em~em6
• n]vf kl/If0fsf] ;d:of
• lhNnf ;b/d' s fd;Dd} ;a}
;b:ox? cfpg} k g] { sfg' g L
afWotf
h;nfO{ lasNksf] ?kdf lhjfs;n]
NofPsf] cfa4tf /fd|f] lasNk xf]

ldy's/ddf cWoogstf{x?;Fu 5nkmn ub}{
:yfgLo afn Snasf ;b:ox?

13

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

Affn Snasf] btf{

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

h;df x:tlnlvt ?kdf p;n] tf]s]sf] 9fFrf
jf cfkm\g} ljwfgn] ;d]t afn Sna cfa4 x'g
;S5g\ . o;df ljwfgdf ;b:osf] x:tfIf/ /
hGdbtf{÷ljBfno kl/rokq ;lxt cfkm"dWo]
sf]xL jf c? s;};uF k7fpFbf klg x'G5 . oBlk
o;df ;d]t ;d:ofx? b]lvG5g\ . To;}n]
ljsNksf] ?kdf xfd|f] cWoogn] s]xL lgZsif{
lgsfn]sf 5g\ . sfg'gL x}l;otsf] nflu ul/g]
cfa4tfdf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] lgzfg 5fk /fv]sf]
k|df0fkqdf afn SnanfO{ ;xh x'g] lgDg
ljsNksf ;+:yfaf6 ug{ ;lsg]
• :yfgLo ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt
• ljBfno

Affn Snax? s;/L v'N5g\ <
(14.88%)
(35.12%)
(24.40%)

(25.60%)

:jt:k"mt{
u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf dfk{mt
:s'nsf] kxndf
cGo

afn SnanfO{ lhNnf afn sNof0f
;ldltdf ;'lrs[t ug'{ ;sf/fTds sfd
xf] . t/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] lhNnf
k|zf;g sfof{nod} btf{ ug'k{ g]{ km};nf
u/]sf] 5 h;sf] ;Ddfg x'g'k5{ .

– ltnf]Qd kf}8]n
;+:yfks cWoIf, hfu[lt afn Sna g]kfn

14

$= ;kmntfsf syf
art ug]{ afgL

afn Snadf afnaflnsfx?
sltsf] ;do vlr{G5g\ <
45

b}lgs
;fKtflxs
dfl;s

40.48

40
35
30

sfdsf]
cfwf/df

28.57
26.19

25
20
15
10
4.76

5
0

afn SnanfO{ ;+rfngsf]
nflu s;n] ;|f]t h'6fOlbG5 <

(21.43%)

(22.62%)

(11.31%)
(44.64%)

u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf
uflj;
:s'n
cfk\mg} ;|f]t

;f]daf/ Nxfk], g/dsf afnaflnsfsf] sfd ug]{
;"lr cGo lbgsf] eGbf s]xL km/s x'G5 .
ljxfgsf] efn] af:bf gaf:b} afn Snadf art
ug{ hfg xtfl/G5g\ oxfFsf afnaflnsfx? .
afn ljsf; afn ;d"xn] ug]{ u/]sf] jrt
cleofgn] ubf{ To;f] ePsf] xf] h;af6 xfn;Dd
hDdf ePsf] k};f / ;f]sf] Aofhaf6} em08} !
nfv ?kofF ;+sng eO;s]sf] 5 . cem /f]rs
s'/f t afnaflnsfn] hDdf kf/]sf] cfkm\gf]
yf]/y} f]/} /sd cleefjsx?sf] nflu cfktljkt
kbf{ C0f ;xof]u :j?k klg sfd nfUg]u5{ .
afn ljsf; afn ;d"xsf ;Nnfxsf/ Pj+ k"j{
cWoIf >Lk|;fb u'?Ësf cg';f/ ufpF ;/;kmfO{,
/rgfTds / ;+f:s[lts sfo{qmdx?df ;d]t
To:tf] jrtsf] s]xL lx:;f vr{ x'g] u/]sf]
5 . art ug]{ afnaflnsfx? rfxLF lzz'
cj:yfb]lv !* aif{dl' gsf x'G5g\ . afnaflnsfsf]
o:tf] pT;fx b]v]/ cfhsn cleefjsx? g}
aRrf hGd]sf] s]xL lbgd} art vftf vf]Ng
cfpF5g\ . aRrfn] ghfGb} art ug]{ afgL a;fNg]
xf] eg] kl5 pm cfkm\gf] gfddf k};f art
eO/fv]sf] yfx kfO{ :jo+ art ug{ tlD;pg\
eg]/ afnSnasf] kxndf o;/L cleefjsx?
;fg}df art vftf vf]lnlbG5g\ . To;f] ugf{n]
afnaflnsfx? s'nth:tf g/fd|f sfddf nfUb}
gnfUg] 7fG5g\ afn ljsf; afn ;d"xsf
;b:ox? . ufpFdf afn Snasf] OHht / dxTj
klg afn Snasf] o:tf] sfdn] x\jfTt} a9fPsf]
5 . cfktdf cGt C0f gkfpFbf jf k};fs}

15

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

-afn ljsf; afn ;d"x, g/d_

cefjdf ljb]z hfg gkfpFbf w]/}n] afn SnanfO{ u'xf/]sf 5g\ . h:tf] cj:yfdf
pgLx?n] @) xhf/;Dd /sd ;xof]u ug]{ u/]sf 5g\ . h;n] ubf{ kfOg] Aofhn]
Snasf] sf]if aif]g{ L a9\bf] klg 5 . ufpFdf cfktsflng ;'Ts]/L ;fdu|L / ;'Ts]/LnfO{
:jf:Yorf}sL;Dd cf];fg]{ :6«]r/sf] Joj:yf klg Snan] ;f]xL sf]ifaf6 u/]sf] 5 .
To;}n] slxn]sfxLF cfkm"n] cfktdf ;xof]u u/]sf] eGb} To:tf JolQmx?n] ltg'{kg]{
eGbf a9\t} k};f ;d]t lkmtf{ lbg] u/]sf 5g\ .

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

laxfgL sIff / ;/;kmfO{df cleofgn] NofPsf] kl/jt{g
-lzjzlQm afn ;d"x / gd"gf afn ;d"x_
gjnk/f;L lhNnfsf] b'u{d kxf8L uflj;
?rfªsf] lzjzlQm afn Snasf afnaflnsfx?n]
z'?jft u/]sf] ljxfgL sIff ljBfnodf kl/0ft
eof] . ef}uf]lns ljs6tfsf b[li6n] lgs} b'ud
{
dflgg] ?rfª (, bz/y 8fF8fdf @ aif{ cl3
afn Snasf c3'jf ;b:ox?n] :s'n hfg
g;Sg] ;;fgf afnaflnsfx?nfO{ ljxfgdf
k9fpg] sfo{sf] yfngL u/]sf lyP . æoxfFaf6
glhssf] k|fylds laBfno hfg kxf8sf] sl7g :s'n ag]sf] laxfgL sIff
af6f] 3G6f}+ nufP/ hfg'kYof]{ . h'g s'/f ;;fgf
efOalxgLx?nfO{ c;Dej x'g] x'bF f xfdLn] laxfgL
sIff ;+rfng u/]sf lyof} .Æ–Snasf ;b:o
/g axfb'/ ;f?n] atfP . z'?df :s'n gx'Fbf afn Snasf afnaflnsfx? s:tf]
!& 3/ du/ kl/jf/ /x]sf] pQm a:tLdf z'?df k|sf/sf] ;xof]usf] ck]Iff
#^ afnaflnsfx? Kf9\gaf6 a+lrt lyP . clxn] /fV5g\ <
laBfno ag]kl5 bz/y 8fF8fsf w]/} afnaflnsfn]
cfly{s
:6]zg/L
50
k9\g] cj;/ kfPsf 5g\ .
! / @ b'a}
45
;xof]u grflxg]
laxfgL sIff ;+rfng ul//fv]tf klg To;n] 40
afnaflnsfsf] sIff a9\g] a}wflgstf gkfpg] 35
;d:of Psftkm{ lyof] eg] csf]t{ km{ 7"nf bfh'x? 30
cfˆgf] sIff lgoldt ?kdf ;dod} e]6\g 25
;ls/x]sf lyPgg\ . To;n] ToxfFsf :yfgLo 20
cleefjs Pj+ /fhgLlts sfo{stf{;Fusf] 15
cGt/lqmof /fv]/ pgLx?n] cfˆgf ;d:of 10
5
kf] v ] . æxfdL s;/L bz/y 8fF 8 fsf
0
afnaflnsfnfO{ k9\g] jftfj/0f agfpg] eg]/
lgs}a]/ 5nkmn u¥of}+ .Æ–Snasf ;+:yfks
50.00

39.29

8.93

1.79

16

ptf gd"gf afn ;d"x klg ?rfËs} dflyNnf] s'jfsf]6df k5{ h'g uflj;s} klg
;a}eGbf ljs6 e]u xf] . du/af;Lx?sf] al9 a;f]af; /x]sf] oxfF clzIffn] /fd|;
} uF
h/f uf8]sf] 5 . dflg;x?df lzIff, :jf:Yo h:tf s'/fdf Tolt w]/} ;r]t
5}gg\ . h;n] ubf{ :yfgLo afn Snasf
;b:ox? cu|;/ eP .
;xof]lu lgsfon] afn SnanfO{
pgLx?n] u/]sf] Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ sfd ufpF6f]n
pgLx? cg'sn' dfq k|of]u eO/fv]sf] g} kmf]xf]/ x'g]u/L a'+u'/ 5f8f tl/sfn] kfNg]
cg'ej u5{g\ ls ub}g{ g\ <
g/fd|f] afgL ToxfFaf6 x6fpg' lyof] . h;n]
ubf{ ;?jf tyf cGo g/fd|f] /f]ux?sf] ;+qmd0f
a9\g ;SYof] h;nfO{ afn Snan] cfkm"n] s]xL
ug' { k g] { 7fGof] . :yflgo a' 9 fkfsfx?nfO{
5nkmnsf nflu w]/}k6s af]nfPkl5 dfq
(41.67%)
a'9fkfsfx? cfOk'u] . pgLx?;Fu afn Snasf
;b:ox? 5nkmn dfq u/]gg\ s]s:tf /f]ux?
(58.33%)
s;/L km}ng ;S5g\ eg]/ ;d]t atfP / ;'u+ /'
y'Ggsf] nflu 5'6\6} vf]/ agfpg'kg]{ atfP .
/, To;df cleefjsx?nfO{ afn Snasf
u5{g\
;b:ox?n] ;d]t ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] atfPkl5
ub}{gg\
clxn] 5f8f t 5f]l8Fbg} g g} a'uF /' sf] vf]/ ;d]t
3/af6 lgs} k/ kfNg] ul/G5 .

