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Chapter1 Final

Chapter1 Final

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Published by: Jessie John Solatina on Jun 08, 2011
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Hoy and Miskel (2009) defined motivation as an internal

state that stimulates, directs, and maintains behavior to think, feel

and perform certain ways. It is intrinsic, and the most significant,

yet elusive determinant of work behavior. Thus, it is a natural

tendency to seek and accept challenges as everybody pursues

personal interest and exercise capabilities.

Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing

workplaces. Motivated employees help organizations survive.

Motivated employees are more productive. These are the roles of

motivation in the workplaces according to Lindner (1998).

Motivation as defined by Moorhead and Griffin (2004) is a set

of forces that causes people to engage in one behavior rather than

some alternative behavior. To Martires (1999), motivation carries a

lot of cultural underpinnings that Filipino manager should know

what theory of motivation should be applied.


Herzberg as cited by Hoy and Miskel (2009) emphasized that

if the employee¶s motivational factors are not met, they may begin

to ask for more maintenance factors. Maintenance factors

represent the basic things people consider essential to any job,

such as salaries, fringe benefits, working conditions, social

relationships, supervision, and organizational policies and

administration. These basic maintenance factors do not act as

motivators; but if any of them is absent, the organizational climate

that results can hurt employee morale and lower worker

productivity. Motivational factors on the other hand, are those

elements that go above and beyond the basic maintenance factors.

They include opportunities for recognition, advancement, or more

responsibility. When these are present, they tend to motivate

employees to improve productivity (Reece and Brandt 2002).

Martires (1999), on the other hand, argues that it is not quite

correct to say that motivation is only a maintenance function.

Lindner conducted a study on employee motivation (Journal

of Extension, 1998), it was surveyed that the ranked order of

motivating factors were: (a) interesting work, (b) good wages, (c)

full appreciation of work done (d) job security, (e) good working

conditions (f) promotions and growth in the organization, (g)


feeling of being in on things, (h) personal loyalty to employees, (i)

tactful discipline, and (j) sympathetic help with personal problems.

The most important predictors of retention were career

opportunities, feedback from the supervisor, job security,

satisfaction with job title (an indication of respect for employees)

training and development opportunities as discovered in the

research conducted by World at Work/Sibson Company on factors

that could retain employees (http/www.worldatwork.org/).

According to McCoy as cited by Zilmann (2000), managers

can also use intrinsic and extrinsic motivators to increase employee

performance and productivity. Intrinsic motivators, such as clean

restrooms or a nice cafeteria or break room, benefit the employees

while on the job. Extrinsic motivators, such as holiday pay, sick

leave, and medical/dental plans are best enjoyed by the employees

when they are away from their job.

Although there are various literatures and studies that show

how competent motivation is in improving productivity of

organizations however, Mison, et al. (1996) contend that the

problem in worker motivation is not getting the workers to do their

assigned job but enlisting their cooperation and loyalty for the

company. The whole problem is the development of attitudes,


loyalties and capacities for making sacrifices toward an entity that

has greater consequence in the individual worker than his own job

or his personal welfare.

Body of literature and studies agree and disagree that

compensation, job itself, supervision and administration,

professional growth and development opportunities and co-workers

are motivating factors, Enormous literatures and studies were

looked deeply by the researcher to determine its crucial point as


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