P. 1
Voices From Margins

Voices From Margins

|Views: 276|Likes:
1999. “pranto theke bOla” Dasgupta, Arun, Goutam Bhadra, Alak Ghosh ed. Aitihasik. VIII 1-2 (pp.31-62) .Kolkata
Reprinted in: 2009. Churamani Hati ed. lokosNskritir digdiganta.Kolkata: Granthabikas. (pp.108-35)
The author of this Bangla paper had showed here the nature of linguistic imperialism as evident in the terms like “dialect”, “folk-language” or “standard language”. He had also showed the illegitimacy of Folklore and Anthropology as these subjects reflect colonial disciplinary technology as they surrogate whiteMAN’s History and Sociology. By analyzing the dichotomies like Folksong/Classical song, Folk drama/theatre, Folk Art/Art, the author had also illustrated the fuzziness of such boundaries (folk/non-folk) that reveal the nature of subsumption through subjectification as well as subjection.
Note: This paper is an amalgamated Bangla version of following English papers available at SSRN: abstract_id=2017735, abstract id=2022896, abstract id =2018055, abstract id=2017319
COVER: DEBRAJ GOSWAMI

SUMMARIZED VERSION OF FOLLOWING PAPERS
2008. “SONskritbiddacOrca: SONkOt o mocon” Loukik. II:1 (pp.99-107). Kolkata.
2007. “kirtana: Musicking in speaking” Movement for understanding Sangeet: An Indian Concept. Kolkata. (pp.32-54)
2005.“Blurring the Divide: Folk art and Classical Art.” Departmental Journal of Folklore(lokodOrpon), Kalyani University. (pp. 181-93) Printed version of the lecture given in the Department of Folklore, Kalyani University, 23rd February 2005.
2002.“Final Sound and Initia1 Sound: A Note on Playing Antyaksari.” Reddy, K.N. and Fatehi, A.R. ed. Studies in Phonetics and Phonology. Aligarh : Ess Ess Publication. (pp.110-13)
2003. “Vedic Songs: Technology Without Machine”. Reddy, K.N. ed. Speech Technology. Thiruvantapuram: Dravidian Linguistics Society. Printed version of the lecture given in a Symposium on Speech Technology, National Conference, Dravidian Linguistics Society and International Dravidian Institute. Hyderabad, June 1998.
2001. “Folklore: Searching For Logistics.” Singh, U.N. ed. Culturation. Jawharlal Handoo Felicitation Volume. Mysore: CIIL. ISBN 81-7342-094-7. (pp.26-34) 2002. “Blurring the divide: Folk Art and Classical Art.” Printed version of the lecture given in a seminar on “Art Expressions and Socio-Linguistics.” Organized by CIIL, Mysore and NSOU, Kolkata.
2000.“Folksong-Classical Songs: The Discursive Formation of Dividing Practice.” Pondicherry Institute of Language and Culture Journal of Dravidian Studies. (pp. 63-70). Pondicherry.
http://www.ciil.org/Main/virlib/data/ANNEXURE%201.htm
http://www.languageinindia.com/jan2003/indicarticles.html
1997.“The Myth of Regionalism” Chakraborty, Dasgupta, Subha ed. Regionality and Comparative Literature. (pp. 77-83). DSA, Department of Comparative Literature, Jadavpur University, Kolkata. A lecture given on a seminar on Regionality and Comparative Literature organized by the department of Comparative Literature, Jadavpur University. 9-11 December, 1996. (INVITED) http://books.google.com/books?id=LONjAAAAMAAJ&q=debaprasad+bandyopadhyay&dq=debaprasad+bandyopadhyay&lr=&pgis=1
1996.”Standardization: Myth or Reality?” Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics. Vol. XXII, No.2 (pp.73-76). Delhi. ISSN 0379-0037
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=2876758 &
http://linguistlist.org/pubs/papers/browse-papers-action.cfm?PaperID=11122
1995.Folklore and Fo1klanguage: Myth or Reality? West Bengal: Kalyani University. http://linguistlist.org/pubs/papers/browse-papers-action.cfm?PaperID=7582 Printed version of the lecture given in a “Folklore and Folklanguage.” Department of Bangla, Rabindrabharati University, 1 August,1995. (INVITED)
Taught in the UGC-Sponsored Refresher Course on Folklore Studies and Cultural Tourism, School of Media Communication and Culture, Jadavpur University. 25/6/2001









1999. “pranto theke bOla” Dasgupta, Arun, Goutam Bhadra, Alak Ghosh ed. Aitihasik. VIII 1-2 (pp.31-62) .Kolkata
Reprinted in: 2009. Churamani Hati ed. lokosNskritir digdiganta.Kolkata: Granthabikas. (pp.108-35)
The author of this Bangla paper had showed here the nature of linguistic imperialism as evident in the terms like “dialect”, “folk-language” or “standard language”. He had also showed the illegitimacy of Folklore and Anthropology as these subjects reflect colonial disciplinary technology as they surrogate whiteMAN’s History and Sociology. By analyzing the dichotomies like Folksong/Classical song, Folk drama/theatre, Folk Art/Art, the author had also illustrated the fuzziness of such boundaries (folk/non-folk) that reveal the nature of subsumption through subjectification as well as subjection.
Note: This paper is an amalgamated Bangla version of following English papers available at SSRN: abstract_id=2017735, abstract id=2022896, abstract id =2018055, abstract id=2017319
COVER: DEBRAJ GOSWAMI

SUMMARIZED VERSION OF FOLLOWING PAPERS
2008. “SONskritbiddacOrca: SONkOt o mocon” Loukik. II:1 (pp.99-107). Kolkata.
2007. “kirtana: Musicking in speaking” Movement for understanding Sangeet: An Indian Concept. Kolkata. (pp.32-54)
2005.“Blurring the Divide: Folk art and Classical Art.” Departmental Journal of Folklore(lokodOrpon), Kalyani University. (pp. 181-93) Printed version of the lecture given in the Department of Folklore, Kalyani University, 23rd February 2005.
2002.“Final Sound and Initia1 Sound: A Note on Playing Antyaksari.” Reddy, K.N. and Fatehi, A.R. ed. Studies in Phonetics and Phonology. Aligarh : Ess Ess Publication. (pp.110-13)
2003. “Vedic Songs: Technology Without Machine”. Reddy, K.N. ed. Speech Technology. Thiruvantapuram: Dravidian Linguistics Society. Printed version of the lecture given in a Symposium on Speech Technology, National Conference, Dravidian Linguistics Society and International Dravidian Institute. Hyderabad, June 1998.
2001. “Folklore: Searching For Logistics.” Singh, U.N. ed. Culturation. Jawharlal Handoo Felicitation Volume. Mysore: CIIL. ISBN 81-7342-094-7. (pp.26-34) 2002. “Blurring the divide: Folk Art and Classical Art.” Printed version of the lecture given in a seminar on “Art Expressions and Socio-Linguistics.” Organized by CIIL, Mysore and NSOU, Kolkata.
2000.“Folksong-Classical Songs: The Discursive Formation of Dividing Practice.” Pondicherry Institute of Language and Culture Journal of Dravidian Studies. (pp. 63-70). Pondicherry.
http://www.ciil.org/Main/virlib/data/ANNEXURE%201.htm
http://www.languageinindia.com/jan2003/indicarticles.html
1997.“The Myth of Regionalism” Chakraborty, Dasgupta, Subha ed. Regionality and Comparative Literature. (pp. 77-83). DSA, Department of Comparative Literature, Jadavpur University, Kolkata. A lecture given on a seminar on Regionality and Comparative Literature organized by the department of Comparative Literature, Jadavpur University. 9-11 December, 1996. (INVITED) http://books.google.com/books?id=LONjAAAAMAAJ&q=debaprasad+bandyopadhyay&dq=debaprasad+bandyopadhyay&lr=&pgis=1
1996.”Standardization: Myth or Reality?” Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics. Vol. XXII, No.2 (pp.73-76). Delhi. ISSN 0379-0037
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=2876758 &
http://linguistlist.org/pubs/papers/browse-papers-action.cfm?PaperID=11122
1995.Folklore and Fo1klanguage: Myth or Reality? West Bengal: Kalyani University. http://linguistlist.org/pubs/papers/browse-papers-action.cfm?PaperID=7582 Printed version of the lecture given in a “Folklore and Folklanguage.” Department of Bangla, Rabindrabharati University, 1 August,1995. (INVITED)
Taught in the UGC-Sponsored Refresher Course on Folklore Studies and Cultural Tourism, School of Media Communication and Culture, Jadavpur University. 25/6/2001









More info:

Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Debaprasad Bandyopadhyay on Jun 08, 2011
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See more
See less

10/29/2012

-C"i1T.

'1I, ~
\!:ij'ffi ~

~
~-~

<Ji'<I1 ~I ~

0IfG B1'if1\51Ft c9f8l C~
<i\'I-~ ~ ~ ~

~

~ I ~\;1$l<iI'!l

\51f6i!'J31o:l1 ~ ~ r.'<JVf. I

I ~, ~ I ~"'1<4 Z01,

<mP1 C:"'1~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~

C:9f~ ~

~

m~

~
C'i1~ ~ ~-

G@l ~
C~<jJ:ii!1

~
~

c~.lf}C<iiijlfJ I \5l~ <i~ o~ ~

mm
I
~

I \5Ifm! .~ ~-

<i1~ii!TII ~11G
\51~ <i~ 15\ ~

xrmro, \!:ij'ffi
~
~
I

mrn

~-C<Wrt~

~~jIR ~
I

~1<!I~\51~~~~<!I~~I~,~~~

~r.&f1R><fl (~

~'

\5ffi:I

f<f.) <m'ifT'ifTf?frJ!~

~
<Ttl

m ~9fI:'f
<!TI9f1<Wr ~«..

r.<l' 1J.iFli, IBlm C4 '5T-CG1Ffi

tF<f. ~
<Tt I ~

~

'ifill<i-

~ -~
:;:r~~
'e

<m~9fr\5 <m~

~

<iI\1Ciijl<fl~ 031 '~'
<!TI<>J'rn ;rn ~ I <!1m 'l~~

"<i[iij" ~

<iJ1"'1T?l-:m~'Bl.{j~

c<r"1 ~-9f1O'R

fF<r- 8<f.l'>J1M'rn

.9f\!lJ~
~

\5i'i'fi'mf"il:'3 C<!> <:fiH C'<.fr<il ~

m

'm9frn I
~

\5l~

m~ <i1 ~~Wl <TI- .Q~ <!''<J1 ~ --<Tt ~, <iTI~ "I(~I ~ -;:rn I \51~

m~ hWI
C<i f<f. I
(Q~\5l1'ifY;, I ~~, ~

~,

c<fi '!iBi ~

~

m \5ffi
<!I~

\5lit'if

\5lID11

~<iiJ1 <f.'<J11

<!I~ ~

c:iGGJ'j~JlC:"1 ~
~9fTIfJj

':l~~q)~~

"Freeman becomes first aboriginal world champion"

<li11N
~~

~
~,1fi
<f.@ ~

f.Nf«.. ~
~~
«li'@ ~
I~

om, \5ffi

\51J1<i"l~(rij ~

I \5ffi'>J'"i-'!

051~

'1fIOpJ'- ~

J'jJif~
~

I·~,

<mJ ~

~,
~ ~

c<1'f<f. <i1 \5lJ1<l \'llffi~"lI"1
~ ~ ~

<!1m Wf. ~
C<i1<1Ii"lJffi <n?
~
<l'i""@

~

~

<TIl A>

<r.m <m1 ~?

----<!I~ CPIT<f- - \5l-~

~

~

CI5Wf. \51~1! \5l~

P C<i\'I
<!I~

<Rlt.'G 'W'll 0, <!'C<i, ~,
~

r.<ff'<J1"!J, NsI.':>IC<i~
I

<i'>f~

F-II

~8 ~

-----<.!l~~~~\s1S1-\5Il~~I~~~~~1

(Jf<lG'pl, ~

\5i'ifTS!1~

~

C<i><j I '~H\~C~1

~

><fI~ ~

<!I'l'<i"

!f[.l"Bl ~

I\'!'H ~~
f.1I:~ D~

I~

\!'JrG'f1DrTflJ

WI

R:;<JU; ~
~

0r'"f~::W;

1l7;l!il ~ :1'<fl.'Rj. ~r.<f.

f¢~I/.<;1

f<Rm

<f.I5l ~

B1'>f1'mf'i'@

;j<f[

m~ I,ift.!
JI~

~

n";::I..-\ ?i"l1

fu>v.<i
1,<1'

r:<l

;j~

?ff7J.ifi( -

CJfG1 ~roi1r<'i
'~II

?,o1J <IN1f["i:l <'1... 1~ ~,

.!]~."@7.o.J) <J"1>{': <.Ii

">l~'<IW0<f<f@

"1'fuo

r.~<rrt~>{':

~,

Q:l<J1'i';"I f<1<1~I\5l'I""'M

(7Il)1

{:$1(.1

<]r<f.ll &j11.<l~II~ (M<I<:JGfl f<f; '!l[!'l "I1'iiOi ~ B1~I1B1Fi r:<f. ~-"ll')i?'I <f.T.'l -:!;rr:<f. ~'BI

Frr.~<!«!{f~ <rl
f..Tr:<r:x! 4<1T <r..<f. ~~~~

?1"";ST81 ?-

Q'l·ff7:il6 r;'4'l2m

1,'\!l:oJ'4 Vl

AfF&

urr.w I ~~Ir.~
~~ <ffi"l:?l

'5i~r

<.Kr@

">l"ro

~rRi?f'i'f ~
f<r,"~'I1:<!?

~fu: I Gfi R1;m~,~r.<fi

f~

~r:<r. ~~
<f.1;:<l7I- ~

FI I ~~~~T-1
~~l-t.9j9f@

fu

?;~fr"TR[W~ol

R-r.sr Frn:r ~
'i'f'R
~"<j ~

~
I

~\,!;Jllq ~ .. ,

w.~ '5rl"1ll,<ti!t f<I<.1nT
~~, -~ ~
~@ ~
r-

QJ"R c<1'f<li'0'iBl, JlTj;l3l9j<:J16' I!)~

I ~r;<ll'f'''i<l7:<l~

N~10.19j~

I y~i$lv, "-'i;~.rr:<'j5
cf]~

-<m?;m~<f.M

'B7.9J<i' I ~'Q~rf'ififPl~,I!f.<Jf<rrn-~

f;:r~I_!J

"'l'fu~
'iF<l
~

if."!'<~ - r,\1Q.~i.'i;1·~
9j,I~ ...... I
~.

~1l?1 <wf

~R"lf ~

f"""r

-~1~ 1."1 C4'R1

<]f<l! .£i~

~

I '"H.if.i.·

<rrr;'<J'i':4

~'<ffiJ ffi~

9)1Jl ~~

<!rn~<lBl \5rl~ ~
~

[[;I~\!l
!i.C:~ I

I

r;q1f\'i\"5 ~
~

I 'QQ..m B15fG51T5fr.\!; ~
(<t,

~I

1!)Vf. '5l~

I ~<t;G1 ~<f: ~
~T. ~

I C~

{;;:Sl'~~

;''R'j ~<B!

\5lT"ffi ~ ~1~
I f<PrlTj ~
~!

<lJ19jT1c<rt<r~~ ~1:iJlr,;'51 ~i~
I!)t·rrr.t1

0'i1"\7.<l1

'P:;hi <lJI"lB1>r
~ ~
(suhjeCI)

¥'1'-{:111
'5@

~7.<I

<lJ["'ff?:<1~l4f;r ~~VlfG1 ?ff*R5 ~
~~
r--./

-<i!9

«l"

for.i ~

I~

<mIT <[l1\>~

~

,,11.'11 I ~

~@!

~-e

<n\~
4@

($tlbJc(;t)~f7:<f.

R'i$11'@(,~ (ohjccu ~ 'llttIG~If1&lr:"'1

~~ ~

~.~ \5TIrll
-,!)(01

<i"4~.-

<il"<[("rll rr;;n \5ff"1f.'t I ~gl"'5!1RR ~

C~

<mT1 ~

'>')1"11 ~

M<J"l

05B1

"TIL-!

"'1-m"l'3 ?(f''fi? ~.!i~IC:<1
(subjection)
1}'I'<j..j I!)~ , ~;rj{-~

~1«>!I ~

r."m, I!)~
(,\!,iRl ~
>iP,!;1 ~

R:

~~"Im

(subjects)

f~

'l_11!.'{;"l

'I'~r.4~~'"
,,-.....

I",
r~

('J

(,"11t.4 \t)PII~r.
<Bf(?E'l ~

~ <Wf1 '0.1 Directic
.
r

Category:

f.'<JV.fl ~

1!)7!'1 f<r'll'~

CO"",fSritr)IH ~
\01'j'IT\5iFr~ f<p ~

W<f?f ~ (l1~ <rrn '11 f.f.? I!It -1<1'5l~;:m ~

~

<" <!'i) I

..s~l ~

1~IC'1"l<f.1 Ri'l

~"'11 ~
1\58

~,

"1JI~'~,

.-

~~'if\!)