17

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

cWoIf u'g axfb'/ v08n'sn]
atfP . æTo;af6 ToxLFsf] l5d]sL
ljBfno afnsNof0f k| f ljaf6
Pshgf lzIfs dfUg] lg0f{ o
ul/of] .Æ – pgn] yk] . To;}u/L
afnsNof0f k| f las} zfvf
afn Sna ;b:o;Fu cGt/lqmof ub}{
laBfnosf] ?kdf pQm laxfgL
sIffnfO{ klg nfg] lgZsif{ lgsfn] . clxn] oxfF afn Sna / :yfgLo hgtfsf]
;xof]udf ToxfF ;fgf] kSsL ejg klg lgdf{0f ePsf] 5 . klxn] ;fgf] uf]7df k9fO{
x'g] laxfgL sIff clxn] $ sf]7] ejg ;lxtsf] ljBfnodf kl/0ft ePsf] 5 . xfn
ToxfF ljs]Gb|Llqmt afn sIffsf] sf]6f klg k/]kl5 t @ hgf lghL ;|ft] sf lzIfs /
! hgf ;/sf/L u/L # hgf ePsf 5g\ . æoxfF cem} lzIfssf] cefj 5, afn sNof0f
k|fljdf klxNo} b]lv lzIfs sd /x]sf]df clxn] ! hgf otf cfPk5L ptf cK7\of/f]
kl//x]sf] 5 . Æ– :yfgLo ;fdflhs sfo{stf{ eLdaxfb'/ /fgfn] eg] . ljBfnodf
cem} klg k|ofKt kmlg{r/ ;'ljwf k'us
] f] 5}g . rkL{ / vfg]kfgLsf] cefj 5 .

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

afnSnan] u/]sf] p2f/
-Go" :6f/ afn ;d"x, dfs/_
gjnk/f;L lhNnfsf] dfs/ uflj;df kg]{ Go"
:6f/ afn ;d"x -clxn] gfd km]l/P/ gj ;s[o
afn ;d"x ePsf] 5_ ToxfFsf :yfgLo dlxnf
;d"x …>L bfpGg]bj] L dlxnf art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yfÚ / afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo
;ldltsf] kxndf @)^! ;fndf v'ns
] f] afn
;d"x xf] . o;n] afn clwsf/ k|j4{g / afn
;xeflutfsf] If]qdf w]/} /fd|f sfdx? u/]sf]
5 . t/ klg o;n] u/]sf] Pp6f sfdn] of] afn
Sna lhNnfdf gd"gf Snax? dWo]df kg]{
u5{ . gjnk/f;Ldf afn Snan] u/]sf /fd|f
sfdx?sf] s'/f p7\bf w]/n} ] o; Snan] u/]sf] Pp6L
aflnsf p2f/sf] k|;u+ klg hf]8g\ ] u5{g\ .
@)^! ;fn r}q !$ ut]sf] s'/f xf] of] . hltv]/
afn Snasf] a}7s ;s]/ cWoIf gf/fo0f ljs,
;lrj ;Gtf]if u'?Ë, sf]iffWoIf ldng k'g h+unlt/
3'Dg lg:s]sf lyP . To;a]nf b]zdf dfcf]jfbL
åGåsf] ;do lyof] . t/ h+undf k|x/Lsf] tflnd
eO/x]sf]n] pgLx?n] ghfg eg]kl5 pgLx? 3/
kms{b+ } lyP . To;}an
] f pgLx?n] vf]nf 5]paf6
n's/] h+un k:g nfu]sL tL s]6LnfO{ b]v] . k|x/Ln]
pgLx?nfO{ klxNo} g} ;r]t u/fO;s]sfn] s]xL
g/fd|f] x'g] 7fgL pgLx?n] tL s]6LnfO{ /f]Sg
vf]h] . …Totf ghfp, ;z:qsf] tflnd 5Ú eGb}
pgLx? /f]Sg vf]h] . gf/fo0f eG5g, …pgL lsg
h+unlt/ hfg vf]lhg\ eGg] xfdLnfO{ yfx lyPg,
em'lSsP/ jf yfx gkfP/ xf]nf dfq eGg] ;f]rs
+] f
lyof}+ .Ú pgn] l/Qf] 8f]sf] klg af]ss
] f] x'bF f 3fF;
sf6\g kf] lx+8s
] L x'g\ ls eGg] klg pgLx?n]
;f]rs
] f lyP . t/ kl5 a'em\bf s'/f cs}{ /x]5 .
cf]vn9'Ëf 3/ ePsL pgL cfkm\gf sfsf
9fnaxfb'/ >]i7;Fu gjnk/f;Lsf] dfs/ cfPsL
/lx5g\ . sfsfn] oxfF /fv]/ cfkm}+n] k9fpg]
eg]/ NofPsf /x]5g\ t/ NofPkl5 pgn] klxn]

s] cfkm"n] ul//fv]sf] sfdaf6
afn Snasf afnaflnsfx?
;Gt'i6 5g\ <
(3.57%)

(14.29%)

(82.14%)

5g\
5}gg\
clnslt

;fF:s[lts sfo{qmddf afnSnasf
aflnsf

afn Snasf sfd afnaflnsfx?
s;/L u5{g\ <
(8.93%)

(91.07%)

clnsltn] dfq
;a} ldn]/

18

(1.19%)
(0.60%)

(4.17%)

(94.04%)

7"nfn] 5flglbg]
lgjf{rg
a}7s tyf cfk;L ;xdlt
yfxf 5}g

afn Snasf sfdn]
afnaflnsfx?sf] k9fO{df s:tf]
km/s kf/]sf] 5 <
100

92.86

;'wf/]sf] 5
lauf/sf] 5
km/s kf/]sf] 5}g

90
80
70
60
50
40

eg] cg';f/sf] u/]g5g\ . pgsL sfsLn]
wgdfofFnfO{ vfnL sfddf dfq nufpg], k9\g
gk7fpg] ug{ yfln5g\ . 3/sf ;fgf–7"nf ;a}
sfdx? cx« f pg] b ] l v lnP/ h+ u ndf uP/
3fF;–bfp/f ;d]t Nofpg'kg]{ /x]5 . To;f] gu/]
vfgf g} vfg glbg] klg ulb{/lx5g\ . Tof] lbg
klg h;/L klg 3fF; Nofpg'kg]{ /x]5 pgnfO{
gq vfgf g} vfg gkfOg] eg]sL /lx5g\
sfsLn] . /, ;a}eGbf g/fd|f] s'/f t s]xL sfd
ePg eg] 3/d} y'g]/ klg /fVbf /x]5g\ .
To;kl5 pgLx?n] To:tf] afn clwsf/ lj?4sf]
sfdsf] nflu s]xL ug'k{ g]{ cfjZostf dx;';
u/] . cfkm\gf] afn Snadf cfP/ a}7s u/] .
dlxnf ;d"xsf ;b:ox?;Fu ;Nnfx u/] .
kf/flnun sld6LnfO{ hfgsf/L lbP . afn
Snasf] ToxL kxnsf sf/0f wgdfofnfO{ Tof]
3/af6 5'6fP/ ToxLFsL :yflgo dlxnf lji0f'
kf}8n
] n] # dlxgf;Dd cfkm\gf] 3/df /fVg'eof] .
afn Snan] ;a} s'/fsf] a]lnla:tf/ nufP/
wgdfofFsf afa' u+ufgf/fo0f >]i7nfO{ lr7L
k7fP . clxn] wgdfof cfkm\gf] 3/ cf]vn9'Ëfdf
k9\l5g\ eg] otf 9fnaxfb'/nfO{ ca klg To:tf]
u/] k|x/LnfO{ hfgsf/L lbg] sfuhdf afn
Snan] x:tfIf/ u/fO{ dfkmL dfUg nufof] .

30
20
10

5.95

1.19

0

afn Snan] Joj:yfkg u/]sf]
k':tsfnoaf/] hfgsf/L lnFb}
cWoogstf{

Affn Snan] aflnsfx?df z;lQms/0f
Nofof]
sdnf dxtf]sf] 3/ lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hsf]
dWojtL{ If]q gjnk/f;Lsf] sf]Nx'jfdf k5{ .
:yfgLo yf? ;d'bfosL pgL clxn] cgdL
cWoog ul//fv]sL l5g\ . pgsf] ;d'bfo hxfF
afn ljjfx al9 x'G5, s]6Lx?nfO{ 3/leqsf]
sfddf ;Lldt u/fOG5 To:tf] kl/j]zdf pgn]
cgdL cWoog;Dd k'Ug' rfgr'g] pknAwL
xf]Og . 3/df ;fgf] k;n rnfO/fv]sf / df5f
dfg] { k] z f u/] / hLjg wflg/x] s f pgsf
cleefjsx?n] ;DkGg cfly{s cj:yfn] eGbf

19

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

afn Snasf] sfo{;ldlt s;/L
u7g x'G5 <

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

pgsf] cfTdljZjf;s} sb/ :j?k To;/L pRr lzIff cWoogdf nufPsf x'g\ .
cflv/ s;/L sdnfsf] nflu To; kl/j]zsf] ljsf; x'g k'Uof] t < Pp6f pQ/ xf]–
afn Sna . pgL % aif{cl3;Dd :yfgLo gGbefph' afn Snasf] cWoIf lyOg\ . pgsf]
Ifdtf / k|ltefs} sb/ :j?k afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltsf] ;b:odf ;d]t
lgjf{lrt ePsL lyOg\ . ufpF3/df pgnfO{ ;a}n]
s'zn jQmfsf] ?kdf x]5g{ , ;fgf7"nf ax;, 5nkmn afn Snasf ;ldltx? slt
/ ljjfb kbf{ pgsf] e"ldsfsf] ck]Iff u5{g\ . ;dodf km]l/G5g\ <
sdnf elG5g\, …;fob afn Sna gx'bF f] xf] t ddf
o:tf u'0fx? ;fob} ljsf; x'GYof] xf]nf .Ú
jflif{s
60
57.14
@÷# dlxgfdf
h:t} csL{ sdnf h:t} x'g\ eLddfof 7f8f,
7\ofSs} gtf]lsPsf]
yfxf 5}g
@%, hf] clxn] >L laBf>d lgdflj, ldy's/ddf 50
cWofkg/t l5g\ . pgsf ;xkf7Lx? hf] 40
P;Pn;L ;Sbf g;Sb} j}jflxs aGwgdf ;d]t
afFlwP, ;fg}df 3/hd z'? ubf{ w]/}n] pRr 30
lzIffnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg klg ;s]gg . oBlk 20
pgL ljs6 ufpFdf /x]/ klg cWofkg;Fu} cfkm\gf] 10
pRr lzIffnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg ;lsg\ . pgn]
0
cfkm"nfO{ o:tf] pTk|/] 0ff lbg ;Sg'df afn Snan]
7"nf] e"ldsf v]n]sf] 7flG5g\ .
sdnf / eLddfof h:t} afn Snadf ;fg}df
nfu]sf] sf/0f kl5 jo:o x'Fbf;Dd dlxnfx?df cg]sg ;sf/fTds c;/ k/]sf
5g\ . ljx] kl5 klg ca pgLx? klxn]h:tf] 3/leqsf sfddf ;fF3l' /g] dfqsf a'xf/L
5}gg\ . pgLx?sf] a]Un} kfl/jf/Ls / ;dflhs x}l;ot alg;s]sf] 5 . w]/n
} ] afn
Snadf 5Fbf a;]sf] hus} sf/0f cfkm"nfO{ kl5;Dd cGo ;Defjgsf Jofks If]qdf
cl3 a9\g] cj;/ kfPsf 5g\ . pgLx?af6 cfhsn 3/kl/jf/ klg ljZj:t 5 .
s'g} ;do Go" :6f/ afn ;d"x, dfs/sL ;b:o k'hf uxt/fh, @), clxn] :yflgo
:s'ndf lzlIfsf l5g\ . ldy's/dh:tf ljs6 e]udf ;d]t Ps ;do afn Snadf
sfd u/]sL kljdfof df:sL clxn] ToxfFsf] :yflgo :s'nsL k|wfgfWofks l5g\ .
;Demgf kf08] clvn qmflGtsf/LsL lhNnf ;b:o x'g\ t l;h{gf s+8]n /]l8of]
dWoljGb"df ;dfrf/ jflrs l5g\ . Pstfsf afn Snadf sfd u/]/ clxn] w]/}
aflnsfx? cfTdlge{/ aGg ;s]sf 5g\ . uLtf uf}td, eujtL rfkfufO{+ clxn]
lzIf0f ul//x]sf dWo]s} kg]{x? dWo]sf x'g\ .
afn Snadf sfd u/]s} sf/0f dlxnfx?df kl5;Dd s:tf] ;fdflhs c;/ k5{
eGg] laifodf o;n] :ki6 k|ltlaDa emNsfO/x]sf] 5 .
28.57

