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Department of Computer Science & Engineering

SJCET, Palai

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) ALGORITHM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN R606 3+1+0

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Module 1

Introduction and Complexity

What is an algorithm – Properties of an Algorithm, Difference between Algorithm, Computational Procedure and Program, Study of Algorithms; Pseudo-code Conventions; Recursive Algorithms –Space and Time Complexity –Asymptotic Notations – ‗Oh‘, ‗Omega‘, ‗Theta‘, Common Complexity Functions; Recurrence Relations and Recurrence Trees for Complexity Calculations; Profiling. – Deterministic and non - deterministic algorithms.

Module 2

Divide and Conquer

Control Abstraction, Finding Maximum and Minimum, Binary Search, Divide and Conquer Matrix Multiplication, Stressen‘s Matrix Multiplication, Merge Sort, Quick Sort.

Module 3

Greedy Strategy

Control Abstraction, General Knapsack Problem, Optimal Storage on Tapes, Minimum Cost Spanning Trees – Prim‘s Algorithm, Kruskal‘s Algorithm – Job sequencing with deadlines. Module 4 Dynamic Programming

Principle of Optimality, Multi-stage Graph, All-Pairs Shortest Paths, Travelling Salesman Problem. Lower Bound Theory - Comparison Trees for Searching and Sorting, Oracles and Adversary Arguments – Merging, Insertion & Selection Sort; Selection of ‗k‘th Smallest Element.

Module 5

Backtracking

Control Abstraction - Bounding Functions, Control Abstraction, N-Queens Problem, Sum of Subsets, Knapsack problem. Branch and Bound Techniques – FIFO, LIFO, and LC Control Abstractions, 15puzzle, Travelling Salesman Problem.

Department of Computer Science & Engineering

SJCET, Palai

**Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606)
**

Text Book

3

1.

Fundamentals of Computer Algorithms - Horowitz and Sahni, Galgotia

References

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Computer Algorithms – Introduction to Design and Analysis - Sara Baase & Allen Van Gelder, Pearson Education Data Structures algorithms and applications - Sahni, Tata McGrHill Foundations of Algorithms - Richard Neapolitan, Kumarss N., DC Hearth & Company Introduction to algorithm- Thomas Coremen, Charles, Ronald Rivest -PHI

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Department of Computer Science & Engineering

SJCET, Palai

.........................................................Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Module 1 What is an algorithm ……………………………………………………… Properties of an Algorithm …………………………………….............. Space Complexity …………………………………………................................... Time Complexity... Omega............................................... Recursive Algorithms …………………………………............ ..................... Pseudocode convention…………………………………………………................ Difference between Algorithm Computational Procedure and Program ………………………………….............. Recurrence Relations.......... ... Common Complexity Functions………………………………………....................................................... Study of Algorithms............... Palai ..............................................................deterministic algorithms………………………… 7 7 8 10 10 12 19 20 25 26 28 30 33 35 39 41 41 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET............................ Profiling……………………………………………...................... Theta.. Deterministic and non .............. Oh……………………………………………................................................................. Recurrence Trees for Complexity Calculations…........................ Asymptotic Notations ………………………………………………........................................ ..............................................................

. 44 45 51 54 56 60 69 Module 3 Greedy Strategy Control Abstraction ……………………………………………………… General Knapsack Problem ……………………………………………… Optimal Storage on Tapes ……………………………………………… Minimum Cost Spanning Trees ………………………………………...... Binary Search ……………………………………………………….... Divide and Conquer Matrix Multiplication …………………. Finding Maximum and Minimum ……………………………………….. Quick Sort ……………………………………………………………................... Prim‘s Algorithm ……………………………………………......... 87 88 90 91 93 99 Job sequencing with deadlines…………………………………….... 100 Module 4 Dynamic Programming Principle of Optimality ……………………………………………… Multi-stage Graph ………………………………………………. Kruskal‘s Algorithm …………………………………………………........ 105 106 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.. Stressen‘s Matrix Multiplication ……………………………………….... Palai .. Merge Sort ……………………………………………………………..Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 5 Module 2 Control Abstraction ………………………………………………………...

