CHAPTER 4 SERIES CIRCUITS
BASIC PIROiBLEIMS SECTION 41-,' Resistors jin Series
1. See Figure 4-1.
[I

ACE::.
-

R, -B

Figure 4-1 2. The g:rcmps of series resisters are RI, RI, R3, R~ R4; Rn, R1, RI4., R16; See Figure 4-2.

R6, R~, R,,;

Figure 4-.2 RI-8 = RI3+ R7 + RI4 + ~6 = 68 kQ + 33 k~1+ 47 kn + 22 kg,

3.

= no

k.Q.

4.

R2-3=RI1+R8-it-R~=trl]n",

18U",22n",SO,Q

:22

J + 33. R'T== 82D.. RT== 1.9kQ.Q + ]80 + Rg + R6 + 22 Q". + 2... + mill == 13. RT= 12(5.9 k. + 16 + 14) = 20 n kQ.ill + ] .! (aJ (1)) (c) Figure 4-3 8.+R3+R..800 Rr= LIDleO.7kQ + 10 kQ +2. .0 kil + [.2 kQ = 7.2 . Series Resistance 5..4 kD (d) RH=l?1 = 220 Q +R2. + 47 kQ . ill) = 67.2kn [1.22 kQ.24 MD See Figure 4-3. 4700 + 560 Q == 1.Q RT== toO: + 100: + 12 Q+ l.O.10 MQ) + 10 MQ= ]3.{RI + Ri. (d) 7.7 kf.00 + 390 Q -if.SECTION 4-2 Total.+ ].0 kn = 12.2 k.118 k!2.+R. R]) + R. + 4.0 M.~4.l RT = 1. 9.o MQ + 680kQ n (round 10 1.l RT=47 0: + 33 Q ==son RT == 1.) '" 20 kQ . ==S.50n (c) R4-1 ==RIO + R'II -if.. Rj ==RT . (a) (b) (c) RT == 560 Q + LO ill = 1560 f.2 k11 + 8.= 170 kg: R2-3 = RI2 (b) = 10. (a) R~-8 == RI3 + R·1 + RI4 + Rio == 68. = 1.0 k£!.102. ""2.o.ill .8 kn + [00 kQ + l.0 MQ + 560 kn+ t.2 kfl+ 3. W.97 kn 23 . + 56 Q == (a) (b) (c) usn 6.33kQ.2 k!l 6 RT = 6(47 Q) + 8([00 Q} + 2(22 Q) = 282 Q + 800 n + 44 n = 1[26 RT= R! + R2 + R] + R4 + R.On= 33 0.5 kD..7 kn + 2. LOkO Ion LOMO S60kf.

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.26).5V =-=--" "" Hl kf. (a) 24 . RT = RI-8 + R2_J +R4-7 + RH = 170 Ml + 5(l QA 1.l ta) Figare 4-4 16.2kQ 5.6k!1 1. 2.2 Ml.2 MD: + 560 ill 1= 3.LA = 3.97 lH =184.2 kQ +5.4kD: + 1.2.76 Mil The ammeters are connected in series."L~ (b) RT = l.8 kD: RT as kQ 6">~"A = . SECTIONl4-4 Application 15.":'. + 2. 1==5 rnA at all points in the circuit.6kQ V 5.! ss 8..0Ul 2.12.76MQ ]6 V~ 4.42 kG SECTIION 4-3 Current in a Serii'es clreujt 14. See Pigure 4-4.0 MQ + 2. (a) of Ohm's law RT""..

Dh= 5:k!l . 4 SECTION 4-5 Volta'ge Sources in Series [9. J\I: S = ( 2.5 V + 5.6 V'" 9. '" Ys .1 = (R3.3 V == 26 V 22.R2.\I: RI S =( 560kQ )1.~)(470 n) "" 16 V Pmin = i 2 R = (34.36 V 3. 1. RI V 3 (.5 V + 8. • RI J\I: S =( 3.!.76 M. (.76 Mr.0 rnA (b) (c) Vn =JR = (34..!.0 IlJI.1)1.6 V == [2 V SECTIOIN 4-6 Kirchhofm's Voltage Law 21. The total voltage is 6 V + 6 V + 6 V .76Mn to MQ )[6 V == 4.(b) v I == (~.6 V= 2.25 kn R.l: 1410Q il7.5 kD. Figure 4-5 20. Vs"" 5.2 M.0 mA)2·470 n == 0.543 W [8.5 V"'" 3 V + 6 V} '" 20 V .2 V + 12. J.26 V V~~ .- 1 mA = =. 20 V - 0. RT= __1. See PigllJ"e4-5.(VI"".V.38 V 3.16 V == 4 V 25 . II IT SV = _.. V2 -l. Vs == VI + V2 + Yo + V4 * Vo + V4) "" Vj.i1) RT=3(470Q)== 1= 48 V 1410Q = 34.

