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l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

xfd|f] egfO{

afn Sna ca klxn]h:tf] gf}nf] s'/f /x]g . kl5Nnf] b'O{bzsdf g]kfndf afn Snasf] b"|t ljsf; ePsf] 5 . xfdL :jo+klg To;sf] s]xL xb;Dd ;fIfL 5f}+. xfdLn] afn Snadf sfd ubf{gjnk/f;L lhNnfleq afn Snasf] ;ª\Vof Ps ;o eGbf klg sd lyof] . clxn] em08}kfFr ;osf] xf/fxf/Ldf k'lu;s]sf] 5 . oBlk afn Snasf] ljsf;qmddf logLx?sf] a9\bf] ;ª\Vofn] dfq km/skg NofPsf] 5}gÙ pgLx?sf cfGtl/s ;+/rgf, sfo{qmdsf z}nL, ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx? / sfo{qmdsf bfo/fn] afn Sna cjwf/0ffdf gofF cfofd yk]sf] 5 .

o; cWoog k':tsn] ToxL ablnFbf] cfofdnfO{oxfFx?dfem Nofpg] k|oTg u/]sf] 5 . tLg tn] lhNnfsf] ?kdf lrlgg] t/fO{, leqL dw]; / kxf8 ldn]/ ag]sf] gjnk/f;Ln] g]kfnsf] lxdfn afx]ssf] ;du| kl/j]znfO{k|ltlalDat ug]{x'Fbf o; lhNnfnfO{cfwf/ dfg]/ ;du| g]kfnsf] afn Snasf] cj:yf emNsfpg klg vf]lhPsf] xf] . …afn Snadf lsg nfUg] <Ú, …afn Snan] sltv]/ xfd|}nflu ;d:of l;h{gf u5{<Ú, …afn Snasf ;fyLx? s;/L ;+u7g ;+rfng ul//x]sf 5g <Ú, …xfd|f sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/x? s] s] x'g\<Ú h:tf afn Snasf ;b:ox?sf cg]sg lh1f;f o; k':tsdfkm{t w]/}xb;Dd d]l6g]5g\. To;afx]s afn SnanfO{;fem]bf/sf] ?kdf sfd ug]{;+3;+:yfx?n] cfufdL lbgdf afn Sna ;DalGw gLlt lgod / sfo{qmdx? agfpFbf o; cWoognfO{cfwf/ dfg]/ cfkm\gf sdL sdhf]/Ldf ;'wf/ NofpFb}yk k|efjsf/L 9+uaf6 cl3 a9\g ;xof]u k'Ug]5 eGg] xfd|f] clek|fo xf] .

gjnk/f;L lhNnfsf] afn Snasf] OltxfF;df of] k':ts Pp6f P]ltxfFl;s b:tfj]hsf] ?kdf t /xg] 5 g}To; afx]s b]ze/sf cGo lhNnfsf afn Snax?n] ;d]t o;nfO{ ;xof]uL k':tssf ?kdf lng]5g\. /, afn Sna ;DalGw hfgsf/L lng rxfg] hf] sf]xLsf nflu ;d]t of] k':ts pkof]uL dflgg]5 .

xfdLnfO{o; k':ts tof/ ug]{qmddf lg/Gt/ ;dLkdf /x]/ ;Nnfx ;'emfj Pj+pTk|]/0ff lbg'x'g] k5f}6]kg pGd'ng ;dfhsf zflns/fd kf08] / lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltsf lji0f' nfld5fg] ljz]if wGojfbsf kfq x'g'x'G5 . To;afx]s o; k':ts tof/Lsf qmddf lkmN8df hfFbf ;xof]u tyf ;dGjo ug'{x'g] ;Dk"0f{dxfg'efjx? / ljz]ifu/L afn Snadf ljut / jt{dfgdf sfd ug'{x'g] ;Dk"0f{JolQmx? h;sf] pT;fx / nugzLntfn] ubf{g} o; k':ts hGdg] cj;/ kfof], jxfFx? ;a}k|lt xfd|f] ljz]if :g]x tyf wGojfb 5 .

cfufdL ;+:s/0f yk kl/dfh{g;fy Nofpg ;sf/fTds ;Nnfxx? ;bf :jfutof]Uo /xg]5g\.

Ÿ cWoogstf{x?

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

ljifo;"rL

;f/;+If]k != kl/ro afn Sna s_ ;+u7gsf] pTklt v_ ;+u7gsf] cfGtl/s ;+/rgf g]kfndf afn Snasf] ljsf;qmd s_ hfu[lt afn Sna :yfkgf klxn] v_ hfu[lt afn Sna :yfkgf kl5 @= afn Snasf];+/rgf / ;+rfng k|lqmof afn Snasf] ;b:o ;+Vof afn Snasf sfd afn Snan] afnaflnsfsf hLjgdf NofPsf] /fd|f kl/jt{gx? afn Sna;Fu} afn kqsfl/tf

#=

$=

%=

^=

afn Sna ;+rfng k|lqmofdf cfPsf r'gf}tL k':tf x:tfGt/0fsf] cefj afn Snadf x'g]k|hftflGqs cEof; lgoldt a}7s, lgjf{rg, k|:tfj÷cg'df]bg, ;dfg'kflts ;xeflutf, sfo{of]hgf afn Snasf] btf{ ;kmntfsf syfx? afn Snasf]ljwfg lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltdf ;"rLs[t afn Snax?sf]ljj/0f

sfo{of]hgf afn Snasf] btf{ ;kmntfsf syfx? afn Snasf]ljwfg lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltdf ;"rLs[t afn Snax?sf]ljj/0f
sfo{of]hgf afn Snasf] btf{ ;kmntfsf syfx? afn Snasf]ljwfg lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltdf ;"rLs[t afn Snax?sf]ljj/0f
sfo{of]hgf afn Snasf] btf{ ;kmntfsf syfx? afn Snasf]ljwfg lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltdf ;"rLs[t afn Snax?sf]ljj/0f

&= cWoogsf ;'emfjx?

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

;f/;+If]k

g]kfndf afn Snasf] ljsf;qmdnfO{afn ;xeflutftkm{ljZjdf ePsf yf]/}/fd|f cEof;x?dWo] x]l/G5 . afnaflnsfdf ;f+u7lgs sfo{k|s[ofsf] ljsf; ;fg}b]lv x'Fbf b]zn] hGdfpg] efjL g]t[Tjx?df k|hftflGqs Jojxf/ / cfr/0fsf] ljsf; x'g k'Ub5 . csf]{tkm{;dfhdf afnaflnsfx? afn clwsf/sf If]qdf ;r]tgf hufpg], afn clwsf/ k|a4{g ug]{ / clwsf/ xgg ePsf 7fpFdf To;nfO{ Go"lgs/0fb]lv pGd'ng ug]{;Ddsf] sfdsf nflu bafa ;d"xsf] ?kdf sfd ugf{n] afn clwsf/ ;+/If0f / k|a4{gdf 6]jf k'U5 . o;sf cnfjf afnaflnsfx? :jo+ddf afn Snas}sf/0f cfPsf /fd|f pbxf/0fx? klg 5g\. JolQmTj ljsf;, ;/;kmfO{b]lv lnP/ l;h{gzLntfsf] ljsf;df afn Sna ;xfos ag]sf] 5 eg] ;fg}b]lv s'nt / lj;+ultdf km:g] sfd lgs}sd x'g k'u]sf] 5 . o;f] eGb}df afn Snasf cWofF/f] kf6f] g}gePsf eg] xf]Ogg\. afn Snasf sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/nfO{olsg ug{ g;Sbf pgLx?sf] k9fO{df x«f; cfpg], of}g / of}ghGo ljs[ltdf km:g] / ;fg}b]lv ;]jfd'vL eGbf klg k};fd'vL cfr/0fx? ljsf; x'g]h:tf w]/yf]/ ;d:ofx? klg b]lvPsf 5g\. afn Snasf ;sf/fTds kIfb]lv r"gf}tL;Ddsf] ;du| s'/fnfO{o; cWoog k':tsdf ;d]l6Psf] 5 . g]kfndf afn Snasf] If]qdf cu|0fL tyf pbxf/0fLo dflgPsf] gjnk/f;L lhNnfnfO{cfwf/ dfg]/ b]zs}afn Snasf] ;du| lrq ptfg{vf]Hg' o;sf] ljz]iftf xf] . If]qkmn, hftLo, ef}uf]lns, ;fF:s[lts cfwf/df klg ljljwtfk"0f{ x'gfn] gjnk/f;L lhNnfnfO{g}o; cWoogsf] nflu pko'Qm lhNnf rog ul/Psf] xf] .

!= kl/ro v08

afn SnaM

afn Sna afnaflnsfn] l;h{gf u/]sf] ;+u7g xf] h;\:yfkgfsf] cfwf/ k|foM v's'nf] x'g]u5{/ lj:tf/}cfkm\g}cg'ejaf6 l;Sb}, ;lRrFb}/ c?sf] b]vfl;sL u/]/ To;n] Jojl:yt ;+u7gsf] ?k lng k'U5 . To;}n] afn SnanfO{afn efjgfx?sf] ;xL k|ltlglwTj x'g] plrt d~rsf] ?kdf a'em\g ;lsG5 . cfkm\gf efjgfTds cleJolQm / l;h{gzLn kIfx? phfu/ ug]{cj;/ ToxfFafnaflnsfn] kfpg] u5{g\ eg]pgLx?df ;dfhk|ltsf]bfloTjaf]wsf]ljsf; x'g k'U5 . ;du| ?kdf afnaflnsfx? 3/leqsf] jftfj/0faflx/ lg:s]/, /]l8of]÷l6eL / lel8of] u]d h:tf sfddf dfq gcNem]/ Jojxf/xfl/s b'lgofdf /Db}:j:y lqmofsnfkx?dfkm{t cfkm\gf] bfo/f lj:tf/ ug]{cj;/ afn Snadfkm{t kfpF5g\.

1
1

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

s_ ;+u7gsf] pTklQM ;dfhdf cg]sg ljrf/, cfr/0f / ?lr ePsf afnaflnsfx? x'G5g\. ;fg}df cfkm\g}3/leqsf] kl/j]zdf /dfpg] pgLx? la:tf/}lxF8\g, af]Ng ;Sg] ePkl5 cfkm\gf] ;fyLx?sf] ;s{n la:tf/ u5{g\. pgLx? k9\g] :s'ndf, v]Ng], e]6\g] rf}tf/f, rf}/df x]nd]n a9\b}hfFbf cfkm\gf ;femf ?lrx? klxrfg ug{k'Ub5g\. h;s} sf/0f ;+u7gsf] ljsf; x'g k'U5 . /, ToxL ;fgf] ;d"xsf ;b:ox?n] cfkm\gf cGo ;fyLx?nfO{klg ;d"xdf ld;fpFb}n}hfG5g\/ cGttM ToxL ;d"x g}afn Sna aGg k'U5 .

Vf_ ;+u7gsf] cfGtl/s ;+/rgfM ;d"xdf slxNo}klg Ps}vfnsf afnaflnsfx? x'Fb}gg\. ;a}k|foM km/s–km/s Ifdtf / bIftf af]s]sf x'G5g\. s;}df afx\o ?kdf g]t[Tj ug]{Ifdtf x'G5 t s;}df cfGtl/s Joj:yfkgsf] . s;}n] b:tfj]hLs/0f ug{hfg]sf x'G5g\t s;}n] cfly{s Joj:yfkg . o:tf cg]svfn] Pj+km/skm/s Ifdtf / bIftfs}sf/0f afn Snan] k"0f{cfsf/ kfpF5 . ;d"xdf /x]s}sf/0f pgLx? cfkm\gf] Ifdtfsf] klxrfg ug]{cj;/ klg kfpF5g\. oBlk ;a}n] cfkm}cfkm\gf] Ifdtf k|bz{g gug{;S5g\ h;sf sf/0f ;fyLx?n] klxrfg u/fOlbg] Ifdtfn] klg pgLx?df g]t[Tj ljsf; u/fO/fv]sf] x'G5 .

clwsf+z afn Snasf] cfGtl/s ;+/rgfx? z'?df cfk;L 5nkmn / ;xdltsf cfwf/df lgdf{0f x'G5g\eg] la:tf/}To;n] cGo k|hftflGqs k|s[ofx? -lgjf{rg / WjgL ;dy{g_ klg ln+b}hfG5 .

g]kfndf afnSnasf]lasf;qmdM

afn Snasf] lasf;qmdnfO{ oxfFb'O{ v08df ljefhg u/]/ x]g'{ plrt x'G5 . gjnk/f;Ld} u7g ePsf] hfu[lt afn Sna–g]kfn clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff;fy u7g ePsf] g]kfnsf] klxnf] afn Sna xf] h;otf afnSnax?sf] ljsf;qmd a9]sf] kfOG5 . To;df ;b:ox? afnaflnsf g}ePtf klg To;cl3 klg leGg}tl/sfaf6 afnaflnsfsf ;+u7gx? lqmoflzn ePsf] kfOG5 . To;}n] hfu[lt afn SnanfO{ dWoljGb" dfg]/ To;cl3 / To;kl5sf] afn Snasf] lasf;qmdnfO{oxfFk|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . s_ hfu[lt afn Sna :yfkgf x'g'eGbf klxn] To;cl3 afnaflnsfsf ;+u7gx? k|foM ljBfno xftfleq s]lGb|t x'Gy] . h'lgo/ /]8qm; ;s{n, :sfp6 o;sf k|d'v pbxf/0f x'g\. To;afx]s ;fF:s[lts ;d"x, v]ns'b Pj+cGo cltl/Qm lqmofsnfk ;+rfng ug{sf] nflu ;bgx? Uf7g x'Gy] .