9.52

4.76

20

%= afn Snasf] ljwfg
============================afn ;d"x÷Sna ========================sf] u7g tyf sfo{
;~rfng lgb]{lzsf @)^!
/fi6« lgdf{0fsf] nflu afnaflnsfx?sf] ;d]t e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ x'g] ePsf]n]
pgLx?sf] zf/Ll/s, ;fdflhs, ;+j]ufTds / af}l4s ljsf; ub}{ afnaflnsfx?sf]
xslxt Pj+ afn clwsf/sf] ljifodf hgr]tgf hufO{ ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, z}lIfs
Pj+ cGo ;Da4 If]qdf ;d]t afn ;xeflutf h'6fpg / afn ljsf;sf ;fy} afn
;+/If0fsf] kxn ug{ jf~5gLo ePsfn] of] lgb]{lzsf th{'df ul/Psf] 5 .

!= ;+lIfKt gfd / k|f/De M
o; lgb]{lzsfsf] gfd æ================== afn ;d"x÷Sna u7g tyf sfo{
;~rfng lgb]{lzsf @)^!Æ /xg]5 . of] lgb]{lzsf lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt
gjnk/f;Laf6 :jLs[t ePkl5 t'?Gt} nfu' x'g]5 .

@= sfof{noM
o; lgb]{lzsf adf]lhd ul7t =================== afn ;d"x÷Sna ================
sf] sfof{no lhNnf gjnk/f;L ===================uf=lj=;=÷g=kf= j8f g+= =============
l:yt ======================== :yfgdf /xg]5 .

#= 7]ufgf M
M

o; afn ;d"x÷Snasf] kqfrf/ Od]n jf ;Dks{ 7]ufgf lgDg adf]lhd x'g5
]
=================================================
=================================================

$= kl/efiffM
ljifo jf k|;Ën] csf]{ cy{ gnfu]df M
-s_ æ;d"x jf SnaÆ eGgfn] o; lgb]l{ zsfsf] wf/f ^ cg'?k ul7t ;d"x÷Sna

21

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

k|:tfjgf M

hgfpg] 5 . of] Sna jf ;d"xn] afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt
gjnk/f;Ldf cfa4 eO{ lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf
;"lrs[t ePsf] afn ;d"xnfO{ hgfpg]5 .
-v_ æafnaflnsfÆ eGgfn] o; lgb]l{ zsfsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu ^ jif{bl] v dfly
!^ jif{ ggf3]sf afnaflnsfx?nfO{ hgfpg]5 .

%= p2]Zo Pj+ sfo{x?M
l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

o; afn ;d"xsf] b]xfo adf]lhdsf p2]Zo Pj+ sfo{x? /xg]5g\ M
-s_ afnaflnsfx?sf] zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, ;fdflhs, ;+j]ufTds tyf
;xeflutfTds ljsf;sf] clej[l4 ug]{ .
-v_ afnclwsf/;DaGwL /fli6«o Pj+ cGt/f{li6«o sfg"gsf] af/]df ;r]tgf
u/fpg' .
-u_ afn ;d"xsf] lj:tf/ / ;+u7gfTds Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ .
-3_ wd{, j0f{, lnË, hfthflt jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df afnaflnsfx?nfO{ lagf
e]befj ;dfg cj;/ k|bfg ug]{ af/] hgr]tgf hufpg] .
-ª_ afnaflnsfx?sf] lj?4 x'g] 3/fo;L lx+;f, afn of}gzf]if0f, afn b'Jo{jxf/,
afn>d, afna]rlavg, afn ljjfxh:tf ;fdflhs ljs[ltsf lj?4
:yfgLo ?kdf ;r]tgf hufO{ ;f] sf] sfg"gL pkrf/sf] nflu afn ;d"x
lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf cg'/f]w ug]{ .
-r_ afnclwsf/ ;DalGw ljljw sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{ .
-5_ afnljsf; ;DalGw ljljw sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{' .
-h_ k"j{ afnljsf; ;DalGw sfo{qmdx?df ;xefuL u/fpg' .
-em_ afnaflns ;DalGw x/]s ultljlwdf ;xeflutf u/fpg' .
-`_ jftfj/0f :jf:Yo ;DalGw sfo{qmdnfO{ afn ultljlwdf ;dfj]z
u/fpg' .
-6_ cfkm\gf] ;d"xleqsf afnaflnsf ;DalGw ljljw cfwf/df tYof+s ;+sng
ug{' .
-7_ afnaflnsfx?sf] ;d:of klxrfg u/L ;f] ;d:of ;DalGwt lgsfodf
k'¥ofpg / ;dfwfg ug]{ k|oTg ug{' .
-8_ hGdbtf{, afnlzIff, aflnsflzIff, afnj[l4 -tf}n_ ;/;kmfO{, vf]k kf]if0f,

22

afn :ofxf/ cfof]l8gsf] dxTjh:tf dft[ Pj+ afn :jf:Yosf] ljifodf
;Gb]z jfxssf] ?kdf sfo{ ug]{ .
-9_ afnaflnsfx?;Fu ;DalGwt /f]u emf8fkvfnf, lgdf]lgof nufotsf ljifodf
;dfhdf hfgsf/L Pj+ ;f]sf] lg/fs/0fsf] nflu r]tgf hufpg' .
-0f_ lk5l8Psf, hf]lvddf k/]sf, ljkGg, åGå Pj+ b}jL k|sf]kaf6 lkl8t
afnaflnsfx?sf] k'g:yf{kgfsf] nflu kxn ug{' .

-y_ afnaflnsfsf] k"0f{ ljsf;sf nflu cGo ljljw /rgfTds sfo{qmdx?
;~rfng ug]{ .
-b_ Pr=cfO{=le= P8\;sf ;DaGwdf hgr]tgf hfu[t u/fpg] .
-w_ afn ljjfx, ax'ljjfx, cgd]n ljjfx, hftLo e]befj Pj+ bfOhf] k|yf
nufot ;fdflhs ljs[ltsf] lj?4 hgr]tgf hufpg] .
-g_ afnaflnsfx?nfO{ ljljw k|lt:kwf{Tds ultljlwdf lagf e]befj
afnaflnsfnfO{ ;l/s u/fpg kxn ug]{ .
-y_ ================-:yfgLo cfjZostfcg';f/ p2]Zo / sfo{x? yKg ;lsg]_

^= afn ;d"xsf] u7gM
^=! afn;d"xsf] u7g ;d"xsf ;fwf/0f ;b:ox?sf] ;fwf/0f;efaf6 x'g] lgjf{rg
k|lqmofaf6 x'g]5 . o; afn;d"xsf] sfo{;ldltdf lgDgfg';f/sf kbflwsf/L
x'g]5g\ M
-s_ cWoIf

M ! hgf

-v_ pkfWoIf

M ! hgf

-u_ ;lrj

M ! hgf

-3_ ;x;lrj

M ! hgf

-ª_ sf]iffWoIf

M ! hgf

-r_ ;b:o

M 3l6df @ hgf / al9df ^ hgf;Dd

-5_ ;Nnfxsf/ M cfjZostfcg';f/
-h_ ;+/Ifs

M ! hgf

23

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

-t_ cGo afn ;d"xx? jf lgsfo;Fu ;d]t ;dGjo u/L PsLs[t ?kdf sfd
ug]{ .

^=@ afn ;d"xsf] sfo{;ldltsf] Ps sfo{sfndf aflnsf cWoIf jf pkfWoIf ePdf
csf] { sfo{ s fnsf] nflu afns ;f] x L qmdfg' ; f/ cWoIf jf pkfWoIf
x''g'kg]{5 . ;Dej geP of] k|fjwfg kfng ug{ afWo x'g]5}g .

&= ;Nnfxsf/ M
afn ;d"xn] ;Nnfxsf/ lgo'lQm ubf{ lgDg cfwf/df ug{'kb{5 M

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

-s_ k"j{ afn ;d"xsf] cWoIf kb]g ;Nnfxsf/ x'g]5 .
-v_ :yfgLo lzIfs, v]nf8L, k|ltli7t ljåfg\, k|fWofks jf ;dfhsf k|ltli7t
JolQm jf ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf ;b:ox?sf cleefjsdWo]af6 cfjZostfcg';f/
;Nnfxsf/x? /xg]5g\ .

*= ;+/Ifs M
afn ;d"xsf ;+/Ifsdf ;+:yfnfO{ cleefjssf] ?kdf cfly{s jf Joj:yfksLo
;xof]u k|bfg ug]{ ;+:yf÷JolQm /xg] 5g\ . ;+/Ifssf] lgo'lQm afn ;d"xsf]
lg0f{ocg';f/ x'g]5 .

(= kbfjlwM
afn ;d"xsf] kbfjlw u7g ePsf] ldltn] @ jif{sf] x'g]5 . s'g} kbflwsf/Ln]
/flhgfdf lbPdf jf cGo s'g} sf/0fn] kb l/Qm ePdf kbflwsf/Lsf] xsdf afFsL
cjlwsf nflu ;DalGwt afn ;d"xn] cfkm"dWo]af6 lgo'lQm ug]{5 / ;b:o kbsf
nflu cfkm\gf] ;fwf/0f ;b:odWo]af6 rog ug{'kg]{ 5 .

!)= kbflwsf/Lsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ M
kbflwsf/Lx?sf] b]xfo adf]lhdsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ x'g]5 M
-s_ cWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ M
cWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M
!= ;d"xsf] a}7s / ;d"xsf] ;fwf/0f;efsf] cWoIftf u|x0f ug]{ .
@= ;d"xsf] a}7s jf ;fwf/0f;efdf cfjZos k|:tfj / sfuhft k]z ug{]
u/fpg] .
#= ;d"xsf] cfDbfgL, vr{ lx;fa / cGo sfuhft ;'/lIft /fVg] /fVg nufpg] .
$= ;d"xsf] lg0f{o / lh=jf=s=;= sf] lgb]{zg sfof{Gjog ug]{ u/fpg] .