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23.5.. 2. .3 =3. (a) By Kirchhoff's voltage law: = [5 ]5 V eo 2 V +.4 % 25.3.. 120 100 _-_ ( soon J = 4.(2 V + 3.2 V+-] V +. (a) (b) VAil'" VAIl=.Skl1)s V r = 6.V2 -l.3 kQ )\1 v=(..2 kfH3.5 V} See Figme 4-6(a}.8 V V2R".2 Hl + 3. See Figme 4-6(b). C:~~}2V (.2 V = 6.2 V + 1 V + ] . 16 V.0. v- 8. + ov 1.1.5 V -I.0..5 k£l: V 26 .77 6.5 V V2 == 15 V .5 V -l.5 V 4R 31< \~) {b) Figure 4-6 SECTIOIN 4-7 Voltage Dividers 24.S4V ~Q La Ml+ 2..

! + l ill + 560 Q + 10 ill = 17J6kQ P == iRT"" (1.1+.0kil 7.0 kQ + 1.6 kf. V 15R)" ss 0.2 kn 27 . 28.055 W "" SSmW SECTIONI4-9 32.79 mA)"(17..kf.0 kQ es = 13. 2R\-.0kQ )IOV "" 10. 15RX 29.1. ~k.79 mAHl kQ)= .6k = 10 V (by measurement).79 V. kn t V == L8V .!: Resistance between C and G.6 V VR es ==( (.79 mA)(lO kQ) "" 17.2 kf. Roc}OV RAG =( 1.6 kQ +. 15R)" kn.0 ill -l.16 kD) '" 0.: Rco VBG== = to .. R'T= R + 2R + 3R +4R +5R == 15R VR == (. ss L2 V .4 VVR .79 mA)(560 :Q. V1k == 0. 5R V == 3. R'T = 5.6 k!2 )10 V == 5.2 kf.10V 15Rr .27. Pr = 5(50 mW) = 250 m \V 31.0 kn = 2 kQ (RJJG RAG )10 V = [7. 5.6 k!1 Vsoo (t.! 1.1.1. V . Voltage MeasUlrements VAG = Voltage from point A to ground (G): 10 V Resistance between A and G: Resistance between Band! G: RAG == 5.l.76 V 1321d2 = VeG == (RCG}OV = ( 2. V.1.758 V ]3.6 kf. '(3R VR==. - 15R VR == ( 4R V '" 2.52 V VDO'" (. kQ )·. IOV J = -== 1.6 kQ + 5.10V RAG [3. V10k ss 0.9 V SECTIONI 4-8 Power in Series Circuits 30.) = I V.!: RUG'" 5.79 IlliA.6Iill + 1.

RT""R 1 = 560 ~R2~R3 ~1?4+Rj !ill -l.U'r 100 kQ es 647 mV VAC= VA . 38.Q. Measure the voltage at point A with respect to ground and the voltage at point B with respect to' ground.38 V . (a) (liD) Zero current indicates an O'pen.8 V R3== V] 1 = nOrnA 7.7 V V5 '" IRs = (10 1l1lA)(2:70 Q} = 2. ADV. es m.100 kQ + 1. U MD.(VI + Vi + 1(4 + Vs) VJ= 30 V . R4 is open since all the voltage is dropped across.2 V = 7.76 V (RcG)V RT =(.3 mA ----"-=: -HI + R2 + R3 3[10 12 R4 and Rj.(6. '" (10 mA)~680 Q} == 6.8V =O.0 MQ -l- l00.32l'vm Ve = Vc= =IUIV (.32 MQ VT== 15 V VA'" (RAG)VT=(1.561]1Q -l. JuT = (.27V SECTION 4-10 Trcubleshootlnq 37.:2 T ~~} SV = 7.61d. have 110 effect Oil v:~ the current.7 V + 2. There is a short front A.8 V V1 es IRJ == (10 mA)(l. 34. RT= 10 ill + 8.1 ==38 kQ The meter reads about 28 kfl.ill ess 2.ANCED PROBLIEMS 39.Vc = 11.27 V ~-4.11 V-U..32 MO =7.22. to V == 33. O'" '[Roc t"j' = ( 2. 36. [0 B.7 V V3 = Vs . The 10 kQ resistor is shorted. should read 38 :k.32Mn )15 V R. it.76MKlJlSV RT 2.2 kQ + 5. It.)15V 2.7 V) VI = 30 V .70 Q) = 2.78ill==780Q 28 .11 V V 35:.33·.7.8 V + 10 V + 2..2 W+ [2 kQ + 2.. The difference of these two voltages is VII2.O kQ) '" ]0 V V4 == IR~ = (] 0 IlLA)(2.11 V VCA =Vc -VA =7.38V = 4.