........................................... Sum of Subsets …….... 15-puzzle…........................................................................................... N-Queens Problem............................................................................................... Travelling Salesman Problem…............................. Selection Sort……………............................................................................. Insertion……………….. 172 177 181 182 184 149 153 149 153 158 164 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.... Knapsack problem…………….............. ......................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................ 127 134 135 136 142 144 Module 5 Backtracking Control Abstraction ………………………………………………….................... Merging………………….................. Palai ............................... Selection of ‗k‘th Smallest Element……………………..................Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) All-Pairs Shortest Paths ……………………………………………................................................................................ Control Abstraction ……………………………………………………......................... 118 6 Lower Bound Theory Comparison Trees for Searching and Sorting ........... Oracles and Adversary Arguments.......................................................................... LIFO…......... LC Control Abstractions................................ Bounding Functions ……………………………………………….............. Branch and Bound Techniques FIFO …............................

Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 7 MODULE 1 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

Finiteness. 4. accomplishes a particular task. then for all cases. 2. but arithmetic with real numbers is not. Input. Each instruction is clear and unambiguous. It is not enough that each operation be definite as in criterion 3. Every instruction must be very basic so that it can be carried out. be done by a person using pencil and paper in a finite amount of time. At least one quantity is produced. 5. Palai . Effectiveness. in principle. meaning that it must be perfectly clear what should be done. Definiteness. since some values may be expressible only by infinitely long decimal expansion. each of which may require one or more operations. each step must be such that it can. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. if followed. Zero or more quantities are externally supplied. The possibility of a computer carrying out these operations necessitates that certain constraints be placed on the type of operations an algorithm can include. Criteria 5 requires that each operation be effective. Criteria 1 and 2 require that an algorithm produce one or more outputs and have zero or more inputs that are externally supplied. the algorithm terminates after a finite number of steps. by a person using only pencil and paper. If we trace out the instructions of an algorithm. at least in principle. A related consideration is that the time for termination should be reasonably short. each operation must be definite. The fourth criterion for algorithms is that they terminate after a finite number of operations.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 8 WHAT IS AN ALGORITHM Definition: An algorithm is a finite set of instructions that. According to criteria 3. 3. Output. Performing arithmetic on integers is an example of an effective operation. PROPERTIES OF AN ALGORITHM All algorithms must satisfy the following criteria: 1. it also must be feasible. An algorithm is composed of a finite set of steps.

Such languages are designed so that each legitimate sentence has a unique meaning. How to validate algorithms: . It is sufficient to state the algorithm in any precise way and need not be expressed as a program. The purpose of validation is to assure us that this algorithm will work correctly independently of the issues concerning the programming language it will eventually be written in. Dynamic programming is one such technique. This process is referred to as algorithm validation. The study of algorithms includes many important and active areas of research. One important example of computational procedures is the operating system of a digital computer. PROGRAM To help us achieve the criterion of definiteness. This procedure is designed to control the execution of jobs. it does not terminate but continues in a waiting state until a new job is entered. Palai . function and subroutine are used synonymously for program. 2.Once an algorithm is devised. COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURE AND PROGRAM COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURE Algorithms that are definite and effective are also called computational procedures. A program is the expression of an algorithm in a programming language. once the validity of the method has been shown. There are four distinct areas of study: 1.Creating an algorithm is an art which may never be fully automated. Some of the techniques are especially useful in fields other than computer science such as operations research and electrical engineering. This phase is referred to as program proving or program verification. A proof of correctness requires that Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. There are several techniques with which you can devise new and useful algorithms. How to devise algorithms: . in such a way that when no jobs are available. it is necessary to show that it computes the correct answer for all possible legal inputs. a program can be written and a second phase begins.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 9 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ALGORITHM. algorithms are written in a programming language. Sometimes words such as procedure.