24

-v_ pkfWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ M
pkfWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M
!= cWoIfsf] cg'kl:yltdf sfo{jfxs cWoIf e} sfo{ ug]{ .
@= tf]lsPsf] cGo sfd ug]{ .
-u_ ;lrjsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ M
;lrjn] cWoIfsf] k|ToIf lgb]{zgdf /xL b]xfosf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/sf]
k|of]u tyf kfng ug{'kg]{5 M
!= ;d"xsf] :jLs[t sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug]{ .
@= afnaflnsf jf afn ;d"x;Fu ;DalGwt JolQmsf] cBfjlws clen]v
/fVg] .
#= ;d"xsf] rn, crn tyf lhG;L ;DklQsf] nut /fVg] .
$= ;d"xsf] a}7ssf] dfOGo'6 ug]{, lg0f{o ug]{ k'l:tsf lhDdf lng] / lg0f{o
k|dfl0ft ug]{ .
%= ;d"xsf] k|zf;sLo sfo{ ug]{ .
^= cWoIfsf] lgb]{zgcg';f/ a}7s af]nfpg] .
&= tf]lsPsf] cGo sfo{ ug]{ .
-3_ ;x;lrjsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/M
!= ;lrjsf] cg'kl:yltdf ;lrjsf] sfo{ef/ ;DxfNg] .
@= tf]lsPsf] cGo sfo{ ug]{ .
-ª_ sf]iffWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/M
!= Sna÷;d"xsf] cfo Joo b'?:t /fVg] .
@= cfly{s ah]6 tof/ u/L ;d"xdf a}7sdf k]z ug]{ .
#= cfly{s ;xof]u h'6fpg] .
25

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

%= ;d"xsf] k|ltlglw rog u/L k7fpg] jf ;d"xsf] k|ltlglwTj ug]{ .
^= pkfWoIf / ;b:ox?nfO{ ljifout sfo{ef/ ljefhg ul/lbg] .
&= ;ft lbgeGbf a9L ;dosf nflu cg'kl:yt ePdf pkfWoIfnfO{ /
pkfWoIf gePdf cfkm"dWo]sf jl/i7 ;b:onfO{ sfo{jfxs cWoIf
tf]Sg] .
*= afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt;Fu ;dGjo u/L jf cGo ;+3;+:yf jf
lgsfox?;Fu sfo{qmdsf] dfu ug]{ / sfof{Gjog ug]{ u/fpg] .
(= tf]lsPsf] cGo sfo{ ug]{ .

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

$= cfly{s sf/f]af/;DaGwL lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug]{ .
-r_ ;b:osf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/M
!= a}7sdf ;xefuL x'g] .
@= lg0f{osf] nflu cfkm\gf] dt k]z ug]{ .
#= tf]lsPsf] sfo{ ug]{ .
$= ;d"xsf] lxt x'g] cGo /rgfTds sfo{ ug]{ .

!!= ;b:otfM
-s_ ;b:otfsf] of]UotfM
o; afn ;d"xdf b]xfosf afnaflnsf ;b:o x'g kfpg]5g\ M
-s_ pd]/ slDtdf ^ jif{ k'uL !^ jif{ ggf3]sf] .
-v_ :yfoL ;?jf /f]u gnfu]sf] .
-u_ duh glau|]sf] jf af}nfxf gePsf] .
-3_ ;d"xsf] lgb]{lzsfdf k|lta4 x'g] .
-v_ ;b:otfsf] vf/]hL M
-s_ duh lau|]df jf af}nfxf ePdf .
-v_ !^ jif{ pd]/ gf3]df .
-u_ d[To' ePdf .
-3_ /flhgfdf lbPdf .
-ª_ cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj kfl/t eO{ x6fOPdf .
-r_ ;b:otf gljs/0f gePdf .
-5_ nuftf/ tLg k6s lagf ;"rgf a}7sdf cg'kl:yt ePdf .
-h_ PseGbf a9L afn;d"xsf] ;b:otf lnPsf] kfOPdf jf k|ltlglwTj u/]df .

!@= ;d"xsf kbflwsf/Lsf] pd]/sf] xb M
afn ;d"xsf sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lsf] pd]/ slDtdf cf7 jif{ / a9Ldf ;f]x| jif{
ggf3]sf] x'g' k' g]5
{ .

!#= cf/If0f M
o; afn ;d"xdf ;Dk"0f{ ;b:o ;+Vofsf] slDtdf %) k|ltzt aflnsf x'gk' g]5
{

26

t/ ;d"xdf kof{Kt aflnsf ;b:o gePdf klg ;d"x sfod} /xg]5 .

-s_ afn ;d"xsf] ;b:otf z'Ns jf gljs/0f z'Ns jf cGo s'g} z'Ns afn
;d"xn] tf]s] adf]lhd x'g]5 .
-v_ afn ;d"xsf ;b:on] cfcfkm\gf ;d"xdf x/]s jif{ ;b:otf gljs/0f
ug{'kg]{ 5 .
-u_ afn ;d"xn] afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf k|To]s jif{
;d"xsf] jflif{s k|ltj]bgsf ;fy gljs/0f u/fpg'kg]5
{ . ;f] sf] hfgsf/L
lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf u/fpg'kg]{5 .

!%= a}7sM
afn ;d"xn] slDtdf dlxgfsf] Psk6s a}7s a:g'kg]5
{ . a}7ssf] u0fk'/s ;+Vof
%!Ü sf] pkl:yltnfO{ dflgg]5 .

!^= lg0f{oM
afn ;d"xsf] a}7sdf ax'dtsf] lg0f{o dfGo x'g5
] t/ dt a/fa/ ePdf cWoIfn]
lg0ff{os dt lbg ;Sg]5 .
gf]6M lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;+/Ifs jf ;Nnfxsf/n] dtsf] k|of]u ug{ kfpg] 5}gg\ .

!&= lgjf{rgM
afn ;d"xn] k|hftflGqs k4lt cg'?k cfkm\gf] ;d"xsf] lgjf{rg kbfjlw
;dfKt x'g'eGbf Ps dlxgf klxn] ;DkGg ug{'kg]{5 .

!*= lgjf{rg clws[tM
afn ;d"xn] cfkm\gf ;+/Ifs Pj+ ;Nnfxsf/dWo]af6 slDtdf tLg hgf lgjf{rg
clws[t tf]Sg'kg]5
{ ;f] dWo] Pshgf d"Vo lgjf{rg clws[t /xg]5g\ . d'Vo lgjf{rg
clws[tn] lgjf{rg k|lqmof jf sfo{ljlw cfkm}+ lgwf{/0f ug]{5 .

!(= sf]ifM
-s_ o; afn ;d"xn] cfkm\gf] gfdaf6 Pp6f sf]ifsf] :yfkgf ug]{5 .
-v_ a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf vftf ;~rfng ug{ ;d"xn] cfkm\gf ;Nnfxsf/ Pj+

27

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

!$= ;b:otf z'Ns tyf gljs/0f M

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

;+/Ifssf] gfdaf6 ug{k' g]5
{ . sf]ifaf6 /sd lemSg'kbf{ ;d"xsf] lg0f{o clgjfo{
?kdf x'g'kg]{5 . afn ;d"x÷Snasf] lg0f{ocg';f/ sf]ifsf] /sd vr{ ug{
;lsg]5 .
-u_ sf]ifdf b]xfosf ;|f]taf6 /sd hDdf x'g]5 M
!= afnaflnsf;Fu ;DalGwt lgsfoaf6 k|fKt ;xof]u .
@= ;xof]u, pkxf/ .
#= ;b:otf tyf gljs/0f z'Ns .
$= ;f+:s[lts jf ljljw /rgfTds sfo{qmdaf6 p7]sf] /sd .
%= ;d"xsf] k|sfzgaf6 k|fKt x'g] /sd .
^= afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltaf6 k|fKt x'g] /sd .
&= cGo ;fdflhs ;+3 ;+:yfaf6 k|fKt /sd .

@)= k|ltj]bgM
afn ;d"xn] cfkm\gf] jflif{s ;fwf/0f;efaf6 kfl/t jflif{s k|ltj]bg afn
;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf k|To]s jif{sf] c;f/ d;fGtleq k]z
ug{'kg]{5 .

@!= ;+zf]wgM
of] lgb]l{ zsf ;+zf]wg ubf{ afn ;d"xsf] ;fwf/0f ;efsf] b'O{ ltxfO{ ;b:ox?sf]
ax'dtn] lgb]l{ zsf ;+zf]wg k|:tfj kfl/t eO{ lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldltaf6 :jLs[t
ePdf of] lgb]{lzsf nfu" x'g]5 .

@@= arfpM
k|:t't lgb]l{ zsfdf pNn]lvt s'/fx? k|rlnt g]kfn P]g lgod jf ljlgod;Fu
aflemPdf aflemPsf] xb;Dd o; lgb]{lzsfdf pNn]lvt s'/fx? :jtM cdfGo
x'g]5g\ .

@#= ;d"xsf] vf/]hL jf lj36gM
s'g} sf/0fjz ;d"x vf/]hLdf k/]df jf lj36g x'g uPdf To; ;d"xsf] ;Dk"0f{
rn crn ;DklQ lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Lsf] ;+/If0fdf ;g]{5 .

28

@$= ljljwM
!_ ;fwf/0f;efM

@_ sfo{ljlw agfpg] M
lgb]l{ zsfsf] p2]Zo k|flKtsf] nflu ;d"xn] cfkm"nfO{ cfjZos kg]{ ljlgod agfpg
;Sg]5g\ ;fy} cfjZos ;ldlt / pk;ldltx?sf] klg u7g ug{ ;Sg]5g\ . of]
;ldltsf] sfo{ljlw afn ;d"x÷Snan] lgwf{/0f ug]{5 .
#_ ;+zf]wgM
;d"xsf] lgb]l{ zsf ;+zf]wg ug{k' /]df lgb]l{ zsf ;+zf]wg k|:tfj ;d"xsf] ;fwf/0f;efsf]
b'O{ ltxfO{ ax'dtsf] lg0f{o eO{ lh=jf=s=;= g=k=af6 :jLs[t ePkl5 dfq nfu'
x'g]5 .
$_ cljZjf;sf] k|:tfjM
;d"xsf] lgb]l{ zsf ljkl/t sfo{ u/]sf] elg ;ldltsf s'g} kbflwsf/L dfly ;ldltsf]
Ps ltxfO{ ;b:ox?n] u/]sf] lnlvt cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj ;d"xdf k]z u/]df ;f]
k|:tfj ;fwf/0f;efsf] b'O{ ltxfO{ ax'dtaf6 kfl/t ePdf To:tf kbflwsf/Lx?
:jtM kb d'Qm x'g]5g\ .
%_ ;d"xn] cfkm\gf] lgb]{lzsf Pj+ kbflwsf/L ;b:o;lxtsf] gfdfjnL afn;d"x
lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf cfa4tf u/L lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt
gjnk/f;Ldf ;"lrs[t ug{'kg]{5 .

cg';"rL–!
;d"xsf] 5fk
-;d"xsf] 5fkdf ;d"xsf] gfd, :yfkgf jif{ / 7]ufgf clgjfo{ ?kdf x'g'kg]{5_

29

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

;d"xsf] ;fwf/0f;ef jif{sf] Psk6s a:g]5 . ;fwf/0f;efsf] ;"rgf k|To]s
;b:ox?nfO{ ! dlxgf cufj} ;lrjn] lbg'kg]{5 . ;fwf/0f;efdf ;d"xsf] jflif{s
sfo{ k|ult k|ltj]bg, cfly{s k|ltj]bg tyf jflif{s sfo{of]hgf ;DaGwL k|:tfjx?
lg0f{ofy{ ;d"xn] k]z ug]{5 . ;fwf/0f;efsf] u0fk"/s ;+Vof ;d"xsf ;fwf/0f
;b:ox?sf] %! k|ltztsf] pkl:yltnfO{ dflgg]5 .

cg';"rL–@
;d"xsf sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx?