2
2

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

pgx?sf]d'Vo sfd ljBfno xftfleq ;x/;kmfO{, j[Iff/f]k0f, cltl/Qm lqmofsnfkx?df ;bgdfkm{t ;xeflu x'g] -slxn]sfxLFcfof]hgf tyf Jofj:yfkg ug]{ klg_ uYof]{ . ;dfhdf x'g] :jf:Yo lzlj/, cfd;ef h:tf ;fj{hlgs sfo{qmdx?df pgLx?n] :jo+;]jssf] ?kdf klg sfd ug]{uy]{h'g clxn];Dd klg ;fgf] ?kaf6 ePklg hf/L g}5 .

v_ Hffu[lt afn Sna :yfkgf ePkl5 Affn clwsf/sf s'/fnfO{s]Gb|df /fv]/ clwsf/d'vL tj/sf] afn Sna cfGbf]ngsf] z'qkft hfu[lt afn Snan] u/]sf] kfOG5 . afn r]tgf ;d"xn] klg cfkm"nfO{ g]kfnsf] klxnf] afn Snasf] ?kdf bfaL ug]{u5{. o;df cg]s ts{ljts{nfO{ s]nfpg' eGbf lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf btf{sf] lx;fan] hfu[lt g}klxnf] afn Snasf] ?kdf w]/}n] a'em\g] u5{g\. !((#÷!(($ otf z'?df g]kfnn] ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+l3o afnclwsf/ dxf;lGwsf nflu /fli6«o k|ltj]bg tof/ kfbf{afn Snasf] clwsf/d'vL ;+u7gx? :yfkgsf] s'/f pNn]v kfOG5 . ;g\!((! df Knfgn] cfˆgf] sfo{If]qdf x/]s ufpFdf Ps afnSnasf] k|lqmof, !((#÷!(($ df ;xefuLtfTds cg';Gwfg sfo{qmd dfkm{t PS;g P8\g]kfnn] / !((@÷)(# df ;]e b lrN8]«g gj]{n] cfˆgf] sfo{If]qdf …afn aflnsf Ps csf{sf] nfluÚ sfo{qmd dfkm{t afn Snax? agfPsf] kfOG5 . To;}u/L !((^ df xft]dfnf] afn ;d"x, To;}u/L !((^ af6 l;ljgn] afnclwsf/ d~r, OG;]sn] afnclwsf/ r]tgf ;d"xsf] gfdaf6 ;d'bfo / ljBfnox? afnSnax? :yfkgf u/]sf] kfOG5 . oBlk @)$* ;fndf gjnk/f;Lsf] k|ultgu/df :yfkgf ePsf] gjk|eft afn Sna g}@)%@ df cfˆgf] gfd kl/jt{g u/L hfu[lt afn Sna gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] pgLx? atfpF5g\. hfu[lt afn Sna–g]kfn :yfkgfn] u/fPsf] Pp6f /fd|f] ;+s]t afn Snax? :jt:km"t{?kdf klg :yfkgf x'g ;S5g\eGg] klg lyof] .

…afn Sna;Fusf] lttfld7f ef]ufOn] dnfO{Ps ;Ifd, cfTdlge{/ / ;jn gful/s aGg ;bf 3r3RofO/xG5Ú

– uLtf zdf{ k"j{cWoIf, hfu[lt afn Sna g]kfn, k|ultgu/

3
3

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

@= afn Snasf] ;+/rgf / ;+rfng k|s[of

afn Snasf];b:o ;+Vof M

afnSna ;~rfngsf] lglDt u7g ul/g] sfo{;ldlt ;ª\Vof slDtdf % b]vL lnP/ a9Ldf !( ;b:oLo;Dd ePsf]nfO{ /fd|f] dflgG5 . afn Sna ;+rfngsf] ;xhtfnfO{ dWogh/ u/]/ of] ;ª\Vofsf] bfo/f tf]lsPsf] xf] . oBlk ;b:o ;ª\Vofsf cfwf/df afn Snax?sf kl5Nnf cEof;x? eg];f]xL cg'?k gePsf klg 5g\. gjnk/f;Lsf !^* afn Snadf ul/Psf] cWoognfO{x]g]{xf] eg] slDtdf $ b]lv al9df !@)) ;ª\Vof ePsf afn Snax? klg e]l6P . ;fdfGotM ;f+u7lgs ?kdf afnaflnsfnfO{sdhf]/ 7flgg]u/]tf klg sltko afn Snax?df pQm k|s[of pbxf/l0fo g} kfOG5 . st} afn Snadf cfPsf ;a} hgf ;b:os} ?kdf x'G5g\eg] st} …;fwf/0f ;b:oÚ / …sfo{sf/0fL ;b:oÚ u/L b'O{efudf ljeflht x'G5g\. /, lglZrt ;dosf]cGt/fndf ;fwf/0f ;b:o dWoaf6} sfo{sf/0fL ;ldltsf] nflu pgLx? lgjf{lrt x'G5g\. sfo{sf/0fL ;ldltdf /xg] afn Snasf ;b:ox? afn Snasf d'Vo g]t[Tjstf{x'G5g\eg] ;fwf/0f ;b:ox? afn Snasf sfo{qmdx?df lg/Gt/ ;xefuL x'Fb} eflj g]t[Tjsf nflu cfkm"nfO{ tof/ kfl//fv]sf x'G5g\. kl5Nnf] ;do ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+:yfx? afn Sna;Fu sfd ugf{n] pgLx?sf] cfGtl/s ;+u7gdf ;d]t ;dfj]zL k|ltlglwTj al9/x]sf] 5 . :yfgLo :t/df ePsf hghftL, efiff / wd{sf]cfwf/df ;a}nfO{ ;d]6\g] k|of;x? al9/x]sf] kfOG5 . k|hftflGqs k|s[ofsf] /fd|f] cEof; kfOPsf] afnSnadf

4
4

xfd|f]afn Snadf !@ ;o al9 ;b:ox? 5g\ . Snasf] ;fwf/0f ;ef ufp“s}cGo

7"n};+u7gx?sf]

h:tf] x'g] u5{. xfd|f] oxL Ifdtf b]v]/ xf]nf SnanfO{ufpFdf ljz]if dxTj lbP/ x]l/G5 .

xfd|f] oxL Ifdtf b]v]/ xf]nf SnanfO{ufpFdf ljz]if dxTj lbP/ x]l/G5 . dw' wjt ;b:o, afn ;r]tgf

dw' wjt

;b:o, afn ;r]tgf ;d"x k|tfkk'/

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

cWoIf, pkfWoI,f ;lrj, ;x;lrj, sf]iffWoIf / ;b:ox? x'g]u5{g\. To;afx]s lglZrt sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug{ ;xh x'g] eGb}ljleGg pk;ldltx? ;d]t agfOPsf x'G5g\. pk;ldltsf] g]t[Tj sfo{sfl/0fL ;ldltsf ;b:oaf6}x'g] kfOG5 . oBlk To;sf] ;b:odf ;fwf/0f ;b:o dWo]af6 ;d]t /fVg ;lsg] x'Fbf To;n] qmda4 g]t[Tj ljsf;nfO{a9fjf lbPsf] 5 .

afnSnasf sfdM

afn Snasf] b"|t ljsf;;Fu} pgLx?sf sfdx? klg Aofks bfo/fdf a9\g yfln;s]sf 5g\. ljBfno jf ;d'bfodf l;h{gfTds lqmofsnfkx?;Fu}afn clwsf/ k|j4{gsf] If]qdf pgLx?sf sfo{qmdx? Af9\tf s]Gb|Lt ePsf] kfOG5 . gjnk/f;L lhNnfdf ;fdfGotM afn Snan] ug]{u/]sf sfdx? lgDg 5g\M

ljleGg /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo dxTjsf lbj;sf cj;/df l;h{gfTds sfo{qmdx?

hGd btf{, vf]k, ljBfno egf{cleofgdf k|rf/k|;f/ cleofg

:jf:Yo tyf ;/;kmfO{df hgr]tgf

afnaflnsf dfyL x'g] afn>d zf]if0f, of}g zf]if0f, j]rljvg, afnljjfx, ax'ljjfx, cgd]n ljjfx, e]befj, oftgf, s'6lk6 nufotsf afnclwsf/ pNn+3gsf 36gfx? lj?4 bafa tyf lj/f]w cleofgx?

lgMz'Ns clgjfo{lzIff tyf cfly{s ?kdf ljkGg ;fyLx?nfO{z}lIfs ;xof]u ;+sng tyf l6p;g sIff ;+rfng .

klqsf tyf leQ] klqsf k|sfzg .

;/;kmfO{tyf j[Iff/f]k0f sfo{qmd .

afn k':tsfnosf] ;~rfng .

ljleGg wfld{s, ;f+:s[lts tyf ;fdflhs sfo{df :jo+;]jssf] e"ldsf lgjf{x .

…dlxgfjf/L x'“bf s]6Lx?n] :s'n g} 5f8\g' kg]{;d:ofn]ubf{ xfd|f] afn Snan] clxn] cfkm}sf]if hDdf kf/]/ ljBfnodf ;]g]6]/L Kof8 ljt/0f ul//fv]sf] 5Ú

– /ljgf dNn sf]iffWoIf, Hjfnf afn Sna, b]p/fnL

…ufp“–6f]ndf gfnfdf kmf]x/x? hd]/ b'3{Gw km}lnPkl5 xfdLx? cfkm}+n] gfnf ;kmf u¥of}+ h;nfO{kR5\ofpFb}klg 7"nfa9fx? klg cfPÚ

– k|bLk u'?Ë

cWoIf, gjr]tgf afn Sna, lqj]0fL

…xfdLnfO{ljBfnon] cfkm\gf] j}7s / of]hgfx? Afgfp“bf lgoldt ?kdf af]nfpg] u5{Ú

– lr/0f 7f8f

;lrj, gj k|ultzLn afn Sna, -l;l4 lgDg dflj, ldy's/d_

5
5

hfF8, /S;L, r'/f]6 lj/f]wL cleofg .

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

/]l8of] sfo{qmd ;'Gg] / ;~rfng ug]{.

¥ofnL, d]nf cGt/s[of -ljleGg

afnaflnsf zflGtIf]q x'g] cleofg .

hgr]tgfTds ;8s gf6s .

gofF;+ljwfgdf cfˆgf] s'/fx? ;+ljwfg;efsf ;b:ox? Dffkm{t ;DalGwt 7fpFdf ;Dk|]if0f .

u|fdL0f:t/df x'g] ;fgf ljsf;sf] sfo{df cleefjs ;Fu}uP/ ;Sbf] ;xof]u k|bfg ug]{.

ljBfno Joj:yfkg ;ldlt, ufpFkl/ifb\, cfdlGqt ;b:osf] ?kdf ;xefuL eO{cfˆgf] ;d:of / /fo÷dt k|:t't ug{.

ljleGg v]ns'bsf sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{.

ljleGg cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd ;DkGg u/L To;sf] cg'udg u/L k|ult k|ltj]bg tof/ u/L ;DalGw 7fpFdf k]z ug]{.

af6f]3f6f], rf}tf/f, ljBfno lgdf{0f, cflb .

kl5Nnf] ;do afn Snax? ljleGg ;+3 ;+:yfx?sf] kxndf klg :yfkgf x'g yfn]kl5 pgLx?sf sfo{qmdx?df ljs[lt tyf ;d:ofx? Kflg b]Vg yflnPsf] :jo+ afn Snasf afnaflnsfx? Kflg l:jsf5{g\. lglZrt If]qdf sfd ug]{;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf] ;f]xL p2]Zok"lt{sf nflu afnaflnsfnfO{k|of]u ubf{To;n] ljs[lt klg NofO/x]sf] kfOG5 . h:t}, jftfj/0fsf] If]qdf sfd ug]{;+:yfn] jftfj/0fLo d'2fd} sfd ug{afn Sna vf]lnlbG5g\t jg;DaGwL sfd ug]{;+:yfn] jg ;+/If0fs} p2]Zodf afn SnanfO{ k|of]u u5{g\. ;f]sf] nflu pgLx?n] s]xL xb;Dd afnaflnsfnfO{cfly{s ;xof]u / cGo ;fdfu|Lx? Kflg pknAw t u/fO/fv]sf 5g\t/ To;n] afn Snasf] jf:tljs cjwf/0ffnfO{laufl//fv]sf] 5 . l;h{gzLn sfddf nufOg'kg]{afn Snasf] x}l;ot st}pkef]Qmf ;d"x ;/xsf] t eO/fv]sf] 5}g eGg] k|Zg klg ;fy;fy}hlGdPsf] 5 .

afnSnan]afnaflnsfsf]hLjgdf NofPsf /fd|f kl/jt{gx?

afnaflnsfx? cfˆgf] clwsf/x? klxrfg ug{;Sg] ePsf 5g\

afnaflnsfsf cGt/lglxt l;h{gzLn Ifdtfx? k|:km'6g x'g] cj;/ l;h{gf eO{JolQmTj ljsf;sf] cj;/x? l;h{gf ePsf 5g\.

cfkm" / cfˆgf ;fyLx?sf] ;d:ofx? s]–s] 5g\÷x'G5g\eGg] s'/fsf] 5nkmn / ljZn]if0f ug]{;xof]u ug]{Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ePsf 5g\.

6
6

afnSnasf ;b:ox?df cfTdljZjf;sf] a9]sf] 5 .

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

g]t[Tj ljsf;sf cj;/x? l;h{gf ePsf 5g\.

afnSnasf afnaflnsf jo:s x'Fbf cfTdljZjf;L nugzLn, ;Ddflgt / cfTdlge{/ o'jfsf] ?kdf kl/lrt ePsf 5g\.

of]hgf agfpg]b]vL ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts ljifosf ;fy :yfgLo >f]t / ;fwgsf] k|of]u;Fu}sfof{Gjog ug{;Ifd ePsf 5g\.

k|hftflGqs tyf nf]stflGqs ;+:sf/sf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 .

;fd"lxs sfo{z}nLsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 .

afnclwsf/ ;a}sf];/f]sf/sf]ljifo xf]eGb}afnclwsf/ pNn+3gsf 36gfx?df sdL Nofpg ;xhstf{/ kx/]bf/sf] ?kdf afnaflnsfx? sfd ul//fv]sf

5g\.

;xdlt ;xsfo{/ cfˆgf clwsf/ ;DaGwL ultljlwx?df ;xefuLtf clej[l4 ub}{afn arfj6, ;+/If0f, ljsf; / ;xefuLtfsf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug]{ sfo{df lhDd]jf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{cj;/ k|fKt u/]sf 5g\.

jo:s ;dfh;]jL, a'l4hLjL, lzIfs nufotsf ;/f]sf/jfnf JolQmx?;Fusf] lg/Gt/ e]63f6 / cGt/lqmofn] jo:sx?nfO{klg ;fem]bf/sf] ?kdf lng yfn]sf 5g\.