~

~'i'f\3

I
~ ~'ir.Gi "iT'fr.<! ~

-('3f"1 ~1~k:lr~4
I!) '5'7P'i1

'5lR~ ~
~-~

I <!l~ 1'£7 I (5l

-~I zTI ~
~ ~-"l~ '>'ffi3l"
~~\[j

~
<jl"<.I;j{i

~Jt, '5li<fm
I~

~1'S<l

fuqf <!if;

I $[~1~8T <!1 <IT.''1 ~

-z>rrfor"'1 ~
1!IVf.<!~

W-t-"'ffV"l ~~,

0JT'5i-"1'fi7-'j ~

0m?1.
["<Kt!(

(fl'ff<j5-~,

""~-"<1~<l"1'T

c<f.R <i<lT.~ ·.'f.""f~<.ifl'im:~lJ, 15Fl~~<l ~~f7:"<!j <!ICW:.\!lI~ ~"fi3i
~j"W}f~

<!I~t"'lTVf. ~
c£l~

<r-l1Jr<."1ffl
cQ~

<u19ff"1 , ~"I'R' ?fRj>3,

'f.l!?<.l<r:lr;_ C'<IT@ , ~-~,

<!I'::>lFl1 f..Tr.~{) <r(j) I <t.F'I'i Iil~ '~flr\!l'~rP=r<;,~~ ~fQ;:ZPil,¢

<l'I"l11!l$[! '@?j:rrr.~~ ~r,\!ll61Ii1I-:Ii~

~-'1l.<J Fti1~ ~
...!)'l1

@I~

I ~5f[ ">l<!

f.t~

<f.Gl,q~

'ff.-.!.1<l ?l1\~
QT

<m9jm~
11!\$~i31

¢U~,~",,~ '~it-r,;<f. ~
~I(.if. ~n9j

m on@I<)--

~;;!$J.rr;;r !-11 ' $
)f~"~ ~

J1i1~ro;-~

~t

"'il,'{)"1, ~O'j,

">l<ll \5fM ..Q~ c<f.ffi C~

<iR~ C<Jl:!!ll\:;'il ~
\'OlBl

<rf<li l50'i
~

I5lFJ l!i ~.!i~
I

<1m \5BIT

~

f'11Ul

'~~rI
I i58!1 ~ '~

~<jl :s'<j(.if.~

r.G1 '-l"rr.~~
-~~~

r.q'<) I~

~
11il~

r.<! Co-rf&jt~ f.jr.~ W
~"BII

"1f.'IJln~ <f.~
'<f.'>(; \!;;-<j\'~

~¢$I'I

I <r8l1 \3T~ )j!."lII,"1I~jl<4
~
~{j

C'<JVf.'B ~

<n'

I

~:;"II';' - df.<r. c!l~ "fIt$!? ·'<"'~>.:lm
'~I~<i ~f51.'l
}j~J1X~ <)l~, :ifJ~

f.;1.;;:J1\5ff"1'R <mJ

no-one

I '-:5l15Pl~'
..!)f.i'R1
<;If-'j

'<fii1T. ...f.;-;:j j:'f.:lll" I
~ I~ 11!I<!rn~ ~
:(';1, ~ ~
(I1$[

f.i'''H"ffi<l !lWm ND.r ~ (i1'rn~. 151141l7bi'l ~9j7.'5i ..a-~ ~ ~ \!iffiI ~
'raw

-~

~

c<M '1t';'I~'l I cl~

~f7.<.I \5l"-~'ifif

R,'R"l f?i:¢o/l'<i
f.iQf I •

t"11if. - i5f-f.O'If<f., ~11~1.if. ~'3l
c!t~

lW!'1 -~
~

'6j1,,1\5 <f.73j

r;;rn,

mr.;;I ~

0J'14 (Folk), <o,<[;1{3 >5iIM<11;-jIlTrihe) ~rfill

'\581"9 '5T&1

m <m:! -&"l~I<11
m

11 <f.~

m
<mr

I

/ ~1<ll
I

m~
\5':2~

I

§"1~<;1I"4 '51<111 ~

"rR ~

<mJ C7.'fFf.'if1;:j. ~

"cooked'

~G!1??i"l
<J1ir,'7(@ ~,

"'im<f.ilHlr.<fi
~

~<r
f~

c!l~

iSi<!,
~
."V

.Q~ ?ff<f.l ~1f.i>jjJ1 (goods}

9j')T tcommoduv

Fin:! -R<m
!)1"j

~1f!!~I-

~ ~~ ~ ~ Bl ~~"¥~ 'l1l \ti11~<11~I J1~~~ 1~1(l1"'1 ~r<rn (;!;fu"8T ~ 1.<;,1<r.~ <n..QR3I"liiiIG-, I~~ ,£i<f.1l<.l \!IF.-Ju l~(,<.']
~, <11 I2i"r~f\!llr<o>t~ <9T'4g)?fi:1W~ ~ ~<'i
<T[

in:'" ~

GBll)m, ~

I '''.~J ?i91~

.-

r:>ilJ! 01"41 ;n-(tfqnl r.of"11(~

-

~o:r

<l~ >1I,5~<Rf.'eiC<1 "@z:~1)f~
/
<1';-V,~i;

I >.£l<!'im"lf.l ~rr.<i
'·,li

(l'fl'<l_ 0&!II-IQ

(;§-e<;l
(W,~ <TrFt- ~""~.

7.:;1~

~m~ ~
~ ~W~~ ~

a lim" rcn:cp-

_g~

<lr.r~ ~)

Ff. ~
<im

<r!"l'~

uhle anli Illlpcr'''pllhlc:.''

') b-C,.9. g q;,,) ~1r-J10'?!W."l r.:.)I~"'ai r;:9',:;T?l Gv."1 r."!

<:'1';n 1"Z1 Ff.~!

r<r-I-s,-eG"lri"

~?

~

cQF!~~

~R

~

~?

~~<l1 ~ ~ ~
~

D'il{l 051 ~

r.<Rl 'llll.sl\!l~

r.-~
~I

m
1\!l\',l, ~

m, & C\'i'8I
I "@~

~~~ ~

<fi~11

~,

~-.!j~

~f<r.~~~'5l~-1

m;n
"I~"l <f.~

---<!Ira1 C'¥'i ~

~

<f.Q[J I <!l~ ~ ~<i

~

\5fI"1~1V't
(~cQVf.

Q:P'I<l CI!o\'){.llll
~

$
-~,

~

~I

~

c<lfif.-~'''ff\h5"t;;(f1

~~,
rcrnolosical

'i3im \"ilf<lBf
rcccurance

ft-t ~
IWl ~~

Epis-

)~

1 C'i'f"H:J<1tNl\') "Sj~i'\~ ~

~"Ri1 (.~

~ I cQffi

c!lD5l
\5l-zyr.!j~

00<1 ~-~1m"l15Ol~ffi

I C\Wl <f.Q[J r. '<Ii':'f. .!j~
('<'TEll ~

1ilV1 ~~-'i'jq-oqJ<rr;"I

!bf~~ 0Xi Gil'riC'!
"4~I~~

~
~

~
~

~
~
~5~

\51ll?1,

Wn:r ~

~

€;~~.
t\!l~R cQ~

.!J<JiI11

\5l'G<l

<i>B

'l."iJ1TI¢~\!l ~,

i5I0 'i3l:<>t~ ~

~

I

f.n.:n.T~~«~Ri;1l I .!j~

~~ fW-19f"l ~"'7.iJ\51 "lJ1f.llf&l!o>i, 1 ~~

orcm;rr~ RC";\Sr~'3P11
~ ~, ~

:;f.1"1(>lllSlll ~

~9{i'I

\5IB!i1:>l1l1UJl
~~I ~
~?

()J'i3~

I "'1'"'14f>iL"l'il ~

~~&rn
"f<f'i1, ~,

(~
~

~<llF;:;rt"t<l'S

031 ~
~

C~I."1 cq<I, C>i~

C<fi~~'@<>t~?<f.B!1~~
~

"'ff>i"I <f.9ffi \5ll~
\!l1l <ll~C\!l~

\5ffil \5ff\B1 <wfI <pl'''i(5!i~
q;!-~ ~

'5lyq,~~

c<tWl (~Z¥3 ~),
~
~

.!j~

~~

'1)1tllTGI!o >i, ~

(~),

1¢:'49, (G1f<f! (~)""Itn.!? cQ'1i ~>
~

~

~
~
~

G5! 1 "know
\!l11?1\!l1K(:;~ ~ Rt\!l ~

R: <Q~-1<! ~q
~1:ft ~. i!B. ~

~ ~~ll!ol?!C\')'!l \')1~<t>1<rr&~
I <!l~
'(p'jf<f.' ~

them and rule lhem"-.!j.:r<'l

157Jli ~
G'!T@1

I

~

(~<rrf~
I \5ftPl
-zyr
cQ~

~

1<m~
-I3RrHI ~9f\!i

c<J<i'm3!
~~,

<mI? ~
'OfI21nt

C~
I

1~.!j<R~~,~~Cenlre'sgaze,

m '!lt~t>(}!1<:1 ~
('f~

\5l1l11"l\'li~

- '5l1?fR
<!)~

~

WIG ~

iffiH\!lIR1<:ll '1"1<:1 Irb ~ ~

("lC<1" c"<ffifc'j"'¢1f(j.'j ~

9fPl 'CWf'1i' ~
~ '1i'm ~ ~

'fiC'l -1f1R? ~

~ ~ P me<!
I58i \5ff'i1 ~
of 10 s of self,"

~

~

(1lf;1

"I.s1'il "i@1l" ~ '\581~ ~

(!(Jr..,,!!: ~'"
~

~

I \51Bl

'5J'i<:j~Cf! I ~ "c<!"l~

<.Q<f. ~

I <>[~

"IlSIll"iIMll

~

CG'f19f11/ <>frn.

"l'!lC<t><:! '(3~

~M"~~,
"iT ~
~

'~
C!ijI<f.Hl~<t>t
,;i'_......

~ f.lf<fu1m
~

:">i1$Ul

'\5J'@r' 1i'Ff ~

<>flU! o;rf I"Completely a psychological case (€;~~
'~~~

C01I<!>1 ~ 13E:.<flt ~ ~~,~~~~~~-~~~
~

~

i5Tf?f I'M~
0fT~,
,-.

W<t> ~
has' 1~~1l1~ 05f @~ ~'I:J$<J'ir3l"1
.!j~~

~~
-€;~
'5l11ii'{lC'f. ~

fFf~jHI.\!l

'I has' ) 'f am'~

<rm 'I
()ri\b-ItJ)

I' (o@9fl(jJffi )O'vb-q ~ )(()

II~I"

"ltf.1l1blc<B!~
Ciijl<Wi~,¢)

~<f@

r.\5l

cQ~-

fFf1<>r I~
~

"~\!l<:i 6R'it"j

<n ~

~

<Q<:!'\ C"1I<t>HI10<t><:IL " (~ ....

~ Yo1::l) ~ C"<ffifc'j ~

<:fi1'{:)

<mil

0'ff~,

~"I'0I~¢
'15@!~

~~~

cQ~

'<ill> I c<fiJ.1 c<ff<'l
GT>@ «Ii@ <J'ir3l" o;rf I

~'1lJi ~
~~I

(~~i'I ~'i'jCj

=~

~=

c<r"l

~

I

\5fm ~11}111

'f.i':1l (Recovery of sell),

~~~~\!)I<.tft1c<M'l~~~'I7Wf.'~~'~

(<t>®1:J'1"''71l"i@(.~
(~)

rpff<>f11l \51 IIii ~~
115ffi'l'\5@1'~

(If{lm ~
()J

~$J
-'>f,~\!ll

l¥~D%R'5l~1

~~,

~.~

~IC01I
G1-~

(l1'13m~~E)lUllym

<!]r:1 e3RVf. ~~'1

<f.9ffi ~ ~
"'llt"~ ~
~

riID ~I
I C'f'if- ~
@~~ ~

~
(I1'<l, ~

~

~

~

~9f

~ <l1 ~

<J'ir3l", ~ ~

~

~

~I

Endo

I

~<>fNR ~
@H~(.~'!l

'l">1C';?l ~ "I'3<>ffi ~
DG'fl:<:j

~

\5IIM<W."1'!l &3H\!lIM<t> ~, \5ffiS1'5
I
~

Ethnonyrn
~

I~
<f.'@

(1l~&r <l1 139f"1 >iHJI(j.'jll 0'f0'1
Exonym

c<f@ «f.@ $'{:)

9fBi~
R~lfu,¢ll

QJ ~<>i <>t~, I m-sI ~

'6lj>!ill{1 \5l1til1<i~1!o1(<q,

<!)~~ Endonym

<n H"''7'lI7.~ll
\5Iqj) ~ ~ (~ Tlibe

fiI~ I ~
'l"r?;.!?l_1li ~

OO~
~

~

Trihe'I'!)-C'Fl~~'''>fI@~'~~

<:?$~ 11Jfm '~' ~~~

\5I1'f.1 ~
~ ~
~,

'«I'R5' ('T~~)
()ri\b-q)

-'5fm - f.t»l1~'O

~~~"i C~ \51<l1 .!J~

'611filC'>l1l ~~1'TIl

cTY!l
~(~),

01l~ 'fIfu!:T ~

.z;.~,-

'101mM~f{.1~ "lltlICG1)1l ~\5I1'f.1
.!j~

~

~~
,_ f""'

1'5I<MJ Rr!JI~!ij\')m

cQ~

'if-~\!)I"1I"1 '\5lirn'~ \31 '\51<1i~ ~
~

c<J i\5>JTh!~ I
~ ~.

Cj)t(JlI'-1f\!;1~
r-

G C ¢(Jl1"1IlSl ~,,,
r..

I I

~,
I.!l~

~
~ ~

(Docile

body)

i51I'lO ~

IJ5l"C\?I

~

f<f.

:>j<f ~

~

- ~,

.mFf. ~,

<lPlffi1~FI>I,

(!!_(/;'''lH$l CCfjO'"I(.\!l(!)~II.<f.

If<Iq <I'@- if.T?l"I'3 ~

~

I

'>11-<.1~~L ~

I~ ~

.!j~ I~

'ifR.Ji;n

~

I<lf\!,:'!

\g1ffi5!rn

&31 \!l1.'<;;i1~ <f.Bl I

~

~

"'7.<fi 0Q"1 c!l~

\5IN~\!)1 ~

Rlr;~ ""l~

I:'<TR,-?1~lo1()f?! \Sf<!>! :(,\!l 5i'f'l3\5fc'i, "1~1, ~,

-~

?J~~
,Q~ ~

0'io(,~
~

"'¥.<1l ~-G
~,

\!!<f.l}J >i\WR \Q'f~ I <f.V<f.~l

~

~~7fl17.'ti<.l~R<tl1

1f'~

~ <:J:J\7/@
@"1w.'fI:'<1 ~

'1llffl ~

I ~1f)1r.<tl ?fI'<61'C\5P!

-1(-61 <.jlGl I
«~)

~?
;:rI't7j

~I rx;r
"Smaller

<T8l"
-;J1l.

<f.M 15!"J:<lf~ 0-Gm
>I~j

r.<f1<=!

w.TfiS"1 ~
01 adult"
C~<l>@ I

M':?

l~f-el1'R,~
I

~

"f.l&i 1 (m<h,
<t~ ~ C]'P1

"J:7.<fra{~
(~'&9.b- ~ <£lffi

I~

C"f"/~<l

(~~b-~)

"k;l.4"1 ~@I,<:m:?ffi bj(5j.11.~

-c!lt>1<:r<f."<fT?:<f.l¢~~;n~

~11'[, -

M~ ""11 inferior version ('1'i'?1T(~J"i3g ),1-'~~) c<!>~ ~ ~ @9ff.~p:j~ ~ 'G0l ':5r1~' <Q~ "'f.Gli"'ffu f1'~<nJ, ,'Mc"?! ~' (childlike) ~
version 01' adult" 'childbh'
I

MC

'Poi

<f.@

"l \:;lr;~ ;;rt f<if8J, c!lDfl
~1!i(pl

r.;1]~ r.O'jf~

f.ijl- ~

~
<Tfl:<ll

f~
indeed it

71"11Gl~.

<fi'I7:?R <£l1.'i)j.1 - (~-~
people IS not ahackward
,ij

ffi~11i1?jl'C'T\
or retarded

\51<ff ~O'j

(G"lN:C.;)JPi ~,ITIlIy

"A primitive

people:

'M~$l ~'
<f.@

~
I~

\54rf.Bl
'~"1' hildish c
~

'1Df ~

~fDl, ~IC1"""i"! 10Pl~~
- f.tC~1C~ - 'W"I <l'0 ~ I~ r:<l--Q<f'<5,<'1

posses, in one realm or another, 01' cl\'ili/"J ~
~

genius for invention or action () ~~\') g ') o.:;_)

~(f1jr.1R,r"?l~ <l!I\:J<lJ-&
<f.@

'(OWf., 'T,5~'F!~

that leaves the achievement W9ffi

people

Car behind."

~rf.!vf.1 ~

0!'-S-m<1' !jC~lli~h<i ~
(i31

'fufSlfG'I:l'
~

C~

'@l1f!li'l' .j1\Si1 ,,~
~~,

",i'r:'9c!lB ~lfS,'i'I '1"131-1~

r::!.C,61';1Hf.'!J <f.16~~~, 1r.O'j~F.'j'" C"~-c!l~ 15f¥
\!!~

"<J01mm9f 6fC?ffi ~

'f.W;'!J!{ ~

I ?I'0<f.1<ilr.~ ~

'Jjr.:rr_;l' I Gl'fJ17pj ~~9f?j

~w.'Zl<r ~
<l<'<¢!~

~
~

'\5H17:<f. ~fc-il3l ·~i11· <l'.1:<i'I#iR ~ I ~@('!l1?{

n.:r ~~,

I 'I:l1<l41fh 15Wl'R "-f.1:1 CIJ\!)"1l r.<!'T~

~ >J!.~jr.l!J~00 ~ \!'iTB! <f.f'm01-~-"l5f<JPf. ~~ Ji
~1c1C.hl ~
(lJ.'1'[\3 'il~
,....,...

f.TI:~ 5f~ I I5J'ffi
\%RT~~

~~?j ~ ~

?fC'<l cQf'lt8T, ~.

<;J7.9B! C'f.f.1 c!l<f. ~

w

c!l<',f.<f(Jfi;;l ~

TJt<f.l<'l

;.Qf91?i ~

'-Sf~~ I 1'Q)1 4Vl
,.......

--<t>QJBI

RlLi
,.-...

F<ffl ~~
~

'ii'l1.':i1 ?t'P'"ll?ffr"'! ~

,:{m '-S <i:II"1'T- IJ.~(.~-;r
5j~)~

-m~,
1.!lJj<l

1~(.5j41"'lr.¢:"1 I ~

~:.cl'

~
~
~

~
~

~ on f<rs
~

~(.G'

Ci3I ~ cQ~

GTlf~ ~
\5f'.lRrf\3 ~

?flV'i

~?fR

-w ~ ~ "'Iq <t"f <nJ?
-~~ 'Jj~~ ~

fi)\!lffi ~

fuG1 ~
~

<iG"lr.~ l5l>i ? ",El";m '~'

r.<liB
~ I

'-S '\'51<fI~

~

Ii0i ~\SI.<'l!r.<f.8!'f.