A proof consists of showing that these two forms are equivalent in that for every given legal input. If the outputs match. 3. An important result of this study is that it allows you to make quantitative judgments about the value of one algorithm over another.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 10 the solution be stated in two forms. Palai . As an algorithm is executed. In cases in which we cannot verify the correctness of output on sample data.testing a program consists of two phases: debugging and profiling (or performance measurement). A proof of correctness is much more valuable than a thousand tests. The second form is called a specification. A complete proof of program correctness requires that each statement of the programming language be precisely defined and all basic operations be proved correct. These assertions are often expressed in predicate calculus. then there is a good chance that they are correct. How to analyze algorithms: . Another result is that it allows you to predict whether the software will meet any efficiency constraints that exist. the following strategy can be employed: let more than one programmer develop programs for the same problem. in the worst case. Debugging is the process of executing programs on sample data sets to determine whether faulty results occur and. since it guarantees that the program will work correctly for all possible inputs. it uses the computer‘s central processing unit (CPU) to perform operations and its memory (both immediate and auxiliary) to hold the program and data. 4. if so to correct them. they describe the same output. and this may also be expressed in the predicate calculus. One form is usually as a program which is annotated by a set of assertions about the input and output variables of the program. How to test a program: .this field of study is called analysis of algorithms. Questions such as how well an algorithm performs in the best case. or on the average are typical. Profiling or performance measurement is the process of executing a correct program on data sets and measuring the time and space it takes to compute the results. These timing figures are useful in that they may confirm a previously done analysis and point out logical places to perform useful optimization. Analysis of algorithms or performance analysis refers to the task of determining how much computing time and storage an algorithm requires. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. and compare the outputs produced by these programs.

The study of algorithms includes many important and active areas of research.Debugging is the process of executing programs on sample data sets to determine whether faulty results occur and . Comments begin with // and continueuntill the end of line Eg: count :=count+1. There are four distinct areas of study 1.It is initially zero. if followed . debugging and profiling. As an algorithm is executed . if so.Dynamic programming is one such technique. accomplishes a particular task. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. How to devise algorithms: Creating an algorithm is an art which may never be fully automated.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 11 STUDY OF ALGORITHM An algorithm is a finite set of instructions that .This process is algorithm validation.Analysis of algorithms refers to the task of determining how much computing time and storage an algorithm requires. 2. How to analyze algorithms: This field of study is called analysis of algorithms. 3.To study various design techniques that have proven to be useful in that they have often yielded good algorithms.The purpose of the validation is to assure us this algorithm will work correctly independent of the issues concerning the programming language it will eventually be written in.some important design techniques are linear. Profiling is the process of executing a correct program on data sets and measuring the time and space it takes to compute the results.nonlinear and integer programming . it is necessary to show that it computes the correct answer for all possible legal inputs. PSEUDOCODE CONVENTIONS We can describe an algorithm in many ways.We can use a natural language like English. to correct them. Palai .//count is global . 4. How to test a program: Testing a program consists of two phases. We can present most of our algorithms using a pseudocode that resembles c 1.we must make sure that the resulting instructions are definite. How to validate algorithms: Once an algorithm is devised . although I we select this option.It allows you to predict whether the software will meet any efficiency constraints that exits. it uses the computer‘s central processing unit to hold the program and data.