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

qm=;+=
!
@
#
$
%
^
&
*
(
!)
!!

kb

gfd y/

k'/f 7]ufgf -uflj;÷gkf, j8f / 6f]n_

x:tfIf/

cWoIf
pkfWoIf
;lrj
;x;lrj
sf]iffWoIf
;b:o
;b:o
;b:o
;b:o
;b:o
;b:o

;+/Ifssf] gfd / 7]ufgf M

;Nnfxsf/sf] gfd / 7]ufgf

cg';"rL–#
;d"xsf ;Dk"0f{ ;fwf/0f ;b:ox?sf] ljj/0f
qm=;+=

gfd

lnË

jif{

sIff

cleefjssf] gfd / gftf

7]ufgf

b:tvt

gf]6M
!= o; adf]lhd ;fwf/0f ;b:ox? yk ug{ ;lsg]5 .
@= ;d"xsf ;fwf/0f ;b:ox?n] k|To]s jif{ ;b:ox?n] k|To]s jif{ ;b:otfsf]
gljs/0f ug{'kg]{5 .
#= lgb]l{ zsfadf]lhd cfa4tf Pj+ ;"rLs[t u/fpg'kg]{ lgsfo jf ;+:yfdf ;DalGwt
uf=lj=;= jf ljBfno jf ;DalGwt ;+/IfsTj k|bfg u/]sf] ;+:yfdWo] s'g}
Pssf] l;kmfl/; ;+nUg x'g'kg]{5 . l;kmfl/; ;fy sfo{;ldltsf ;a}
kbflwsf/Lx?sf] ;+o'Qm lgj]bg lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf k]z
ug{'kg]{5 .

30

$= o; lgb]l{ zsfsf] k|lta4tfsf] nflu afn ;d"xsf] sfo{;ldltsf ;Dk"0f{ kbflwsf/Lx?n]
lgb]l{ zsfsf] ;a} kfgfsf] tn dfly x:tfIf/ u/]sf] x'gk' g]5
{ .
%= cfa4tf jf ;"lrs[t ubf{ b'O{ k|lt lgb]l{ zsf /Lt k"js
{ tof/ u/L k]z ug{k' g]5
{ .

cg';"rL $
>L afnsNof0f clwsf/LHo",
lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt
gjnk/f;L .
ljifo M ;d"x ;"lrs[t÷cfa4tf u/L kfpF .
dxf]bo,
xfdLn] ===========================gfdsf] afn ;d"x÷Sna vf]Ng rfx]sf]n] lhNnf
afnsNof0f ;ldltaf6 :jLs[t æafn;d"x u7g tyf sfo{;~rfng lgb]l{ zsf @)^!Æ
adf]lhd ;d"x ;"lrs[t÷cfa4tf ug{sf] nflu b]xfosf] ljj/0f vf]nL lgj]bg u/]sf
5f}F . k|:tfljt ;d"xsf] lgb]{lzsfsf] Ps k|lt, l;kmfl/z / oyf;So ;d"xsf
kbflwsf/Lx?sf] hGdbtf{ k|df0fkqsf] kmf]6f]skL o;} ;fy ;+nUg ul/Psf] .
ljj/0f
!= ;d"x÷Snasf] gfd M
@= ;d"xsf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] ljj/0f M
qm=;+=
gfd
kb
7]ufgf

sIff

jif{

x:tfIf/

#= sfof{nosf] 7]ufgf M
$= ;+/Ifs jf ;Nnfxsf/sf] 7]ufgfM
ldlt M
ejbLo
cWoIf
%= af]wfy{ tyf sfof{y{M
afn ;d"x lhNnf ;ldlt, k/f;L, gjnk/f;L
-lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldlt, gjnk/f;Ln] @)^! ;fndf NofPsf] o; afn ;d"x ;+rfng
lgb]{lzsfdf o; cWoogsf lgZsif{x? ;dfj]z 5}gg\ ._

31

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

lgj]bg kqsf] 9fFrf

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

^= lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf
;"rLs[t afn Snax?sf] ljj/0f
btf{
g+=
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

32

afn ;d"xsf] gfd
hfu[lt afn ;d"x Sna g]kfn
afn ;r]tgf ;d"x
afn of]hgf ;d"x
sf]dn kfOnf afn ;d"x
zflGt afn ;d"x
piff afn ;d"x
afn hfu/0f ;d"x
k|ult afn ;d"x
>Ls[i0f afn ;d"x
k|ult afn ;d"x
;/:jtL afn ;d"x
clz{jfb afn ;d"x
o'gfO6]8 afn ;d"x
hg ;]jf afn ;d"x
afn ljsf; afn ;d"x
gd"gf afn ;d"x
dLgf afn xs ;+/If0f d+r
dLgf afn xs ;+/If0f d+r
dLgf afn xs ;+/If0f d+r
dLgf afn xs ;+/If0f d+r
l;4fy{ afn ;d"x
cfbz{ afn u|Lg Sna
uf}td a'4 zflGt u|Lg Sna
;'o{ ls/0f afn ;d"x
k|ultlzn afn ;d"x
nuglzn afn ;d"x
a'4 cfbz{ afn ;d"x
;+ud afn ;d"x Sna
;TojtL afn ;d"x

uflj;÷g=kf=
k|ultgu/
k|tfkk'/
/fdu|fd gkf
/fdu|fd gkf
/fdu|fd gkf
/fdu|fd gkf
/fdu|fd gkf
/fdu|fd gkf
a'lnË6f/
a'lnË6f/
cv{nf
cv{nf
g/d
g/d
g/d
?rfª
ltnsk'/
?kf}lnof
:jfl7
hxbf
/s'jf
hd'lgof
s'Zdf
ldy's/d
sf]6y/
Bf}jfbL
ltnsk'/
klSnxjf
?kf}lnof

:yfkgf

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf

2048

74

56

2056

3

8

130
11

2058

12

26

38

2058

25

40

65

2058

20

40

60

2061

28

12

40

2058

37

25

62
50

2060

35

15

2055.5.13

6

4

10

2057

9

9

18

2060.5.12

12

15

27

2058

19

13

32

2060.6.8

21

28

49

2061

12

19

31

2056

52

55

107

2058

21

21

42

2058

20

25

45

2058

25

15

40

2058

18

13

31

2057

16

4

20

-

0

0

0

2061

7

11

18

2061

9

10

19

2048

35

25

60

-

29

7

36

Ê

18

8

26

2060

30

21

51

Ê

8

13

21

2060

10

28

38

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66

afn ;d"xsf] gfd
gj hfu[lt afn ;d"x
n'lDagL afn af6Lsf ;d"x
lbk Hof}tL u|+Lg afn ;d"x
lbk cfbz{ afn ;d"x
Pstf afn ;d"x
gGb efph' afn ;d"x
b]jr'nL afn d+r
ldgf afn xs d08jf ;d"x
klAns u|Lg afn ;d"x
gj r]tgf afn ;d"x
gd"gf xl/ofnL afn ;d"x
gj r]tgf afn ;d"x
l;4fy{ afn ;d"x
sf]6xL dfO{ afn ;d"x
cd/ afn ;d"x
>L ;[hgzLn afn ;d"x
>L ldld{/] afn ;d"x
>L gjHof]tL afn ;d"x
>L cfbz{ afn ljsf; d~r
>L ldng afn ;d"x
>L jGhfl/g dfO{ afn ;d"x
P~h]N; afn ;d"x
gj ;[hgf afn ;d"x
ldld/] afn ;d"x
afn ;d"x ulDe/tf
piff ls/0f afn ;d"x
afn ljsf; afn ;d"x
ljxfgL afn ;d"x
gd"gf afn ;d"x
gjHof]tL afn ;d"x
Pstf afn Sna
hfu/0f afn Sna
k|ltdf afn ;d"x
;[hglzn afn ;d"x
z:qLo afn u|Lg ;d"x
gf}nf] ljxfgL afn Sna
sf]lknf afn Sna

uflj;÷g=kf=
cUof}nL
;'gjn
kfNxL
lzjdlGb/
8fF8fFem]/L
sf]Nx'jf
lzjdlGb/
hxbf
z'qmf}nL
gf/fo0fL
cUof}nL
?rfª
;/fjn
/fdu|fd gkf
k|ultgu/
gofFj]nxfgL
gofFj]nxfgL
b]p/fnL
b]p/fnL
8]9ufpF
aGhl/of
/fdu|fd gkf
gofFj]nxfgL
tD;/Lof
Bf}jfbL
/fdu|fd gkf
lk7f}nL
lk7f}nL
lk7f}nL
lk7f}nL
lk7f}nL
lk7f}nL
ldy's/d
lzjdlGb/
?kf}lnof
b]p/fnL
x'K;]sf]6

:yfkgf
2054

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf
54

49

103

2060

5

6

11

Ê

9

10

19

2059

20

22

42

2058

16

20

36
30

2060

16

14

2060

35

38

73

2057

16

4

20

2061

9

8

17

5059

19

18

37

2060

22

18

40

Ê

14

7

21

2061

18

28

46

2062

9

12

21

2062

16

9

25

2061

29

15

44

2062

8

23

31

2062

5

6

11

2061

14

21

35
14

2062

1

13

2062

9

12

21

062÷11÷04

9

9

18

2062

59

38

97

2063÷02÷02

34

34

68

2055÷07÷24

17

14

31

063÷05÷08

22

38

60

063÷03÷01

19

13

32

063÷03÷01

16

25

41

063÷03÷02

14

18

32

063÷03÷02

18

13

31
18

063÷03÷05

11

7

063÷02÷31

21

15

36

061÷08÷15

10

7

17

062÷02÷22

13

15

28

061÷01÷05

10

26

36

062÷07÷05

19

16

35

062÷07÷05

10

15

25

33

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

btf{
g+=

btf{
g+=
67
68
69
70
71
72

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103

34

afn ;d"xsf] gfd
Go" ;xf/f afn Sna
hg;]jf afn Sna
;[hglzn afn ljsf; ;+u7g
gjk|ltef afn ;d"x
Pstf afn Sna
ckfË k'g:yfkgf
;fgf] ;+;f/ afn Sna
lqzlQm afn Sna
;[hgf afn Sna
r]tgf afn ;d"x
;"of]{bo afn ;d"x
lzj dlGb/ afn ;+/If0f ;d"x
k|f0f lk|o afn ;d"x
/Def b]jL afn Sna
gj k|eft afn Sna
nfnLu'/fF; afn Sna
afn ;]jf afn Snj
sf]lknf afn Snj
gjHof]tL afn ;d"x
jftfj/0f tyf ufpF ;'wf/ afn Sna
gjls/0f afn Snj
;dfh;]jf afn Snj
cfbz{ jfn Snj
gj hfu/0f afn Snj
hfu/0f afn Sna
;[hgf afn Sna
;'of]{bo afn Snj
;[hgzLn afn Snj
afn sNof0f afn Snj
hfu[lt afn Snj
1fg Hof]lt afn Snj
hg sNof0f afn ;d"x
;f}uft afn ;d"x
Pstf tyf ;dfh ;]jf afn Snj
hg Hof]lt afn ;d"x
dft[e'ld afn Snj
sf]lknf afn ;d"x

uflj;÷g=kf=
gofFj]nxfgL
;'gjn
/fdgu/
k|ultgu/
sfjf;f]lt
/fdu|fd gkf
:jfl7
hxbf
hxbf
sf]Nx'jf
sf]Nx'jf
gofFj]nxfgL
/fsfr'nL
x'K;]sf]6
x'K;]sf]6
x'K;]sf]6
x'K;]sf]6
x'K;]sf]6
x'K;]sf]6
b]p/fnL
b]p/fnL
b]p/fnL
b]p/fnL
b]p/fnL
x'K;]sf]6
?rfª
b]p/fnL
b]p/fnL
b]p/fnL
b]p/fnL
d}gf3f6
ltnsk'/
ltnsk'/
?rfª
?rfª
?rfª
?rfª