Affn Sna;“u}afn kqsfl/tf

Gfjnk/f;LDff afn Snax?n] u/]sf pNn]vgLo lqmofsnfkx? dWo] afn klqsf k|sfzgnfO{ klg lng ;lsG5 . z'?df leQ] klqsfaf6 cg'ej ;+ufn]/ clxn] pgLx? Dofu]lhg;Dd cfOk'u]sf 5g\. o; k|of;n] afn clwsf/sf] k|j4{gdf 6]jf t k'u]sf] 5 g}, To;afx]s pgLx?df ;'if'Ktj:yfdf n's]/ /x]sf] k|ltef aflx/ NofO{x'sf{pg] sfo{sf] ljsf; ;d]t ePsf] 5 . ;fy;fy}afn Snasf ultljlw Pj+s'/fx? hgdfg; / ;DalGwt 7fpF;Dd k'¥ofpg] d~rsf] sfd ;d]t u/]sf] 5 . cfkm\gf kqklqsfnfO{v'/fs k'¥ofpg] qmdd}afn Snasf afnaflnsfx? ;/f]sf/sf lgsfo;Dd k'u]/ cfkm\gf lh1f;fx? /fVg ;Sg] ePsf 5g\. ;/sf/L sd{rf/Lx?, Jofkf/Lx?, lj1fkgbftfx?, ;flxTosf/ Pj+n]vsx?;dIf e]6]/ n]v/rgf tyf lj1fkg p7fpg hfFbf x'g] k|ToIf e]63f6 / s'/fsfgLn] pgLx?df ;f] ;Lksf] ljsf; klg ;fg}b]lv x'g kfPsf] 5 . oBlk gjnk/f;Ldf yf]/}afn Snasf afnaflnsfx?n] dfq afn kqsfl/tf tflnd kfPsf 5g\. cfk;df ldn]/ n]v/rgfsf ljifoa:t' klxrfg ug]{/ k|sfzg of]Uo

Snasf afnaflnsfx?n] dfq afn kqsfl/tf tflnd kfPsf 5g\. cfk;df ldn]/ n]v/rgfsf ljifoa:t' klxrfg ug]{/ k|sfzg of]Uo
7
7

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

agfpg] qmdd}pgLx?n] ;Dkfbg ;Lk ljsf; u/]sf 5g\. afn Snasf] d'vkqsf] ?kdf clwsf+z afn Snax?sf] cfkm\g} leQ] klqsfx? 5g\. h'g Ps ;o ?kofFeGbf sd vr{d} tof/ x'g]u5{. x:tlnlvt x'g] o:tf leQ] klqsfx? w]/}h;f] ljBfnosf ;"rgf kf6Ldf 6fFl;G5g\eg] sltko 7fpFdf afn Snan] cfkm\g} ;"rgf kf6L{ agfP/ dflg;x? a9\tf hd36 x'g] lrof k;n / rf}tf/fdf ;d]t /fVg] Joj:yf u/]sf] x'G5 .

gjnk/f;LDff afn Sna :jo+n] Dofu]lhg lgsfNg] sfdsf] z'?jft eg] hfu[lt afn Sna, k|ultgu/n] u/]sf] xf] . :yfkgf sfnb]lv g}lgoldt leQ]klqsf k|sfzg ub}{cfO/fv]sf pgLx?n] @)%* ;fnotf cw{jflif{s ?kdf k|sfzg x'g] u/L …afn OGb|]0fLÚ afnklqsfsf] z'?jft u/] h'g kl5Nnf] $ aif{otf aflif{s ?kdf k|sfzg e}/x]sf] 5 . To;afx]sf gjnk/f;Lsf b'u{d kxf8L uflj;sf ultljlwx? ;d]6\g] eGb}@)^) otf lxdfnog ;fd'bflos ljsf; d~r

-lxsf]8]km_ n] …afn l;h{gfÚ afn klqsf k|sfzg ug]{ uYof]{ . o;/L afn OGb|]0fL / afn l;h{gfaf6 z'? ePsf] sfdnfO{ kR5\ofpFb} klZrdf~rn ljsf; If]qd} klxnf]k6s gjnk/f;Ldf :yfkgf ePsf] lhNnf e/sf afn Snax?sf] ;~hfn …afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltÚ n] …piffÚ afn

;~hfn …afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltÚ n] …piffÚ afn klqsfnfO{q}dfl;s ?kdf k|sfzg z'? u¥of] . piff
;~hfn …afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltÚ n] …piffÚ afn klqsfnfO{q}dfl;s ?kdf k|sfzg z'? u¥of] . piff

klqsfnfO{q}dfl;s ?kdf k|sfzg z'? u¥of] . piff afn klqsfsf] ljz]iftf eGg' afnaflnsfsf /rgfnfO{ eGbf a9\tf afnaflnsfsf ;/f]sf/sf ljifonfO{ ;dfrf/ / lkmr/nfO{ pNn]Vo :yfg lbg' xf] . afnSnasf] ;~hfn lhNnfJofkL ?kdf /x]s}sf/0f o;sf ;+jfbbftfx? Klg lhNnfe/d}5g\/ klqsf ;a}afn Snax?dfem k'U5 . dfly pNn]v ul/Psf …afn OGb|]0fLÚ, …afn l;h{gfÚ / …piffÚsf] ljz]iftf eGg' g} To;df k|of]u x'g] z'4 afn k|of]u xf] . /rgfb]lv ;Dkfbg;Ddsf] sfd k"/} afnaflnsfn] g} ;S5g\. piffnfO{ kl5Nnf] ;do o'lg;]kmn] cw{aflif{s ?kdf k|sfzgsf] nflu cfly{s ;xof]u pknAw u/fpF5 eg] …afn OGb|]0fLÚ cem} klg afnaflnsfs}kxndf h'6\g] lj1fkgsf] e/df rn]sf] 5 . …afn l;h{gfÚ eg] kl5Nnf] s]xL ;dootf k|sfzg eO/fv]sf] 5}g . afn Snasf log}k|of;af6 p7]/ kqsfl/tf / n]vgsf If]qdf /fi6«JofkL ?kd}VoftL sdfPsf / 7"nf ;~rf/u[xdf sfd ug]{ o'jfx?sf] ;ª\Vof klg clxn] nfdf] eO;s]sf] 5 . To;afx]s lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldlt, k5f}6]kg pGd'ng ;dfh, OGb|]0fL ;dfh s]Gb|n] klg afn klqsfx? k|sfzg ul//fv]sf 5g\. t/ To;df ;Dkfbgsf] lhDdf eg] cem}jo:sx?s}xftdf 5 .

8
8

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

afnSna ;~rfng k|s[ofdf cfPsf r'gf}tL

afnSnanfO{;xof]u ug]{;+:yfx? / cfˆg}Snasf ultljlwx?sf] nflu slxn] sfxLFsfo{qmdx?df efu lng hfFbf jf k7fpFbf 3/df cj]/ k'Ug], k9fO{5'6\g] / 3/ 5f]8]/ /ft sf6\g] u/L aflx/ hfg' kbf{, 3/ kl/jf/ ;d'bfodf cleefjsx?nfO{s'/f a'emfpg ufx|f] ePsf] .

k|To]s lhNnfdf afnSnax?nfO{;xlhs/0f ug]{/fHosf] clwsfl/s lgsfo lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldltdf dfgj ;|f]t / cfly{s ;|f]tsf] cefjn] afnSnasf, ultljlwx? clen]v /fVg ;xof]u ;'emfj ;xeflutf hgfpg cK7\of/f] k/]sf] 5 .

;jf]{Rr cbfntn] afnaflnsfsf] ;+:yfnfO{sfg"gL dfGotf k|bfg ug]{egL lg0f{o u/]sf] ePtf klg To;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] lglDt /fHo / u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?n] plrt kxn ug{g;Sgfn] afn Snasf] sfg"gL dfGotfsf] ;Gbe{df cGof}n sfod}5 .

afnSnax? kl/of]hgfd"vL ePsf / kl/of]hgf x'Fbf ;xof]u kfpg] tyf kl/of]hgf ;lsgf;fy PSsf;L ;xof]u aGb ubf{Sna ;d"x g}lgis[o x'g] u/]sf] tyf sltko ;+:yfn] ;+:yfsf] p2]Zo k"/f ug{sfo{qmd cfkm}th'{df ug]{u/]sf] cj:yf 5 .

sltko kl/l:yltdf afn aflnsfx?n] lzIff / 3/ kl/jf/ eGbf afnSnanfO{ a9L dxTj lbg] u/]sf]n] afnSnak|lt cleefjs gsf/fTds l6sf l6Kk0fL ug]{ u/]sf 5g\.

afnaflnsf ;Fu};Fu}cleefjsx?nfO{klg afn ;xeflutf / afnSna;Fu ;DalGwt sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{g;Sgfn] ;d:of b]lvPsf] 5 .

;xof]u ug]{, ;xlhs/0f ug]{u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt, uf=lj=;=, ljBfno cflbdf afn ;xeflutf u/fpg] :ki6 gLlt / sfg'gsf] cefj ePsf]n] sfd ug]{;dodf c;xof]u / s]6f s]6L s}?kdf dfq x]g]{ u/]sf] cj:yf 5 .

afn Snasf] /fd|f sfdnfO{k|f]T;fxg k'/:s[t ug{g;Sg' t/ sfd ug]{;jfndf ePsf] ;fgf uNtLnfO{7"nf] d'2f agfOg] u/]sf] 5 .

;a}hfthflt efiff wd{If]q lnËnfO{;dfg ?kn] ;xefuL u/fpg g;Sg' .

afnSnasf] :yfkgfsf] cf}lrTo, Joj:yfkg, ;~rfng k|s[of, clwsf/ / st{Josf] ljifodf ;|f]t / ;fwgsf] cefjdf ;a}nfO{k|:6 kfg{g;Sg' .

afnSnadf ;+nUg afnaflnsfsf] ;Ifd x'g] ePsf]n] /fhg}lts kf6L{df eft[ ;+u7gn] k|of]u ug{vf]Hg' .

3/ kl/jf/sf] JolQmsf] gfd hf]8]/ afnaflnsfnfO{klg /fhg}lts 9Ëaf6 x]l/g' / Jojxf/ ul/g' .

9
9

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

k':tf x:tfgt/0fsf]cefj

lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldlt, gjnk/f;L;Fu kl5Nnf] ;do cfa4tf /]s8{Dff /x]sf] tYof+snfO{s]nfpg] xf] eg] $#) afn Snax? /x]sf] kfOG5 . t/ o; cWoogsf] ;dodf ul/Psf] s]xL cWoog e|d0fnfO{x]g]{xf] eg] …s] TotL g};ª\Vofdf lhNnfe/ afn Snax? ;s[o 5g\t <Ú eGg] ;jfnx? hlGdG5g\. t/ sltko 7fpFdf afn Snax? :yfkgf eP/ klg cfa4tfsf] bfo/f;Dd cfOk'u]sf 5}gg\. …afn Snax? lsg nfdf] ;do;Dd l6Sb}gg\<Ú o; laifodf cg]sy/L ts{p7\g] u5{g\. h;sf]pQ/ xfdLx?n]afn Snasf afnaflnsfx?b]lv lnP/ k"j{afn Snasf g]tfx?af6 vf]Hg] k|of; u/]sf lyof}+. afn Snadf nfdf] ;do sfd u/]sf cfwf/df sltko k"j{g]tfx? afn Snax? lg/Gt/ x'g g;Sg'nfO{;fdfGo k|s[ofsf] ?kdf lng' kg]{7fG5g\. Pp6f sdhf]/ w/ftndf :yfkgf x'g] afn Snax? nfdf] ;do;Dd /lx/xg'k5{eGg] s'g}sf/0f gx'g] pgLx?sf] ts{x'g]u5{. oBlk gjnk/f;Ldf :yfkgf ePsf afn Snax? tLg tl/sfsf 5g\. :jt:km't{:kdf :yfkgf x'g], ljBfnosf] kxndf :yfkgf x'g] / u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] kxndf :yfkgf x'g] . ;d'bfodf :yfkgf ePsf w]/}afn Snax? 5g\/ nfdf] ;do;Dd lbuf] x'g] / lgs} 5f]6f] ;dod}x/fpg] afn Snax? klg oxL ;d'bfodf :yfkgf x'g]x? g}5g\. o; k|sf/sf afn Snax? k"0f{tM :jtGq x'G5g\/ pgLx?sf lqmofsnfkx? klg cGo s;}sf] cfjZostf eGbf pgLx? :jo+sf] rfxfgf / cfjZostfdf lge{/ /xG5 . oBlk g]t[Tj lasf;df dfldnfdf afn Snaleqsf s]xL ;lqmo afnaflnsfx? g}a9\tf xfjL x'Fbf To;kl5 ljsl;t x'Fb}u/]sf] k':tfn] g]t[Tj ;Lksf] cg'ej g} ug{kfpFb}g . /, ltg}bfh'lbbLx? Ps txsf] :s'n ;s]/ k9\g cGoq uPkl5 jf afNofj:yf k"/f u/]kl5 afn Sna lgl:qmo x'g k'U5 . t/ ckjfbsf ?kdf hfu[lt afn Sna, afn ;r]tgf ;d"x, gGbefph' afn Sna, gd"gf afn Sna, afn of]hgf ;d"x klg o:t};d'bfodf cfwfl/t x'g\h'g :yfkgfsf] bzs nfdf] ;do kf/ ul/;Sbf klg emg\a9\tf ;+ul7t / ;s[o eP/ cl3 al9/x]sf 5g\. csf]{tkm{ ljBfnodf :yfkgf x'g] afn Snax? ljBfno k|zf;g jf lzIfx?sf] ;xof]udf :yfkgf x'G5g\/ pgLx?s}lgu/fgLDff rN5g\. hxfFdflyNnf sIffsf ljBfyL{x?nfO{g]t[Tjsf] a9\tf cj;/ lbOG5 . /, jif]{gL ljBfnoaf6 aflxl/g] / dflyNnf sIff pSng] afnaflnsfx?sf] rqm rln/xg] x'Fbf oxfFk':tf x:tfgt/0f ;d:ofsf] laifo aGb}g . To;}u/L cfkm\gf] sfo{qmdnfO{;xof]u k'Ug]u/L ljleGg u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?n] :yfkgf ul/lbPsf afn Snax? klg sfo{qmd cjlw ;lsP;Fu}lgl:qmo eO/x]sf 5g\. sfo{qmd÷kl/of]hgf ;~rfng eO/xFbf pgLx? afn SnanfO{ a9\t} ;xof]u -cfly{s÷ef}lts_ u5{g\h;n] pgLx?df k/lge{/tf lgs}a9fpF5 . h;s}sf/0f ;fydf tL ;+:yfx? gx'Fbf pgLx? afn Snaaf6 lgl:s[o x'Fb}hfG5g\.

