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Basic Features and Elements of Narratives

   are the interesting accounts of people·s ideas, feelings, and values pertinent to the
development of their culture and society.


1.? 2
is a short literary composition in prose or verse, conveying a moral truth. The moral is
usually summed up at the end of the story, which generally tells of conflict among animals that
are given the attributes of human beings.
2.?  is a traditional narrative or collection of related narratives, popularly regarded as
historically factual but actually a mixture of fact and fiction. It is also defined as the short
narrative about the origin or beginning of something.
3.? 2
is a story that is passed down orally from one generation to the next generation and
become part of a community·s tradition. It is also a prose narrative that is regarded as fiction.
4.? ½ is a traditional narrative about heroes, gods and goddesses or supernatural beings, often
attempting to explain the origins of natural phenomena or aspect of human behavior.
5.? c  c is a fictional work depicting one character·s inner conflict with others, usually
having one thematic focus. Short stories generally produce a single, focused emotional and
intellectual response in the reader.
is a biblical story that tells about religious teachings and morals.


1.? c  refers to the time and place of the story.
2.?    refer to someone or something on which the story develops. Without the
characters there could be no story.
a.? Vrotagonist is the good guy or person in the story (hero).
b.? Antagonist is the bad guy or person in the story (villain).
 refers to the series of events in the story.
Varts of the Vlot
a.? Introduction is the beginning of the story.
b.? Rising action is where the conflict is developed.
c.? Climax is the highest point or peak in the story.
d.? Falling Action is where the conflict is resolved.
e.? Conclusion/Resolution is the ending of the story.
t refers to the problem that the character has to resolve in the story.
Three Kinds of Conflict
a.? ½an versus Himself. It is the conflict between conscience and the other feelings such as
principles, beliefs, and values inside the character.
b.? ½an versus ½an. It is the conflict the main character and the other characters in the story.
c.? ½an versus Nature. It is the conflict between the character and the forces of nature that
are beyond his or her control.
5.?   refers to the main idea that the writer wants to leave to the readers for them to
ponder on.
6.?    refers to whose view through which the story is told.
a.? First Verson. The narrator is an observer or a participant. He or she includes his or her own
thoughts and feelings. He or she makes use of the pronouns I or We.
b.? Third Verson. The narrator observes one character who participates in the story.
c.? Third Verson. The author observes but does not participate in the story. He or she includes
the actions, thoughts, and feelings of all the characters.
7.? ½
  refers to the values or insights learned or gleaned from the story read.

Figurative Language

It refers to expressions with meanings that cannot be taken literally. It uses figures of speech.
2 c  

1.? c
is a figure of speech that compares two seemingly unlike things by using words such as
like, and as,«as.
He beauty is like a flower that is about to bloom.
His intelligence is as sharp as the butcher·s knife.
2.? ½   is a figure of speech that compares two unlike things without using connectives.
Veople who lend a hand are good Samaritans of today.
Filipino soldiers are lions in the battlefield.
3.?    is a figure of speech that attributes human qualities to inanimate objects.
The poles of the fence sway to the rhythm of the strong wind.
The earth swallowed the abandoned building during the strong earthquake.
4.? u   is a figure of speech that addresses a person absent or dead as if he or she were
present; an inanimate object as if it were alive.
O, Rizal, look what has happened to the youth of today!
Happiness and prosperity, why have you deserted me?
5.? º 
is a figure of speech that uses exaggeration of ideas for emphasis.
I walk a thousand miles just to attend your birthday party.
Jimmy ate a mountain of food during lunchtime.
6.? a is a figure of speech that states the opposite idea of what is meant.
Your thoughtfulness for not remembering my birthday is very much appreciated.
The witness was given a commendation for keeping his silence about the killings of the
entire army troops.
u  u ccc

a.? Synonyms are words that express the same ideas or have the same meaning, however, you
should be careful to use a substitute synonym. You should study very closely your choices of
words so that you can express exactly the idea you want to convey.
happy- glad depressed- sad
enemy- foe scarce-few
b.? Antonyms are words which are opposite in meaning. They are also called contrasting words.
huge- tiny create-destroy
conceited- humble abundant-scarce
c.? Varts of a Book

*u½½u ccc
a.? Nouns(Common and Vroper nouns, Classes of Nouns)
b.? Vronouns(Versonal Vronouns, nominative and objective)
c.? Verbs(Subject-Verb Agreement)
d.? Simple Vast Tense(regular and irregular)

c2c a*
1.? compendium
2.? buffet
3.? chaperon
4.? psocid
5.? vacuous
6.? abattoir Vrepared by: ½rs. Christina V. Gordolan
7.? aisle  : these are the lessons to be taken in the exam
8.? eulogy
9.? hubris
10.? accommodate