~

f?!~(3I? -~

@f:1R-!j~-i5TI'lfi<l"~f

C<f. C"l~m:r '13ffij'I ~P-1b,
l' <mI5~{1

<fiij\!) '3I<:l'51@j.j 9J"'li~1 <!'l~ ~-

~@e1f?:<f.®<t.~M
I ~I, ~~'-S~,~,

F,rll.!> ~
c!l<fRl'81, ~ ~

\5l{]'!J <£liiH11fij'f.'@<::."'f1'I1o'l

'f ~-~-0311

\!lI19 ?f'!1101~ ~
@fHl"i - ~

,~
<FGi'T ~ ~

~

;srli;I§'-!Jl<l~

'5f,<f41id;\ii
<IT -~f"?f0Bf

"l1'W.<fll5$ll <1<'<'1El c!l ~
~ 4'1i$F.j ~

!f~''2'f1(J~:rll ffi~

~

'1'811 <i"if.'! <rtFM, ~

><f?j'<fr;n:r <r@l, I!JWHl <fo1 ~\)j 4B! "iTW:-"f"1NI<lI3I~ r;\'JT ~Fi I <£l~ \!lTf~~
q;'$Jr;;:3 QJT'

r:tlT.4' ~~~

~

\5l<if'iolo;l1!f.i (Deindustrialization) c!lUl 03f c<Wll1 <rrn, '5IT">i"?lP11Vf. ~

~

~~
~

&~~ f.tGr ~
~ ~~

~
~

c!l<ffi1 ~

\5l"'l-;rn ( Drai n of wca II h )-

1FWf.T"rof
I Dl ~

~(~?;'lTi;--) ~-~ ~~

~
I

'5Jti:5f ~f.1-

~'<!<11 <p"<R-G "f~{! c!l~ ~"1 c!l~

'fTG~'WI~

~.....

'Wl- ~
<f.$i1 <,$IH I ~

2'?R3'

~1<Fll\5

..--

~

r-

C\!), 15\

'"

1U1"i'U! C1T1I1 c<l~

~

~

<r.1IF!Fi' '~'~
I '.15HU1.fJ

c<:i

«l ~-nr
C<llR

f-w ~

'<!Tt<fi, I/ftIf ~
(static)

~1
~

«i'ii I qt~rl

"iRr~ 'Bl R
05!0l J:I~

~ I c<f.R ~~1

~

oTI:trn ~
Wl ~,

'5I"I~~d~-e"i~~l

-c!l

1Tp$::;; ~

'I:l1i'1CI.:;l'~~@@ "fPf1."B!~'
semi-civilized ~ communnics"

(''''ftC?j ~')

'1of.:rrn 0if~
051

m G31 ~~CI.!>I
<f.rnCj

"l1.:;l['<::>'1

~

'<Ib

>I[5'f llD3 C~lr.r.-l

@r.i'if'@s
"slTI~1I semi-

W!3l' '>jf\!;~I<-l ~

P4r~t.<t- I~Bl~

<l1 C~~,

-:rfu:;j ~

i5J<if'ioli;lhlrl

~ilH I ~

?fM<fRVJ1'>IT

<f.'<J1
9j'.l/

'iffil ~
~

barbarian,

I <£lll'1 Jlm;gi ~

m~~m:<1
~ ("l'rPL

:;'f"rCIJ'I':'TI ~

r4"r?~~ m.<!J~ G5R! <f.@

'F1~~!7.%f ~q
~ '4r<f.

)lTG' -!: ~ :;, q ~ - '<:) I
I,<P(.i7j!}i(_ I

fi1;:~Ir:~
-!j~

m~, ~~O'fi1m<'1"'Rl Gl"ilrl<f
'unconscrou-,

fi'!lH R1 ~

<f.(<!d

~~'ffil{; ~'&1Fl

f<I~ ~
t7j~11~<rr:<f<'l

l

'::5lGi F<1f"":'l ~'<f.lif0i<J11 ~ ~ i!:I~ !l~ ~ OTlf"; I ~~ ~'C c!l~ Gll,(!;&frfib¢ ~'il'U1 "~l<r~<t(.<f<'l "'Il'6~l fWG1 I" '\5fT'f.ir' ~ '\!IBH$! ~>ff.1~il-ffVl, ~ ~ ~<r ~ ~*I~?j'.l/ f.'r,;)fc; ~ .!]~ --:.:rrn f<l: 'iI-Rl ~ ~ M"I-S:s>~I¢ ~ r.~ ~ '6l]<?i>b fi0¢ ~
1

~i:fi ~I!i,........

r r;q.-l

<11<,,;(!<'I '(!9;~ ~i5i"j

~

I"'~~

~

'15\<11 ~ divisron

,

~<fl

c<l ~~'if

r-»

DlO'J ~,
<v.:>l ~loq;7:"'1 ~

r-

~

~.

!.ll<l<T-I;!,!)

~

Sif~nVl

R1~f<l ~

1001 If<'.fli.<l <f.1\S' <f.T.'IT'i( I ~f~ "l'n:;<

iunallermlling

01 lahnur r ~

~

~•

rR;

~

~

("f"l1

mm~
~81 r:"1T<fcf_;f.ff
<f.91 L!l~ '5I1<!4i
~~

r:<m
~'ij

:lIM",IWc<s>"FI ~,
~ 'f.@

ft-IJ ~
-.Q~ ~ -J'NI

:1'<1WF- r.<f.i!i ~
st7.?ff ~Qft ?
~~~ -"WH/'~

~

511~ ~

@~

(}f<flr.ii'1 ~-

"how western man had construcred rhc savage as the

other to impose his own savagery on hirnrsic:

The Jungle has become theatre of <l<l"l\')!1.<t-'\5'ffif 'r,trn <r~
\5f~ (.~

~

"~'i'ffi

~ ~

_,.M~ -wll9j'i I
A

thai enacuncru." ( :, ",,,IT ~ .:.,« 9.)

'-'1,,,,'8

4iQJ1 ~$ff<I\XI~~ ~
~

<IT ~-&~~9j'<l1~~
~~ ~ ~ J=f~~Cf L!l~\

C<rfi'1m~~
$

'- 't.5lTf.iI'
Clrn I \!if1'!i1~

'\51$ff' r:<f. ~

~

~

~

51T?fRJ

~ J=f\~Cf

cm'<l
~ -

'5If~

I

PW-

<.£IW 2!T."Zf.i>f"t~ZJ5f'11

'>frn ~

I ~QfI I~~
no or

<!I~~~,)'BI<m~~~~~'W9j'f~

~<:rR ~~
"@"1~ t.5l9fii<J 'fl ~ t.5l~

~

~rl:1f<l\:;?I\b't~11 Rl:;]st';, €"'l~~

~
<:!M" \514l<!&'!l
I "Every

<m~

c<1 "l1\ '11 0J<f. Fr,?,.JO'lBl <;p'<f1 <V,i:'ff§$iOH ff<SR1'<1ii 151 t] ~'!l ~_
LO

Cj 111111:11'01<1 ~?j<fti'!

"tC~J

<:j

18"'l5f l)J9f181

man i" enemy
110

every other man. There is no people lor industry, no instruments

~

~

~ CIK"8i ~'ij

Dfi:'fR I.tR'!l 011'ijO'l" tmM f
(c<r>M llBr011 ?fr..'l 'f(\") ~
x~

culture of the earth,

navigation,
no account

lor

moving. no knowledge

<!.I~ <i\QJ1~1¢Sj<!lqj <!.I~ ~ \!>TB!18 L!l~ ~

'8 0f"~IP1~I'8 ~

I

<ffi"'l'Pi C"<l1ff.'i ~~

c<l ~

C<lf.mt ~~
~G3!'~~

(,s ~ ~~o)
<;p~!;(~'l:1-~~
-~

the face of [he earth.

of time. no arts, no letters. no societv."

.
C<i<f.ii€f1W ~ ~~
~ I '5Jllftllrf.\')

L!l7:J=f <J c

liM ~

?(fuCj\5 ~

\5lRC'jr¢I~Ciii'l ~Cf

~~ m!"i!)tC~i'l 018m? ~ ~~

~1<:!~<!u:f'!1 ~,

(j'f<!<i1 ~

¢"'@ ? ~

~
~
051;<>[

-~~
$nI ~

~
~

:>'l~I!l-c!l~ ~

[t;&>~~ Dn'<l '511~'8 Jf!\~ q~ ~ ~I
~-f.n ~ ~
? t.5lZ~ 'f(\" I '!1(A"II5C~ll

m C~,
~ ~

~~I":ll 9ji:lI~1.:1 ~

t~
1lQ)1 ~ •

o!IfiOmr-~"PHf"<1ff;'!l <rI om-c'iflla1<tl I ~~ ? ~9fm ~$i'
~1I7~!)I«:~1:Z

c<J <r>mT

~ ~

\5IIClIfMIi1 -<!l1Jr'B

~

~

I o!I05I C'll"C'j" ~-~

~q

~

~

<;pQftI ~<lBI ~

~
'3f@ ~

<1I'>fu C"f<J ~

m~ ~
-~

fi
~

I

Jf!~'ilIj\!;'1' 'Rt~I<l~'

c<f.ii'1 ~

~~'ilI;rn Zi1<1mrnFil ~
~?

~

Hiif'"

11>

.fr ~

fWrrn
~''I51<!1'?f

'iK'31 ~
~ij]

R<:lfR!.<t-i1 ~>~? I fi3R~, <!I~'~ L!l~~~'iWI"~~~\5IB!

-~
~'<I

<:JlT.<f. ~

\!51 ~

'\!51511~ ~

-b'r1~ ~
~<ji$ff"BlI~i'5ffiI~Ell"l

~
L!lW~

Cl1f~, L!l~ ~ €frn'>1Wl ~~ ~~ ~ ~"l1'i'f\%ff Wf. ~ c<ivs ~ ~'1 ~ m;;1 ~e;18 t!l<! w'(f) c<l Zi1~
~
~

~1<1~<lu(<m1~m~ '5I19jl~'!l

<rI ~i:1

<.R'Ml ~

~

"A group of people living on few acres of land will set

up boundaries between their land and its immediate surroundings and the territory beyond. which they called The land cfburbarinns. sal pracucc of designating ill one's mind a familiar In other words, the universpace which is 'ours' and un

( ~I(;<f.potcn li al

energy<wrl"l5"1:Fi,~'>f<l:~killl'licene!,gy~~<!.I~~

~o;:rrn
~ij

~<Pl,
I~
~Qj

)",,,,',.') )12'9. ;
'13

-'ill)

R~'1'&1<tli1C9~ ~ ~~ ~, ~

*'1<1 - ~ '~'
~T.<f.

"'l1iT ~'~

GTr.'1'm
C~
I

He" 'i"f1it'1T~'<I1l
\3 ~ ~

unfamiliar

space beyond 'ours' which is 'theirs' is a way thar can he entirely arbitrary arbitrary."

Dr making

geographical

w.~.

dlsrinctrons

~

L!l~ i:.fFlCfl ~ '13F'l1~

-G9>i <!Itlrr<f.

<.fI ~

~

L!lW 'f-ffi'"1"!!:: 8l..!lSl \;Mj \5Bl1-

DJ1T.G'l~ 'i!lifrffir

Q

~~f\b

~"Bl

'iil113F'l1 <.!J~

.!l<f. '<l'?a' 81 i3IT:<l' c<l c<l>1'1 ~ ~ ~ c<l" ..!l~ ~
I \!)~ \5l'f@1 ;Ui(.~roll:l

~,
()f'8m

c<l"

~~
0W1 ~ -<!l~ 6lfCiif!<f.rnii ~

~

~ ~,

«I~-f.mr<r"i,

~9ffir ~ ~W

\5IICC'jI4it~

~
'ij'"C'j"l'f ~

,zH~t~'!1 ~ C~ I I

r;<.!>R ~
~ I5'@l

"'ifu~

~

C"l7:'>i, c<l" C<l'Fl ~mIftI'

<mJ1

c~
I~

c<Jii <l'@~~ 'out there' I ~ \5li~

01f~

(<n \5i"'l1BlTS1~ <P'fC1) C<f ~
\5$111 ~Jf<1~?f01fu
'..!l:q;~~~1

<rI

<ffi""fT<Wi ~
L!lffi
18

Irlfil\!)?8I 151 J=f~~

;;r~'i "lRI ~

<!IV! 0JlC'I'1'<! <lMl ~

f.i~$1 ;ro1ii~'G$;
fu:;i':(1;!) I

'61'i',.r;5r~cd~c~~

~
fr"iRI~

<rI c<t'I<f.CC'jii1 L!l~ ~ illl.ti.t."l!1

~

-O"'l~

;;rJ11.'!11tJ1I:I1 _

I~

(';) ~b-h') L!l<r.lJTCC4~ 'tOJ'!1!ISS"I

'f':>~fifi'r\!)~
~

1'1':>J?1IC"'i1 @"l-;rrr:;r

'5IfW9f\5J ~ fu-?:r \5lII,C'j~l

~
<f.'!1f." ~~~,

-~~
<f'lj.l~, xtudicd

ftD1<l frir.<rct

C\5l ~

f)ill'l:1

0IPl
(1."'1fi1

Vfl<1lr.iifl(i1,

..... The explanauon lolic in the (act that the phcnumena
lur distum. in lime if not in 'raCe),"

arc vcrv old (und thcrcfore

t;1!PL

~ ~ ~~

~I.")~

~)

~ 11 ~
~QJBl !

<!T.5@ 'IT.<!)"<:. 11JN

f<n'wr<j

~1

<!TIl -':"17.r.iI~I<f. "JI,'t~"'1
C~
Iil~

C<!G11'f1;.11~0'fL I
;::;rpJ

-~r.o;

~~

'f.-<H' • ~

'11, '5!~,<!) GfI~<Rl

~1<I.F.jE rx,1 r.;rr:"'l <iTlJ ITlsrnptlOns'5i8l ~ir§7.·lf\.,';<jl"JI~ff'!'-:1 f.nr:;r<f.~'fi"'f~!FTI iI~ <f<fl 'Tf'f. (/f~ ~~f1 (jiQll, r;'<l<ri[<'l (5]19fO'1 ~ C5l1<rlifl 1il~~1.1r.4 ~bf<:'·"?! t~(3i <!TIl I \3~@LtI@\!; ..!lOR Iil<f. ~I~
"<j'i .,~ 'i] '<l @

.fl'"R c!1q.11~~'<Bl

fi1r:<f.

~lf<R~J-;rn !.Q~

-<m~
111'<I8l ?f1'll1\f5Pt.1$1!
ternological

~
iJ~

0'!"<tc~

(l'{i'r,<1i .fl':~II!;"1 ~
r:;.f.7;]

(l1<n Gf~

"BI. '4-~~

9fTi'3l <:r! ~f~73!Fj ~

<f.73I! '5~ '1''1'''; m'<J7."1$l
~

<w:'WflH~

9J0<p·,,·dvl
Epis. f

I 0f. ~

.!t'Fl ~

>:<rpr.:rpj ~ I. f.v."f7"I ",i'UPI <l"I'f.'F!.
-. ....... ,......

''''::1t<f.~,

(~,fG'ir.<TI "If I ('iJ1?)~ ~

<m:<f. 'I5"[qll

~r.m~"\!)Ir.<'f. (\51
<I '\'j '<I \;-<r \bI1<J~
1

<fl"?f1 "Ii I ~RI

m

em "l1,>i'-~
05<:' "iTI I <rIP1
<f~ (11t~

~<i1

Nr'.7.'I

}fl~B!
.£I~

oreal. / rupture Ilhrc~hlllJ ~Rff T'f. 'Jrn. ~

Archaeological
~~-

isoiopia C'17:~1 ~ ~'"

II,";~,

~,;-....

r:<r

(O'jT'~ 1.211... ~'>fT<T~f11 .

r-

'3!T"i 'J"I.~"'1 911 ()~IS

iii~ll&<1~

W-<: ::'r~ft1

~1.~r~Ciif<1,

F\!lH~~
J'j~I~

~
~

~f51r..~i.SwrJ c<Fl ff. ~
~'8TI8l1

Vj(~ ~Tl'BI

"'l1Vi' ~

'fl.:) I <il..s'i~"9f17':"i:! ffir.l ""'!i§'<fo'! ~
'<'f."

I~

~<1J 1.!1171<rB!

-'3JT'<"~<m"1"B!

1 Lr;"]j;;, al1Jrl..!1~<'f.:>1!i.!t<f.G1 (.<m <f.'4i~ .!t~~~Iil'~$l C'iff"1";f~<jf.7i
O'j~ ~ ~

()~I:l~)

I

<l'("'1~ .Q~

..;]<1>[;1 <f.'<ft <lDl C<P!;""ICO'.·I r:<J <l1!.~ <fE'l91 ~C<J (ffil,

C<.J'I<N.iifl$'I

~151""r.q~
9jfu'?JR:-r.'..':: ~
'J1Df ~ '6 ;n) I I!I~

xff3l1

"1f.l21~
aporia (.!t4~

~@Im I 0f~l.f"B!
($'! ~ ~<IB

I~~

C~

<"fi~rm Iil~
<;l~1

f"1~jm8l1/1 (.<fi'P'j I CJltr'6
t.~~ ~'>i,

0f<:'S!1<f I~

5J1:?:r.>irdl19fffl ~
"l~ ("10, ~

(<'.rGlll ..!1<:!~ Qf"1f""R;rr.;] <jVfl 0f<O<:m:l';.T?<rr ~Gllll~<:! ~Ifi

~f<!'1. ~ C'\'jl"'l';f\5! ~rfi1::pf

~'i,

~'<fEFIj\;'t" '''i-~Mgl ,?R<f.1.
I C"1~-~
<]""<R

m
~,.",_,.

~
!'"I'~ ~

.!t"'!~

~~

(.'6(.1~((;"j<!

1.!I<ffi?l

f.i"lt<i>- ~-~

~

01QJ' <lTl"'lBlJ1 ~,G'<R
C~I,<l ~
(?'{<P

-m <!<f01
l!J<f.j ~

N:1:""1" I (:>ii~ ~ ~
:r-<t....

fItR

>n~~ ~@@l?fm '5IT:'4'rPI"<f!' <f.Q.!11IT"'1 ~ ~ ffi,;;- "1J.l T7f17fi3 <!iR7V~ G'>11'-:".i\!), C~IIVI:l 'f/'.Gf~
"<;.~7
r- '"' "'~ .,-,.~

0'l14 -1!J-0'ff<f. '31'lI~f ?
I~
......

H1i'·H . ~

f.ThTI:~1

f.f. W
~

~:g

Pi $I 'jJ411("11

Iil<f. ~-C"1'<R

I Archc- wri Ii ng) I ~

-'5llfir
,--

<t~I.\!) 9fiB'I '5ffil
'5B-<"j,

*

f.iI; ~

w,"R<l \!;rrR ::rd:il
._ ,......

~

>],2R

1S"lRs"JI'6 ~
<f'fj('~

.!!$!<t.":iI <'f.'<f~ ~

I @,R,t::Jf

9f1Ej, ,?"1<11
~

P 9fR

~

<m9fRl.
i!t!:lJ
and marriage

\!i'<fi<f.f~ ~

"_r-~

.Q~<i

F.11<1\5 .!i~(_~"'1 ~

~ ..... Lafiguagc.

hunung techniques

TI'iT.?J c<J TV):l - <ff(iT:il ( 1.<41~ C~r:1<!D'Fl hricolngc

I "i I"l~ l<ltl"

,)~;V8)

C~:[?I-~fi':~
1<1~'4'<.:l,

r:<:f.R '~rf.'lq:

'>1'41G'<:t ~

"i1f<r
.!t~

rules axe pa.'seLi oral! y I'm In one gcn;mlti un to anot her. lew 1'0 Ikloris I wou Id say thai there cultural materials art' folklore: ..... Second, [here arc some fonn, of Iolklorc winch arc' manifested anJ communicated almost exclusively in written a~ opposed to oral form. such JS autograph-book verse, book l1l<lr!,rinulia. cpit;lph~ .... a proi"e,sional folklorist Joe ....not go so far ,,~ to say that a folktale nr u ballad i~ not a ["(III. lure simply because it hus .1t sometime in its life-history been transrniucd by writing or print. .... TIK' thud difficulty with the criterion of oral transmission concerns those lurms or lclklorc depending upon body movements: That is there i), SOIllC questions as to whether lolk dances, games and gestures

<Tt

I~

~

[iif1q. Q1 ~

0llfirr.
I~

lif\!;r.~~ C<l ~rrtrn ~81
IillJj ~

'jJ1!)1:;j<!)

~

-

..!11Ji ,:,,-B1f1 ~1311.~~j

«f.lQ.!f¥i

0f"<1~? 'Science

and The Name

"I' tile

Man' ~C.il '01' Gr:lll1m,lloloty"·~

(") ~ '1. ~ I ~ 8 ~ 17""; - q)

t!l<f:iG \!:il<l}"fi';TI I fo1~~

~
;J

(.$. 17"~)

~

"Artually

the peoples said to he 'withi~ the 'cihnoccn-

out writing'

lark nnlv

ccrtai n type technique

of consignment

trisrn thar best defines the prescient i lie vision of man' and a! the same time results
In

arc passed on orally." -<lT1"'lm ~

O~~11" ~ ') -~)
~BlFi<l7?I rPI<f1-"iTl- 0'l<f1T.'q;

tile (net thut in m:ln) human group', the only world bv which the members
IS

F~f-<::~
~?

~
P1~T~
~

designate their ethnic group
Zi::jr.5t

the wordman'
I~

"\5ff<j81 t!l7)1 (5io.; 0'I"<'JB[ ~I~~
(\5f iIlSl"lihc'~,

~ ~fu~

'1"~

~

~J31I ~I

~
~

<rr0'-l

(i7if<l>

'5lBI Offi"'R ~

j;k:'?1R-~

~

i5l<f"fT V1l1lsenptioll '~M <il~

m~
~

~'-0'!1<f. r \!ir.<l .!t>j""q <f.QJ~f

'5ffii ~

f.iI; ~
<RJ .!!z:~ ~<1 ~

~GU*-?RI C\!)~

"l1.\<'1 ~"ifT<O

~

'5f-lfi'J ~j
fi5:r.":M

"'l1i':<!I 'Z<&1311"'f f.f. <'f."«;l ~q ill ~Rr.<R <,t.!'1fii <%fi <rm ? ~iV1"'1

~"HTI<ITCfI~'( IU~?\!)

~k~r ~
r:<!f<l,~

f.f ~ .!t ~ >69jHC<lFl"<fi -Wo~~ m:m~ ~~ I
:!t~ "iI,,? ~ -.!!<ftFTI

<!7.';fQ ~

!f1<i1{!l~ "iW~? \!)\!)~ '51p.!~
~ I

<f.Bl"f '5l1t.<i1lo'if
r.<pl<f./)ill<.:l ~

"!f1T ;:@f. ~ 75f!~\7l C.,,"rl <:rI3i" Ff; <ff~ ~'i ~:l'j~<n "-(,<IT. J.l$r\iJ<r:l~
'm';<fi

f<f. <ruT

\5"1Tf.r

9j)T?lflSl<."I

0lf~f<!i '1~~

~

QITr.<fi

~'<J"Kif'<R:

.il<f.1l

"'f~1

<W<f. <r'1i I r, 'I'f¢T.01fl':'Bl

'5l::t~\S,

~

tl[O'fl -

Vi""

rFf~.~.~Ef.!ljlfi1J=[<100t>~~01.<.tf~J.1<T@1 <!l-<)~
'51~~
~T[I1<'l

Drn -

\!'iI'v.m c<W1 ~

~

Jf1~i>I>il.<Ji llif.'rGl C'f??l" I

3f« m '3r;3 inauthentic

I~

~

~

I5'I'<J1IU011T.<f. ffi1 @~ o

15'RrI,
<f.~~

Cii1I<'j>~II:lI,199jf.{C1C"HI }l1~ii1lo:lI

w-ru- r:3C"1 ('Mm 'i51Ifu' .~'IJ'Ilt<l'i <WI @~@ '~' ( ?) I 'Standard' ~15 &I\bor ~ fi<Mrn~ 0f.1<f5f I <m?fRl1i1 !ffimJ ~ "1TII
<',(f

() ~Ib'b- ~

8) : "We expect of individual

.1

~l~nd<lrdizcd tool that

WIll

he cheaper to

-<WI'~
~? ~ 'Jj\~<)i ~ ~ >i~611'!l ~ ~

<m~

~<j~,

(i31 ~1@ ~

"f<Il

m~
Wl§~

~

'r."114''!'lPJI'"1\YI'B
<fPf.j'

~~

~

f.h:tf'1 <)ii'l1.1:.')I <!l\;1 ~
~ ~'Rl' 0$1 \5M ~

acquire and maintain. relatively uniform

specimens wi II he very much alike and of a

'.:r-"'l~1I \:fPll'!lIRiI.¢i'l <f.S1i I <!l~ ~ ~

~

c<m \5T<f1 '(0Iifi~I~I',
~-

<!l'>i"1 ~C>i<jHc:<1't."rn ~
-C'&f'?j

iS~'\5lM? <ill{) G51 ~'~'>fl'51f'i'@ <Tll?fB!
~
Internalized

-m .!!Vl 'Standard
~
I

dependability"
(001

Cf~-!1·@~~)
"-..fl1.:rrototype'
,

I

'!.fOO c;rn ~~
,....,..

I~

()'ffi 1001

q-Rii'A

I <!l"!!. C<f'lR ~

~.

,.......

~'lf

EC -"1 ~

-..

'1-19f.'l "i:m51~ 'Standard
I <ilc<Jl ~ (Language

<f.'<I1(~~

f;jij)j ~

(';) lT\b) ~
~~~