or . The following looping statements are employed: for. the logical operators and .j].!=. Count:=count +1. Array indicates start at zero.while and repeat until. Assignment of values to variables is done using the assignment statement <variable> := <expression>. and not and the relational relational operators <. Compound data types can be formed with records. In order to produce these values. 5. Eg: count:= count+1.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 12 2.The body of a procedure also forms a block. 7.<=.A compound statement can be represent as a block.j) th element of the array is denoted as A[I. Eg: for j:= 1 to n do { Count:=count+1.=.Statements are delimited by . Palai . C[i.Whether a variable is global or local to a procedure will also be evident from the context. 6.j]+b[i. else k:=n-1. Eg: if (j>1) then k:=i-1. The types will be clear from the context . : datatype_n data_n. } 3. For eg: if A is a two dimentional array . } 4. node *link. Elements of multidimentional arrays are accessed using [ and ]. the (I. An identifier begins with a letter. The data types of variables are not explicitly declared. While (condition) do { <statement 1> Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Blocks are indicated with matching braces: { and } .>= and > are provided.j]. The while loop takes the following form. There are two Boolean values true and false.j]:=a[i. Eg: node=record { datatype_1 data_1.

<statement 1>. The recursive function only knows how to solve that simplest case. Another example of a linear recursive function would be one to compute the square root of a number using Newton's method (assume EPSILON to be a very small number close to 0): double my_sqrt(double x. satisfying some condition is called a Recursive Function. we split a complex problem into its single simplest case. Eg: write (―n is even‖). and < statement 2> are arbitrary statements. double a) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. 10. The heading takes the form Algorithm Nmae (<parameter list>) RECURSIVE ALGORITHMS A function that calls itself repeatedly.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) : : <statement n> } 8. Using recursion. 9. Input and output are done using the instructions read and write. The algorithm that does this is called a recursive algorithm. There is only one type of procedure: Algorithm. TYPES OF RECURSION: Linear Recursion A linear recursive function is a function that only makes a single call to itself each time the function runs (as opposed to one that would call itself multiple times during its execution). A conditional statement has the following forms: 13 If < condition > then <statement> If<condition> then <statement 1> else <statement 2> Here < condition > is a Boolean expression and <statement>. No format is used to specify the size of input or output quantities. An algorithm consists of a heading and a body. Palai . The factorial function is a good example of linear recursion.

the recursive call is the last thing the function does.r)). As such. Functions with two recursive calls are referred to as binary recursive functions. tail recursive functions can often be easily implemented in an iterative manner. } Binary Recursive Some recursive functions don't just have one call to themself. the same effect can generally be achieved. else return(my_sqrt(x. Palai . of two numbers: int gcd(int m. Often. the value of the recursive call is returned. they have two (or more). The mathematical combinations operation is a good example of a function that can quickly be Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.0) difference = -difference. } 14 Tail recursive Tail recursion is a form of linear recursion.0)). if (m < n) return gcd(n. by taking out the recursive call and replacing it with a loop.(a+x/a)/2. a good compiler can recognize tail recursion and convert it to iteration in order to optimize the performance of the code.m). else return(gcd(n.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) { double difference = a*x-x. In fact. or Greatest Common Denominator. A good example of a tail recursive function is a function to compute the GCD. In tail recursion. if (r == 0) return(n). if (difference < EPSILON) return(a). if (difference < 0. r = m%n. int n) { int r.

arr[j] = swap. A good example an exponentially recursive function is a function to compute all the permutations of a data set. printf("\n"). } Exponential recursion An exponential recursive function is one that. there would be O(an) function calls where a is a positive number). arr[i]). i+1). Let's write a function to take an array of n integers and print out every permutation of it. n. } } Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. often represented as nCk where we are choosing n elements out of a set of k elements. int i) { int j. print_array(arr.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 15 implemented as a binary recursive function. swap. print_permutations(arr. arr[i] = arr[j].k) + choose(n-1. int k) { if (k == 0 || n == k) return(1). int n) { int i. void print_array(int arr[]. for(j=i+1. can be implemented as follows: int choose(int n. } void print_permutations(int arr[]. i<n. arr[i] = arr[j]. else return(choose(n-1. swap = arr[i]. j<n. Palai . for(i=0.k-1)). arr[j] = swap. int n. j) { swap = arr[i]. The number of combinations. i) printf("%d ". would have an exponential number of calls in relation to the size of the data set (exponential meaning if there were n elements. n). if you were to draw out a representation of all the function calls.