10
10

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

#= afn Snadf x'g] k|hftflGqs cEof;

lgoldt a}7sM

afn Snasf afnaflnsfsf] hd36 ;a}eGbf a9\tf Snasf] a}7sdf x'g]u5{hxfF pgLx? cfkm\gf sfdsf] ;ldIff tyf efjL of]hgfx? lgdf{0f u5{g\. afn Snadf afnaflnsfx?sf] ;a}eGbf a9\tf ;do g}a}7ssf] nflu vr{x'g] kfOG5 . To;s} xf/fxf/Ldf afnaflnsfn] afn Snadf nufpg] ;dosf] cg'dfg ;d]t ug{ ;lsG5 . o; cWoog cg';f/ gjnk/f;Ldf em08} $) k|lt;t afn Snasf ;b:ox?sf] j}7s a:g] s'g}lglZrt ;do 5}g . pgLx? cfjZostf cg';f/ j}7s tyf sfo{qmdsf nflu h'6\5g\eg], @( k|lt;t dfl;s / @^ k|lt;t ;fKtflxs ?kdf h'6\5g\.

lgjf{rgM

Snasf sfo{;ldlt rog ug]{;a}eGbf al9 k|hftflGqs k|s[ofsf] ?kdf o;nfO{lng ;lsG5 . klxn] klxn] afn Snasf ;ldltx? jo:sx?sf] kxnsbdL dfkm{t jf

;kmntfsf] syf

;+u7lgs k|s[of / k|sfzgdf cufl8 hfu[lt afn Sna

hfu[lt afn Sna–g]kfn g]kfndf btf{ePsf] klxnf] afn Sna xf] . afn clwsf/ dxf;lGwsf] wf/f !% cg';f/ afnaflnsfn] klg cGo ;/x lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf ;+:yf btf{ug{kfpg'k5{eGg] ;jf{]Rr cbfntdf d'2f xfn]/ cGttM ;kmn ePsf] sf/0f o; afn SnanfO{w]/}n] ;lhn}lrGg] u5{g\.

o; afn Snasf] csf]{ljz]iftf eg]sf] ;+u7lgs k|s[of lg/Gt/ ;+rfng ug'{xf] . afn Snax?sf] ;ª\Vof al9/xg] t/ k':tf x:tfgt/0fdf ;d:of b]lvg] k|z+u cfhsn htftt}rNg]u5{. t/ hfu[lt afn Sna eg] o; dfldnfdf :ki6 5 . k|To]s @ aif{sf]cGt/fndf ;fwf/0f ;ef ug]{u5{h;df aif{e/sf ultljlwx? ;d]6]/ …;f+u7lgs k|ltj]bgÚ / cfly{s n]vfhf]vf ;d]6]/ …cfly{s k|ltj]bgÚ klg tof/ kf5{h;sf] af]wfy{ :yflgo ;fdflhs ;+:yfx?, uflj; / ljBfnox?df klg k7fpg] x'Fbf k|ultgu/df o; afn SnanfO{ljz]if dxTj lbg] ul/G5 .

csf]{tkm{:yfkgf sfnb]lv g}…afn OGb|]0fLÚ leQ] klqsf lgsfNg] sfd yfn]sf pgLx?n] kl5Nnf] ;dodf eg] afn OGb|]0fL afn Dofu]lhgsf] ( j6f c+s g}lgsfnL ;s]sf 5g\. h;n] ubf{cfkm"x?df w]/}l;h{gzLn ;Lk ljsf; ePsf] afn Snasf ;b:ox?

7fG5g\.

11
11

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

cfk;L 5nkmn / ;dembf/Laf6 5flgGYof] eg] clxn] qmdzM lgjf{rg ug]{qmd klg lj:tf/}z'? x'Fb}5 . oBlk cWoog cg';f/ cem}klg ($ k|lt;t afn Snasf ;ldltx? cfk;L 5nkmnaf6}to ePsf] kfOG5 eg] lgjf{rgaf6}5flgg] k|lt;t ce}m $ dfq 5 .

k|:tfj÷cg'df]bgM

k|hftflGqs k|s[of dha't x'g'df sfo{;ldlt lgjf{rg k|s[ofaf6 5flg'g' / lgoldt a}7s ;+rfng x'g' dfq k|ofKt 5}g . h;df pgLx?n] sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf] qmddf Nofpg] k|:tfjx? / To;sf] cg'df]bg ug]{k|s[ofx? Kflg dxTjk"0f{5g\. a}7sdf s'g}Ps ;b:on] Nofpg] k|:tfj / To;dfly leGgleGg dt pTkGg ePdf ax'dtåf/f kfl/t ug]{ rng kl5Nnf] ;do nf]slk|o x'g'n] klg afn Snadf k|hftflGqs cEof;x? a9]sf] kfOG5 .

;dfg'kflts ;xeflutfM afn Snadf cfkm}df Pp6f sdhf]/ w/ftndf :yfkgf x'g] ;+u7g x'Fbf o;df olt g}k|ltzt afnaflnsfx? km/s km/s If]qsf x'g'k5{eGg] j}wflgs Joj:yf t 5}g . t/ s]6f / s]6L em08}a/fa/L x'g] afn SnanfO{cfhsn cfbz{afn Snasf] ?kdf x]g{yflnPsf] 5 . To;df k5fl8 kfl/Psf] blnt, ckf¨nfO{klg :yfg lb+b} d'nk|jfxdf Nofpg] kxn eO/fv]sf] 5 . cWoog cg';f/ k|ltztsf] cfwf/df n}+lus ;xeflutfsf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ afn Snadf s]6Lx?sf] ;xeflutf &% k|ltztb]lv $ k|ltzt;Ddsf] bfo/fdf e]l6of] . cWoogsf] bfo/fdf sltko afn Snax?df s]6f eGbf s]6L g}al9 x'g' ;dfg'kflts ;xeflutfsf] /fd|f] ;+s]t xf] eg] s]6L sd g}ePsf afn Snadf klg s]6Lsf] ;xeflutf vf;}lg/fzfhgs rflxF5}g . To;afx]s afn Snaleq em08}@! k|lt;t blnt afnaflnsfsf] k|ltlglwTj 5 .

sfo{of]hgfM

afn Snax? h;/L cGo jo:sx?sf] ;+:yfsf] cf8df :yfkgf x'G5g\/ :jt:km't{ ?kdf :yfkgf x'g]x? klg ljleGg ;dodf x'g] k|lzIf0fn] ubf{sfo{of]hgf lgdf{0f ub}{sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug{l;s]sf 5g\. sfo{of]hgf cg';f/ sfd ubf{lgDg kmfObfx? x'g]u5{g\M

sfo{qmdn] nlIft u/]sf] If]q olsg x'g'

ck]Iff adf]lhd glthf dfkg ug{;lsg'

of]hgf cg';f/ k|ltkmn k|fKt geP sdhf]/Lx? cf}+Nofpg ;lsg'

sfo{qmd k|efjsf/L x'g' .

12
12

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

sfo{of]hgfsf]9f“rfM

qm=;+sfo{qmdsf] gfd

nlIft If]q

;dofjwL

;DaGwLt JolQm

ck]lIft k|ltkmn

Affn Snasf]btf{

Gfjnk/f;L lhNnfsf] lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltdf @)^& sflQs d;fGt;Dddf $#) afn Snax?n] cfa4tfsf] k|df0fkq lnPsf 5g\. afn Sna ;/sf/L lgsfodf cfa4 x'g' eg]sf] pgLx?n] sfg'gL x}l;ot kfpg' xf] . oBlk o; laifo cem}klg ax;s}r/0fdf 5 .

Gfjnk/f;L lhNnfs}hfu[lt afn Sna– g]kfnn] afn clwsf/ ;DaGwL dxf;GwL !(*( sf] wf/f !% n] lbPsf] afnaflnsfsf] ;+u7g ;DaGwL :jtGqtfsf] clwsf/ k|of]u ub}{afn SnanfO{;d]t cGo ;+3;+:yf ;/x lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nod}btf{ u/fpg kfpg'kg]{;jfn p7fPsf] lyof] . r/0fa4 ?kdf ;jf]{Rr cbfnt;Dd d'2fsf] ?kdf k'u]sf] o; ljifodf cbfntn] ;sf/fTds km};nf u/]tf klg o;sf] sfof{Gof]og ;a}lt/ eO/fv]sf] 5}g . b]zleqs}cj:yfnfO{x]bf{ckjfbsf ?kdf s]xL lhNnf k|zf;gdf afn Sna btf{ul/Ptf klg ;a}lt/ ToxL ;xhtfsf ;fy afn SnanfO{ lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf btf{ul/Psf] 5}g . ljsNksf] ?kdf lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltdf ;"rLs[t ul/Psf] 5 . xfd|f] o; cWoogsf qmddf lhNnfsf kxf8L e]udf ;s[o /x]tf klg w]/}afn Snax? lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltsf] cfa4tf ;"lrdf c6fpg ;s]sf 5}gg\. h;sf] nflu pgLx? lhNnf ;b/d'sfd ;Dd cfpg klg ;Sb}gg\. afn Snax? :jefjt sdhf]/ w/ftndf /xg] x'Fbf pgLx? lhNnf k|zf;gd}btf{ul/Fbf cfpg ;Sg] ;d:ofx? xfd|f] 5nkmnn] lgDg b]vfP–

btf{sf] qmddf nfUg] k};f / clws ;do

lgoldt ug'{kg]{ gljs/0fsf]

nfUg] k};f / clws ;do ∑ lgoldt ug'{kg]{ gljs/0fsf] ldy's/ddf cWoogstf{x?;Fu 5nkmn ub}{ :yfgLo afn Snasf

ldy's/ddf cWoogstf{x?;Fu 5nkmn ub}{ :yfgLo afn Snasf ;b:ox?

em~em6

n]vf kl/If0fsf] ;d:of

lhNnf ;b/d'sfd;Dd} ;a} ;b:ox? cfpg}kg]{ sfg'gL afWotf

h;nfO{lasNksf] ?kdf lhjfs;n] NofPsf] cfa4tf /fd|f] lasNk xf]

13
13

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

h;df x:tlnlvt ?kdf p;n] tf]s]sf] 9fFrf jf cfkm\g}ljwfgn] ;d]t afn Sna cfa4 x'g ;S5g\. o;df ljwfgdf ;b:osf] x:tfIf/ / hGdbtf{÷ljBfno kl/rokq ;lxt cfkm"dWo] sf]xL jf c? s;};Fu k7fpFbf klg x'G5 . oBlk o;df ;d]t ;d:ofx? b]lvG5g\. To;}n] ljsNksf] ?kdf xfd|f] cWoogn] s]xL lgZsif{ lgsfn]sf 5g\. sfg'gL x}l;otsf] nflu ul/g] cfa4tfdf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] lgzfg 5fk /fv]sf] k|df0fkqdf afn SnanfO{ ;xh x'g] lgDg ljsNksf ;+:yfaf6 ug{;lsg]

:yfgLo ufpFljsf; ;ldlt

ljBfno

Affn Snax? s;/L v'N5g\ <

(14.88%)

(24.40%)

(35.12%)

(25.60%)

:jt:k"mt{ u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf dfk{mt :s'nsf]kxndf cGo

afn SnanfO{lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldltdf ;'lrs[t ug'{;sf/fTds sfd xf] . t/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nod}btf{ug'{kg]{km};nf u/]sf] 5 h;sf] ;Ddfg x'g'k5{.

14
14

– ltnf]Qd kf}8]n ;+:yfks cWoIf, hfu[lt afn Sna g]kfn

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

afn Snadf afnaflnsfx? sltsf] ;do vlr{G5g\ < 45 b}lgs 40.48 40 ;fKtflxs dfl;s 35 sfdsf]
afn Snadf afnaflnsfx?
sltsf] ;do vlr{G5g\ <
45
b}lgs
40.48
40
;fKtflxs
dfl;s
35
sfdsf]
cfwf/df
30
28.57
26.19
25
20
15
10
4.76
5
0
cfwf/df 30 28.57 26.19 25 20 15 10 4.76 5 0 afn SnanfO{;+rfngsf] nflu s;n] ;|f]t

afn SnanfO{;+rfngsf] nflu s;n] ;|f]t h'6fOlbG5 <

(22.62%)

(11.31%)

(21.43%)

(44.64%)

u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf uflj; :s'n cfk\mg};|f]t

$= ;kmntfsf syf

art ug]{afgL

-afn ljsf; afn ;d"x, g/d_

;f]daf/ Nxfk], g/dsf afnaflnsfsf] sfd ug]{ ;"lr cGo lbgsf] eGbf s]xL km/s x'G5 . ljxfgsf] efn] af:bf gaf:b}afn Snadf art ug{ hfg xtfl/G5g\oxfFsf afnaflnsfx? . afn ljsf; afn ;d"xn] ug]{ u/]sf] jrt cleofgn]ubf{To;f]ePsf]xf]h;af6 xfn;Dd

hDdf ePsf] k};f / ;f]sf] Aofhaf6}em08}! nfv ?kofF;+sng eO;s]sf] 5 . cem /f]rs s'/f t afnaflnsfn] hDdf kf/]sf] cfkm\gf]

yf]/}yf]/}/sd cleefjsx?sf] nflu cfktljkt

kbf{C0f ;xof]u :j?k klg sfd nfUg]u5{.

afn ljsf; afn ;d"xsf ;Nnfxsf/ Pj+k"j{

cWoIf >Lk|;fb u'?Ësf cg';f/ ufpF;/;kmfO{,

/rgfTds / ;+f:s[lts sfo{qmdx?df ;d]t To:tf] jrtsf] s]xL lx:;f vr{ x'g] u/]sf]

5 . art ug]{ afnaflnsfx? rfxLFlzz'

cj:yfb]lv !* aif{d'lgsf x'G5g\. afnaflnsfsf] o:tf] pT;fx b]v]/ cfhsn cleefjsx? g} aRrf hGd]sf] s]xL lbgd}art vftf vf]Ng cfpF5g\. aRrfn]ghfGb}art ug]{afgL a;fNg] xf] eg] kl5 pm cfkm\gf] gfddf k};f art eO/fv]sf] yfx kfO{:jo+art ug{tlD;pg\ eg]/ afnSnasf] kxndf o;/L cleefjsx? ;fg}df art vftf vf]lnlbG5g\. To;f] ugf{n] afnaflnsfx? s'nth:tf g/fd|f sfddf nfUb} gnfUg] 7fG5g\afn ljsf; afn ;d"xsf ;b:ox? . ufpFdf afn Snasf] OHht / dxTj klg afn Snasf] o:tf] sfdn] x\jfTt}a9fPsf]

5 . cfktdf cGt C0f gkfpFbf jf k};fs}

15
15

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

cefjdf ljb]z hfg gkfpFbf w]/}n] afn SnanfO{u'xf/]sf 5g\. h:tf] cj:yfdf pgLx?n] @) xhf/;Dd /sd ;xof]u ug]{u/]sf 5g\. h;n] ubf{kfOg] Aofhn] Snasf] sf]if aif]{gL a9\bf] klg 5 . ufpFdf cfktsflng ;'Ts]/L ;fdu|L / ;'Ts]/LnfO{ :jf:Yorf}sL;Dd cf];fg]{:6«]r/sf] Joj:yf klg Snan] ;f]xL sf]ifaf6 u/]sf] 5 . To;}n] slxn]sfxLFcfkm"n] cfktdf ;xof]u u/]sf] eGb}To:tf JolQmx?n] ltg'{kg]{ eGbf a9\t}k};f ;d]t lkmtf{lbg] u/]sf 5g\.