'C?["~

~f'OR11l ~

..£i~Thcap.::r tool' ~
><fr(;;] ~

'@:M'<ilm<rfi:<l,
Management) I <!l?Z

~

~

~
~
~

m"1\Ylffi:<JMl
~
Externalized

~

<liBI'1 B1<f1-~
'>'111<)lt1<1I"1 "l"l ~ i5fT'.f

B1<f1-~ \5ffif ~'11

I <!l~~~"lT.<1J

~-f.h:tf'1; <!l ~
Language

\5Fl1 Z"1

Languagetll.),

("f-sm U"<J ~

'5I"'11lq1.4 \5lM~

m-!1:f <:I1f.Di'iZ'!)IB: ~
(ELl I <!lB:~

~i;~
~

~

I <![7,qi <w!I

-----<.£IV3t P

~.
~

'5!'<f41~i1~
'''!'ll~<)l

I <!l~

~

0"'l <!l~

;;m~
I

\5!2l1 \'il'Jj1P4'q'!l1l.<)l Gii

fuWl"fJFl

();;,;;,.:>.,)

>J1tl'liSil<;JI'1' (Linguistic

Imperialism)

~
~~~I

~

~

~m ~
"Jjig<j

'Vl, ~

c$t

mr ~

c!l<!>t1~ <Wrc'11
~ '51~

cll'G

~C'Rl'~<!l~~i31ft..£i~~~~?

"!'l1'1RiiM<)l 0$1 ~

"!'lIZli'!)'q-'5Ifi1ffi'e'

-'9ff"i5Ti3J C~
B:>iW',J0i11~ <!lfo'lu ~'3

m~ ~
I~

!1'[15j' RZlUI1

~"1<r.l GTe 9ftrn <!l~

~

~ <!l~

~ <!l<:fS ~'11

m91

(jfU
~

-~f.f.~?
-i:fi'll <rf<"ll <!l<"llt1 ~'I'ftl:j
~IU~ EL

N~
<{it<r;~"1~

I m~ \5fm- ~'1 ~

Wrr:~ C<i'(i:'fC~'41%R,

<Rf "!'lIZl[qfi):m(C<l)
C<;'fG1

~

~ C<:I"

de I~ castellanaf ';)8;;';:Z)

<i'C"1 <'<:i'C"1l.\t,,'4
~

'5Rffm~
~~

Grarnmatica

fumm"
-&l:~ ~

C1 , «1' , C1 .... <!l~
~. ~ !i:

c<r'1 ¢'!)<'fllUmll

:D1~(;IpIl
C'ifo'I-

C>i iS1~C'!)~t':"Jlr.<'fl8rifi ~

R1\$¢ ~
7:<1~ ~~,
@"~ ~

m~, ~
~

C<l c<t ~9frn <!C11 QJJ Z"1, \5RTRJ
~

~~,

I J'f1tl'liSiJ11'&lI.."1$I 1W'f 1W'f ~I <!IW,&hl "'l1~IC>61J"1fi

~1<!IM·,§I"1 c'<fl:<)l J'f1tl'161J!1&I"11 <:!T~ ~Firlf.'!)~m~~-~m~'1"@~,C'!)"lHm%1 i1lsrr.."l~41fC~ '~'~

C~~I;<l <Q \S1<rf ~

'0" O" '0,
~~
9f@')~ Z"1 ~
~ «j ~'C<f,; ~ ~

r.'<fI:<)l~@"~~~'5I~~, <!l"11 ~
:=.

C<r,--<-'1<1"

m

't1trJ'l ~

C<"lll'l!1 9fRj')~~; ~
~ ~

C<r" 0~, <l, C
C?]TI:[ C'if"11

fi ~
I ('@~'"B!

m9'i"1" \5'1m
81 ~~

"'IJ1<A"I !i_'!))1~
~

\5fJlZq)' '\5RT

I «j <!l"?l ~'1

©mr 0 ,C<r ,0s I ~<;~
~ ~~ >I<161'1"11"'1J~ I \5ffif

~9f51<I1' qOi~ i31 051~ "'1\1lfiSt~ ~ - C~ J.1<r.l

..flS: '51 "!'lPl'l'!)I~41

<.f.mt"1 0,,-c!J':"J ~
~ ~ Standard

'~'

\51<Ii (flO <!lS:~~ I ("fM'()~,
[lf1:"'l"~~, )~lT~

~\51<Ii-

m C'>jZ'j cqzy
~

C<l"

<fflt~ - C~
\S1<fl' ~W<>lj

~ ~ ';)q <Q.~

"1·qj~P:f1$l <f.'<I1~,'~

'tSl9fi511l1' I
\51~\!l' I

)~,,-=<:)I ..£i~ S:fS~P1 ~

'@~'

'tSl"l~'
~
~

<)l~

'1C'!)I~ !1<!:1IRJil'''1l ~ '1m'.'l \51<Ii
.!I~,

S~

-'$:~1" ~
QYl

(';)<;'IT))

f9IVJ ~,
~
~'C<f.

<!l~ ~

~'f

<TI @?i12JIi\;J f<i';
"'11~11 ~ 'Origin-al

;:rn?
~

JifGlB: c<m '"'"f1~ \51<Ii' '.':IWt @<:!.'Jj <n Origin
~Oml 01Vl~
~

"'l1~ ®I~'?

I \5Ril)1 ~

l'j:n~\5Pn
~i:'fr.'!l

f.f. r.<f.FI

i.5I1f~ J'f1"if.$l'!)1'il >i~~ I ~
<!lm

~'

'5Fffi'.! Hflll<1'FJ"1

r.:"'f>.I"1I1~-rn~.\51<ff"1~~w.<r!~~,):jI'i''''Il:n<'l ~% ~

\58 "1t~ I @"l~
I.<f.t!! ~'~

0r.~'3 .if <!l~ <f.Qj11 'Origin-al
I authemir

1iJ.f6~~~
I~ genocide)

~

I~

~

~

~

<!l<wl

\5lTf~

&110<'1 '1.'f<lli!"i1 <fl ~
Origin-,£J~ ~

Hfif'!l''"@'''i'61Ifib'-'!)'Q ~

JW'M'! ~

<J""<R \.!iP1~<Ji :i.Jf.T"1 ~

f.qC{JlfSr'!l, f7i<f-15~~~
I

"<!iTIl

Z\5J1'J (Linguistic

fu-ml-:''!l

~'1

88 ----<1i<~(
)~~J;;-)-.!E! (jIQI1~ "'1'(\'5 r:'i1?1..Q~ ~ 1 ",PI

sa 01f<~, f~
"'1~ c!l~ ~

cfl"'lFm I "@~'>fI>R ~

tQ~,

~ }j~"¥II,!;~ "'PiT >G ~ '5f".9fT.<RI ~<f.~'I"l@~ \5'41 W,<fj <l"<fi-<m<M7.:'Bl 9iru W,$i \510 c-.v."! ~ B \[;I~ ~~ r:o/l "1~<flfu0 !l\5Trf"'f\5 \51~m
1

<n
~

I~

\5flf"il ~
1

'5l'<f.t~r.'!]
<lqj

<:Iim~,

rn C'f.@:-;n~1 ['f.@ r:<fS@ 'W1\5I1?f' ~
~'{j

\5l!(lD <>IW11~

~

~

"\511~ Jff~ <!>~;n ~"
~

G~/ ~9i'i1"G1
~ cfl~~ o.!l~J

11l<!l:I1~ ~' c'if1"'R'3l

~Ri

BJI ~

..--

~

r........

"~111b/;-.') ~~<>fV.l~ <il H~Ib"'l~I<1

'"

w."I~ C'f.R
~~ ~

....h

~l

,-...

~,

-

'\5jj~

'IT<1"<:fR'

~m - \511~
)<rc~~FI~
~
);;'''l "")

CQJ[if. ~<fli1

<Ttf<f. '3iOO ~
131~1
t~

'5lQj" C1R Vl<IT0 'l<1 ~1l
\Q~

i5J!l>!lJrFRl, 'QI'f.l-il'f.,

fi4~<;j1'4l<f.~11.1 I ,fir;;~ I~m <f.~
I

\5f!~<n<!>! J1""?['C<ti
(Overlcxica Ii zation) <f.7!,l Metaphor

~Fil::fFl?
I \5l!(!<f1

"l7.~

~ ~ (l3f;J <1'IQ
(Relex ical ization)

<1'Gf.G'! (I'm 1<!l ~P1C~ <n'1~ 'f.11CY~1I)il1~~~ ~ ~ ~
~ IT)

1!l1~?f'lf (I1!.l
~

!f~rR~ ~11.'l.1<'l5V<f.~'1
'5f("'l<f.f'.ji\5l~ ~R?f1f, i3'f;q <111"'l\!)11(~,

m-

C"TFll m
~

m&m~

I \5lQ};fl ~

~

f.hrl4<t-11il
:!'jf\,'t)141
(Ami

CQJ[if.1 \5lB! cfl$1 "l1;fJ
laneuaac)

~~
';)~~8

'f'i, ~PFiF1~\!)m

N<jSI"!-~
I 'I~ ~\~'<f ~ ~? '51<11

C~;jPt~~r"f

fi1I.?i:Z r.9f"C!J ~
~"""@~

~(

<fli'<.R5

<.!I1" <:fI$!'111 ~ ~

m~

~

Ciffi ~-\!419ff.i-1!>1~1~ ~

~mjv.l~

----c'l~

c:<lI1:l Bl <'11, ~

"~"B;mN: ~
~ ~

;n 'r;:~f
~
~

..Q<I~-

(Anuthexis) ~ (:<I 01

tQ<f. ~i51<f1

<f! E L 11J17.IBl '5!f":ilm r.-m'i(?)

<ri~m

~,
ISMJ

<!l;S'l1(31 c!l<f.i)r ><j<';l QJl'f.U'1~ f<r. <litf9j(Jl ~ i)f<J"f.\5 ~
'r<fo'j ~

'?;'B\

~ C~C<1
~

m

~~<Rt,~,~~<fl~~'Wl<P@,~C'iJl9f<'l
<fiB,

'"B1<r~
~ ~

~'-<!I~

<f.'<.f1 ~, m9f ~~

<rf ~f9rn-~
~['f.

MC~~

~<riWlf-1 -\5!Ifi4~

<f.@

t

<!><R'B qj ~ tribe

@~"'f1""'R

'f<Iil'l ~

C<!>R C<t-Fl C'>lTWl ~
C>i ~

m <mJ Criminal
~
'6 'Q'fR~,

&.!:rrn

'5!~"f1l~'i <'ll ~

1
4o;f~ (Semioclasm) (.i"il<{)'t)1<11 C"<fo'frn~

<f>\3fol- ..Q~

~I 0.115"11 \5!Fl"~ G'i 'f<l <f.Q~ '"!8 ~ ~

I "l'1!;¢~tF1l
1~

"'fl1 ~
I1'J <Jv.ii ~
-~'.G

'f'lt~ ~
~
iSf"1T,\.5
t