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-l. R to determine the maximum Thus.72 V -1.6 kQ = 1.81 V .Q i 20mA VJ + 114 = 20 V .68 V ( 47.O.(20 V + II&) = 30 V . one I kn resistor. be added to tile existing 1500 g: to reduce 44.+ 5..72 V .87 V = l.81 V -1.68 V- V = 6.6kf.Q Three 5.! Vo == Vc ..SI V 6 96. use the largest current allowable because the largest R has.VJ.V41k= 6.0645 A".( 22 ill \. 8 V 2 VB == VA .6 kQ·=96.) == 375 V 100w = 250 mA .5 mA == 188 InA R new '" Vs J tI!J~ = 1881uA 375 V == 2000 Q 501])n must.6 V VI= lis .. aud two 100n resistors VA = ]0 41.6.4 V = 22.6.VIO~= 7. 96.4 V _ e.62.2{ lOOn) es 18 k.4.5W fR = V12fiQ '" 0.04 .40.the greatest power.Vj = 20 V .1 ).6 V= 1 ].25{250 mA} = 250 unA .2 V .4 V R= 1 VI = 4.. = [PfD.72 V Vc= Vy. 8 V . f' '" f'R i""".V~')l = ]0 V .Q..(' 12 kQ }OV 96..ldl VE= Vo .6 V)= 4. ill )10 V = 7 ..5 1i::f.6 kQ. 2.(20 V + 5. 64. Vs == fRT= (250 uuA.6 ill.!.5 mA Since all resistors in series have the same current.VIlk == 1.V3 _ 5.) "" 1.a V 7 -II -' R'3 _ R4 -. V -"."'8~ t'1I _ _ .6 V ! lOrnA em mA)(IOOn) ss '" 2 V 330 n R".[I V -96. V. VJ. = 6 /2 1121!llW =2S0n (20 mA)2 V6= fRo = Ofll mA)(280 n) = S.~ . r by 25%.6 ill resistors.24 V = 0.6kQJ = 10 V- = 7. lh = 22 kn + lO ill + 47 kQ + 12 kn.. the 121]) : resistor bums out first g 29 . Pr.k.4 .11.o.57 V 42.0 k. lh '" 3(5. V2= IR2 == Rj= lis = 6.(' W. 7''V 2 / 20l!llA 43.){I.10 V = 6.!.

OkQ. Figure 4-8 VOUT = 100V: + RJ - = 120 V IOmA er 121d} (~)120 - RD +Rl 120V V es 10 V R..0.875 W 2400 Q.25 W + 0.-=..!_= J2 ~ R 114Rw = 46. ~ J_ nov.5V. 11.]mA)2 ~- 0. ([9.[1 !ill .lmA)- 09.=.!W 2 0.J v:-=- + L.. I. 0. .1 mA Q) [fi.25 W [1.1mA)- 2 = 1371 il See Figure 4-7.5 W = 11875W = 19'. =0.45.. = ~R. "". 09..8 V R!~".-=LSV. See Figure 4-8.. =343. Re + 54kU {m. R!~ 12ill-I.%) Figure 4-7 47.".1\:0 30 . (a) Pr= !W+!W 8 4 != +. == lOV(12 !ill) "" 1....12:5W.5 W ~ 686 .125 W + 0.. !_ J2 ~b) (c) Vs '" l~T R"" = (19.lmA)(2400 aa 45. When the potentiometer RI is at minimum setting (0 Q).

18 kn Rl es The highest power dissipation P".!+ Rv)120V= (12 kQ + Rv)100 V 120 kQ + 120RI' = 1200 141 + lOORIf 20Ry'" ]oSOkQ Ry""S4 Ul.8.]1}0 D..921dl RJ = 56@n + 820 n -I.Wilell the potentiometer is lit maximum = setting. -I.6 V -14.7V .24.7 V) == 9.10IlHl= 8. Vo!]]' == [00 V: R2 +Rv ( R +R +R 2v 1 J[2[1 V 100 V 1.18 V) == 6.! tmA A series of standard follows: RI = 4i@0: value resistors must be used to approxi mately achieve each resistance as + 6800: -I.2 mW is in the 8200 Q resistor. (I mA)28200 n == 8. Figure 4-9 . == (i. 48. = 5.0 k11+ RI' J12C1V == 100 V ( 121d2+Rv (t. + 180 n + ]00 D.4 kG 8201lH:l + 150m n + 220 n '" 9.18 kf. See Figure 4-9. All resistors must be at least 118 W.22 0..4 kQ lmA RF (24.6 V) ==.52 kn R4 = 680[1 n + 100m n.52 kQ J 1nlliA 8J8V R4 ==-== 8. RI '" (30 V .5.O kf.9 k!J: ImA R == (14.