:yfkgf

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf

2062

19

25

44

2060

14

22

36

056÷08÷01

33

27

60

62

18

26

44

063÷02÷26

25

6

31

63

10

11

21

062÷01÷24

9

26

35

063÷04÷13

6

19

25

063÷04÷15

11

14

25

063÷04÷16

10

5

15

063÷04÷13

9

8

17

063÷01÷01

27

20

47

063÷01÷02

15

15

30
30

060÷01÷05

10

20

059÷09÷08

13

23

36

058÷11÷10

15

21

36

2062.5.15

16

20

36

2062.7.5

10

15

25

2061.5.1

2

23

25

2060.1.1

18

18

36

2061.1.1

17

19

36

2060.1.1

14

22

36

2062.3.11

10

10

20

2062.7.5

16

20

36

2058

18

7

25

2060.1.1

18

13

31

2062.10.7

13

23

36

2061.5.1

22

23

45

2060.4.27

8

28

36

2060.2.25

18

17

35
36

2061

19

17

2063.4.23

7

6

13

2063.4.22

15

4

19

2062.7.9

13

23

36
20

2062.7.1

8

12

2061.1.15

16

16

32

2057

21

13

34

104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140

afn ;d"xsf] gfd
zflGt afn Snj
hg Hof]lt afn ;d"x
ufpF Hof]lt afn ;d"x
ufpF ;]jf ax'd'vL afn Snj
nfnLu'/fF; afn Sna
lqj]0fL afn Snj b]pufpF
gj cleofg afn Snj
>[hgf afn Snj
sf]lknf afn Snj
;u/dfyf afn d~r
sf]lknf afn Snj
ldnLh'nL afn ljsf; Snj
gj ;lqmo afn Snj
>L ;fx;L Pstf afn Snj
>L ;+ufnf] afn Snj
>L l;4fy{ afn Snj
>L sf]lknf afn Snj
>L ;+ud afn Snj
>L zflGt afn Snj
>L ufpF j];L afn ;d"x
>L afn lasf; s]Gb| afn Snj
>L gj Pstf afn Snj
>L lbk]Gb| afn Snj
>L ljBfno :tl/o afn Snj
>L hgsNof0f afn Snj
>L ;+3if{ afn ;d"x
>L ;'of]{bo afn Snj
>L nfnL u'/fF; afn Snj
>L lbk Hof]lt afn ;d"x
>L Ogb|]0fL afn ;d"x
>L lxdfn afn ;d"x
>L ;okqL afn Snj
>L chDa/L afn Snj
nfnLu'/fF; afn Sna
>L rDsLnf] tf/f afn Snj
>L gjls/0f afn Snj
>L pT;flxt afn Snj

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf

uflj;÷g=kf=

:yfkgf

/fdu|fd gkf
?kf}lnof
?rfª
?rfª
;gO{
b]jufFj
hd'lgof
x'K;]sf]6
x'K;]sf]6
/s'jf
;/fjn
hxbf
dfs/
tD;/Lof
gofFj]nxfgL
hxbf
a8x/f b'jf}lnof
8]9ufpF
hxbf
/fsfr'nL
/s'jf
hxbf
a]gLdl0fk'/
/s'jf
/s'jf
8]9ufpF
/s'jf
?rfª
d}gf3f6
8]9ufpF
k+rgu/
d}gf3f6
g/d
8]9ufpF
g/d
tD;/Lof
?rfª

2063.8.2

12

24

36

2061.1.1

25

16

41
25

2057.6.2

8

17

2059.6.4

19

12

31

20635.29

10

15

25

2062.1.15

9

27

36

2063.3.11

6

10

16

2061.4.10

12

13

25

2062.12.2

16

20

36

2061.6.12

11

14

25

2063.4.13

8

17

25
25

2064.2.5

17

8

2064.2.29

Ê

Ê

0

2065.2.30

4

10

14

2060.7.15

12

12

24

2063.1.30

7

18

25

2063.4.13

7

18

25

2061.1.1

20

11

31

2062.10.11

21

12

33

2062.12.13

15

21

36

2058.5.5

14

11

25

2064.1.1

12

13

25

Ê

26

20

46

2062.11.21

20

16

36

2063.1.10

12

22

34

2061.2.8

19

13

32

2058.11.12

12

13

25

2061.4.25

11

12

23

2061.7.20

21

10

31

2061.2.5

17

17

34

2063.3.3

20

9

29

2060.2.14

15

21

36
34

2059.11.14

22

12

2059.11.14

14

9

23

2061.1.1

9

8

17

2062.8.2

12

8

20

2062.11.17

39

66

105

35

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

btf{
g+=

btf{
g+=
141
142
143
144
145
146

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
157
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177

36

afn ;d"xsf] gfd
>L pT;j afn Snj
;'gf}nf] ljxfgL
;GhLjgL
cfbz{ jfn Snj
Ogb|]0fL afn Snj
zfGtL afn Snj
;'of]{bo afn Snj
b]jr'nL afn ;d"x
hob'u]{ afn ;d"x
gjo'u afn Snj
1fgf]bo afn ;d"x
gd"gf afn ;d"x
lsG8/ uf8]{g
pT;jafn ;d"x
e[s'6L afn Snj
agb]jL afn Snj
hgtf u|Lg Snj
;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts afn clwsf/ ;ldlt
afnljsf; afnSna
;[hgzLn afnSna
gofF afn ;+/If0f Sna
lbJoHof]lt afn ;d"x
g]kfn u|Lg Sna
u+uf u|Lg Sna
jflNdsL u|Lg Sna
lgTofgGb u|Lg Sna
cfbz{ u|Lg Sna
afSjf0fL u|Lg Sna
w/tL afn Sna
lbJoHof]lt afn Sna
;':tf ;'wf/ lzIff cleofg
eujtL u|Lg afn Sna
bLks afn Sna
gj hfu/0f afn Sna
;[li6 afn ;d"x
;Demf}tf afn Sna
cleofg afn Sna

uflj;÷g=kf=
?rfª
Bf}jfbL
k|tfkk'/
gofFj]nxfgL
;/fjn
;/fjn
;/fjn
a'lnË6f/
;/fjn
ef/ltk'/
a'lnË6f/
g/d
?rfª
?rfª
b'lDsaf;
?kf}lnof
cd/f}6
lqj]l0f ;':tf
?rfª
hxbf
cd/f}6
;/fjn
k+rgu/
bfpGg]b]jL
dfs/
hxbf
ltnsk'/
/fdgu/
kfNxL
klSnxjf
lqj]l0f ;':tf
:jfl7
klSnxjf
ltnsk'/
ltnsk'/
ef/ltk'/
ef/ltk'/

:yfkgf

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf

2063.1.1

17

17

34

2061.1.1

18

18

36

2064.3.1

15

21

36

2063

28

21

49
25

2064.6.4

12

13

2064.6.4

14

22

36

2064.6.15

12

13

25

2064.9.24

15

16

31

2064.6.6

6

19

25

2063.11.7

37

34

71

2064.9.23

12

15

27

2063.12.18

20

16

36

2063.6.2

10

15

25

2063.2.20

18

16

34

2064.9.15

16

20

36

2064.11.23

10

21

31

2063

17

13

30

Ê

8

16

24

2063.02.01

14

11

25

2065.01.21

18

18

36

Ê

14

9

23

2064.06.06

11

25

36

063.01.015

16

4

20

063.10.19

26

10

36

2063

11

12

23

2062.06.16

21

4

25

2063.02.16

7

14

21

2063.08.20

14

22

36

2064.09.20

11

14

25

2065.03.04

14

22

36

2065.02.01

16

20

36

2063.08.15

10

7

17
25

2065.03.19

9

16

2065.01.14

19

17

36

2065.01.28

18

18

36

2065.10.01

12

21

33

2063.05.28

9

8

17

178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214

afn ;d"xsf] gfd
ljBfHof]lt afn Sna
l;4Hof]lt afn Sna
OR5's afn Sna
xl/ofnL afn Sna
Od[lt afn Sna
;+ud afn Sna
uf}td a'4 k|ultzLn afn Sna
k|ltef afn Sna
;"of]{bo afn Sna
gf}nf] laxfgL afn Sna
lzjzlQm afn Sna
xl/ofnL afn Sna
cfbz{ afn Sna
;u/dfyf afn Sna
l;4fy{ afn Sna
;f+:s[lts afn Sna
gj l;h{gf afn ;d"x
sf]lknf ;+o'Qm afn ;d"x
lxdr'nL afn ;d"x
;[hgf afn Sna
n]s a]+;L afn Sna
hnk|fxL afn Sna
zflGtbLk afn Sna
gjhfu/0f afn ;d"x
:6f/ o'gfO6]8 afn Sna
eujtL afn Sna
nfnLu'/fFz afn Sna
nfoG; afn Sna
gj k|f]T;fxg afn Sna
g/;xL afn Sna
;"of]{bo afn Sna
;/:jtL afn Sna
;"o{Hof]lt afn Sna
gd"gf afn Sna
u0f]z afn Sna
sf]lknf afn Sna
Pstf afn Sna

uflj;÷g=kf=
ef/ltk'/
ef/ltk'/
ef/ltk'/
ltnsk'/
ltnsk'/
ltnsk'/
e"hxjf
ef/ltk'/
u'l7;"o{k'/f
klSnxjf
?rfª
klSnxjf
?rfª
g/d
g/d
g/d
g/d
g/d
g/d
g/d
g/d
?rfª
;f]dgL
tD;/Lof
/hx/
b]jufFj
/dk'/jf
hxbf
/hx/
g/;xL
klSnxjf
u'l7k|;f}gL
Bf}jfbL
s'l8of
u'l7;"o{k'/f
cd/f}6
;f]dgL