~~~
~ ~
0f."QI ~

~~~ffi"\5
"'-5i"l<f i3<! Jf'8i~on
C<!>R~"<ffi13

~---.Q~

~ I cflc<1'l"~
~

\5R"Jf?r¢" Ti117l~l.flZD'l""1
~

\!i!tD'l <fl~"1<1 <F!"11~ ~1C¢ ~lt<ll::f <li<lBl" \5IK'ii ~

l<:ii.C1
<l~

,. 1 o.!lm

03i ~

~~ ~

t

Flr~q

~
~

~

t

0'fl"C<fiTI '1\~'<f

<J"<R C'>ff\5Tff '¥fVf, i3'"2Jr1 m<TR ()1"'I1~ ~<f.Bl
c!1<W! <rr<'l"1B1<f.~ ~ '.!I~? ~G1 ~ ~

~cr:r
1

fu'<B!
~ '11'>lt ~

r.'iJC'l1;r,~
i5\:G'I <ji'61Ji

f<rr:~

CC'IT:~, "~
I) '\!ll<ll c!lv;5 1l~

<JVlI
~

HCI!;

m on?SI't
~

("111'\:>1<11 Q.jf<1"l"f @ib\!l ~~?

cf1 HC?J 21'!.! ~

( ');" '" '.l ) C"1 Pl'b1<!1<'l C1'if-'1 ~C>jl.<1 "'l'iG!

rn ~
I"

~~
~,

t" ( r:<fS@ ('f."@ ,!r~ I'fC01 <i'fVf.

Stereotypical -1}1"'1TI1Jl

"'1m' ~

~"'1H<:;f
'-51~ 'c"1i'f.\:)I&t' ~

<til?f"'11 '''IT"J~

~

<ifif

CC1~

'5!l<l <'ll ~,

'5l'fVP'1@\!) Stereotype '5!~'< 'C"1I¢\:>141'-'$1

0Wt <m!
D1.~

"'1~

C>itl~ 031 fB~'1!; ~ ~~~'!1 ~

rnn.I?

\!lir.1!; ~
(0f.1Qj'ffi?

15!1~
C'f.:Fl{J ~

~

~

«<;j><j \Sf1Pi1 <1''<.11 t) "f4't ~
~
1<f.~

\51 ~"

~~-<il

? ~~?)"~

1B1<111<i6'l1<11iT'S ~
as such qj \5]1ff as it is

'!4R8'{l c<f.<f.1~~

-"?IJI,
~"(:qi:j

\!40~

<WJ

t~

If ~

ilW31 Rf.j'1!; <mlqr[G 1-<.1."1(.4

~
~'1

\51
~

Fil::ffu'1 ':3 ~'1
I1IRl~ '5!l~ ~
\5f['f.

~

I" (~~
~

f.t.n I ~
r:>rn;n
I ~~

~

(C'>tGfiI51<l1) ~1
"1m'"! Zl~

f8rz,~ ~
4f~
8T'~

'tl1<111<i6i1~<:;f fu:mr9 ~

\5I<r"1J

I L-c!1~ C~

~

I

r:<f.@ r:q::@ -Q
'f-pml -~Il~l.

srercot ypicnl '''f'-Wl" ~

Dl7?f HC'!l~- \!)lC!]

EL-cfl~ 0f."C!! ~~~-'5!~

<m~
~
o.!l~

<f.i'li.1!;~

0511 ~ C'f.

~I<:!

<rf~B,\5lffil-

;:;rf?fR - '~FlEl~
~>G

<'ll'-<n <iT.1"i
¢l~ ~

~.!1~ !< ?lI.'!]] ~

=1lf6.;"('1':1 <l!$_I.<'l, ~

f.f. fl
F<f. 'l."-II'f.'?

~ c~rm
~ @~~

~

~~~~) \5IIL"11'f.il1"'1 (f<l~;;rr m'.G ~
"'11<f.;f<'l11fl 'lli<:R ~
~ I ~T-i
~(j

(.Wf"'l ~"l1

I~I'O~ 1"I'''''I'''1?

r"~ I'W1

\:>11'lINiMjrn

~ ""~~=
~

~Q.rrn fi1RI
~~

f$;r?

1~1'1 "'1~I""I"lu.:n

?fI@O{

"

I<iIS!3H "rF.g
~

"'WI 'l"ffi~-)
r" (~

Theory I.!>fBI Prax i~o.!l~~

c!1~
~

<'ll--m

-r,-qifu ..
?jf.1'~lI{l ~

'<l:

-:;~"'11'R ~\5

~f.Q.?Jil:1
~ \Wl

6"f1~-;m-

m~

<.!I~

~

l!J~ ~

f.f.

\5l~><jm<:'R! <rr19iRWt
<'j;'<'/fc)1
~t;j

151Z' f'ii>l 1 ~ Ff.? M~ <!<I<1
"'1"ITl1~

"I!i'Bft~

~~'i'fG 'if':3
~

~r.~ "'>fI7.<::!

Thcory GlBI Praxis-el 1Bl~

\'':If<f.'i1f~~~f<1" mr."<.R.
\5JQ,J"iTI~

13"<J"i' @T.~

R~

<ffi1.~15 c!l"<jl ~

~?
<!l~

~
<Q~ ~

~
no

.~«<>ii'M ~f.9'!tr G:-Jp·("'!l

<m"'t~I~ m<{17:4

0l ~

~

!fRJ<>fr:'f~ ~;:n
reference I)

<f.@ .... t:ilI(ft1!D"l!

~,'~

1'f1!1J

"¢"i']l,

"Wf. -&7.~ Il'!r.~,~

8'\

-~~
~r<'!

,:!'iiibi~?jl\!)\!) "li:'j'¥Fl ~1'1tl.O"j~ ~Witll ~('''1I<f''~;~1
~\!)l1rtf m ~ ~ $;C~~~--<.!l~ ~<if.1~'l:1 <f.G ~

g~~<I' ... ~

-1~
~

l).!N"r
<I'!4j, c<I

oQ~

<JfI1l<lI~?l <f.'<!1 ~~ ~ I·~

I Q'I~

~

~

..£Iwr~~
~·rlG.'~ ~
~lf';"l.lS<':

\5IE:q:ooIH¢~!"1 ~

C9JN

(::''''lr~ ~ ::.~) 611""1r.tP.F1 ~ I

~!fR

fo;~

1 ..£I~ ~<f.~

0f[<l ~ 1:Illtl1'!!

<Pf<R ~

~~,
<fi1"1 ~

'~<l"F1~
blQ m C'i'l1?R I' ~

"-I<f?ll~,

~ 9jHt'1"'l¢~I" <r>6HI."'II'1'nFI-f.i~'1 ~ ~ ( ::.'" q a. guagc, \5IT?l-m9i~83Ir.;r<!

~.~,~,~,~,~,~,~,z~¢I'!l,

M'GSFR'11l:! -!)~"l~ c<I • 0'lFP ' >i,pi"l{J$;
'YI'IP'f I..£I~ ~

(;BIf<l\T<l- <!I~ ~

I.!l<p;i.!l'ifl@!

9j~

<fi1"1

#!'l_ ~

(:,,,,,,,::.)

Mr~, '~

~

!ll:l1"l~11.<1 \5l1.'1-aIH<f.

<rt ?!f'il7.<i

¥rf.i;q; I'

\5l~f1) 9fMl"1'rM

~

.:z:,)

'-I<f.fr

0f~, "..,We are rnuk i ng sySI cmm ic assu rnpt ion about l.mDough!) calls a 'Folk Linguistics', a

bringrng

into play what peter about the language

<m'7fBWt C\51 ~m -~ <m<>fT111l "S:{;It3If%, <f.l1i1 ~ <f.?3R, >i~J~ ~ ~\5l~
<f.@
I 1

~

m?fl:flH\!)lf~¢ OW'! 'il~t'i'ftG1 ~
I ~1<jIMi¥Rt11 ~ ~ ~

~-

~

m

r.~

~-'?I1?fiIG1--lCJ'Jf-<rt<f.j
\::)1<11~ 1iI'1~?

'Commonsense' 'Systematic ~ I~

we live by (Doughty >3~.

,:>",q~ ~ ~).

~f.:z0l ~
~,~~\3fu
~ "ffi?f ~

~

~9j['41lil~(;~

~1<il$1 \5l® ¢WI C~~I?l ~~!:f\5I

assu mption'

\5fR '~lZ<t'G3rR¢ ~'>lt<1eal~'1" <I'~
~-~--<ll

41i0'lI.'!i1 "'11~~ R8fIr.-Kl

'5IRI!)If16~,

~~
I~

\5G'l r.qr<f <II!? <f.'<!1, ~""fII'R
I <!IT.'1' ~

\5fi~f5t~ 'i51<fI

'5!J1C11"l<J', ~ Constitutive

P!~, '5!f~ ~
(procedural f.Rn:I-;rn)

~mmr~ ~
'6l<ml C<l c'iPtrlo1; ~
~

\!ll~\S3rm'i5Rl"

rn <re:01 ~I.<i'-%IH¢ ~I<lll..';~ <iiii~"1~ <rt
~
1

~

~
~

~ @1S1 ~

~
'i?11l¢IIG
oQ'1R

f<f;-~?
-\5lI.ifr.F,~f<i1~

~
\5lG1e:1H<f.~I'!'l

\5TIn ~
~

C:"'lT."<~ <87?1'&i I

1 ~~I"'1IP-1 "iR--<.!l'!l ~
cq<:f

<Fn ~
'(C'11<f.'
;;o~ ~ 'II

1

'colf<fmr.<1~m~w~ ~1(.<j~I;;'<f., 5Jrif '~' J1m~ m ~

.!I~.T\5?[~"j
'<)!'<ffj

'51<il\!lI.~?l ~ ~

\511l1-<R8'!l w.~"j~,

'¢!4j~-M4mSl

'W'! ~rf.i, ~~

~~

~

,<_I!)~,

{li¥ «IS ~IG

---=, C\51 ~,<IJOIT2; m <JJI.q 1 ~
~

<!~'<j

'liiil~,

'W m <fi7ITFj <Wi ~
'I'fC\5
1

<rM

\5l~

<uI"'frl1 \5f?l 'ITC'l, \511(ft1IMs~ ~

~

\5fI'1JTR ~

I

~I ?1J1"'11.:t ~
C~i'i-'1

~~~~~Ci1"'5~C~

~
..£1<1'

<rr<n ~---r<l ~dUl'!1

~7.<l~IA¢\!)! ~
~

\5lQ,f<il <l"'l-;j

-:1~

-~ '¥,

81 ~

~~
~ ~

\5IT?l (jii1<f.lbf@~ <I'~

~~~ "-I"-ll~I"'i

I"-I(,~ "-III,?""

ma-r-r"i~ C'>l7.'Sl \'3~
~

~2;rru, ~'i1Ti5Tf9ft;1t~ ~~

.<n \5IT~
~ \5IT?l ~~?f-;.rf
1

\ST<lTIJ

~M9ffi

<uf?frn ~
<llC?l,

I

. ~ ~ "i1CIf'!l ~

~

<rf>1 :( CI!)I <!ll'1V'i I51<i1 UG1 ~

~
<!l"D11

",~j\bC\!l ~~

c<1 ~

mq 9j'l'ffi oor, ~
C?fr.1J [$j 'tif~~'lI,

~

>3r3 _I

I?ib1
~Cf ~

1ill,?>:::>141 (,~JC~1 "I<!1~

(~<rrn
lathering)

C"1I<f'IWl~

~~I~!fi1~~~
~lt.~ ~ '!i'<J'l
[11~

----<!l~ ~"!VJl I'"(~~) Covon

~<i

(Sclving) <wrI1ffiI1

<!I15'lf.<i 8i

<r"lNf ~
Human Rights

~

~~

I.!l~ <f.'<!1 <jiiig_TT, '5Ii"ill!)\!l ..£IBf. ~ ~~'i'f1

~.:r;l ~
WI{l~
10

'W'! ~

9j1@ I ..£1$1" lIt<U\3 ~ "Coercive Declaration

C<JG11I ~
1i1~
~~ subsumption

(::. '" lrlr ~ ~ ~) <rrO'R
he seen and emulated

"1~ Linguistic

Righl-.!F.! (Artic1e-27-!ntcmational 1966 o.!l<l~ Draft Universal

selving z ..... a regimented

(ormation of a self ~

cnant on Civil and Political indigenous
Ql

by the other that one is dominating."

c.\clusil'e'\5lTfir

4!:r, inclusive

Rights, Document

ElCNA/sub·211
oQ'Sl c!l~~~

\J!!H/2_5)~"i'?R!i:':l'¢'M I ~I~I,,?I ~I<ll <Q 'i'f1"G

~<f.Gl ~i:j

~\!)I~

<n1?fRl.,
\5iT.<f

i<lt"1ffi~ ~
~ I~

'QTf.J

1<f\5~

~

~~

¢t?ll

>t5f]'\? >t'lI§\!)'fJ i61lti:'j!6~1Ht ~~
<f.'<I11II1
1~ ~
~ ~

I ~~

~(.'* 0f<j

Fr~

<Q<f. xr4f~~~ f<tGl-C?fl'!;~ ~

()",~:,)

~

"l'rn'<!'f"1"~.

~

"I~~.;r

~ <f.'8r-l1

"!fe>l.~ ~~' '~~~~~'0'fT¢'~1

f<t1'Pl

<f.@<l

<.1r.G1~ (>31 <Q'SJ";; ~'"¢?1~

7:Gfu

~ ,,·"'

-<f.~¢'<301t ~%!Ij!i 0f'<I1 f.<ir.~ ~'-~>i5t\!) ...·'Z'1Ff1

~ f.l -. 1""1'-;-'1, <11 ~£I.¢!I(j~
<!'l~

~"~,,,,,_ \'iP'11'lII$I,

-w oua
I.!lG'¢1F.'l,

1."1Wl'<f- ~

0'1'<!7Pfi

Hr.~ \5f@

"fi5~

'f.?:I1 '5!lm C\51 !I~

"Il':"'I ~

0fij-f.frr.m~

~

<f.'<I11 C~r~'llt.H1 1;1j?,d> Wf"'l ~-

r;;f.ie m C"fI:"'R
~~

~-~ ~

I <!l

Hv:r

<!l<tit1

'f'1<!d~

\5i1il'!o1'5 ~

'C!l<;lf~ ~

<lm (i3.lccllan

'-;'''1 m

I ~&,~~, [b11S?Pl1>f ~ <

recites Bncchan.H M VI I Q1~ <fi'l, <fI,'9rn ~

\5If1f.'SlT.'B) ~

r:<P'R!

f.:rr.~ 0"1 ~r ~ ~ I i3rn?@ Wf'l ~~ :J\~.irJ 9J1iG1r.$I~UjH 'liT~
I~[<f.
~'[<f.

<:r;ql c;l1I3m1f

csm~.

~f>!l:(rvrn ~

9ffu~P4'(~ HC\!)

'iji[-m \5!'i'I1'51f"'i1VlI
~'i5'if.[c@

ffi <m~8
<!l<tl>1

mI~
L'I~ ~~"<;J

~[l'Ff1"l).11 C<fi'_<f. f.r"15~~

IG~f..p:i C<!1<m C'i1~ «I

~"'f
1D0minalor UM1iCiiJR!

\5lmft-19i<i19~f;1~I"1'1ft!'.l~f.mJ~~<'lIHr.~1~.f.i;:j
lXi7.<BI GW.!
C~
~IG,

~~\I~m
ISiID ~
~~
~,

'1jjI1G1-~r;~pi!.<f. C57.:'>i 0ffimi1<f! 0"fI<'l'l. Tribe~~>r~m
I ~~ ~

"i11s/.ll!i1~1"1t:5'm ~
'ilTR'3l"l"1f-Si,

m I.'M I ~
~.~

~"Dill

~
~

~~
~

~ir

9fT~:81(~?j)

(.L'f4l<;j

- Dnll1inated~<k<f.

"8l )'K1'5 ~ I ~
:;r~qf9f) c!l~

c!lf.<f. ,,\~

son <f.T.'.l" Vf"1~ ~~ ~~
~ y,,) ~,
~

~1.Tt"1 ~~,
(~'Monumental ~\5 '5fo'l ~<!

~

~
I

'~-®(<:IJ~'lf\!i ~ ~

<m9JTII&"Ir:<fi ~

m-~'1m
<f.Qj1

C"'l'i<f."1f'~hl >l~k'!l"1 wWr ~ «I~'(3"i ''\5r@l ~ ~

(,OI8m ~

2Ifirm
~

I (c!I <li~

¥-Bl G'f'\.f. ~

-#r~~(~<;,b-O GI ~.
~ ~t'!l'$1

Work'

3fNj~ il("ll

~)

-cfJ"<;J '&~

~
~~,

~TI
('f[~."

>l1l]C,,<;j

~QjJ"1c( ~>!l9,-<) )j~~ '~'<J1"l

f;J~(.<i>!ro<;j ~

CC11T.<fi91'e ~S

I ~~(~"'17"')
C"l~ ~

(.<T ~

~'ll"~

~Rrn, Itllf5i, 1fffl, ~
;:pj

<R lfI<r.i'<l
~11>i'f.!"1

\~1i1\~1 >!~\!) c<f.'R[' (1<i"lF.il'f.R!mmffl'ffiT,

0%1,

~<;jI~~m.:30
~ I i5j~

ft3r11

«J ">!\~Q{ ~1XBi

R1Ii l'.lfcl~'iff
I '~'
~ ~

~ '~!i>I<)ilr.j
q'<f ~

-R~751~

.-rc'U~o;fu
~

~

[<l'ir.l

~\5l
~~'{3

<!TIl,~ I

&'1'1'1<:1<11 ~
~,I <:@R'j<;j ~~
~ I" ~

ffi'f ~
'{l ~

<Jqj'<f

Ctf'<fl1ffif ~~
~ ~

ti1~~

<lJi?fn <n:r,

~fu
cfl~

C~9@' I )j1~'!ljIl>1'i'f[G ~ ~'>f1:\5
~ :!jl~
~?@
[lJ

'5"Z( "1c.<frrnf<r-5)

~

D11R <mp b1<r<;j"<;jl ~

~

1:J~f0" ~ 5j~"m1 '61l<1f""-"1T.<! c!1<f.lf~ "1~
offfin \'5J1~C\!)I,~ ~
~ ~~
~ "~1f,

Jil&GJ "ll<!l~

<®m f.itl%:f
>j~'!l <@rn"t
f.1~<;j~'

~

~l~<1'tdj

~,~~~,~W:"i~Glft~<>R~iSti)[<f.!~~~ (Itl"C!4 I~ ~~)

~Qfu

~
~

~~9fu

P!'it:~'0\!)1 *-'5i1~~l!«
<>tf<l~<.!':~(~W4@~

~"Z,

>j\~Q,~
~

"'~

m~~

I O'R\5t-l'fFfq~~'

)j~kt<ll~ ">!0f?<. ~
9)~

C<mfGl, ~@ {;.1>~ ~
Cdjl<1'>j~'k6 ~

G'!t'1l~'&
~

<ll1"(('P1""Gfl:~) 'IfR<lm ~

<>fm ~II c:illR,<n 'IIWf ~PPiT;r<jT.l'f<;j' c<iffi
I ~{;.