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. 79. kQ + 5600 +470n + 1. + 820 n +.12mA RT l.RJ -+ R4".0 kQ == 4. R4..ill + 6. ' R'U' = Rt + Rl + R) .. R7.98 W V 12 V I"" -= .750 Q +. Rs. kQ + 5.-=--". and Rn Rt -:t.Q 2 R2 -:t-R4 + R&+Rn == 4.2 ill ..98 kil Position C: R'U'".9 kQ + 8.5 6 Fig ure 4-10' 50.680 n ""3.. Position I. There us a short between these two I"'"nis.. R5.Rj == 5]On + 820 Q ~ 6&On= 2.R2 +.". See Figure 4-Hl. Position A. R5 + R'9' + Rn = 1. Iv -= 12V == '" .23 k.4'9. i 2 3 4 .. Ro..0 W '" 1.R1 + Rs+ Rm == 2. V 12 V _ 1= -=-=:. I:=~~~tJ~-tl Problem 56.2 kil.2. R4= 220 Q.. and Rm.R3 + R4+ Rj ss 510 n + 910 Q. Rl. R3 +-R4 =' 510 Q ~ LOll ss 1.9 ill 0 ..0 kQ 32 .6kO 7 R3 .45 mA Rr 2.·!:I·mA RT l..0 W V 12 V 1"".5110 Position D: RT'==R4= 1.0 kQ == 2. Position B: R'U' '" Rl +.. kQ + 3.RJ +.06·mA RT lli. R'U'== Rt +.01kn Position 2.510 Q "'1= 1. The groups are: RI.67 kn 5] .3ltQ + W kQ == 23. + 470 n + 510 n + 1.6kQ + 3..8 !ill = 19.51 kD.. R9'. 470 n +.6.. R3.: R'U' == Rt +. and! RII.

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22k.52.35 V mA)(820 11.35 V4 = (3. The results in the table arecerrect.-=-=9mA Rr LO "11 Position.8 kQ Rj 18V '" -- 6mA - 1."" 16] IlA R"jf .4.6 kQ Position C' RT = R! + R2 "" RJ + R4 -+ R5 "" l.35 V2 == (3..."" 3. 1=18Vl3kf.2 kQ Position A: RT ~ 5...0 ldl V 9V 1"..!J.38 tll. VI = (6 mA)(1..73 mA)(L8 kO.5mA)(1.5 mA)(l. "'.. See Fignre-l-H).. illS!.8 kQ) = IRS V Vj =7.) = 3.73 mA VI = (3.. 22 kn= 56:W V 9'V 1 = . find [he value of R5 withthe switch in Position D.15 V mA)(560 11..) =1.82kQ 1= 18 V/41.73 mA)(821J 11.71 V V2 == (3.8 kD.O kf.35 V3 = (3.!.2 V Note: The voltage approach can also be used.) == 6.35 mA InA)(L 8 len) == 6.{(5= HI k11 +33 k..l:=6mA. First. .)""2.68 kQ + 27 Ml +..1.35 Vj=4V 1 = 18 V/5.!J. ill 53.13 mA)(LO kQ) == 3.l:. 54..""~9 ..1 V V2 = (4.4 V Position D: RT=3kD.) == 8.!J. Position . 33 .06 V Vi =4...4: RT ==R! = 1.82 tll..38 kQ VI = (3..5 V Position C Ih=4k11 1""18Vt4kf. .03 V mA)(LO 1<0) == 3.8 kf..== 3. k -+ 33 kQ.OW V 9V _ 1= -=-_-.) = 4. IlA 6 R"jf 1::11. +1.l: es 1.5rnA VI"" (4.88 V Position 8: RT==4.. +. ]8 V 6mA=---s.= -_.5 V Vj =5.73 V V3 = (3. 8: RT = R! +R1.

55... 61 Lamp 4:is opem.7 kr. ~Okn II ·.w..)..!.. Yes.. O. R:I is open.st value in ohms. No fault The 82. 62.Q resistor is shorted.7 ~Q} == 338 V VrorAL = Jrn".RT = 0.. 34 . = .. R6 is shorted. 56..). Yes. RT"" 47. 57. Vii. 63. Refer to Figure 4-10.07 mA mA)(47. RJ and Rs are each shorted . Rn burned open due to excessive power because it had! the Imge. == 7. 07 Multisim Troubleshooting Problems 515. Replace: RII (10 kD. thereis (a) (b) (c) n short between the points indicated in Figure 4-10.5. 59. I max = (it.

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