:yfkgf

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf

2063.11.21

9

13

22

2064.02.20

7

16

23

2062.02.05

12

14

26

2065.01.19

21

15

36

2065.1.27

12

13

25

2065.1.28

2

10

12

2065.04.28

13

15

28

2063.12.26

10

16

26

2065.4.22

13

15

28

2065.03.5

14

11

25

2058

16

16

32

2065.9.17

11

25

36

2063.4.01

20

22

42

2063.11.21

8

14

22

2064.12.3

19

17

36

2064.06.1

9

12

21

2063.03.01

21

19

40

2063.06.11

6

12

18

2064.3.01

29

10

39

2064.7.17

24

27

51

2065.7.12

16

17

33

2065.5.24

36

23

59

2065.4.21

29

24

53

2055.5.18

16

19

35

2065.6.01

17

23

40
25

2065.8.6

12

13

2064.12.21

14

22

36

2065.5.22

7

18

25
25

2065.3.06

11

14

2065.8.02

14

22

36

2065.4.03

12

13

25

2065.8.02

16

20

36

2065.2.03

17

19

36

2065.5.28

22

14

36

2065.5.05

18

18

36

2064.12.5

14

22

36

2065.7.25

30

42

72

37

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

btf{
g+=

btf{
g+=
215
216
217
218
219
220

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251

38

afn ;d"xsf] gfd
pBfg afn Sna
xft]dfnf] afn Sna
phfnf blnt afn Sna
cv08 afn Sna
hfu[lt afn Sna
dx]Gb| lg=df=lj= afn ljsf; ;d"x
;/:jtL afn Sna
hfu[lt afn Sna
;+ud afn Sna
gjb'uf{ afn Sna
zxLb :d[lt afn Sna
k|ltef z}lIfs afn ;d"x
1fg afn ;d"x
gjb'uf{ afn ;d"x
lzjd\ afn ;d"x
gd"gf afn Sna
k|ltef afn d~r
b]jLdfO{ afn o'jf Sna
k|ultzLn afn Sna
xg'dfg afn Sna
k/f]ksf/ u|Lg afn Sna
dfF eujtL afn Sna
ldqtf afn Sna
afnlxt afn Sna
gjb'uf{ afn Sna
hfu/0f afn Sna
pbo afn Sna
cf]d zflGt afn Sna
;f]dgfy afn Sna
afnsNof0f afn Sna
dgsfdgf afn Sna
zflGt afn Sna
gjls/0f afn Sna
cfbz{ sNof0f afn Sna
gd"gf afn Sna
d'gfn afn Sna
r]tgf afn Sna

uflj;÷g=kf=
;f]dgL
hxbf
kfNxL
hxbf
u'l7k|;f}gL
s'l8of
b]jufFj
u'l7;"o{k'/f
;/fjn
s'Zdf
lzjdlGb/
b]jr'nL
;f]dgL
;f]dgL
;f]dgL
a]gLdl0fk'/
s'df/jlt{
x/k'/
/fdgu/
/dk'/jf
/dk'/jf
/dk'/jf
/dk'/jf
cd/f}6
;'gjn
;'gjn
;'gjn
b]p/fnL
;'gjn
e"hxjf
;f]dgL
s'Zdf
;'gjn
hd'lgof
;'gjn
;'gjn
;'gjn

:yfkgf

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf

2065.1.20

12

24

36

2065.8.02

19

17

36

2065.1.26

11

14

25

2062.1.01

15

21

36

2065.6.01

6

5

11

2065.9.07

18

18

36

064.12.12

13

23

36

20645.2.2

27

69

96

Ê

16

20

36

2065.10.9

9

27

36

2065.7.28

17

19

36

2064.1.22

20

16

36

2065.10.12

7

29

36

2065.10.12

10

24

34

2065.10.12

15

21

36

2065.3.10

17

19

36

2062.06.12

20

16

36

2065.11.05

10

26

36

2065.8.04

10

7

17

2065.10.14

7

29

36

2065.11.02

26

10

36

2065.10.25

10

26

36

2065.10.11

22

25

47
34

2065.7.27

18

16

2065.8.03

17

13

30

2065.8.01

21

17

38

2065.7.21

19

17

36

2063.01.01

19

17

36

2065.07.22

22

15

37

2065.02.23

18

18

36

Ê

19

12

31

2065.10.16

17

19

36

2065.1.25

21

15

36

2065.05.03

18

18

36

2065.07.26

22

14

36

2065.8.4

14

22

36

2064.9.27

13

12

25

252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf

afn ;d"xsf] gfd

uflj;÷g=kf=

:yfkgf

ags§L afn Sna
/]l8sn afn Sna
l;h{gzLn afn ;d"x
ljZjf; afn Sna
/Tg afn Sna
lzjk'/u9L afn Sna
lbJoHof]lt afn ;d"x
cGgk"0f{ afn Sna
;+ud afn Sna
>[hgf afn Snj
kfNxL eujtL afn Snj
l;4fy{ afn Sna
gjb'uf{ afn Snj
cfbz{ afn Snj
;/:jtL afn Sna
l:j6 l/d]Da/
ljZjzflGt afnSnj
dfF b'uf{ afn Snj
;[hgzLn km"njf/L afn Snj
afnsNof0f afn Sna
OGb|]0fL afn Snj
df]xDdlbof afn Snj
lj=lk=afn Snj
vf0fb]jL afnSnj
1fgHof]lt afn ;d"x
hgHof]lt afn ;d"x
;xf/f blnt afn Snj
lIflth afn ljsf; Snj
nfnLu'/fF; zflGt afn d~r
lqzlQm afn Snj
gf/fo0fL afn ljsf; d~r
afNdLsL Sna
xl/ofnL afn Sna
5xf/L afn Sna
lzj u+uf afn Sna
dgsfdgf afn Sna
;g/fOh afn Sna

lqj]l0f ;':tf
klSnxjf
lbAok'/L
ef/ltk'/
u'l7;"o{k'/f
lqj]l0f ;':tf
;f]dgL
/fdgu/
u'l7;"o{k'/f
u'l7;"o{k'/f
kfNxL
e"hxjf
e"hxjf
e"hxjf
e"hxjf
b]p/fnL
gofFj]nxfgL
/dk'/jf
d}gf3f6
d}gf3f6
;f]dgL
e"hxjf
u'l7k|;f}gL
b]p/fnL
/hx/
;/fjn
;/fjn
x/k'/
d}gf3f6
a8x/f b'jf}lnof
lqj]l0f ;':tf
g/;xL
g/;xL
g/;xL
g/;xL
g/;xL
g/;xL

2065.11.24

3

49

52

2065.11.10

32

29

61
25

2065.12.22

9

16

2064.10.7

18

18

36

2065.5.22

14

22

36

2065.11.24

21

15

36

2065.10.17

41

32

73

2064.9.20

37

30

67

2066.1.10

13

26

39

2065.5.10

12

24

36

066.3.5

13

23

36

066.2.13

22

29

51

066.2.8

12

16

28

066.2.7

9

16

25

066.2.6

8

17

25

2066.1.1

19

17

36

2061.7.14

15

19

34

065.10.26

Ê

26

26

063.5.17

30

35

65
49

2063

34

15

2065.10.15

11

25

36

066.5.2

20

16

36

2065.11.9

17

19

36

2061.1.1

15

18

33

065.12.31

18

11

29
25

064.6.5

17

8

066.1.18

3

18

21

2066.5.24

6

13

19

2063.5.25

71

52

123

2066.5.20

25

0

25

2066.5.15

13

23

36

2066.3.20

4

7

11

2066.3.20

7

9

16

2066.3.20

7

9

16

2066.3.20

5

10

15

2066.3.20

10

5

15

2066.3.24

5

6

11

39

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

btf{
g+=

btf{
g+=
289
290
291
292
293
294

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325

40

afn ;d"xsf] gfd

uflj;÷g=kf=

gjhLjg afn Sna
;'o{zlQm afn Sna
ljqmd af}l4s afn Sna
jflnsf afn Sna
nfnLu'/fF; zflGt afn Sna
>L lbJo afnSna
gjhfu[lt afn Sna
;+ud afn Sna
lqd'lt{ afn Sna
aflNdsL afn Sna
lznlznf afn Sna
hghfu/0f afn Sna
cUgL jfo' afn Sna
w|'jtf/f afn Sna
lbk Hof]tL afn Sna
lz/yfg afn Sna
rGb| Hof]tL afn Sna
;/:jtL afn Sna
;'o{Hof]lt afn Sna
:6f/ afn Sna
gf}nf] ljxfgL afn Sna
l;4fy{ afn Sna
unfj blnt afn Sna
l;4fy{ afn Sna
lzjzlQm afn Sna
gj lzlz/ afn Sna
Ê
gf/fo0fL afn Sna
;dfh sNof0fsf/L afn Sna
k/f;L afn Sna
cfbz{ afn Sna
/fwfs[i0f afn Sna
;+ud afn Sna
kz'kltgfy afn Sna
l;h{gf afn Sna
lztn afn Sna
nIdL afn Sna

g/;xL
g/;xL
g/;xL
g/;xL
g/;xL
g/;xL
g/;xL
dg/L
dg/L
hd'lgof
hf}jf/L
hf}jf/L
hf}jf/L
hf}jf/L
hf}jf/L
u'l7;"o{k'/f
/dk'/jf
hd'lgof
a8x/f b'jf}lnof
/dk'/jf
/hx/
/dk'/jf
x/k'/
aGhl/of
hd'lgof
k+rgu/
Ê
s'l8of
a8x/f b'jf}lnof
/fdu|fd gkf
u'l7k|;f}gL
u'l7k|;f}gL
u'l7k|;f}gL
u'l7k|;f}gL
u'l7k|;f}gL
u'l7k|;f}gL
u'l7k|;f}gL

:yfkgf

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf

2066.3.20

6

9

15

2066.3.20

2

13

15

2066.3.20

6

9

15

2066.3.25

24

23

47

2066.6.16

27

41

68

2066.4.1

22

40

62

2066.6.10

12

12

24
25

2066.2.10

16

9

2065.12.28

14

12

26

2065.3.9

8

12

20

2066.5.23

26

19

45

2063.12.3

17

13

30

2066.7.11

10

22

32

2066.1.1

16

20

36

2064.8.10

17

19

36

2065.5.22

24

26

50

2066.3.29

5

20

25

2066.5.12

44

31

75

2066.7.2

6

21

27

2066.3.20

3

12

15

2058.9.19

27

24

51

2066.2.15

5

18

23

2066.8.05

11

14

25

2061.5.09

7

10

17

2066.2.24

3

33

36

2064.12.23

15

11

26

Ê

0

0

0

2065.11.4

20

16

36

2066.6.26

0

28

28

2066.8.4

11

14

25

2066.9.3

1

24

25

2066.9.3

19

31

50

2066.9.3

4

21

25

2066.9.3

8

42

50

2066.9.4

7

16

23

2066.9.4

7

18

25

2066.9.3

11

39

50

326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362

afn ;d"xsf] gfd
sfdgf afn Sna
1fgHof]lt afn Sna
;Totf/f afn Sna
sf]lknf afn Sna
gj k|ltef afn Sna
;+ud afn Sna
lbJo Hof]lt afn Sna
1fg Hof]lt afn Snj
zflGt cleofg afn Sna
afn clwsf/ ;d'x
kk'n/ afn Sna
sf]lknf afn Sna
lqzlSt afn Sna
w'|d k|nxfb afn Sna
sflnsf afn Sna
;tf]ifLdfF afn Sna
zflGt afn Sna
OGb|0fL afn Sna
]hgsNof0f afn Sna
;/:jtL afn Sna
gu/8fF8f df=lj=afn ;d'x
s[i0f afn Sna
/fwfs[i0f afn Sna
zflGt afn Sna
OGb|Hof]tL afn Sna
nIdL afn Sna
;do afn Sna
lztn afn Sna
rGb|;'o{ afn Sna
u0f]z afn Sna
;'o{ afn Sna
ho dfF ;/:jtL afn Sna
zflFGt lgs]tg afn Sna
;'k/:6f/ afn Snj
ho dfF sf]6xL afn Snj
/fdhfgsL afn Snj
eujtL afn Sna

uflj;÷g=kf=
u'l7k|;f}gL
s'Zdf
g/d
b]jufFj
b]jufFj
g/;xL
k|tfkk'/
g/;xL
g/;xL
klSnxjf
u]/dL
k+rgu/
;f]dgL
a8x/f b'jf}lnof
;/fjn
x/k'/
/hx/
/hx/
s'l8of
s'Zdf
g/d
u]/dL
u]/dL
u]/dL
b]p/fnL
7"nf]v}/6jf
z'qmf}nL
a}bf}nL
b]jr'nL
u'l7k|;f}gL
b]jr'nL
7"nf]v}/6jf
s'Zdf
/dk'/jf
/dk'/jf
x/k'/
x/k'/