(r:r:r I

~
~ '!lI1~

~ ~ ~ r."'fI?r~BPle;J~~
~ c<f'<Rl-~ ~

*!)~~m
C~~

'l!"fI-~
I ~{;.

Mf;~ ~ C<f.R <ffi!<) c<W I <ffi!'1 Jt >j?1,,~~fc'!
I~ "l~~

W~

i5jf0'{3 ~,

CSiI~H

c!I~

~mm

<1~~t"'l I~

>i:il\!)

'61'l<\~<'j ~, (,"1I<jSJi~" ~ ~ ~TR
~

J1:1IC'!l51~
~ ~ -H) <ffi'7;-1T?

?r~~ I"f<r; GllR 9J~15iWllfi:il~~~~(~>!l'\-<
r.<I"'1
? ~~ ~~

-wr <Ji17P'f<;j 'W'<l ~

~
2l1~B

<l~'f$I

m~ ~
cfl<i"f! ~

<11

~

it'1i3l<t>lo1 ~

~~'5ffif

~m
"ifu~~ FIG! 4T~
st.,~ ;n ~~

...

-"11 ~ "N:rt51Tf.i ~

*,"1 >i jjl;S1\';1~ c<lI$l '>J>r~
I~ ~~ ~

-<!! ~

"'jim

st"fT\5lf'1f<;j" ~
!F~

~<TGi
I ~~

~ 4~"1

cfl

'f.'<I11J I <'J1-aJi'l

~i,:,~rt

~~

i.f.Dl" ~!'RG ~ I <!l~
~r'O?fr~ 'f.'<rr -.:r8 ~"Vf

\5lBl CO'fl<f.}j;rk~<;j i<k51tT<Ri@

~~~~'(?)~'~(~~~):¥I~PJr.>j$l ~ tYTI<f.->i~(.,,~ <'f& \3ffi~ Sclving w.:~~~IC'~;''1'U ~ ~(JJ~t."11I'" ("J:T.~<>fI<M!,
bR1<!l ~ ~

<m:r

I~

mJ1 ~ ~~~
«.ii'R ~

WI·

~
~?

~iRl ~ ~
~
-cfJ<l,

~

M

<1m

fu;;rrq,
~-

Thing-in-usclt

~~"1r 1'0-9, g ~o~) I cfl~

~

«l1'i!-f<rr;m"'-~"1
~\5I~ ~ ~

\5p]~<lJ ~"'i ~ "i1~<T1, ~ ~

r:~,

{)m, ~\~

<n =.>for~9j~ ~1'b:(lVi C151~m~ m I ~~
«f.<!"f.i"~~IVBl~ I ~-"?<._"14

B<"'i1f,

~1!i{1t~~1~

""-,,m0111
,,~

\5lr\5 «I ~

expression f<r> <f.8'i

~~\%,!<Wr~~
I ?fl{";T-l:~ ~ <!l~

~,"Kr."1

~

COl1lenl-,.!J (~

(;"I'rn ';fJ- cfl"Jj<[~7;"11'B

~vw-:n

¢'$1i'.>!l~

*r .Qdif·~~H'!'t"~ J1R:fI ~
<lt~
~

R, ~

C>I1, B

f.1 ~
I~

I ~Rl\9'i'Nl~

>fl"i3 ~

<f.TI5T>rf.49f1b expression

c<1' ding an hich ~

~~ f<lr.<:ll)rll ~

ifffiI <J~

film ~ :rrt>r'<li \5lGf~1~ !lfIi':<l' !XiI f."l \8?Z :zm\!l1C·~$l!;i 'f"lTIJ

~,,¥f\b$l
lTI'If '6

I rFil¢>j~\!)~

~

>lmt\!l$1 ~

~

wm
~ ~lr't
cfl~ (,\5rn~

~'i>j"~Ri

<Ti@ <!l~

19fTIl, ~

::;_\i$1

<mr"i1 ~ ~Mr."1 i1T"J?P1\lf. ql"1-lf.¢ ~ <Tffi_
1w;<f. ~ ~-

~

(~?

f.j;-Ill ~~

~
~

~~"
-~~
-~,

(~9j1i$.J,
~

~ I!l" I ~M
(q.l

"J~,
d$)~ ~

~~n'11(f]BJ, )1!l8 ~ ) I

~)iI'Br.fl 'W[f

ilf.<! ~
? ~'!<!1

<r1 ~~

~
-£I?J

~

'DiJ.'l1 ~

\S5()f.<f.lit?l
':ii[~

"l1'fl ¢1r.'1'~ H~&l ~~ -Mf.nrGr 9fffi Q11J1 G5V'!
(?f.R ~j1\.P ~ ?fPf;n
-!l-:1R"6 ~;re, (a"f~ f<i'l;flVl~ ~

(l'ft"~"ll?

SUhsumption '13 hegemonic

-',cl\'ing ~(QT!<l'~--..!i~

"'1?1@i11 ~;~~
-~T.<l~

~~I~..g~~

<ITf~

r.<l15:j~~

c:1iJr (~

rVitT . " <l1=m~~~-:--<' ".- "'' '-'. ,.-,,< ra dit: ,..,'"'l .....' HlOnallty-$l ~f<p? ~~ $ilf>i"1l1'1 ~ ~RTa'l ~~ ~
<!l~!

<f.r3l ~,)
"1~ I

~"'M~.:rrn
-4fl. ~ 711"1'[<1:. -'~
~'9fI1 ~[ol

c<f.l(()1 C'<l~ rt-I.'lIVl ~ "fW~
~8f
:=.

CC'fi<P!5t!r;~~~
%1<1 ~\

~

m~
traditional
),;;'~b-,

I \51'<Jl) «l'l"1llpfIC~i1

~~iS'Oi~ "l~

<!l~

~ "Folklore

is

'i1 ~.
~<m3l
~l

H";«r.'>fu
;;q~ ~

>i~I'.."J I ~;:;m ~
Df.'j,

: it is passed on repeatedly in J IIXCU and standard form." (Brunv:lI1t1.

@'$\!) D'foi-e~, ) ~9<1 ~ -8lr) I <u1"'11<Wr ~

~~rn lfC\51 0'ft'l1n( <n?
'<iJT"'illWt ~~ ~
~1-'1

f<li?

~

\5I'8f c<l"f<II l'<t)"l"l~IC<l "l1 mf.i

<.9<ji

m~-

-fum ~
@~">f\5~<1J
~ I 'i!iTrn <!l~~

~-'{;
If.}QJ ~

\5TI¥f ZY'8!ij l'0""''5i'<Jf1ll. ~'&<l"f~
~'«j9j1l:lJm, )'!l8~) I \5f

frl (JJII1<,0'M
r-

('i11?11[ql-i?l

'51qrf~ O{'1-21'-1Nl\'l
~

_!1.,9j\f;r(1qi

~

~

~

f4f.<liih~~·'(~'<f!"'11~,
,-. ~

)~b-"1 ~ 1!l8 I ~~~,

(1J

~nr&,:o1~Qj ~ "t1'l1"'m ~

i5'R :>1lli"i 03~
I~ ~~II.\') 9j~ri~\!)
I

tlS7t= ' <!l~lF9f'1'\il '5,'{;.. )j5rj~ ~IISTI "'i1'1"1lVffi

t:<l"1 "'i1?8f
I~

~

'(V-lI~"1

I

~ <l1~~

'ii~?:~

Wm-<:fJ<!>!lmm"'I~

''\5:fi1 "'1t:?t C'~
~~

~~wrn

I5f!W1 ~

~'f1

~

~

"fF.iI,

~ll?lc\'J ~
~"1l"lfii:>{;c<t>"
~~g

\5ltliIffi ~~
9l~~
g )~9.)

jJj-.m~

1~[jf.T~1f;~

-<$f"1I~-~1(.1si1?l1"lrn

<:!'Ri'1, ~ ~

\$l <1l'</TIJ,~ .
c<FFI ~
\g~\') <fi@
~ ~

~"'I'"@ <j"'I~,

~~
I~

"1li1CI."J ~

(~Ml/;:/lT"I

<n<rt_
\5T;n ~ ~

rr<Pil (%j'

~'l0fi;jJ
I~~ c<l ~

~~~ <i".."JIf~ ~ ~

C~C\'lP;it-<!lf.\51 I3fi1 ~q
C'<lVII
~~'6

"'Ifu~(.I'ii'l ~ill~""~

":!'JIr>I'f.ll'1I13C~

fi G~rJ ~
;n ;
I ~,\!il1~1<f.

~ ~

~9ftf ~

~

<lB'i"l1, ~\
01~

~4\!)1C"li1 <!l~

I~
~<j~~,

mf0C\!)

~

(tf8m-CrrIl3$fl, ~\5P1\~

"'fT'<1<f.r ~ vW1 ~~;n

~
~f

~~
I.... i5Jl~l~l~

9f';ni\3
;w.J

"'!~ -'~

... ~

'i'fR, <!llR

f<i>

~\Sh1®~

1ff
~
\!il19ffu

jflIPt4J?i

9!~r;$1 -

m:~ <>f@~

G1'5-£1<1 ~

~

<!l<R <!l~

m~
"lr.;T

~9(q

Dffi - ~ cl'1'W ~-~

"'l..1i '1~<1iT«,Oi~ f.R<i"fC<f-

'i,¥"l ~ro; ~ (~-:1.I1"'11<MJ, ) &8 ({ -<il~ ~

0i1<1l:>'l~~C¢ <l?11'1i11, ~~
I

~~IRh.,~"

15lf~~~"
~9fVB[
~Q)f.if.

i5f_~ ~
t~

ft1nT ~
~

@'fFI'--Sj~~~

I

C:iJ:C~9jl~TII,)(i)l!llr I b-q

~ ~"I) 1~~<!Bi\;qG:J..Q~

i v« ~b-)

~
~~~

00
@"'I~

Gfu

Subsurnption-

\!l~U!l '1Tr"fl"f~,

B1~ii6rf5j'"$!
l 'If'r...!l~

w;1l1 ~
~
<!l~\'iffi:~ ~~ (pjl~PI5f1\!1 ~

I ~ ,_Q~'13 ~~

-C\5Rl
~~ tQ~

I C?j1rP1, ~~~,

Fls

)_.

~

~

c'*.<l> ~!l~~~.

~
'OI1fTl ~
~.

~H

C'iiI01<1'.li~I, iMSJi'1<i' < "b11H C~ 151?:~
~"f ~

~

"@~

<f.fC~ ~~

?

'6 ~~~

I

--l>~ <li-'<1~ ~
C511?iT'T

<pf'i (.'ij'1lJ'jtfl~

I~

\31 ;m- I
~~
'6

m !l'Tfrl1 ~
~

I 9j1@l'1lMI

%t,w,Uf.'il ~
Jj~~

:>jffl\!l ~

'Gm

J

q'@ 15lVl1~
~

~

'8-& ~
(."-'11<p!5t1~ ~ <Jr~B!"WfJ
( ~~

(!;mrcbi~.

~~"t~

~~-q) I

CiflI'M~~

;r~~,>!llC~ i5T~

9j~
~~
G'I~ ~

<n ">11~
C'i~ <!l~ ~

C~rnWi "~'ii"l
E<'l~

r.~

~ilRr.\!l'i I

ll'G1\!1.9'~

~~?j_{ ~'f.m!
-!J~

<n:r I tt-1f>i"1lI'i ~

H?I:<jI<li4l~~¢@m~<!~~~Gl"'O'I~~~~~"'i1'f~'~~

<m~

Slandaruizution-<!ji1

1'3!R1"l.cfl <tl1<>fBf ~ j
,<;,~

-<:!I1<>fn1 ~,
S . .

H{l1l1101l ""'l®"tIS1H\!)
1t:l7..1<f.(;11'~ ! ~9j>'

k~Bl ~
~ ~I!)) I

C-:1tm7'f ~ ~1i

I~
o;!]~

C~
~

o;!]<:[ft"l

\5lt?jfu. :-:j'''jU(i1,. s:
~'i'f1
Q'f~

'-'

(':l ~%~) "'f3P!iAlpbons ~~

Silberman

C'1f~ r:c'i1<Pl~(~ SJt+I\'l<f.-..f}j<f"l1~ ~'<J, W - -.!Ire -.!j'f-fIT ~1~ <:1Bl'iJ" (:::"'~) ~ ~~) l,,!j~

\.j'.'"

~

~';!'V

"'''''.,,,.

."

.._, ol"!olngy of Musir

1l?1' ('1-e$fj BITYil, ~

'1~~~1l ~l

~

~:r
"lR~B11 ~

<!l!<fl

<IiT"6~

r.~
~-.~

?f4jOi_m ~

~l<!c\'; fAA "TI (-e~, ';)~:;,~ g M) I

~zm

~~

f7i<f.
(.'iji{I!) ~

':5l1$01 ~-'i~}>c

~~@ ~lXf"'1

(~g_m,

)~.l..:..~80)1

••..l1~~.~~9f1~~~11.~".i.l~~<F¥~1

(

~ 1r,'1I('~I~
@~

'" ~ >f'11.'4{3J-<. "1''''~"rn T<PB1 ~

.-

~~~

~

IPfRfi-Jit'rI"!:

""

~_,,_ ~"l I"WI'i'J
~'l.)~

--m'iB!lf'ii~

'JJT.51 ~ 1-61161
'f.~ ~

'{;

7:'1f"j<f. ~
'<JBj ~

Q,W:611'f10f.Ff
(J<f.'!"

\!}/";il.~~-

m

%~I
~f<j~)r.\!)$'1 '~~'

mr7ffi~ffi ~

'\5ft~~ w.<'f.1" -~

W i§'1"l10<f.

(~~ ffirsI, <IN ~~

"moo
~

J;~1H 'TIl
'~~

~
!;l~

~

-;n~1~
f<rr..o<1<f
i!I~

<J'§It11 'ifFl Q1'G1 ~

"l~

~ ""i~
~
~

:'3R- '\5~
~ ~

I ~17:-:Fm;pl,it;;iW~

( ') ~811 r:<I ~

I ) ;;,b-8 ~ :::, 8)
'11.-S~ <f.Qff1l

<W,5f1 ~

f<rr:<r<r ~

"I1~lfiS1<p

"I<f.l ~

Ji~I!lC<f. ~

\5f1lTill (r.<J14"1:11"

<fff.i. n:r'Zl~
~

c~

I" <!f~ i!I~

<)l~rT"'i'l ~~

~R 15'<"1"1

(;;;'~81
I~ l!l1J1

Ft>~;qJ~~~?~®¢1~"I_ -~, ~QJ

);;,;;,tr ~ ;;'0) 11f18>flcz'1

<ff.l - $ff'ii \'51'}(j'>j'i.<f. lQ<r><.I\:I~
I~
1 ~ ~

~\~
~ ~

furpj
'(, ~,

l!l'f.

~"f<f 1ffi ~I @ffi; ~

F.!~~ ~~~
~Ii.<li ~ 9fI7!1 ~

'~q ¢M~I9fTl-l
f~
!<l ~
I ~'lJ
)~trq ~~)

'5J1(djlbocll~ -~B! ~

fF<I; Wrn;:rn
i!I~

Pi<rn

'i'flm <i'<,f-N~I<.S~"'f ~GHl1<ml ~ I ~
\!lI'"'lll!l<t-m

l!l1~ 1;<:P1<)l~Jf\97¢

;qF!

BJ

<173! <!lI'ifM

~;rj

~ I<ifBJ1, I3BJ \3p.j
C<J ~~
~~,

c<fI1~ ~ ~

<m9fl@~"'..R!
~'i)Til

f.I;!r

()<;'b-8 'B )<;.~o)

m~
<@11

~. ffj(31!.~r! I

GIB! ~~-

~9f<i>

\5B1 ~ \51 ~
)'!'8-<) I

~

~

C5Ul ~

-~
~'i'flCOrn ~
~
-15f!<J1)

~

I5Iif.l ~

I~

~

If8 ~

vfiJt

f\b'fGI~M~J1

~~

~

'>tr-1 ~r"

(~<I1?ff~, ~ ~

()<;'=<''l.)-<!1Q~

0IT."'f M~~9f!<m1l

~\5l1Im'

"104~C.G·1"!( )~11;;')

~<119f1~,

<f.'<JI- 'i]1Vfi'l "IRl:fI ~lliS7f.j1!l ~ <ii1.i1RI.<1'11

Wi ~
\5r<rf'>Ri "'1~

~
c~
~ ~
I

-~!IJl5 ¢1<£'1~

f91.c.Q~,l%-<Rrf

zrr I \51Vl1 CI5f ~
~

ca'fPf.-'l'3fl\:l .~ -15f1~ (c<f.@ f<f.'\5~
1019

"f.G~
'f.Q,tf I ~

c~~l'~l.\5
"IL<f.'6 ~

~

<1M 0'ff<1i'Jfl<l'
f<f.; ~
~?)
~ ~ ~ ~

<lI¢-rn ~1
mt;;:l15f

~

~~

1

"<iJ<t5f1"'i'l ~ \
~~~,~?

r \5f1~il?~\.!iffil'<Wl'Jfl<l'

"1dj"!: 'CdJi<)l <ffl$fR'? ~
f.<j{;Q

~

1~

051'''l/'~~

<!I<!i~ -"<iJ't" ~~,

~
flrlpj
[lJ'>iM

%~
~~

~'1'
-

f<f. l!l'4'fC% C1T1!i,rI6flf ~,

-<ffi..,'f,i ~ ~~ ~"'1i
1

~f.t5rr."j~ ~~- :l'f'1'.;J ~

i!I<W! ~<iR'i)1l, '3l -

00 <liCi:ll$:t"i",!
~~R

<!l<ji ~

r.>r

W'll

~'fi

mVI

'5f'.l:"11 ~

-

~5f1

@~~ 81 ~ - @~~I<rBl

?fR I!lICI!l1? ~
\5fCO'ff~W'@

~

- Df"'®1 ~ ~~\5fI"'i'l

~fil<1l1

<J!~
);;'1<;' ~
<m;<f. ~

!ffjJ7.'I)1i.~'m5f~

'i'fR 'Jfl~m mq '11 (~,
'5Jilff-s,

(;;;"..tl~H~~, );;,~q,l5T.W"11'V111.
JilG4f?~. ~ lIR'6) I ~

~e_ ~I

:::'",b-q) 12f1~C',m, Grn'TIt5npft:ij'ii~~~

~~~ \!ift~
-~ ~ C~

~ ~
~

~
(~\5ff!(JI"l

~

'iJTC<11 <.Q"<JTCi1 \'51,%\:Il!l<'ll1ij 'ID1>f'IQ C'f'lf.11rn <!lnI7jjjl~ <!'ilF!
"l~

~ '\5Qj'j<f.fQ)'\5
DJ ~
I

fu;;l

"li'"'i'l 5f1, ~

@.