laxfgL sIff / ;/;kmfO{df cleofgn]NofPsf]kl/jt{g

-lzjzlQm afn ;d"x / gd"gf afn ;d"x_ gjnk/f;L lhNnfsf] b'u{d kxf8L uflj; ?rfªsf]lzjzlQm afn Snasf afnaflnsfx?n] z'?jft u/]sf] ljxfgL sIff ljBfnodf kl/0ft eof] . ef}uf]lns ljs6tfsf b[li6n] lgs}b'u{d dflgg] ?rfª (, bz/y 8fF8fdf @ aif{cl3 afn Snasf c3'jf ;b:ox?n] :s'n hfg g;Sg] ;;fgf afnaflnsfx?nfO{ ljxfgdf k9fpg] sfo{sf] yfngL u/]sf lyP . æoxfFaf6 glhssf] k|fylds laBfno hfg kxf8sf] sl7g af6f] 3G6f}+nufP/ hfg'kYof]{. h'g s'/f ;;fgf efOalxgLx?nfO{c;Dej x'g]x'Fbf xfdLn]laxfgL sIff ;+rfng u/]sf lyof}.Æ–Snasf ;b:o /g axfb'/ ;f?n] atfP . z'?df :s'n gx'Fbf !& 3/ du/ kl/jf/ /x]sf] pQm a:tLdf z'?df #^ afnaflnsfx? Kf9\gaf6 a+lrt lyP . clxn] laBfno ag]kl5 bz/y 8fF8fsf w]/}afnaflnsfn] k9\g] cj;/ kfPsf 5g\. laxfgL sIff ;+rfng ul//fv]tf klg To;n] afnaflnsfsf] sIff a9\g] a}wflgstf gkfpg] ;d:of Psftkm{lyof]eg]csf]{tkm{7"nf bfh'x? cfˆgf] sIff lgoldt ?kdf ;dod} e]6\g ;ls/x]sf lyPgg\. To;n] ToxfFsf :yfgLo cleefjs Pj+/fhgLlts sfo{stf{;Fusf] cGt/lqmof /fv]/ pgLx?n] cfˆgf ;d:of kf]v] . æxfdL s;/L bz/y 8fF8fsf afnaflnsfnfO{k9\g] jftfj/0f agfpg] eg]/ lgs}a]/ 5nkmn u¥of}+.Æ–Snasf ;+:yfks

16
16
agfpg] eg]/ lgs}a]/ 5nkmn u¥of}+.Æ–Snasf ;+:yfks 16 :s'n ag]sf] laxfgL sIff afn Snasf afnaflnsfx? s:tf]

:s'n ag]sf] laxfgL sIff

afn Snasf afnaflnsfx? s:tf] k|sf/sf] ;xof]usf] ck]Iff

/fV5g\ < cfly{s 50.00 50 :6]zg/L ! / @ b'a} 45 ;xof]u grflxg] 40 39.29
/fV5g\ <
cfly{s
50.00
50
:6]zg/L
! / @ b'a}
45
;xof]u grflxg]
40
39.29
35
30
25
20
15
10
8.93
5
1.79
0

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna afn Sna ;b:o;Fu cGt/lqmof ub}{ cWoIf u'g axfb'/ v08n'sn] atfP . æTo;af6 ToxLFsf]

afn Sna ;b:o;Fu cGt/lqmof ub}{

cWoIf u'g axfb'/ v08n'sn] atfP . æTo;af6 ToxLFsf] l5d]sL ljBfno afnsNof0f k|fljaf6 Pshgf lzIfs dfUg] lg0f{o ul/of] .Æ – pgn] yk] . To;}u/L afnsNof0f k|flas} zfvf

laBfnosf] ?kdf pQm laxfgL sIffnfO{klg nfg] lgZsif{lgsfn] . clxn] oxfFafn Sna / :yfgLo hgtfsf] ;xof]udf ToxfF;fgf] kSsL ejg klg lgdf{0f ePsf] 5 . klxn] ;fgf] uf]7df k9fO{ x'g] laxfgL sIff clxn] $ sf]7] ejg ;lxtsf] ljBfnodf kl/0ft ePsf] 5 . xfn ToxfFljs]Gb|Llqmt afn sIffsf] sf]6f klg k/]kl5 t @ hgf lghL ;|f]tsf lzIfs / ! hgf ;/sf/L u/L # hgf ePsf 5g\. æoxfFcem}lzIfssf] cefj 5, afn sNof0f k|fljdf klxNo}b]lv lzIfs sd /x]sf]df clxn] ! hgf otf cfPk5L ptf cK7\of/f] kl//x]sf] 5 . Æ– :yfgLo ;fdflhs sfo{stf{eLdaxfb'/ /fgfn] eg] . ljBfnodf cem}klg k|ofKt kmlg{r/ ;'ljwf k'u]sf] 5}g . rkL{/ vfg]kfgLsf] cefj 5 .

ptf gd"gf afn ;d"x klg ?rfËs}dflyNnf] s'jfsf]6df k5{h'g uflj;s}klg ;a}eGbf ljs6 e]u xf] . du/af;Lx?sf] al9 a;f]af; /x]sf] oxfFclzIffn] /fd|};Fu h/f uf8]sf] 5 . dflg;x?df lzIff, :jf:Yo h:tf s'/fdf Tolt w]/} ;r]t 5}gg\. h;n] ubf{ :yfgLo afn Snasf ;b:ox? cu|;/ eP .

;xof]lu lgsfon]afn SnanfO{ pgLx? cg's'n dfq k|of]u eO/fv]sf] cg'ej u5{g\ ls ub}{gg\ <

pgLx?n] u/]sf] Pp6f dxTjk"0f{sfd ufpF6f]n g}kmf]xf]/ x'g]u/L a'+u'/ 5f8f tl/sfn] kfNg] g/fd|f] afgL ToxfFaf6 x6fpg' lyof] . h;n] ubf{;?jf tyf cGo g/fd|f] /f]ux?sf] ;+qmd0f a9\g ;SYof] h;nfO{afn Snan] cfkm"n] s]xL ug'{kg]{ 7fGof] . :yflgo a'9fkfsfx?nfO{ 5nkmnsf nflu w]/}k6s af]nfPkl5 dfq a'9fkfsfx? cfOk'u] . pgLx?;Fu afn Snasf ;b:ox? 5nkmn dfq u/]gg\s]s:tf /f]ux? s;/L km}ng ;S5g\eg]/ ;d]t atfP / ;'+u'/ y'Ggsf] nflu 5'6\6}vf]/ agfpg'kg]{atfP . /, To;df cleefjsx?nfO{ afn Snasf ;b:ox?n] ;d]t ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] atfPkl5 clxn] 5f8f t 5f]l8Fb}gg g}a'Fu'/sf] vf]/ ;d]t 3/af6 lgs}k/ kfNg] ul/G5 .

(41.67%)

u5{g\

ub}{gg\

(58.33%)

17
17

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

afnSnan]u/]sf]p2f/

-Go" :6f/ afn ;d"x, dfs/_ gjnk/f;L lhNnfsf] dfs/ uflj;df kg]{Go" :6f/ afn ;d"x -clxn] gfd km]l/P/ gj ;s[o afn ;d"x ePsf] 5_ ToxfFsf :yfgLo dlxnf ;d"x …>L bfpGg]b]jL dlxnf art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfÚ / afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltsf] kxndf @)^! ;fndf v'n]sf] afn ;d"x xf] . o;n] afn clwsf/ k|j4{g / afn ;xeflutfsf] If]qdf w]/}/fd|f sfdx? u/]sf] 5 . t/ klg o;n] u/]sf] Pp6f sfdn] of] afn Sna lhNnfdf gd"gf Snax? dWo]df kg]{ u5{. gjnk/f;Ldf afn Snan] u/]sf /fd|f sfdx?sf]s'/f p7\bf w]/}n]o; Snan]u/]sf]Pp6L aflnsf p2f/sf]k|;+u klg hf]8\g]u5{g\. @)^! ;fn r}q !$ ut]sf] s'/f xf] of] . hltv]/ afn Snasf] a}7s ;s]/ cWoIf gf/fo0f ljs, ;lrj ;Gtf]if u'?Ë, sf]iffWoIf ldng k'g h+unlt/ 3'Dg lg:s]sf lyP . To;a]nf b]zdf dfcf]jfbL åGåsf] ;do lyof] . t/ h+undf k|x/Lsf] tflnd eO/x]sf]n] pgLx?n] ghfg eg]kl5 pgLx? 3/ kms{+b}lyP . To;}a]nf pgLx?n] vf]nf 5]paf6 n's]/ h+un k:g nfu]sL tL s]6LnfO{b]v]. k|x/Ln] pgLx?nfO{klxNo}g};r]t u/fO;s]sfn] s]xL g/fd|f] x'g] 7fgL pgLx?n] tL s]6LnfO{ /f]Sg vf]h] . …Totf ghfp, ;z:qsf] tflnd 5Ú eGb} pgLx? /f]Sg vf]h] . gf/fo0f eG5g, …pgL lsg h+unlt/ hfg vf]lhg\eGg]xfdLnfO{yfx lyPg, em'lSsP/ jf yfx gkfP/ xf]nf dfq eGg] ;f]r]+sf lyof}+.Ú pgn] l/Qf] 8f]sf] klg af]s]sf] x'Fbf 3fF; sf6\g kf] lx+8]sL x'g\ls eGg] klg pgLx?n] ;f]r]sf lyP . t/ kl5 a'em\bf s'/f cs}{/x]5 . cf]vn9'Ëf 3/ ePsL pgL cfkm\gf sfsf 9fnaxfb'/ >]i7;Fu gjnk/f;Lsf]dfs/ cfPsL /lx5g\. sfsfn] oxfF/fv]/ cfkm}+n] k9fpg] eg]/ NofPsf /x]5g\t/ NofPkl5 pgn] klxn]

18
18

s] cfkm"n] ul//fv]sf] sfdaf6 afn Snasf afnaflnsfx? ;Gt'i6 5g\ <

(3.57%)

(14.29%)

5g\

5}gg\

clnslt

(82.14%)

. 5 7 % ) (14.29%) 5g\ 5}gg\ clnslt (82.14%) ;fF:s[lts sfo{qmddf afnSnasf aflnsf afn Snasf

;fF:s[lts sfo{qmddf afnSnasf aflnsf

afn Snasf sfd afnaflnsfx? s;/L u5{g\ <

(91.07%)

(8.93%)

clnsltn]dfq

;a}ldn]/

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

afn Snasf] sfo{;ldlt s;/L u7g x'G5 <

(0.60%) (94.04%) (1.19%) (4.17%) 7"nfn]5flglbg] lgjf{rg a}7s tyf cfk;L ;xdlt yfxf 5}g

(0.60%)

(94.04%)

(1.19%)

(4.17%)

7"nfn]5flglbg]

lgjf{rg

a}7s tyf cfk;L ;xdlt yfxf 5}g

afn Snasf sfdn] afnaflnsfx?sf] k9fO{df s:tf] km/s kf/]sf] 5 < 100 92.86 ;'wf/]sf]5 90 lauf/sf]5
afn Snasf sfdn]
afnaflnsfx?sf] k9fO{df s:tf]
km/s kf/]sf] 5 <
100
92.86
;'wf/]sf]5
90
lauf/sf]5
80
km/s kf/]sf]5}g
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
5.95
1.19
0
km/s kf/]sf]5}g 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5.95 1.19 0 afn Snan] Joj:yfkg u/]sf]
km/s kf/]sf]5}g 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5.95 1.19 0 afn Snan] Joj:yfkg u/]sf]

afn Snan] Joj:yfkg u/]sf] k':tsfnoaf/] hfgsf/L lnFb} cWoogstf{

eg] cg';f/sf] u/]g5g\. pgsL sfsLn] wgdfofFnfO{vfnL sfddf dfq nufpg], k9\g gk7fpg] ug{yfln5g\. 3/sf ;fgf–7"nf ;a} sfdx? cx«fpg]b]lv lnP/ h+undf uP/ 3fF;–bfp/f ;d]t Nofpg'kg]{/x]5 . To;f] gu/] vfgf g}vfg glbg] klg ulb{/lx5g\. Tof] lbg klg h;/L klg 3fF; Nofpg'kg]{/x]5 pgnfO{ gq vfgf g} vfg gkfOg] eg]sL /lx5g\ sfsLn] . /, ;a}eGbf g/fd|f] s'/f t s]xL sfd ePg eg] 3/d}y'g]/ klg /fVbf /x]5g\. To;kl5 pgLx?n]To:tf]afn clwsf/ lj?4sf] sfdsf] nflu s]xL ug'{kg]{cfjZostf dx;'; u/] . cfkm\gf] afn Snadf cfP/ a}7s u/] . dlxnf ;d"xsf ;b:ox?;Fu ;Nnfx u/] . kf/flnun sld6LnfO{ hfgsf/L lbP . afn Snasf] ToxL kxnsf sf/0f wgdfofnfO{Tof] 3/af6 5'6fP/ ToxLFsL :yflgo dlxnf lji0f' kf}8]nn] # dlxgf;Dd cfkm\gf] 3/df /fVg'eof] .

afn Snan] ;a}s'/fsf] a]lnla:tf/ nufP/

wgdfofFsf afa' u+ufgf/fo0f >]i7nfO{lr7L

k7fP . clxn] wgdfof cfkm\gf] 3/ cf]vn9'Ëfdf

k9\l5g\eg] otf 9fnaxfb'/nfO{ca klg To:tf]

u/] k|x/LnfO{ hfgsf/L lbg] sfuhdf afn

Snan] x:tfIf/ u/fO{dfkmL dfUg nufof] .