int is_even(unsigned int n) { if (n==0) return 1. Palai . it requires indefinite iteration (recursion. } Mutual Recursion A recursive function doesn't necessarily need to call itself. else return(ackerman(m-1. "Ackerman's function.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 16 To run this function on an array arr of length n. A simple example of mutual recursion is a set of function to determine whether an integer is even or odd. n. A good example is the classic mathematical function. Nested Recursion In nested recursion. else return(is_odd(n-1)). else if (n == 0) return(ackerman(m-1. Some recursive functions work in pairs or even larger groups.1)).y) is extremely large) and it cannot be computed with only definite iteration (a completely defined for() loop for example). function A calls function B which calls function C which in turn calls function A.n-1))).ackerman(m. we'd do print_permutations(arr. It grows very quickly (even for small values of x and y. 0) where the 0 tells it to start at the beginning of the array. For example. for example). one of the arguments to the recursive function is the recursive function itself! These functions tend to grow extremely fast. Ackerman's function int ackerman(int m. } int is_odd(unsigned int n) { return (!iseven(n)). } Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. int n) { if (m == 0) return(n+1). Ackermann(x.

Although commonly sold today as a children‘s toy. observing the following rules: i) Only one disk at a time may be moved. 3. The object of the Towers of Hanoi problem is to specify the steps required to move the disks or. Move disk n from pole 1 to pole 3. The most common form of the problem has r = 1 and s = 3. ´Edouard Lucas. and then we use this solution to solve the problem for n disks. In addition. The Towers of Hanoi problem Solution The algorithm to solve this problem exemplifies the recursive paradigm. Move n − 1 disks (the imagined known solution) from pole 1 to pole 2. rings) from pole r (r = 1. it is often discussed in discrete mathematics or computer science books because it provides a simple example of recursion. as we will sometimes call them. 2. Thus to move n disks from pole 1 to pole 3. FIGURE . or 3) to pole s (s = 1. Use the same method as in Step 1 to move the n −1 disks now on pole 2 to Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. we would: 1. its analysis is straightforward and it has many variations of varying difficulty. the nth disk on pole 1 will never be in our way because any valid sequence of moves with only n −1 disks will still be valid if there is an nth (larger) disk always sitting at the bottom of pole 1 (why?). s _= r). We imagine that we know a solution for n − 1 disks (―reduce to a previous case‖). in 1883. 2. However we do this. 2. Palai . ii) At no time may a larger disk be on top of a smaller one. or 3.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 17 EXAMPLES OF RECURSIVE ALGORITHMS: The Towers of Hanoi The Towers of Hanoi puzzle (TOH) was first posed by a French professor.

r.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) pole 3. 18 Algorithm: Input num [Number of disks] Pinit [Initial pole. r. Divide and Conquer. Greedy Algorithm. Branch and Bound. 1 ≤ Pfin ≤ 3. 2. Divide and Conquer Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Dynamic Programming. Backtracking Algorithms. Palai . 1 ≤ Pinit ≤ 3] Pfin [Final pole. 3. 6−r−s. 5. Pinit. Pinit _= Pfin] Output The sequence of commands to the robot to move the disks from pole Pinit to pole Pfin Algorithm Hanoi procedure H(in n. 6. Now let us discuss each method briefly. 1. Randomized Algorithm. s) [Move n disks from pole r to pole s] if n = 1 then robot(r → s) else H(n−1. there are many ways to solve them. Pfin) [Main algorithm] ALGORITHM DESIGN TECHNIQUES For a given problem. 1. The different methods are listed below. 6−r−s) robot(r → s) H(n−1. s) endif endpro H(num. 4.