'lfR

m <:rrn "V7.¢
15f~

'0'l'f<f.'-~9fR

~
~

~

<r~

~

_

'511'QM I !l'!:r~, -<!T1"1TIl1>T

<!lll'1~?

\5l ~

!i.!.I l!l<f!!.;j\S

.srn ~
~!Oljl{l

~
"l~~!7Ji$l

CO'f!<i>..;J'j,:"¥G ~

I<i>~
<jo7f---<!l~

rn I ~

t!t~

~~

:iW 4:1."iI-~@1?\l~
'%PJNI'\5

~

1

"Iml!l Bf<ffi:I CC'I<$1
I Tl5'f\5
~

~~
-~

- ~~,
~';i\:.OIOljI '031 !i1.!r{1! ~~ ~

<m?fFffi1 ~

l!l~ 1 15T<l15r ~ ~

f<f.ig: i!lI..;J'j~h ~
~ ~;rj
<f.@,

CG'l<$1 'JfI<l'C<li GWfl11I <Rl1 ~

r;;RlI;~~ Jf
~

~
1~

expression-<!fQ ;rj ~ ~

\5Bf

r.~
1

m 1 \5fBi:
'l~
"l'f. \5QJl ~

<!l~

B'I'iflBrRI

<!i"'i'll ~
~

1l!l<f.Qff8 ~~

~ \!llr1)'6lC<J ~

~?Il:<ff\§T

m f~.
~[t;\!; B! ~

N&m
~6f01\!)

"'flw ~
Q:j

<l9f?ffiTl-'lQ ~

i3Rl ~

?fRtl7P'@ ~
(codification)

<f.Gl
'<I)

\5!(Jj <!i~

9fTl-l <m"l~
~ 1.\:.OI.'1fDr.>:!l I".'f'lr<mt

m- ~ .. ~
21\:.011<1\5~
I~ 15f'<Krl

"ll) ~~9,

~l) Pit~I<f.~"i (fixation).
zyr.j ~

"i) !.'f.!~m~

~

l'Rlr.rp'ftp!~ <!l<pjJ:~R

<f.QJB! <f.'1r.iH;t'f.

}jml!l<:j>~(."BI
~
(?j1f~)

(standardization)

"V~

1 3fr;~
1~

~

(~
C'5C(§2ti1 <'Ii73!
~ ~
1

I5f1T.i1r ~
V1~\S ~

f<f.;rr- i!llJ1

1'J1"'1Bf ~

WC<f. ~
<f.@

;:r~

C~)

<il't"£41"<11)
~)

~srr"Hrrfif~

'f.fo1 "l"<rfb.:rn <n I11lJoJ-..!J~~
c!l'f. '¢,I~Jlf.Jj~ ~~~ I

~IRI, (<rofo1

ClTflP'r.

fuw:r9
."n;:rn

~'l~r.wr"i
(3v:'f1?:¢ ~

('Jf\R,,,!

3w.'fI'iV'f~ oil'f.1)J ~~
&=IT ~ ~, CQ<J'

~-lB1'1('WJi) o4l"1Hl r':il(1!l

'67wr r.~ ~

sn<lB! 1f<rr.~I ~
I59JTII ~

~'1"?1t~

"4!1fu

-~~ L\i;'11:? ~

':s;r'

<m~
~11

'1'['»';11"8

'!l!t,jr.~ C<11Jfr:1 '?-~

I

r.mQj~ ~
Fi: ~~'>1"R
i;;P;'Pf'Bi'. 15~

'm?J'B! I ~
~
~,",l~li~

q~
~.I!i~

<t-TIl"1 0R!1l ,rffi I ,!!j'~If<i~':119J~:b;I4I
<;j~~$f

-..!llF1

\51¥~ ql~

~~1-~<.l ~8fi;f.
Zl'Rl'T.N r,'¥1 ?

IS>rll~

-3'm"i 0.l ~ >51(.011[44 fl.!l~
.Q~

m
I oil

M> !l'"Tf'i '{1f?
r.¢c~ . ',s~r.1 (':1r.n
%f~'Tr3I ~
\5j -

I \'lIFl)f.l

rl'f,~ ~~
.;rn; ~5J"fT.<.Bl
"'i1'@, <1'6'<;]1

'ff~r;:;-rfu
~

C"1<r <T@

-<if(<fl 8l ~r!<F"i~~~ f.I5t ~ ~f3fr:~ ~ ~~ ~~.

ffi?f@<11 ?J~. 14rJl~1'SlC<f?J ~
l.ifJ"1(I6~ ~

Rnr I \5f~r.r.'1 ~!(f';j
<!l<f.1)! ~~ ~O'fI¢>im <F.:C1 ~ ;:.n?jli~~rg(,\!) ~

01Kf. -

~'ljRt1
I~

GR!Il

<:fir.<! C'J4 - '~

WP'\Sr.oiil <p~1 ~ ') IT') ore /'ff"l~
<v:'f1. ~
'l!'f'[ol 1::<1

:;IN;{·ll -<J3W!i1 ~ ~ ~
C'f'1

<fO'i1

~fF.in:.,~
~. ~

'<]'&<11 ~,~ ~\3

~9f1~1ffic~
!i'!f<lEl lJf <>f~' w.<fI ~

m:!:fJ .~T.<R:l ~6
q~ll10'Hnn ~.
N<;f1?l' ~ I

<ff.J "l~O'fr:<!I7.¢~

vWr
~

\5li"T(\')

0li¢O}Jtih ;n15
C4m ill<f.t<f.r$l.

~rKr. 1:;<'3m ~Gl(~ ') "lO(jt ~, \5JBl ~
<r..;r[ ~)

r.~ I

<Tl. (/ff,! ~1~.lr.\!)l

o:rj<f."1:\f)~ ~

~'i1R
"'~~

<il~

<wrr WTDli ~
(1!i't11 ~~ ~9 ~ (~~

~9

r.~
~

¢~

~

~~

C~il<t>>j~~ ~

r'f."If<fD'Irn'l!l

om \5'@

<t$I(~ ~,

'5i~
9(Ii5 ~

<ii$l'r U~(.~ ~
Jf1l ~
~i§j ~

~~

"'M"'lil::Z'8
~\!)~?l <!.!"l'

1111lt'Rr ~

I (.5]1iJ[

<lTI"'1tWl

~r

~rf.<~, ~

<f.@ \!l1lG.1(.<):'!'l

I 'm@1 ~~

C'iPJ, ~,
~l;fj) I ~

I Gffi.'ii<fiB[

fi1'8, i5T~

~ ~V,,! c!l~ ~

~~

Wc.~
--!J~

Wl'

<IT ~ <>lB!
I~

~
<JSttrl

8J~~~oWT~<::r-I:il.·l

"""1'% ~ r.<I J) ~ ~~f~'~!r.1i ~
~

C??'fi5. I ..Q~

r.'\5l S1W1 ~
<;s';Jrn

<::>m ~'1
~

9jIDi I

r.<iiJl ~r.1JI.tI.

G'ltl

'9f<>f ~',
Hf.IS,C\r$l ~

'5frn r.<J ~~~?<.rr.-\!l
9if.1 <l\73l~lr.tB1U1

"BY "fl,

'1fSJ<;'[f.T \5ffi;'Ij, <lI~

<:fI<n. "'w.1

~l? ~

m ''''lilt.' I m{~

~

"iV'.tfI ~,

<mn

~~~'U1""@051~~~
fJfI.:>tl'r@
~(,$l(~rl

'Music

of the common FI"if'i<lJ<1i!.I$l 'f.'<iT

to nguc'

'9J~?
~~

(Uf:j, ');;,~ ')

!ll~0IH<"/l
~:<@I

orr?! '>fR
(1?1>(,0~ ~

c<f.1R <.fi@"fT$I

"ml

I

~
~,

~,
~ ~

$l<il±";l~
~

<I~

<wrrn

'foQJ1
?jYf[ '5fR'Ij.
(');;'8

<p~ \5)Qjf<e ~~ <ji~

Ff.;n

'>lR Gffi:"l1''<Il

<wrr 9fC$I,
~
~

----.!1"SFr.r

'{;i!C7I1E>i!1

<f.<'!"G'l
~

~r:~

~

~
C'R~

"ij'ffi,

'<5IT'if'\\f<ji' ~

'1Nf ~
~.

"'IT.$I- i3'<R I.~r.<;] ~~,

~

~..iW1 "l~ ~~
15~~ 0}j;,"0

'fi'J'IT.IB ~
age) ~

.,~\!) ~'P@
~ I

~j;-I<1\')I$I <f.Qjl I ~
~

til)

~wr..q
~\5lf<f.1~

'1' <.11,

f<rR Fr"(1 ~@

\5ftl:'>i '5ff<f.l, ~
'<!$I

o~
fJrn

"l<f. ~

I "'1Wj

~eTlf~~~C\!)l§lf<f.1~

('!'.d.IS~I}'H, Gl~

"'11'PG'
~~I

bl'1'i'lC"l$l

181 (S~, !/1R:0IH¢~ "l~.~

'ifr8 <jiqf <wf11
-

f<f.;rl, ;;,rr.·W."l1~J.·l~ <fi~~,
<!IlF1 ~ ~

'TTfu!~~\9 .,rf<j;
\5lPl1T.<f. ~
'.fl~

~'@

-nf.:iGJ

1- .~

~
"'11Br, ~

~

"1;"1 ~<T1

'<]1~>!<1 ~

(l<j'<l~

-<:!i1"'lnIDr ~
-l1fI6r-~00B! ~

5j'\rx6 - \5fT11R -~

('fP<I'<:;~, ');;';"\!l)

'.f)~

f.'®r<t

C'«T.<f. qiSJ :m9fF.W1
~8i

f<!;, ~

<m?j~

<rr f.f. - '.!l'Z f.tr.sr ~<j'iTi1 ~
,¥G1!'f'i:S, ~ ~

~<i'.~,'jj'flll1Rl1.

qJ~'il~\!lI?

m:i! r:&?:'>i @C~fii:-;7L.u" I

~

[<11(''1'1'~
~bf<1\(J

~1G(<fi ~ ~ "t1W\')
~

ql~

I~

-Jj~jl!,)ll
<fRf.

~i3JG1.
(.1"s7
J

@~f\b - !j'/ffu, >61'itlf\b-DPl<l
I:5'fll\5ffi 0i~
~

N&rn ~~
!l'1i%-"'fI"fi'
~
~i3,

Jf"rn

~'i'fft<'RI
'i')~

"ffit9f~ ~
(Phonetics](.?f~

~<r~\5.

iif.f-f' '<m?f<f.l5l

~~m
- ?i~~

1

'03-m ~

~1f.1!I il£l'!J "'If"I'.1!i~ \5f Jj4~ C\5i :>f1'fj

~

f.'<J"«f. ("l'€m I ~

f<ls ~

~~
___;;rf, ~

<j ~

<ji@

f.lr.'!J

<>fiR! '11 ?
~(jl1(,11l~(...j~

<fI!f!-<r<:rf -9f~ I 8l~~"~',

Of~

;no <f.E'l1;' ~rurn

"S:iGr.$lI?f~~<>f~ ~, '5;~1
~
DJ-~ ••

Df7.9j,~
15f~ ~RBr

~~~'~~<!Bll~~~,
I \5)~-:C
~

'fire \!:'t<lI~ 'F!{)o~1¢1"i' ~
I~~:<fB:l

W:mf<R!l 'WF-$
<:f.T.~
I

"1c\')1~ <!"1i'.'!J

"'fffil. ~

C<I ~

"!JITSSI ~1~

-!J'f.'BlI~

<>fff! <Tf I :i1(.~lt:i1I~"1;n'>iBFf. '5'J~I\!:rn' 'WI ~TIl (XlI "3fRl
S<1fl[<f. i5f(!i

~<',oii' 15110fm:¢ <n
Medicinal I J'r!fur.<1

ISpeech Technology

~~

'11<ml"i ..-:oj<ll ffi9;i&~ mlm 'C51-'1'l'fffi"i 'f~.f"i

~r(jrn I <:r~ 1J'i'j <lB!

~

~m W~<l1 ~

fih.~"'1TG!'1

~II '~

G1 ~

\(:::q.i 'Sl1.<;<oi '1twr1 ?

rlunl~- ~9 G"Il~"i

'D1'?l ;;;j"<fW?fr:q i"..!'j~ '6<lir ~«f.

'2~

(("I

-61...-1'.'11 <rf.9

~,
,!P'l<1 ~

1381>0 ~

@~\!l G~

~ ~ ~

~

~

~

~
'~~'

N6i!H

'5i"Rl

!lI1F&~ f<f. '5P1l<f1<J'f;qj~
~0-5
1 ~1

~-;n ~
f.,H)\'J~l@

~

'l"""~' '3f~
4@1 ;:'\1.&1."1 .!I

-!)<f.GI ~~~
(<1 Fi"~~,

~

(jl!(t1

f'ifi':<1 ~
q~
I~

I "l'J{<! 'Jf'lT~V3 :ilr,~IC:iJI:<I."'i'I ~
witchcraft. Mumbo[<l'}

():;;';:'<!.I)

~il,

~'>Ril ~~

1}' '\Q1'ljig<f' ~
tahoo, Voodooism.

~

fu"r.""ln '1W"'P1
jumbo" "'II.Ol 1

'll"171' ~-"T()I~Ill. ~

0f1J f~ -c4~ ~

~CJjGl. ~

~<>RiIf1'iWlI5R'f'1Wl

'>'1m 9f~
~

~ffi(.~
~
'Jl\~\")1{l

I

t1f;Q.{l1 <l1 CO'frf. ~

<ri>8m<f (~I?

@R4 "'1~(.<t-$1

'!lI'3)RI~

11 r.9i~

~

qi@

c!J'i5 ~

Ii\~Jj,

fXm '1~

~ '6l9i<::iR I uiGl ~

~
~'t1_:lb~

1,\")"11"1 ~~ $!l1! ( ) "O~) (qr.q:
1~

Ct'iT."'R-! \l:>1111~-1~

rF4I~
~ ~

b--cm"'11<l}TIJ() '";;,)

-Bf, 4QJiffi \5fGfl---<m~. l!rYI,r.:ilI~C·Hl <1<&'1j ~ '1~ ~, ~~ \5'>jG"jltii ~, ''";j'iffl¢8t¢ }j\!lj~1
B}5'5T,
~

~ ~

'O"ffI3f 1
c!Jffi ~

'5 ")~ '" -=<)

"'l<m- 0f.~

«f.@ oii~
~:§ ~

.!I<f"1F!l (I:::. /.<1 1J1<j(\3f 1.~'i5

61.l'-lR1'i5 "'fO'lJf~

4$l(\")~1 0l ~
C¢f.1

m - cF<f.
1

<r.n
I

JjI.::Jj\")1 ~ <!l ~

~

'1\::)1\")11"c!J">R~
1

:iJ8IC:iJI::>"1 ~~9

~~
""1"<]'fr.l:r~~
1

f.'r;lfi:3BI '9"'1"181 d$ll
-(~I~IPG'f.

~\r"i ipj

~

I iI~'S
<i'lJ~ C~~
~ ~

f<l; ~
~;n \5IPfIFI

\30! ~,

(tM",

''SC'f'1'~, :il(i1I(.:iJI!?,<i

~

'"'

~ .'" <!l ~Vf.
;"

"1TI~ m:<IT Jj\3j"\3l \5ffi:\l! ~ 'S ''It'¥~, 'Jl~~, '"S:~JIfi!' ~
dabllrmc~

:il!.rilr.:iJ!·:?''!1~C;! qf'~

-

o!lB1

'1'1t4 ~
~
pottery-

'¢I"]"

-;:n -:;;JJJ'5 <WIl <Tn, dUt~ ~~ 2i,,¥Ct1€1 ~
\5T"~~ ('<.[<li ~,

I ~1P41f.11ii, 'Science, Tcclmology's

~~ ~<l".