Affn Snan]aflnsfx?df z;lQms/0f

Nofof]

sdnf dxtf]sf] 3/ lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] dWojtL{If]q gjnk/f;Lsf] sf]Nx'jfdf k5{. :yfgLo yf? ;d'bfosL pgL clxn] cgdL cWoog ul//fv]sL l5g\. pgsf] ;d'bfo hxfF afn ljjfx al9 x'G5, s]6Lx?nfO{3/leqsf] sfddf ;Lldt u/fOG5 To:tf] kl/j]zdf pgn] cgdL cWoog;Dd k'Ug' rfgr'g] pknAwL xf]Og . 3/df ;fgf] k;n rnfO/fv]sf / df5f dfg]{ k]zf u/]/ hLjg wflg/x]sf pgsf cleefjsx?n] ;DkGg cfly{s cj:yfn] eGbf

19
19

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

pgsf] cfTdljZjf;s}sb/ :j?k To;/L pRr lzIff cWoogdf nufPsf x'g\.

cflv/ s;/L sdnfsf] nflu To; kl/j]zsf] ljsf; x'g k'Uof] t < Pp6f pQ/ xf]– afn Sna . pgL % aif{cl3;Dd :yfgLo gGbefph' afn Snasf]cWoIf lyOg\. pgsf] Ifdtf / k|ltefs}sb/ :j?k afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltsf] ;b:odf ;d]t lgjf{lrt ePsL lyOg\. ufpF3/df pgnfO{;a}n]

s'zn jQmfsf]?kdf x]5{g, ;fgf7"nf ax;, 5nkmn / ljjfb kbf{ pgsf] e"ldsfsf] ck]Iff u5{g\. sdnf elG5g\, …;fob afn Sna gx'Fbf]xf]t ddf o:tf u'0fx? ;fob}ljsf; x'GYof] xf]nf .Ú h:t} csL{ sdnf h:t} x'g\eLddfof 7f8f, @%, hf] clxn] >L laBf>d lgdflj, ldy's/ddf cWofkg/t l5g\. pgsf ;xkf7Lx? hf] P;Pn;L ;Sbf g;Sb}j}jflxs aGwgdf ;d]t afFlwP, ;fg}df 3/hd z'? ubf{ w]/}n] pRr lzIffnfO{lg/Gt/tf lbg klg ;s]gg . oBlk pgL ljs6 ufpFdf /x]/ klg cWofkg;Fu}cfkm\gf] pRr lzIffnfO{lg/Gt/tf lbg ;lsg\. pgn] cfkm"nfO{o:tf]pTk|]/0ff lbg ;Sg'df afn Snan] 7"nf] e"ldsf v]n]sf] 7flG5g\.

sdnf / eLddfof h:t} afn Snadf ;fg}df nfu]sf] sf/0f kl5 jo:o x'Fbf;Dd dlxnfx?df cg]sg ;sf/fTds c;/ k/]sf 5g\. ljx] kl5 klg ca pgLx? klxn]h:tf] 3/leqsf sfddf ;fF3'l/g] dfqsf a'xf/L 5}gg\. pgLx?sf] a]Un}kfl/jf/Ls / ;dflhs x}l;ot alg;s]sf] 5 . w]/}n] afn Snadf 5Fbf a;]sf] hus}sf/0f cfkm"nfO{kl5;Dd cGo ;Defjgsf Jofks If]qdf cl3 a9\g] cj;/ kfPsf 5g\. pgLx?af6 cfhsn 3/kl/jf/ klg ljZj:t 5 .

s'g};do Go":6f/ afn ;d"x, dfs/sL ;b:o k'hf uxt/fh, @), clxn] :yflgo :s'ndf lzlIfsf l5g\. ldy's/dh:tf ljs6 e]udf ;d]t Ps ;do afn Snadf sfd u/]sL kljdfof df:sL clxn] ToxfFsf] :yflgo :s'nsL k|wfgfWofks l5g\. ;Demgf kf08] clvn qmflGtsf/LsL lhNnf ;b:o x'g\t l;h{gf s+8]n /]l8of] dWoljGb"df ;dfrf/ jflrs l5g\. Pstfsf afn Snadf sfd u/]/ clxn] w]/} aflnsfx? cfTdlge{/ aGg ;s]sf 5g\. uLtf uf}td, eujtL rfkfufO{+clxn] lzIf0f ul//x]sf dWo]s}kg]{x? dWo]sf x'g\. afn Snadf sfd u/]s}sf/0f dlxnfx?df kl5;Dd s:tf] ;fdflhs c;/ k5{ eGg] laifodf o;n] :ki6 k|ltlaDa emNsfO/x]sf] 5 .

afn Snasf ;ldltx? slt ;dodf km]l/G5g\ < jflif{s 60 57.14 @÷# dlxgfdf 7\ofSs}gtf]lsPsf] 50 yfxf
afn Snasf ;ldltx? slt
;dodf km]l/G5g\ <
jflif{s
60
57.14
@÷# dlxgfdf
7\ofSs}gtf]lsPsf]
50
yfxf 5}g
40
30
28.57
20
9.52
10
4.76
0
< jflif{s 60 57.14 @÷# dlxgfdf 7\ofSs}gtf]lsPsf] 50 yfxf 5}g 40 30 28.57 20 9.52 10
20
20

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

%= afn Snasf] ljwfg

============================afn ;d"x÷Sna ========================sf] u7g tyf sfo{ ;~rfng lgb]{lzsf @)^!

k|:tfjgf M

/fi6«lgdf{0fsf] nflu afnaflnsfx?sf] ;d]t e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{x'g] ePsf]n] pgLx?sf] zf/Ll/s, ;fdflhs, ;+j]ufTds / af}l4s ljsf; ub}{afnaflnsfx?sf] xslxt Pj+afn clwsf/sf] ljifodf hgr]tgf hufO{;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, z}lIfs Pj+cGo ;Da4 If]qdf ;d]t afn ;xeflutf h'6fpg / afn ljsf;sf ;fy}afn ;+/If0fsf] kxn ug{jf~5gLo ePsfn] of] lgb]{lzsf th{'df ul/Psf] 5 .

!=

;+lIfKt gfd / k|f/De M

o; lgb]{lzsfsf] gfd æ================== afn ;d"x÷Sna u7g tyf sfo{ ;~rfng lgb]{lzsf @)^!Æ /xg]5 . of] lgb]{lzsf lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Laf6 :jLs[t ePkl5 t'?Gt}nfu' x'g]5 .

@=

sfof{noM

o; lgb]{lzsf adf]lhd ul7t =================== afn ;d"x÷Sna ================ sf] sfof{no lhNnf gjnk/f;L ===================uf=lj=;=÷g=kf= j8f g+= ============= l:yt ======================== :yfgdf /xg]5 .

#=

M

$=

7]ufgf M

o; afn ;d"x÷Snasf] kqfrf/ Od]n jf ;Dks{7]ufgf lgDg adf]lhd x'g]5 =================================================

=================================================

kl/efiffM

ljifo jf k|;Ën] csf]{cy{gnfu]df M -s_ æ;d"x jf SnaÆ eGgfn] o; lgb]{lzsfsf] wf/f ^ cg'?k ul7t ;d"x÷Sna

21
21

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

hgfpg] 5 . of] Sna jf ;d"xn] afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf cfa4 eO{ lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf ;"lrs[t ePsf] afn ;d"xnfO{hgfpg]5 .

-v_ æafnaflnsfÆ eGgfn] o; lgb]{lzsfsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu ^ jif{b]lv dfly !^ jif{ggf3]sf afnaflnsfx?nfO{hgfpg]5 .

%=

22
22

p2]Zo Pj+sfo{x?M

o; afn ;d"xsf] b]xfo adf]lhdsf p2]Zo Pj+sfo{x? /xg]5g\M

-s_ afnaflnsfx?sf] zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, ;fdflhs, ;+j]ufTds tyf ;xeflutfTds ljsf;sf] clej[l4 ug]{.

-v_ afnclwsf/;DaGwL /fli6«o Pj+cGt/f{li6«o sfg"gsf] af/]df ;r]tgf u/fpg' .

-u_ afn ;d"xsf] lj:tf/ / ;+u7gfTds Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{.

-3_ wd{, j0f{, lnË, hfthflt jf cGo s'g}cfwf/df afnaflnsfx?nfO{lagf e]befj ;dfg cj;/ k|bfg ug]{af/] hgr]tgf hufpg] .

-ª_ afnaflnsfx?sf] lj?4 x'g] 3/fo;L lx+;f, afn of}gzf]if0f, afn b'Jo{jxf/, afn>d, afna]rlavg, afn ljjfxh:tf ;fdflhs ljs[ltsf lj?4 :yfgLo ?kdf ;r]tgf hufO{;f] sf] sfg"gL pkrf/sf] nflu afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf cg'/f]w ug]{.

-r_ afnclwsf/ ;DalGw ljljw sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{.

-5_ afnljsf; ;DalGw ljljw sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{' .

-h_ k"j{afnljsf; ;DalGw sfo{qmdx?df ;xefuL u/fpg' .

-em_ afnaflns ;DalGw x/]s ultljlwdf ;xeflutf u/fpg' .

-`_ jftfj/0f :jf:Yo ;DalGw sfo{qmdnfO{ afn ultljlwdf ;dfj]z u/fpg' .

-6_ cfkm\gf] ;d"xleqsf afnaflnsf ;DalGw ljljw cfwf/df tYof+s ;+sng ug{' .

-7_ afnaflnsfx?sf] ;d:of klxrfg u/L ;f] ;d:of ;DalGwt lgsfodf k'¥ofpg / ;dfwfg ug]{k|oTg ug{' .

-8_ hGdbtf{, afnlzIff, aflnsflzIff, afnj[l4 -tf}n_ ;/;kmfO{, vf]k kf]if0f,

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

afn :ofxf/ cfof]l8gsf] dxTjh:tf dft[ Pj+afn :jf:Yosf] ljifodf ;Gb]z jfxssf] ?kdf sfo{ug]{.

-9_ afnaflnsfx?;Fu ;DalGwt /f]u emf8fkvfnf, lgdf]lgof nufotsf ljifodf ;dfhdf hfgsf/L Pj+;f]sf] lg/fs/0fsf] nflu r]tgf hufpg' .

-0f_ lk5l8Psf, hf]lvddf k/]sf, ljkGg, åGå Pj+b}jL k|sf]kaf6 lkl8t afnaflnsfx?sf] k'g:yf{kgfsf] nflu kxn ug{' .

-t_ cGo afn ;d"xx? jf lgsfo;Fu ;d]t ;dGjo u/L PsLs[t ?kdf sfd ug]{.

-y_ afnaflnsfsf] k"0f{ljsf;sf nflu cGo ljljw /rgfTds sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{.

-b_ Pr=cfO{=le= P8\;sf ;DaGwdf hgr]tgf hfu[t u/fpg] .

-w_ afn ljjfx, ax'ljjfx, cgd]n ljjfx, hftLo e]befj Pj+bfOhf] k|yf nufot ;fdflhs ljs[ltsf] lj?4 hgr]tgf hufpg] .

-g_ afnaflnsfx?nfO{ ljljw k|lt:kwf{Tds ultljlwdf lagf e]befj afnaflnsfnfO{;l/s u/fpg kxn ug]{.

-y_ ================-:yfgLo cfjZostfcg';f/ p2]Zo / sfo{x? yKg ;lsg]_

^=

afn ;d"xsf]u7gM

^=! afn;d"xsf] u7g ;d"xsf ;fwf/0f ;b:ox?sf] ;fwf/0f;efaf6 x'g] lgjf{rg k|lqmofaf6 x'g]5 . o; afn;d"xsf] sfo{;ldltdf lgDgfg';f/sf kbflwsf/L

x'g]5g\M

-s_ cWoIf

M ! hgf

-v_ pkfWoIf

M ! hgf

-u_ ;lrj

M ! hgf

-3_ ;x;lrj

M ! hgf

-ª_ sf]iffWoIf

M ! hgf

-r_ ;b:o

M 3l6df @ hgf / al9df ^ hgf;Dd

-5_ ;Nnfxsf/ M cfjZostfcg';f/

-h_ ;+/Ifs

M ! hgf

23
23

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

^=@ afn ;d"xsf] sfo{;ldltsf] Ps sfo{sfndf aflnsf cWoIf jf pkfWoIf ePdf csf]{ sfo{sfnsf] nflu afns ;f]xL qmdfg';f/ cWoIf jf pkfWoIf x''g'kg]{5 . ;Dej geP of] k|fjwfg kfng ug{afWo x'g]5}g .

&= ;Nnfxsf/ M

afn ;d"xn] ;Nnfxsf/ lgo'lQm ubf{lgDg cfwf/df ug{'kb{5 M

-s_ k"j{afn ;d"xsf] cWoIf kb]g ;Nnfxsf/ x'g]5 .

-v_ :yfgLo lzIfs, v]nf8L, k|ltli7t ljåfg\, k|fWofks jf ;dfhsf k|ltli7t JolQm jf ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf ;b:ox?sf cleefjsdWo]af6 cfjZostfcg';f/ ;Nnfxsf/x? /xg]5g\.

*=

;+/Ifs M

afn ;d"xsf ;+/Ifsdf ;+:yfnfO{cleefjssf] ?kdf cfly{s jf Joj:yfksLo ;xof]u k|bfg ug]{ ;+:yf÷JolQm /xg] 5g\. ;+/Ifssf] lgo'lQm afn ;d"xsf] lg0f{ocg';f/ x'g]5 .

(=

kbfjlwM

afn ;d"xsf] kbfjlw u7g ePsf] ldltn] @ jif{sf] x'g]5 . s'g}kbflwsf/Ln] /flhgfdf lbPdf jf cGo s'g}sf/0fn] kb l/Qm ePdf kbflwsf/Lsf] xsdf afFsL cjlwsf nflu ;DalGwt afn ;d"xn] cfkm"dWo]af6 lgo'lQm ug]{5 / ;b:o kbsf nflu cfkm\gf] ;fwf/0f ;b:odWo]af6 rog ug{'kg]{5 .

!)= kbflwsf/Lsf]sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ M

kbflwsf/Lx?sf] b]xfo adf]lhdsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ x'g]5 M

-s_ cWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ M

cWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M != ;d"xsf] a}7s / ;d"xsf] ;fwf/0f;efsf] cWoIftf u|x0f ug]{. @= ;d"xsf] a}7s jf ;fwf/0f;efdf cfjZos k|:tfj / sfuhft k]z ug{] u/fpg] . #= ;d"xsf] cfDbfgL, vr{lx;fa / cGo sfuhft ;'/lIft /fVg] /fVg nufpg] . $= ;d"xsf] lg0f{o / lh=jf=s=;= sf] lgb]{zg sfof{Gjog ug]{u/fpg] .

24
24

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

%= ;d"xsf] k|ltlglw rog u/L k7fpg] jf ;d"xsf] k|ltlglwTj ug]{. ^= pkfWoIf / ;b:ox?nfO{ljifout sfo{ef/ ljefhg ul/lbg] . &= ;ft lbgeGbf a9L ;dosf nflu cg'kl:yt ePdf pkfWoIfnfO{ / pkfWoIf gePdf cfkm"dWo]sf jl/i7 ;b:onfO{ sfo{jfxs cWoIf tf]Sg] . *= afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt;Fu ;dGjo u/L jf cGo ;+3;+:yf jf lgsfox?;Fu sfo{qmdsf] dfu ug]{/ sfof{Gjog ug]{u/fpg] . (= tf]lsPsf] cGo sfo{ug]{.