the search backtrack to the choice point.Dynamic Programming. It is a method of solving problems exhibiting the properties of overlapping sub problems and optimal sub-structure that takes much less time than other methods. random bits. Combine the solutions of the sub-problems into a solution of the whole original problem. 6. Greedy Algorithm does not always guarantee the optimal solution however it generally produces solutions that are very close in value to the optimal solution. Branch and Bound Algorithms are methods for global optimization in non-convex problems. A Randomized Algorithm is defined as an algorithm that is allowed to access a source of independent. 2. During the search if an alternative doesn‘t work. and it is then allowed to use these random bits to influence its computation. Divide the original problem into a set of sub-problems. Branch and Bound Algorithm can be slow. the place which presented different alternatives and tries the next alternative. b. unbiased. 4. 19 c. The result is a good solution but not necessarily the best one. a. If there are no more choice points the search fails. In Branch and Bound Algorithm a given Algorithm which cannot be bounded has to be divided into at least two new restricted sub-problems.Backtracking Algorithm. 3. Branch and Bound Algorithm.Randomized Algorithm. They try each possibility until they find the right one. Solve every sub-problem individually. Dynamic Programming is a technique for efficient solution. Greedy Approach Greedy algorithms seek to optimize a function by making choices which are the best locally but do not look at the global problem. recursively. It is a depth first search of a set of possible solution. 5. Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Divide and conquer method consists of three steps. however in the worst case they require efforts that grows exponentially with problem size. But in some cases the methods converge with much less effort. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

Thus before the step count of an algorithm can be determined. In this case the number of steps will be computed as a function of the magnitude of this input alone. Palai . the choice of characteristics was the number m of rows and the number n of columns in the matrices being added. A fixed part that is independent of the characteristics of the inputs and ouputs . For algorithm Add. The number of steps is itself a function of the instance characteristics. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. In this case the number of steps will be computed as a function of the number of inputs alone. 2. Althogh any specific instance may have several characteristics. This part typically includes the instruction space. In the case of sum. space for constants. space for simple variables and fixed-size component variables. A variable part that consists of the space needed by component variables whose size is dependent on the particular problem instance being solved. The space requirement s(p) of any algorithm p may thereore be written as s(p) =c+Sp. we chose to measure the time complexity as a function of the number n of elements being added. we might wish to know how the computing time increases as the number of inputs increase. the number of steps computed as a function of some subset of these. and RSum is a recursive algorithm that computes Ei n =1 a [i] The space needed by each of these algorithms is seen to be the sum of the following components: 1. the space needed by reference variables and he recursion stack space. These define the variables in the expression for the step count. where the a[i]‘s are real numbers. SPACE COMPLEXITY Algorithm abc computes a+b+b*c+(a+b-c)/(a+b)+4.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 20 ALGORITHMIC COMPLEXITY The time complexity of an algorithm is given by the number of steps taken by the algorithm to compute the function it was written for. For a different algorithm . we need to know which characteristics of the problem instance are to be used. Usually. Algorithm Sum computes Ei to n = 1 a[i] iteratively.0. we might be interested in determining how the computing time increases as the magnitude of one of the input increases. Where c is a constant.

the characteristics of these other programs and so on. Palai . cs . A propgram step is loosely defined as a syntactically or semantically meaningful segment of a program that has an execution time independent of the instance characteristics. division . stores and so on. cm.MUL.execution time depends on factors such as system load and number of other programs running on the computer at the time P is running. If we know the characteristics of the compiler to be used . and so on.0 of the program given below Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. The value of tp(n) for any n can be obtained only experimentally.SUB.The execution time is physically blocked.In a multi user system . subtractions. For example.consider the entire stataement return a+b+b*c+(a+b-c)/(a+b)+4. are functions whose values are the numbers of additions.and tp(n) obtained.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 21 TIME COMPLEXITY COMPLEXITY OF SIMPLE ALGORITHMS Time complexity of an algorithm is given by the number of steps taken by the algorithm to compute the function it was written for. divisions. respectively. subtractions.and so on. multiplications. So we have to concern with the run time of the program which is denoted by tp (instance characteristics). DIV. The time T(P) taken by a program P is the sum of compile time and run time.that would be made the code for P. and so on . The compile time does not depends the instance characteristics. and ca. divisions.we could proceed to determine the number of additions.compiled and run on a particular machine. and ADD. Where n denotes the instance characteristics. compares. So we could obtain an expression for tp (n) of the form tp(n)=ca ADD(n) + cs SUB(n) + cm MUL(n) + cd DIV(n)+…….that are performed when the code for P is used on an instance with characteristic n. denote the time needed for an addition. and so on. A compiled program will run several times without recompilation. multiplications. multiplication. subtraction. loads.The program is typed. cd.