"IT:'31 ~ ~

f;SRi11 Wrn I rJ19f[<111 \'?{l1Slj11 -.:rn, "~
~ (~ hunting. fishing, <!li'IL'3 f.f; <:r1<r~$J @?J'NFl ~Pf-'l ~"f ~
'¢75l

o£it1 "\51<fl 031 - ~
weaving. M"<fi"T? '!lIITIr1 '6l~
<:[ ~~

m ~~, ~
1

~

@"i:lr1lf!:!<f.11 ~
~

~"1'"
1T1~Tt<!'fu

agriculture,

$
\5f1<j'

fu<rc'>fu ~

~<Br

- architec~

iure .... " .~

'5ff/7r.1 Igloo-

1 ~@1

~~''>11~~@''<Ilgloo~rn-

-'i5I~(.a"1
~ ~

~'>'I"B1b1
<!l7[r<! <f9~ ~,\5f<l"

c!lm ~<;l
'7?fi<l:f"ffl' ~

1<t1~)flW."'I"$I" ~
~'<I QJT[¢', (Jj'{';~

1::<1 ~

5l)( -.:rn, ~o;f
~ (9fi1l-

031 c!J<f.G1 ~ t:>I5f I

m~ ~
~ ~
'0{ljP$10"1

"'Iiji~

'<ff\51 <f.Bl
.,-r.:r ~

C<f(Flli>"2!:~

-

[dff<p'j",¥10
~i

m. ;'5g - H1i1 Bl'lf1\51f"1

' IT.<n" c<:r-'f'1 ~

~¢·~Cf.il~

~

~,
-<!l~

~

?lmfB\")

1

"l~~

(J'fff. <fiB1 (CI'elJl GI ~

~,:1~~I¢I.::JJ1}1"~'@~\'J~,R:~Ic<1~~~
Jj.'1~ ~

~ ....
>ilJ(!i ~
~'0

fi; 'i51 <:JT.G'I

fife\") ~

~ ~~

~
<f.O'i1 051 <!l"<R

c!JG1 <f.i']l~,

1l1t<f.
<JlC'!j

qrf.'r

<r.!<! . r;G'fr<t.11T-'l' ~ c!J~

1 '!.'H.oi1l¢'f.

~ G1
<f.!(t1

~fir@, I7J'"lf.1 ~, <.!P1'<!
~>(j

~

~

~

~

~?fr'f.

S

Jj·If~, D1

~ ~

~

H~51"l(;<fi ~
~ I
$1lJ!

WHi - t1Roi£r,{lI,"TR1 \5151 '19( <nf.iru
~'i)~

iJ.''<nr'Jl ~ ~,
~

1~

c:.~
~ ~

<f.O'i11

------<!1[V13

-Q]f, ~~
.'~ "" ITTJ)7.?j, c!J<f."ll) ~

~

Jj~J\")i~

'l':f=fi<ifb!0\!l ~
~
~

-rr1T.<J ~

rn ~rfu
GI Jj'If~
'5[ -

<m9flWi

C'i"fdl;:rj? ~

...

~?

1Jf.ff,

~ I'iV'l'<1 <f.«:[,
I~ turning ~ hair t"

\5!fm

\5l1~
';;()11.')

.!I'f.W
,£f'¢iJI

Dl5fu ~~
>tl ~? ~ ~ m?l'0 ~

f.TIrf"f <f.GR, 'i5lL'3V3 Rti'''f.iii"l

DIT.?j, ,£f,¢"rG

rr. (QJI1l <:rrn ~
~ i~
~"<j~

H '.1 <l'>f~

C'"ft>1

"fi'.!, c!J~Jj<l-l'if\b~lD1'1'1I'G

'Jff'1f\!Jr.<l' 17-'i1<PR¥'" <!TFFl1
.£IU1'13 \5lT"1)if
~'!f1"f1
@\!3'il~

><~

~ f"I.'-'J
~t<ll

m RI.I.')
-81,

"'tID

J1"\5T <f.Rl1 ~

? <r@1 c!J~ ~

!If.m7:'>0 ~

r:~

.!I<f.E;1 ~

"fTi?! <f.:'<t1
l)l)j';;f

0'f1T.'i1, ~

~

,£f'G:! .!Iffi

A rnbigu it y, ~9( \')/'$

"'1Tr?1-'wilhoUI

:iir-rfJl-:sr
.!l1)5'f ~

JjI.::Jj\")lI.<Ji ~

il~ ·.j~\'Jrn

~m
I

Zf-!l <f'<l1.~?j8fCOl 'lRf \")I~<!' ~<>f\8<.!
CWif.

~~~~~~

I5Il\E7 'mi1 ~
'1""'11. 'Science,
l)~

~

~~~,

1f ~

fif[.{l~
I~

(

(1J'l.1"i1" ~

'OIRi<HIf~ C"rn"f1'$fI
-(If<:l_ ~ (\5l

Hcgcmunv

and Violence")

;S~I'_;;'" fi1v.J p ~

~';i1\51fo\-j <rm1

\5Plii1 f75i0'i"n;mr ~ under erasure:

~

.!I"lR .~

trarc
>tl"[J

<f.'.'IC1,~w.'1'<l ~

'!lI'<J<TI ~

~QfPllfQRi R£I.')::'i1'.'l NiMHI.11i.f("'<fl -

C"Jr.¢~ ~

"'11BL

1/1W<t.

mr."<~

I ':bT[<!ji"l <:r ~

CJliJI ~

;r1

1m 01 ~
~~
"ifo'l. ~

\!5fm ~
~?i";q

~

@~i:l ~-mllD'f;q1c!l~
;r.:/- ~

\51

m '(3ri; rn
~

~
<:f.w."0

'f.fQ)iZ: ~
"ifo'l.

~!i<f.t4 ~

~'>0

JJf0~If}j¢$l1 c<:rW<f.

1STR'l'fI\S

1.<P(:.!i~\'5'l~
'9f'<51~ qq' ~

r.<f.'WI ~<1T~

''611~<j1>ilm' I f<f 1!IJ?f <1T'1J ~, f<f. (,Af<j ~ ?;nf<!; (1~J f0..1 ~~

--~

I!I~ ethnic

wave-

I!I~ <l~r.ifJlr.<jlfl ~

'<IT3l ~

?i"ffi

'r."1'I<f.fi"M" <rl

<ml1 ~

"'i"iT ~'>3 <l'B ? (<P:ffi~1"f,s1::l'1@
'K ~ ~
~

r.i1lifJt~ m-~'1"<q

~.rn:<!'
~<rr
D0i C1~ <i~l

~,J'PPl!1(¢~ri:j>iI~~,@Bll~"l<llrnr.'1$l~I~~

-.:r~
<r'if<Jtc'!t
<1"11." \'!HPl[~ I C41Q.f11J, ~ 1 ~C1I.<l'"l elitist

~"i

?~

~'61JTUf.

~f':!,~

WGl ~";q

zy.
3~

'@:'lfb', '21~',
-15[<1 ~~~

~@l~

'511V1 JMf<l:~? '5!l~?Jm
C~'."JF.'f. COf~<Ji-!) <l''?ll$l ~'Z~-~

\@1~15i<1I.<f. C"lr:;l'~

<f.[?l..!l~~l<lC~

~,

~5fu
~ ')a) c<i'lR

J'j\"t~

d"~ '5ft<>ifu
c'<IT.<fi ~?f1i'3f

<r.'<t! I

1~~ (');;'b-I!l ~

071~
c<f.'R

"@?fNf.ll ~

'M<.15 9imR ""1fu'11

-----.Q-m: ~5fDofu
<f.!D1?1

~'>fu -IS9f'fl1R

DTI::fi'Jl ~
<ft
~\!iT

c!I¢'t>l <!TI?J'Bl611 ' r.C11b~t1.'<IT.'i' <IN W]J f
~, \51"l~.

(5fa'j I

~'ifu
I~

f.nJf"i ~~,

c1i1<4r.",

C<f. W ~\!;1

~ ~'i'Rl!

~'t

«!l <r'-1?1TIi1"i ~

C~,

t5!if?,?J~
I<iri;lI.>j~

i<km ~
"!T.?i7.'lf.
1

<n ~;n

-

-fI ~

J~ ~

&g - ~

'Folk' ~
~

1j'fi

m, CJl ~

~1I1<l'1"11<jl

'Q~~

~

w,<rr ~

~

'01Ff.' ~

"!~ ~

<r.m
~

('if.'!;n

'ffi:'=1 QJ '6I"'lGiHl
and cun ning, se Ifish-

'>{i'6"?rl <I'1V1",

\5Bl "!if.'G1 ~

~ "Avricc

ness and apathy, everywhere show themselves: the sorbidness or worldly aims. and indifference to higher. are seem
confess neither elevation
0[- mind, 10

now naturally

from a base idoltry

that

nor purity (If heart."

----,£)\!l'4'(.'11'1 '6llifllb"'lh1 fll .1';("'1@~

<rffil C<r-1~

1:@R ~~
I!I¢

~

~ "!~

~

~

''1~1(!, <l1<f.T '=1~m:' (,)b"I!l'::'_)--C1"<;j ~ \51 ~'ifj
I~

..!l~'!\!)i:l <fi~ ~

c<l

~
4';("'1 C~qm

R> ~
Ql ~

f<r-rrr;;j ~
@&~

~

on?
<rn?

t!I"<f.1 ~,

8"11-1 ~
CrliG<)(!-r1 ~ ~ "!~

~ZI4 ~
~

Tim!

~~llii

~

He'!! DR

@~<j-~

)lG,,1 ~1

3f\!;fG PiI.<f.ti1~

(Light of truth, The rational ~~JlRIl)

pity. a holy and spiritual religion' tt~<fill.\!l~

f<!;I!I~
-~

~\

"Jf""1of m ~
C\!iT I ~~

4"1 ?
3~flj

EriHr ~

C<1'm1 <l1~C1ifl1 (~b"O~)

~cff<n:<f.!!! ~-'l1~m ~~~ ~B'if 9f{~ I ~ Gl "l151T.<l ~1'i\!J C'1'Bm ~1J 15IT~
;::m?
(Foucault, ) "e;'1.b-/,," o ~ ') 811:l) I ~ \!l1C:\!l~

c~t1"
;r1, ~

~I~:?il-

~

~~ft

<i1~ ..!l~

<;foWl ?Jv.<R I :I.lTfG, \S~01<l111.~rl;{<t!
311<fiW>i:t, ~'t'1Uslfo;p\)

Ci51 ~'T"I'~
~ ~

fi~
'=1~
~

ig,<lll1

<m:r
I~

>i1<lc:J!:iI ~

~?z'ml
<£)'Gf~~<I'l'1

t:'f'<R

\5~

~
c!lV! "1N~

"fr.i5
-

I..'l<JTr;;<'6 f<f. '.,.)lID!

wr~
IPjI~k<£)¢

0'fC'i1~i'fi'frl 1~

(~Irn<t - "%t11¢(;;j<q ~{jm

C\!iT "!~

~'B'I~T."1, Jl~ ~ panopticon-..Q~

~<r.i'>1i-<.!l~

Gl C~iC'f1~, \5lI</TR ? ~G1I-l;n

f<f. qR>c~1
~

~

'"l\!,,<qliIHlI.l5 ~

l* I ~

,._

<n ~
~

J

~~

f<j

"!'l""l "!<f. q:"·'1JlJRh.,~j3l~ '$f1<:i'l;:l181'l ~

~~

"-~~~J<1lli~ifj~l<q ~"l"'I"~
'17f1Ti1"-])['8 -~

~1'::'1"'1 rJi1r9fl1) C'>\VJ c!l~'" ..!l~

-&<>'fm"l"F1Bl ~
~

7J"I';'I. ~~

"11(3!, ~

C"11<f.-_g,,~ CO'l1<f.-!1o~
~

~~

~ '6IBI
I
(.<f.Tm

'ffi9iRf!i: C~ I
- ~'~-

--

Jl!"I-'ifR 'Q8! <jf<f.-'!.\W~r:6C\!) I~

C<f.NW >?3~<!i

<r'i~

~\ ?jRbl't Mr.4C1j''!l M~f1
9fr-.m'i @~?fft-r""'""'l'I Standardized -.:rV-'l9i~ ~Bl
I~ «J r;<f.& ~
@<e5'1~

'!;'m%~o-E:1<lIT'l2Wi$l1:'11
~<f,~

f.<m119J'W! I ~<f iOOl~I'!!lfQ<fi~

i>1"1C~r~
~ m

<II<P-~

~-m<f.4r.'>j ~ '>j'lWr.<ml'l'fif1
ethnic wave

"ff ~

G5fu ~C§!

r.~ I !l~l't r.~
<!II''''!
~

-fI~
~9f-§

'made to order'
'6I1'I.!>6'lff\5<)'

'?irr~ I <rl.ifI ?jffi ~ ~

fi~ ~
I

~

I!IZ

0f"i~

Rlc$l~ -~'f1T1i ~"I-"1_<f

~fi<HIIC\!)~

w.<T ~

~,

..!l<f.G1 Gli1 f.t~::! ~~ ~.g
r{Z$ ~.,~

~m '~
'6

0111'11R!lfEnill f.4ifi&<l''!l1. \!iB! ~
'511";'1(.4~

@'fl'f.~\5l-

~
.£1'1 \51~
!}?jfi't

151'i'f1i5lf?Bf r.<I 'Cl!<gffl !.fGJ1'ilt1"'1'1T

~ ~
~

'[\;~9f1lfWJ. ~ '[\;"</T9f1~,
I~

<!l~

I~,

':.I M\b

I
I ("\511.

)IT;j-~'f~~9

~11'f.~"i ~

m <{! I ~
Ci'lI'1it ~

'1t>1'1';;hl ~
()",sa),

"@'1,Q'"l~r )",b-81 '1-)b-1

~ '5lo:j~""r"1 t/$<l®'") Ctf"1

?J1$Ti. 15Rl9J

''6 ~.'i'm

-

r.<Wf

m~
t!.r.&:li

"lfu.?!r·F.~ ~~

rPlf<Ji-\5i"-0'1T<f. ~9f7:'f. ~1'1.. 1i5Q;1 ~

.~
~Qj

~<f!?f1<1Wl,
~, ~

~!PJTI1~' w,'<Jl?fl<1ffiT,

q~ ~ \:3

<f{jl!l~,

)",17'11

VJtl Am ~

~

"'tlTIll ~~(<n'WIT)

Jf'l

'6

>j~1'b (WJ

~~9ff<1JW,

)

",\T"I),

~,':l~~al

W~'f.5I, 'ij-~'lj m
2f~' ~?f,
~~~Ib.

I~,

~ <;Jb-o 1

~~

<;'~, ~~

>i~~-f5"'S16

~

>1\~m-)

I

~m,

's"rml ~',

~

~

:J'R21r"<f~ e, (")<;,;,Q),~,

'f.O'1<i'11!l1, )~~"),
Q'1fu~~Z, \fI~ ~ 1_~ c<JT<l, "'t~ b.!!"<!~, ~

«(J:-({b-I
~~'

I <[~.~, 1'j~7j\; I~, ':.I"'''I~ I
::",17", I

)",1f'0, ~-':.I"I

I

~~~,

~>i*,~~I~,)~1!:li[1

~~,
'i59[i1~,

C"iFf,It>!<ll ~~~I~, '"i!l"'lf4-11'{:''& W"'t'SilfG ~
8 I~,
){ilb-9.,
'{j ~

;,<;,~"I t

1<1'81"1 "'lt~ I ¢"1¢j\5J, 158'!V3 ~
~ ~ ff'~

\51~

'-;1Pl<t-ll' $iii, <I~

~$i1l1'DW1?f1'{fJ$l, !~WITq"DWl9fr<l)TIl,

m~~

I ~I, I~,

)

",17"1

I
)"''''~ I

{il, ~~"<fJf-

')1b8-~~a

I

'i59f-.:j~,'~~~~'I~,"<N3-)o1'j~"<jJf-81~,

'1!R' oWl"'ll~,
~

\5l'Wj"<·flm ~R~, I

)",~\b I

l1'e, "'r\';lii'ffi'l C~lii\f.v;5 BI<:K·!ill ~~f<i<r.M

I~,

)",b-l:r

I

D. Bandyopadhyay,

Folklore and Folklanguage : Mvth or Realitv. Kalyani. 1995. New York, 1986.

K. Basu, "A Failure Story", The Telegraph, Calcutta, 9 June, 1995.
?ffQj¢~.,~~I~ >1<'11 ~1151~Jilt/I ";:"'",~I N. A. Chomsky, Knowledge ofLanguage.
'"

<i, ~"'lP,i'.<'1P1<r.It>IW.~<j \5l'<.Cilf~ ("::b-([ 0-")
I~, )",,,,8 I

P. Dasgupta, Review article in the Indian Linguistics, Vol.49, Nos-I-~ (Page
8 "I ) I "¢r.1<l'"f13f, ) ",if'\ I 131~141), Pune, 1988.

I

I

[511\';:'1 B"B.

~~r"1 WIf.T '6

P. Dasguplu, Projective Syntax:
)l:rl!l~ I I

Them)" and Application,

Pune. 1989,

'@~.
?j(.&,,~

~'&l,~ <Wf.I 1'j~:iR

I~

~ <KF~ Ei.!io<i5j,~,

M. Foucault, The order
York. 1973.

0/

things : An Archaeolog» oj Human Sciences, New

M, r.<f'1'ij1i7ffi ~
21~ ~
~
~

<:fj~-i I~,
I (f.c.'j't-I'!ll, ':.I '" "'~ I

)",b-8

M. Foucault,
I 98!!.

The History

11" Sexualitv

.' {/IJ introduction. Vol. I. New York.

mr"'~ f.rJi.
~I

'1<IT~, f<f~~?

I~, I <t-~1,

':.I"'~"

I I

R. Guha, Elementary Aspects oj Peasant lnstugencv ill Colonial India, Delhi,
f9R3.

'[sfflI

"F-"<Ii"'t-II:!1TII, '6 q:«I1

";: ,~'tr. f.t~l~ "

M. A. K. Halliday,

LaI1.~II(jge {IS a

Social Semiotic. London, 1979.

K. Marx, {18K7). Till' Capital. Delhi, 1983. D, P. Partanayak. R. Phillipson, P. S, Ray.

MOSCOft'.

11)86.
/'('COI'l'IT

A. [\landy, The intimate enemv :

LO.>'5

and

of sel] under coloniulism.

Multilinguolism {IntiMother- Tongue Education, (With a Fore-

word by Ivan lilichl Delhi. 1911L Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford, Standardization' 1992. 1. (Ed.) The Sociologv 'Language in Fishman

ol

Language, Paris. 1968.
E. W. Said,

o tientalisrn , London,

1978. 1984191.

E. W. Said, The Wnr/d. The Texi and The Critic, London.

·S. Sengupta,
L. S trauss,

E. W. Said, Culture and Imperialism, ,..

London,

1993,

Folklore and Folklife ill India, Calcutta. 1975. 1959.

E. Stokes, The Eng/lll1 Utilitarians ill lndia. Bombay, Structural Anthropology, London, 1963

S. Visvanathan, 'On the annals of Laboratory State' in A Nandy Ed. Science,

Violence and Hegemonv, Delhi, 1988,

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->