-v_ pkfWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ M

pkfWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M != cWoIfsf] cg'kl:yltdf sfo{jfxs cWoIf e}sfo{ug]{. @= tf]lsPsf] cGo sfd ug]{. -u_ ;lrjsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ M

;lrjn] cWoIfsf] k|ToIf lgb]{zgdf /xL b]xfosf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/sf] k|of]u tyf kfng ug{'kg]{5 M != ;d"xsf] :jLs[t sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug]{. @= afnaflnsf jf afn ;d"x;Fu ;DalGwt JolQmsf] cBfjlws clen]v /fVg] . #= ;d"xsf] rn, crn tyf lhG;L ;DklQsf] nut /fVg] . $= ;d"xsf] a}7ssf] dfOGo'6 ug]{, lg0f{o ug]{k'l:tsf lhDdf lng] / lg0f{o k|dfl0ft ug]{. %= ;d"xsf] k|zf;sLo sfo{ug]{. ^= cWoIfsf] lgb]{zgcg';f/ a}7s af]nfpg] . &= tf]lsPsf] cGo sfo{ug]{. -3_ ;x;lrjsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/M != ;lrjsf] cg'kl:yltdf ;lrjsf] sfo{ef/ ;DxfNg] . @= tf]lsPsf] cGo sfo{ug]{. -ª_ sf]iffWoIfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/M != Sna÷;d"xsf] cfo Joo b'?:t /fVg] . @= cfly{s ah]6 tof/ u/L ;d"xdf a}7sdf k]z ug]{. #= cfly{s ;xof]u h'6fpg] .

25
25

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

$= cfly{s sf/f]af/;DaGwL lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug]{. -r_ ;b:osf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/M != a}7sdf ;xefuL x'g] . @= lg0f{osf] nflu cfkm\gf] dt k]z ug]{. #= tf]lsPsf] sfo{ug]{. $= ;d"xsf] lxt x'g] cGo /rgfTds sfo{ug]{.

!!= ;b:otfM

-s_ ;b:otfsf] of]UotfM o; afn ;d"xdf b]xfosf afnaflnsf ;b:o x'g kfpg]5g\M -s_ pd]/ slDtdf ^ jif{k'uL !^ jif{ggf3]sf] . -v_ :yfoL ;?jf /f]u gnfu]sf] . -u_ duh glau|]sf] jf af}nfxf gePsf] . -3_ ;d"xsf] lgb]{lzsfdf k|lta4 x'g] . -v_ ;b:otfsf] vf/]hL M -s_ duh lau|]df jf af}nfxf ePdf . -v_ !^ jif{pd]/ gf3]df . -u_ d[To' ePdf . -3_ /flhgfdf lbPdf . -ª_ cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj kfl/t eO{x6fOPdf . -r_ ;b:otf gljs/0f gePdf . -5_ nuftf/ tLg k6s lagf ;"rgf a}7sdf cg'kl:yt ePdf . -h_ PseGbf a9L afn;d"xsf] ;b:otf lnPsf] kfOPdf jf k|ltlglwTj u/]df .

!@= ;d"xsf kbflwsf/Lsf]pd]/sf]xb M

afn ;d"xsf sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lsf] pd]/ slDtdf cf7 jif{/ a9Ldf ;f]x| jif{ ggf3]sf] x''g'kg]{5 .

!#= cf/If0f M

o; afn ;d"xdf ;Dk"0f{;b:o ;+Vofsf] slDtdf %) k|ltzt aflnsf x'g'kg]{5

26
26

t/ ;d"xdf kof{Kt aflnsf ;b:o gePdf klg ;d"x sfod}/xg]5 .

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

!$= ;b:otf z'Ns tyf gljs/0f M

-s_ afn ;d"xsf] ;b:otf z'Ns jf gljs/0f z'Ns jf cGo s'g}z'Ns afn ;d"xn] tf]s] adf]lhd x'g]5 . -v_ afn ;d"xsf ;b:on] cfcfkm\gf ;d"xdf x/]s jif{;b:otf gljs/0f ug{'kg]{5 . -u_ afn ;d"xn] afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf k|To]s jif{ ;d"xsf] jflif{s k|ltj]bgsf ;fy gljs/0f u/fpg'kg]{5 . ;f] sf] hfgsf/L lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf u/fpg'kg]{5 .

!%= a}7sM

afn ;d"xn] slDtdf dlxgfsf] Psk6s a}7s a:g'kg]{5 . a}7ssf] u0fk'/s ;+Vof %!Ü sf] pkl:yltnfO{dflgg]5 .

!^= lg0f{oM

afn ;d"xsf] a}7sdf ax'dtsf] lg0f{o dfGo x'g]5 t/ dt a/fa/ ePdf cWoIfn] lg0ff{os dt lbg ;Sg]5 .

gf]6M lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;+/Ifs jf ;Nnfxsf/n] dtsf] k|of]u ug{kfpg] 5}gg\.

!&= lgjf{rgM

afn ;d"xn] k|hftflGqs k4lt cg'?k cfkm\gf] ;d"xsf] lgjf{rg kbfjlw ;dfKt x'g'eGbf Ps dlxgf klxn] ;DkGg ug{'kg]{5 .

!*= lgjf{rg clws[tM

afn ;d"xn] cfkm\gf ;+/Ifs Pj+;Nnfxsf/dWo]af6 slDtdf tLg hgf lgjf{rg clws[t tf]Sg'kg]{5 ;f] dWo] Pshgf d"Vo lgjf{rg clws[t /xg]5g\. d'Vo lgjf{rg clws[tn] lgjf{rg k|lqmof jf sfo{ljlw cfkm}+lgwf{/0f ug]{5 .

!(= sf]ifM

-s_ o; afn ;d"xn] cfkm\gf] gfdaf6 Pp6f sf]ifsf] :yfkgf ug]{5 .

-v_ a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf vftf ;~rfng ug{;d"xn] cfkm\gf ;Nnfxsf/ Pj+

27
27

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

;+/Ifssf] gfdaf6 ug{'kg]{5 . sf]ifaf6 /sd lemSg'kbf{;d"xsf] lg0f{o clgjfo{ ?kdf x'g'kg]{5 . afn ;d"x÷Snasf] lg0f{ocg';f/ sf]ifsf] /sd vr{ug{ ;lsg]5 .

-u_ sf]ifdf b]xfosf ;|f]taf6 /sd hDdf x'g]5 M != afnaflnsf;Fu ;DalGwt lgsfoaf6 k|fKt ;xof]u . @= ;xof]u, pkxf/ . #= ;b:otf tyf gljs/0f z'Ns . $= ;f+:s[lts jf ljljw /rgfTds sfo{qmdaf6 p7]sf] /sd . %= ;d"xsf] k|sfzgaf6 k|fKt x'g] /sd . ^= afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltaf6 k|fKt x'g] /sd . &= cGo ;fdflhs ;+3 ;+:yfaf6 k|fKt /sd .

@)= k|ltj]bgM

afn ;d"xn] cfkm\gf] jflif{s ;fwf/0f;efaf6 kfl/t jflif{s k|ltj]bg afn ;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf k|To]s jif{sf] c;f/ d;fGtleq k]z ug{'kg]{5 .

@!= ;+zf]wgM

of] lgb]{lzsf ;+zf]wg ubf{afn ;d"xsf] ;fwf/0f ;efsf] b'O{ltxfO{;b:ox?sf] ax'dtn] lgb]{lzsf ;+zf]wg k|:tfj kfl/t eO{lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldltaf6 :jLs[t ePdf of] lgb]{lzsf nfu"x'g]5 .

@@= arfpM

k|:t't lgb]{lzsfdf pNn]lvt s'/fx? k|rlnt g]kfn P]g lgod jf ljlgod;Fu aflemPdf aflemPsf] xb;Dd o; lgb]{lzsfdf pNn]lvt s'/fx? :jtM cdfGo

x'g]5g\.

@#= ;d"xsf]vf/]hL jf lj36gM

s'g}sf/0fjz ;d"x vf/]hLdf k/]df jf lj36g x'g uPdf To; ;d"xsf] ;Dk"0f{ rn crn ;DklQ lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Lsf] ;+/If0fdf ;g]{5 .

28
28

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

@$= ljljwM

!_ ;fwf/0f;efM

;d"xsf] ;fwf/0f;ef jif{sf] Psk6s a:g]5 . ;fwf/0f;efsf] ;"rgf k|To]s ;b:ox?nfO{! dlxgf cufj};lrjn] lbg'kg]{5 . ;fwf/0f;efdf ;d"xsf] jflif{s sfo{k|ult k|ltj]bg, cfly{s k|ltj]bg tyf jflif{s sfo{of]hgf ;DaGwL k|:tfjx? lg0f{ofy{ ;d"xn] k]z ug]{5 . ;fwf/0f;efsf] u0fk"/s ;+Vof ;d"xsf ;fwf/0f ;b:ox?sf] %! k|ltztsf] pkl:yltnfO{dflgg]5 .

@_

lgb]{lzsfsf] p2]Zo k|flKtsf] nflu ;d"xn] cfkm"nfO{cfjZos kg]{ljlgod agfpg ;Sg]5g\;fy}cfjZos ;ldlt / pk;ldltx?sf] klg u7g ug{;Sg]5g\. of] ;ldltsf] sfo{ljlw afn ;d"x÷Snan] lgwf{/0f ug]{5 .

sfo{ljlw agfpg] M

#_ ;+zf]wgM ;d"xsf] lgb]{lzsf ;+zf]wg ug{'k/]df lgb]{lzsf ;+zf]wg k|:tfj ;d"xsf] ;fwf/0f;efsf] b'O{ltxfO{ax'dtsf] lg0f{o eO{lh=jf=s=;= g=k=af6 :jLs[t ePkl5 dfq nfu' x'g]5 .

$_ cljZjf;sf] k|:tfjM

;d"xsf] lgb]{lzsf ljkl/t sfo{u/]sf] elg ;ldltsf s'g}kbflwsf/L dfly ;ldltsf] Ps ltxfO{;b:ox?n] u/]sf] lnlvt cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj ;d"xdf k]z u/]df ;f] k|:tfj ;fwf/0f;efsf] b'O{ltxfO{ax'dtaf6 kfl/t ePdf To:tf kbflwsf/Lx? :jtM kb d'Qm x'g]5g\.

%_ ;d"xn] cfkm\gf] lgb]{lzsf Pj+kbflwsf/L ;b:o;lxtsf] gfdfjnL afn;d"x lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf cfa4tf u/L lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf ;"lrs[t ug{'kg]{5 .

cg';"rL–!

;d"xsf] 5fk

-;d"xsf] 5fkdf ;d"xsf] gfd, :yfkgf jif{/ 7]ufgf clgjfo{?kdf x'g'kg]{5_

29
29

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

cg';"rL–@

;d"xsf sfo{;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx?

qm=;+=

kb

gfd y/

k'/f 7]ufgf -uflj;÷gkf, j8f / 6f]n_

x:tfIf/

!

cWoIf

     

@

pkfWoIf

     

#

;lrj

     

$

;x;lrj

     

%

sf]iffWoIf

     

^

;b:o

     

&

;b:o

     

*

;b:o

     

(

;b:o

     

!)

;b:o

     

!!

;b:o

     

;+/Ifssf] gfd / 7]ufgf M

;Nnfxsf/sf] gfd / 7]ufgf

cg';"rL–#

;d"xsf ;Dk"0f{;fwf/0f ;b:ox?sf] ljj/0f

qm=;+=

gfd

lnË

jif{

sIff

cleefjssf] gfd / gftf

7]ufgf

b:tvt

gf]6M

!=

o; adf]lhd ;fwf/0f ;b:ox? yk ug{;lsg]5 .

@=

;d"xsf ;fwf/0f ;b:ox?n] k|To]s jif{;b:ox?n] k|To]s jif{;b:otfsf]

#=

gljs/0f ug{'kg]{5 . lgb]{lzsfadf]lhd cfa4tf Pj+;"rLs[t u/fpg'kg]{lgsfo jf ;+:yfdf ;DalGwt uf=lj=;= jf ljBfno jf ;DalGwt ;+/IfsTj k|bfg u/]sf] ;+:yfdWo] s'g} Pssf] l;kmfl/; ;+nUg x'g'kg]{5 . l;kmfl/; ;fy sfo{;ldltsf ;a} kbflwsf/Lx?sf] ;+o'Qm lgj]bg lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf k]z ug{'kg]{5 .

30
30

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

$= o; lgb]{lzsfsf]k|lta4tfsf]nflu afn ;d"xsf]sfo{;ldltsf ;Dk"0f{kbflwsf/Lx?n] lgb]{lzsfsf] ;a}kfgfsf] tn dfly x:tfIf/ u/]sf] x'g'kg]{5 . %= cfa4tf jf ;"lrs[t ubf{b'O{k|lt lgb]{lzsf /Lt k"j{s tof/ u/L k]z ug{'kg]{5 .

cg';"rL $

lgj]bg kqsf] 9fFrf

>L afnsNof0f clwsf/LHo", lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;L .

ljifo M ;d"x ;"lrs[t÷cfa4tf u/L kfpF.

dxf]bo, xfdLn] ===========================gfdsf] afn ;d"x÷Sna vf]Ng rfx]sf]n] lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldltaf6 :jLs[t æafn;d"x u7g tyf sfo{;~rfng lgb]{lzsf @)^!Æ adf]lhd ;d"x ;"lrs[t÷cfa4tf ug{sf] nflu b]xfosf] ljj/0f vf]nL lgj]bg u/]sf 5f}F. k|:tfljt ;d"xsf] lgb]{lzsfsf] Ps k|lt, l;kmfl/z / oyf;So ;d"xsf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] hGdbtf{k|df0fkqsf] kmf]6f]skL o;};fy ;+nUg ul/Psf] .

ljj/0f

!=

;d"x÷Snasf] gfd M

 

@=

;d"xsf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] ljj/0f M

 

qm=;+=

gfd

kb

7]ufgf sIff

jif{

x:tfIf/

#=

sfof{nosf] 7]ufgf M

 

$= ;+/Ifs jf ;Nnfxsf/sf] 7]ufgfM ldlt M

%=

ejbLo cWoIf af]wfy{tyf sfof{y{M afn ;d"x lhNnf ;ldlt, k/f;L, gjnk/f;L

-lhNnf afn sNof0f ;ldlt, gjnk/f;Ln] @)^! ;fndf NofPsf] o; afn ;d"x ;+rfng lgb]{lzsfdf o; cWoogsf lgZsif{x? ;dfj]z 5}gg\