:yfkgf

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf

2066.9.4

20

29

49

2066.7.18

12

22

34
45

2066.3.15

23

22

2066.10.16

26

0

26

2066.1.4

25

0

25

2065.1.20

6

8

14

2065.2.5

5

6

11

2065.3.6

5

8

13

2065.3.5

3

11

14

2064.7.5

2

27

29

2066.11.14

9

16

25

2066.07.01

15

18

33

2066.9.15

5

29

34

Ê

6

9

15

Ê

22

14

36

2066.12.11

31

30

61

Ê

28

25

53

Ê

0

0

0

2066.12.18

13

17

30

2066.12.04

14

19

33

2066.11.14

23

30

53

2066.8.06

5

29

34

2066.7.29

0

54

54

2066.8.6

0

61

61

2066.8.01

15

8

23
26

2066.12.04

3

23

2066.11.7

1

10

11

2066.12.21

8

28

36
30

2066.12.22

16

14

2066.11.28

8

28

36

2066.08.15

16

14

30

2066.09.01

5

20

25

2066.9.24

5

20

25

2066.12.18

6

19

25

2065.12.18

7

18

25

2066.12.5

5

20

25

2066.12.5

16

20

36

41

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

btf{
g+=

btf{
g+=
363
364
365
366
367
368

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399

42

afn ;d"xsf] gfd
gjb'uf{ afn Snj
ejfgL afn Snj
l;h{gzLn afn Snj
k|eft afn Snj
sf]6xL afn Snj
;/:jtL afn Snj
ho dfF sfF0f/ afn Snj
zflGt afn Snj
lzjz+s/ afn Snj
a;Gt afn Snj
lzjzlQm afn Sna
;]eg :6f/ afn Snj
/fli6«o afn Snj
1fg]Zj/ afn Snj
gofF ls/0f zflGt afn Snj
/fw]Zofd lzz' 1fg afn Snj
k|ult afn Snj
uf}tda'4 afn Snj
lzjzlQm afn Sna
sdn afn Snj
hghfu[lt afn Snj
;'o{ afn Sna
>Ls[i0f afn Snj
;Ifd afn Snj
>L 1fgHof]lt afnSna
>L a;Gt afnSna
>L ;]jg :6f/ afnSna
>L l;h{gzLn afnSna
>L a'4Hof]lt afnSna
>L gGbg afnSna
>L sf]lknf afnSna
>L lzjzlQm afnSna
>L ;/:jtL afnSna
>L /fwfs[i0f afnSna
>L hgzlQm afnSna
>L ;/:jtL afnSna
>L ;'gjn nf]6;g afnSna

uflj;÷g=kf=
x/k'/
x/k'/
k|ultgu/
a}bf}nL
b]jufFj
aGhl/of
z'qmf}nL
/fdu|fd gkf
a}bf}nL
a}bf}nL
7"nf]v}/6jf
7"nf]v}/6jf
7"nf]v}/6jf
7"nf]v}/6jf
gofFj]nxfgL
a}bf}nL
dg/L
/fdk'/ v8f}gf
/fdk'/ v8f}gf
/fdk'/ v8f}gf
7"nf]v}/6jf
7"nf]v}/6jf
7"nf]v}/6jf
b]jufFj
xs'O{
/fdu|fd gkf
xs'O{
;gO{
xs'O{
xs'O{
xs'O{
;gO{
;gO{
;gO{
dg/L
;'gjn
;'gjn

:yfkgf

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf

2066.12.12

6

30

36

2066.12.9

10

26

36

2058.07.05

22

7

29

2067.01.17

13

23

36

2067.01.11

16

38

54

2067.01.27

9

3

12

2067.01.13

6

20

26
22

2066.12.23

10

12

2067.01.14

18

18

36

2067.01.14

14

22

36

2067.12.15

40

4

44

2067.12.08

8

17

25

2067.12.09

4

21

25

2066..12.4

9

16

25

2065.10.24

16

20

36

2067.02.24

11

24

35

2066.12.04

22

21

43

2067.02.25

12

16

28

2067.02.02

16

10

26

2066.11.29

5

21

26

2066.12.04

14

11

25

2066.02.05

3

22

25

2066.12.07

10

15

25
26

2067.01.22

0

26

2067.04.13

11

12

23

2066.12.22

22

20

42

2067.4.15

8

14

22

2067.4.14

14

13

27

2067.4.13

10

10

20

2067.4.14

7

17

24

2067.4.14

10

16

26

2067.4.15

7

20

27
27

2067.4.15

6

21

2067.4.14

7

19

26

2067.1.13

12

15

27

2066.11.21

18

13

31

2066.10.19

11

14

25

400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430

afn ;d"xsf] gfd
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L
>L

afO;L dfF afnSna
;/:jtL afnSna
hgsNof0f afnSna
:6f/ afnSna
;/:jtL afnSna
lbJo afnSna
d'gnfO{6 afnSna
1fgHof]lt afnSna
:jfnDaL afnSna
blnt hfu/0f afnSna
;fttf/f afnSna
u0f]z blnt afnSna
blnt k|eft afnSna
blnt k|ult afnSna
blnt 1fg Hof]lt afnSna
;xf/f afnSna
gd"gf afnSna
ljZjHof]lt afnSna
;kmn afnSna
e[s'6L afnSna
;[hgzLn afnSna
gGb efph' l;h{glzn afnSna
gofF g]kfn afnSna
ldlnh'nL afnSna
;"o{ls/0f afnSna
s'df/jtL{ afnSna
k|ult afnSna
aflNdls afnSna
gf/fo0fL k|f=lj= afnSna
gjn afn clwsf/ d+r
gjl;h{gf afnSna

uflj;÷g=kf=
;gO{
dg/L
Bf}jfbL
dg/L
lzjdlGb/
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/
tD;/Lof
z'qmf}nL
s'l8of
z'qmf}nL
u'l7;"o{k'/f
s'l8of
s'l8of
?kf}lnof
;/fjn
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/
sf]Nx'jf
/fdu|fd gkf
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/
k|ultgu/

:yfkgf

;b:o
aflnsf afns hDdf

2067.4.16

7

16

23

2066.10.10

11

14

25

2066.12.3

24

20

44

2067.3.2

8

17

25

2067.4.13

10

12

22

2058

5

25

30

2067.2.9

10

15

25
48

2063.8.9

24

24

2067.6.11

14

13

27

2065.11.10

7

13

20

2067.3.6

4

7

11

2065.1.10

4

13

17

2065.10.5

10

15

25

2065.12.5

6

17

23

2065.1.30

15

9

24

2065.3.28

3

15

18

2058

33

18

51

2067.2.21

2

9

11

2067.4.22

14

12

26

2067.1.17

14

13

27

2063.4.18

14

13

27

2067.02.12

14

23

37

2067.7.4

3

19

22
30

2058.11.16

11

19

2058.11.20

16

15

31

2058.10.11

102

89

191

2058.10.26

15

15

30

2058.11.21

18

20

38

2058.10.29

21

17

38

2067.2.28

11

26

37

2065.6.30

13

10

23

43

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

btf{
g+=

afnSnax? sxfF slt 5g\ <
450

afns / aflnsfsf] ;+Vof
ljBfno
;d'bfo
hDdf

430.00

400
350

16000

15082.00

14000

afns
aflnsf
hDdf

12000
302.00

300

10000

250

8339.00

8000
200

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

150

6743.00

6000
128.00

4000

100
50

2000

0

0

kl5Nnf] & jif{df lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf cfa4 x'g]
afnSnax?sf] jflif{s qmd
450

430.00

400
350
300
250

@))%
@))^
@))&
@))*
@))(
@)!)
hDdf

200
148.00

150
100

78.00

64.00

50

42.00

63.00

35.00

0

afn Snasf] uflj;:t/Lo ;+hfn /x]sf uflj;x?
8]8ufpF, g/d, u'l7k|;f}gL, klSnxjf, k|tfkk'/, ?rfª, /fsfr'nL, u'7L;"ok{ /" f, a}bf}nL,
/fdk'/ v8f}gf, ldy's/d, x'K;]sf]6, ;f]dgL, /dk'/jf, s'l8of, /s'jf, b]p/fnL, hd'lgof,
x/k'/, cd|f6} , ef/tLk'/, d}gf3f6, ;gO, s'idf, ltnsk'/, hf}af/L, gofF a]nxfgL, lqj]0fL
;':tf, ;'qmf}nL, :jf7L, cv{nf, gf/fo0fL, ;/fjn, 7"nf] v}/6jf, hxbf, wf}afbL, a]lgdlgk'/,
g/;xL, e'hxjf, tD;l/of, ;'gjn, dg/L, u]/dL
-afn Snasf] tYofª\s / dflyNnf tLg tYof+s lrqx? lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltdf @)^& sflQs
d;fGt;Dd cfa4tf x'bF f afn Snax?n] pknAw u/fPsf] ljj/0fdf cfwfl/t 5g\ ._

44

&= cGTodf,
Affn Snasf] ;'gf}nf] eljiosf] nflu cWoogsf ;'emfjx?

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ
Ÿ

afn Sna Pp6f v's'nf] Pj+ sdhf]/ w/ftndf l;h{gf ePsf] ;+:yf
xf] h;nfO{ ToxL :j?kd} x's{g] cj;/ l;h{gf u/fpg' k5{ .
u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf Pj+ ;/f]sf/jfnfx?n] afn SnanfO{ k/lge{/ agfpg'
x'bF g} ;fy} cfkm\gf] lglZrt p2]Zo k|flKtsf] nflu ;xfos x'g] u/L afn
Sna vf]Ng' klg x'Fb}g .
g]kfn ;/sf/n] afn Sna;Fu ;DalGwt gLlt lgod agfpFbf Tof]
lhNnf Pj+ s]Gb|Lo :t/sf lgsfo;Fu geO{ :yfgLo lgsfox?;Fu
-uflj;÷ljBfno_ a9\tf ;dGjo x'g] u/L lgdf{0f ul/g'k5{ .
afn Sna btf{sf] qmddf k/:k/ wf/0ffx? NofOg' x'Fb}g . l5§} afn
Sna ldtj]oL btf{÷cfj4tf k|s[of NofOg'k5{ .
afn Sna afn clwsf/ ;+/If0f Pj+ k|j4{gsf] ;fy;fy} afnaflnsfsf]
l;h{gzLn lasf; ug]{ / eflj sl/c/sf nflu hu a;fNg] ynf] klg
xf] eGg] ;a}n] a'em\g'k5{ .

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

Ÿ

v'Nnf lb;fd'Qm If]q 3f]if0ff ug]{ cleofgdf cv{nf uflj;sf
:yfgLo afnSnasf afnaflnsfx?

45

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

l6kf]6

46