we consider the step count only for the control part of the the statement.Remaining executions of the for statement have a step count of one.c) { return a+b+b*c+(a+b-c)/(a+b)+4.The step count for each execution of the controlpart of a for statement is one.an assignment statement which does not involve any calls to other algorithms is counted as one step.The number of steps any program statement is assigned depends on the kind of statement.in an iterative statement such as the for .and repeat until statements .Statement to increment count by appropriate amount are introduced into the program.while.This is done so that each time a statement in the original program is executed. We can determine the number of steps needed by a program to solve a particular program instance in one of the two ways.the first execution of the for has a step count equal to the sum of counts for (expr) and (expr1).0 } 22 The above line could be considered as a step since its execution time is independent of the the instance characteristics.unless the counts attributable to (expr) and (expr1) are the functions of the control part the instance characteristics.The control parts for for and while statements have the following forms: for i=(expr) to (expr1) do while(expr) do Each execution of the control part of a while statement is given by a step count equal to the number of step counts assignable to(expr).This is a global variable with initial value equals zero. In the latter case. Palai .b.For example comments count as zero steps.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Algorihm abc(a.count into the problem.count is incremented by the step count of that statement. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.and o on.In the first method we introduce a new variable.

Each new term is obtained by taking the sum of two previous terms.Line 9 gets executed n times .Line 8 has an s/e of 2. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.and in general fn=fn-1+fn-2.8..total step count for this case is 2.fnm1=fn.5. fnm2 =fnm1.21. n>=2 Algorithm Fibonacci(n) // Compute the nth Fibonacci number { if (n<=1) then Write(n).When n>1.fnm=1.1.55………….2.then f0=0.lines 4.If we call the first term of the sequence f0. Palai .13.f1=1.The remaining lines that get executed have s/e‘s of 1 The total steps for the case n>1 is therefore 4n+1.line 12 has an s/e of 2 and line 13 has s/e of 0.Since each line has an s/e of 1.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 23 EXAMPLE FOR TIIME COMPLEXITY CALCULATION Fibonacci series of numbers starts as 0.1. For I := 1 to n do { fn = fnm1+fnm2.and lines 11 and 12 get executed n-1 times each.34. 8 and 14 are each executed once.3. else { fnm2:=0.When n=0 or 1 lines 4and 5 get executed once each. } Write(fn) } } To analyze the complexity of this algorithm we need to consider two cases (1) n=0 or 1 and (2) n>1.

it is initially zero. } Simplified version of algorithm Algorithm Sum(a.//For the return Return s.count:=count+1.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Example 1 Sum of n numbers Algorithm with count statements added Algorithm sum(a. For i:=1 to n do { Count :=count + 1. Palai .//count is global. Count:= count+3.//For last time of for Count := count+1.0.n) { For i:=1 to n do count:= count+2.//For assignment } Count :=count+1.//For for S:= s+a[i]. n>=0 =2+2+tRSum(n-2) Example 2 :Complexity of Fibonacci series Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. 24 Count := count+1.} Complexity calculation tRSum(n)=2+tRSum(n-1) =2(2)+tRSum(n-2) : =n(2)+tRSum(0) =2n+2.n) { S:=0.