31
31

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

^= lhNnf afnsNof0f ;ldlt gjnk/f;Ldf ;"rLs[t afn Snax?sf] ljj/0f

btf{

afn ;d"xsf] gfd

uflj;÷g=kf=

:yfkgf

;b:o

 

g+=

aflnsf afns

 

hDdf

1

hfu[lt afn ;d"x Sna g]kfn

k|ultgu/

2048

74

56

130

2

afn ;r]tgf ;d"x

k|tfkk'/

2056

3

8

11

3

afn of]hgf ;d"x

/fdu|fd gkf

2058

12

26

38

4

sf]dn kfOnf afn ;d"x

/fdu|fd gkf

2058

25

40

65

5

zflGt afn ;d"x

/fdu|fd gkf

2058

20

40

60

6

piff afn ;d"x

/fdu|fd gkf

2061

28

12

40

7

afn hfu/0f ;d"x

/fdu|fd gkf

2058

37

25

62

8

k|ult afn ;d"x

/fdu|fd gkf

2060

35

15

50

9

>Ls[i0f afn ;d"x

a'lnË6f/

2055.5.13

6

4

10

10

k|ult afn ;d"x

a'lnË6f/

2057

9

9

18

11

;/:jtL afn ;d"x

cv{nf

2060.5.12

12

15

27

12

clz{jfb afn ;d"x

cv{nf

2058

19

13

32

13

o'gfO6]8 afn ;d"x

g/d

2060.6.8

21

28

49

14

hg ;]jf afn ;d"x

g/d

2061

12

19

31

15

afn ljsf; afn ;d"x

g/d

2056

52

55

107

16

gd"gf afn ;d"x

?rfª

2058

21

21

42

17

dLgf afn xs ;+/If0f d+r

ltnsk'/

2058

20

25

45

18

dLgf afn xs ;+/If0f d+r

?kf}lnof

2058

25

15

40

19

dLgf afn xs ;+/If0f d+r

:jfl7

2058

18

13

31

20

dLgf afn xs ;+/If0f d+r

hxbf

2057

16

4

20

21

l;4fy{afn ;d"x

/s'jf

-

0

0

0

22

cfbz{afn u|Lg Sna

hd'lgof

2061

7

11

18

23

uf}td a'4 zflGt u|Lg Sna

s'Zdf

2061

9

10

19

24

;'o{ls/0f afn ;d"x

ldy's/d

2048

35

25

60

25

k|ultlzn afn ;d"x

sf]6y/

- 29

 

7

36

26

nuglzn afn ;d"x

Bf}jfbL

Ê 18

 

8

26

27

a'4 cfbz{afn ;d"x

ltnsk'/

2060

30

21

51

28

;+ud afn ;d"x Sna

klSnxjf

Ê

8

13

21

29

;TojtL afn ;d"x

?kf}lnof

2060

10

28

38

32
32

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

btf{

afn ;d"xsf] gfd

uflj;÷g=kf=

:yfkgf

;b:o

 

g+=

aflnsf afns

 

hDdf

 

30 gj hfu[lt afn ;d"x

cUof}nL

2054

54

49

103

 

31 n'lDagL afn af6Lsf ;d"x

;'gjn

2060

5

6

11

 

32 lbk Hof}tL u|+Lg afn ;d"x

kfNxL

Ê

9

10

19

 

33 lbk cfbz{afn ;d"x

lzjdlGb/

2059

20

22

42

 

34 Pstf afn ;d"x

8fF8fFem]/L

2058

16

20

36

 

35 gGb efph' afn ;d"x

sf]Nx'jf

2060

16

14

30

 

36 b]jr'nL afn d+r

lzjdlGb/

2060

35

38

73

 

37 ldgf afn xs d08jf ;d"x

hxbf

2057

16

4

20

 

38 klAns u|Lg afn ;d"x

z'qmf}nL

2061

9

8

17

 

39 gj r]tgf afn ;d"x

gf/fo0fL

5059

19

18

37

 

40 gd"gf xl/ofnL afn ;d"x

cUof}nL

2060

22

18

40

 

41 gj r]tgf afn ;d"x

?rfª

Ê

14

7

21

 

42 l;4fy{afn ;d"x

;/fjn

2061

18

28

46

 

43 sf]6xL dfO{afn ;d"x

/fdu|fd gkf

2062

9

12

21

 

44 cd/ afn ;d"x

k|ultgu/

2062

16

9

25

 

45 >L ;[hgzLn afn ;d"x

gofFj]nxfgL

2061

29

15

44

 

46 >L ldld{/] afn ;d"x

gofFj]nxfgL

2062

8

23

31

 

47 >L gjHof]tL afn ;d"x

b]p/fnL

2062

5

6

11

 

48 >L cfbz{afn ljsf; d~r

b]p/fnL

2061

14

21

35

 

49 >L ldng afn ;d"x

8]9ufpF

2062

1

13

14

 

50 >L jGhfl/g dfO{afn ;d"x

aGhl/of

2062

9

12

21

 

51 P~h]N; afn ;d"x

/fdu|fd gkf

062÷11÷04

9

9

18

 

52 gj ;[hgf afn ;d"x

gofFj]nxfgL

2062

59

38

97

 

53 ldld/] afn ;d"x

tD;/Lof

2063÷02÷02

34

34

68

 

54 afn ;d"x ulDe/tf

Bf}jfbL

2055÷07÷24

17

14

31

 

55 piff ls/0f afn ;d"x

/fdu|fd gkf

063÷05÷08

22

38

60

 

56 afn ljsf; afn ;d"x

lk7f}nL

063÷03÷01

19

13

32

 

57 ljxfgL afn ;d"x

lk7f}nL

063÷03÷01

16

25

41

 

58 gd"gf afn ;d"x

lk7f}nL

063÷03÷02

14

18

32

 

59 gjHof]tL afn ;d"x

lk7f}nL

063÷03÷02

18

13

31

 

60 Pstf afn Sna

lk7f}nL

063÷03÷05

11

7

18

 

61 hfu/0f afn Sna

lk7f}nL

063÷02÷31

21

15

36

 

62 k|ltdf afn ;d"x

ldy's/d

061÷08÷15

10

7

17

 

63 ;[hglzn afn ;d"x

lzjdlGb/

062÷02÷22

13

15

28

 

64 z:qLo afn u|Lg ;d"x

?kf}lnof

061÷01÷05

10

26

36

 

65 gf}nf] ljxfgL afn Sna

b]p/fnL

062÷07÷05

19

16

35

 

66 sf]lknf afn Sna

x'K;]sf]6

062÷07÷05

10

15

25

33
33

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

btf{

afn ;d"xsf] gfd

uflj;÷g=kf=

:yfkgf

;b:o

 

g+=

aflnsf afns

 

hDdf

67

Go";xf/f afn Sna

gofFj]nxfgL

2062

19

25

44

68

hg;]jf afn Sna

;'gjn

2060

14

22

36

69

;[hglzn afn ljsf; ;+u7g

/fdgu/

056÷08÷01

33

27

60

70

gjk|ltef afn ;d"x

k|ultgu/

62

18

26

44

71

Pstf afn Sna

sfjf;f]lt

063÷02÷26

25

6

31

72

ckfË k'g:yfkgf

/fdu|fd gkf

63

10

11

21

73

;fgf] ;+;f/ afn Sna

:jfl7

062÷01÷24

9

26

35

74

lqzlQm afn Sna

hxbf

063÷04÷13

6

19

25

75

;[hgf afn Sna

hxbf

063÷04÷15

11

14

25

76

r]tgf afn ;d"x

sf]Nx'jf

063÷04÷16

10

5

15

77

;"of]{bo afn ;d"x

sf]Nx'jf

063÷04÷13

9

8

17

78

lzj dlGb/ afn ;+/If0f ;d"x

gofFj]nxfgL

063÷01÷01

27

20

47

79

k|f0f lk|o afn ;d"x

/fsfr'nL

063÷01÷02

15

15

30

80

/Def b]jL afn Sna

x'K;]sf]6

060÷01÷05

10

20

30

81

gj k|eft afn Sna

x'K;]sf]6

059÷09÷08

13

23

36

82

nfnLu'/fF; afn Sna

x'K;]sf]6

058÷11÷10

15

21

36

83

afn ;]jf afn Snj

x'K;]sf]6

2062.5.15

16

20

36

84

sf]lknf afn Snj

x'K;]sf]6

2062.7.5

10

15

25

85

gjHof]tL afn ;d"x

x'K;]sf]6

2061.5.1

2

23

25

86

jftfj/0f tyf ufpF;'wf/ afn Sna

b]p/fnL

2060.1.1

18

18

36

87

gjls/0f afn Snj

b]p/fnL

2061.1.1

17

19

36

88

;dfh;]jf afn Snj

b]p/fnL

2060.1.1

14

22

36

89

cfbz{jfn Snj

b]p/fnL

2062.3.11

10

10

20

90

gj hfu/0f afn Snj

b]p/fnL

2062.7.5

16

20

36

91

hfu/0f afn Sna

x'K;]sf]6

2058

18

7

25

92

;[hgf afn Sna

?rfª

2060.1.1

18

13

31

93

;'of]{bo afn Snj

b]p/fnL

2062.10.7

13

23

36

94

;[hgzLn afn Snj

b]p/fnL

2061.5.1

22

23

45

95

afn sNof0f afn Snj

b]p/fnL

2060.4.27

8

28

36

96

hfu[lt afn Snj

b]p/fnL

2060.2.25

18

17

35

97

1fg Hof]lt afn Snj

d}gf3f6

2061

19

17

36

98

hg sNof0f afn ;d"x

ltnsk'/

2063.4.23

7

6

13

99

;f}uft afn ;d"x

ltnsk'/

2063.4.22

15

4

19

100

Pstf tyf ;dfh ;]jf afn Snj

?rfª

2062.7.9

13

23

36

101

hg Hof]lt afn ;d"x

?rfª

2062.7.1

8

12

20

102

dft[e'ld afn Snj

?rfª

2061.1.15

16

16

32

103

sf]lknf afn ;d"x

?rfª

2057

21

13

34

34
34

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

btf{

afn ;d"xsf] gfd

uflj;÷g=kf=

:yfkgf

;b:o

 

g+=

aflnsf afns

 

hDdf

104

zflGt afn Snj

/fdu|fd gkf

2063.8.2

12

24

36

105

hg Hof]lt afn ;d"x

?kf}lnof

2061.1.1

25

16

41

106

ufpFHof]lt afn ;d"x

?rfª

2057.6.2

8

17

25

107

ufpF;]jf ax'd'vL afn Snj

?rfª

2059.6.4

19

12

31

108

nfnLu'/fF; afn Sna

;gO{

20635.29

10

15

25

109

lqj]0fL afn Snj b]pufpF

b]jufFj

2062.1.15

9

27

36

110

gj cleofg afn Snj

hd'lgof

2063.3.11

6

10

16

111

>[hgf afn Snj

x'K;]sf]6

2061.4.10

12

13

25

112

sf]lknf afn Snj

x'K;]sf]6

2062.12.2

16

20

36

113

;u/dfyf afn d~r

/s'jf

2061.6.12

11

14

25

114

sf]lknf afn Snj

;/fjn

2063.4.13

8

17

25

115

ldnLh'nL afn ljsf; Snj

hxbf

2064.2.5

17

8

25

116

gj ;lqmo afn Snj

dfs/

2064.2.29

Ê

Ê

0

117

>L ;fx;L Pstf afn Snj

tD;/Lof

2065.2.30

4

10

14

118

>L ;+ufnf] afn Snj

gofFj]nxfgL

2060.7.15

12

12

24

119

>L l;4fy{afn Snj

hxbf

2063.1.30

7

18

25

120

>L sf]lknf afn Snj

a8x/f b'jf}lnof

2063.4.13

7

18

25

121

>L ;+ud afn Snj

8]9ufpF

2061.1.1

20

11

31

122

>L zflGt afn Snj

hxbf

2062.10.11

21

12

33

123

>L ufpFj];L afn ;d"x

/fsfr'nL

2062.12.13

15

21

36

124

>L afn lasf; s]Gb| afn Snj

/s'jf

2058.5.5

14

11

25

125

>L gj Pstf afn Snj

hxbf

2064.1.1

12

13

25

126

>L lbk]Gb| afn Snj

a]gLdl0fk'/

Ê

26

20

46

127

>L ljBfno :tl/o afn Snj

/s'jf

2062.11.21

20

16

36

128

>L hgsNof0f afn Snj

/s'jf

2063.1.10

12

22

34

129

>L ;+3if{afn ;d"x

8]9ufpF

2061.2.8

19

13

32

130

>L ;'of]{bo afn Snj

/s'jf

2058.11.12

12

13

25

131

>L nfnL u'/fF; afn Snj

?rfª

2061.4.25

11

12

23

132

>L lbk Hof]lt afn ;d"x

d}gf3f6

2061.7.20

21

10

31

133

>L Ogb|]0fL afn ;d"x

8]9ufpF

2061.2.5

17

17

34

134

>L lxdfn afn ;d"x

k+rgu/

2063.3.3

20

9

29

135

>L ;okqL afn Snj

d}gf3f6

2060.2.14

15

21

36

136

>L chDa/L afn Snj

g/d

2059.11.14

22

12

34

137

nfnLu'/fF; afn Sna

8]9ufpF

2059.11.14

14

9

23

138

>L rDsLnf] tf/f afn Snj

g/d

2061.1.1

9

8

17

139

>L gjls/0f afn Snj

tD;/Lof

2062.8.2

12

8

20

140

>L pT;flxt afn Snj

?rfª

2062.11.17

39

66

105

35
35

l;Sb}, l;sfpFb}–afn Sna

btf{

afn ;d"xsf] gfd

uflj;÷g=kf=

:yfkgf

;b:o

 

g+=

aflnsf afns

 

hDdf

141

>L pT;j afn Snj

?rfª

2063.1.1

17

17

34

142

;'gf}nf] ljxfgL

Bf}jfbL

2061.1.1

18

18

36

143

;GhLjgL

k|tfkk'/

2064.3.1

15

21

36

144

cfbz{jfn Snj

gofFj]nxfgL

2063

28

21

49

145

Ogb|]0fL afn Snj

;/fjn

2064.6.4

12

13

25

146

zfGtL afn Snj

;/fjn

2064.6.4

14

22

36

147

;'of]{bo afn Snj

;/fjn

2064.6.15

12

13

25

148

b]jr'nL afn ;d"x

a'lnË6f/

2064.9.24

15

16

31

149

hob'u]{afn ;d"x

;/fjn

2064.6.6

6

19

25

150

gjo'u afn Snj

ef/ltk'/

2063.11.7

37

34

71

151

1fgf]bo afn ;d"x

a'lnË6f/

2064.9.23

12

15

27

152

gd"gf afn ;d"x

g/d

2063.12.18

20

16

36

153

lsG8/ uf8]{g

?rfª

2063.6.2

10

15