Line 8 has an s/e of 2. we need to consider the two cases (1) n=0 or 1 and(2) n>1.and line 13 has an s/e of 0. for i:=2 to n do { fn:= fnm1+fnm2.8 and 14 are each executed once. fnm2:=fnm1. the total step count for this case is 2. Since each line has an s/e of 1. lines 4. else { Fnm2:=0. The remaning lines that get executed have s/e of 1.When n>1. } Write (fn). Palai . Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. fnm1:= 1.fnm1:=fn.When n=0 or 1 . The total steps for the case n>1 is therefore 4n+1. Line 9 gets executed n times and lines 11 and 12 get executed n-1 times each. line 12 has an s/e of 2. lines 4 and 5 get executed once each.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Algorithm Fibonacci(n) //compute the nth Fibonacci number { If(n<=1) then Write (n). } } 25 To analyse the time complexity of this algorithm.

1 + 2 + . for all values of n >= 0. This quadratic behavior is the main term in the complexity formula. In order to choose the best algorithm for a particular task. generally. which equals (N + 1) * (N / 2) = (N2 + N) / 2 = (1 / 2)N2 + N / 2. Consider. + 1. then the algorithm with Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. in the worst case. + N. using idealized units of computational work.. and this is what is key for comparing algorithm costs.. And what difference does the constant factor of 1/2 make. it says. more accurately. Let f(n) be the cost.. The first scan would involve scanning 52 cards. so our scans would have to go all the way to the end. + N gets closer and closer to the pure quadratic function (1/2) N^2. at this level of abstraction. the best sorting algorithms run in sub-quadratic time. The asymptotic complexity of this algorithm is the square of the number of cards in the deck. for example. Now let us consider how we would go about comparing the complexity of two algorithms. e. If.) Asymptotically speaking. E. So the cost formula is 52 + 51 + . f(n) is less than or equal to g(n). in the limit as N tends towards infinity. and choose the better of the two. the next would take 51. f(10) and g(10) would be the maximum number of steps that the algorithms would take on a list of 10 items. and contains more details than are needed to understand the essential complexity of the algorithm. etc. then the work is roughly quadrupled.. if you double the size of the deck. the formula is 1 + 2 + . You don't need to know how many minutes and seconds they will take. you need to be able to judge how long a particular solution will take to run. for sorting algorithms.. Palai . expressed as a function of the input size n. Or. (This is in fact an expensive algorithm..Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 26 ASYMPTOTIC NOTATION Introduction A problem may have numerous algorithmic solutions. The exact formula for the cost is more complex.g. you need to be able to judge how long two solutions will take to run. With our deck of cards. the deck would start out reverse-sorted.. of one algorithm. the algorithm for sorting a deck of cards. But the N^2 term dominates the expression. which proceeds by repeatedly searching through the deck for the lowest card. Asymptotic complexity is a way of expressing the main component of the cost of an algorithm. So the behavior is said to be O(n2).g. and g(n) be the cost function for the other algorithm. letting N be the number of cards. in the worst case.. but you do need some way to compare algorithms against one another.

It's a measure of the longest amount of time it could possibly take for the algorithm to complete. f(n).. This is denoted as "f(n) = O(g(n))". etc. generally speaking. Note that we have been speaking about bounds on the performance of algorithms. if there exists an integer n0 and a constant c > 0 such that for all integers n > n0. and moreover not relevant to the essence of the algorithm. BIG-O NOTATION Definition Big-O is the formal method of expressing the upper bound of an algorithm's running time. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. But. More formally. f(n) ≤ cg(n). f(n) and g(n).Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 27 complexity function f is strictly faster. If graphed. then f(n) is Big O of g(n). We write f(n) = O(g(n)) if there are positive constants n0 and c such that to the right of n0. The actual number of steps required to sort our deck of cards (with our naive quadratic algorithm) will depend upon the order in which the cards begin. so the comparison of f(n) and g(n) for small values of n is less significant than the "long term" comparison of f(n) and g(n). It's all very complicated in the concrete details. for n larger than some threshold. O-Notation (Upper Bound) This notation gives an upper bound for a function to within a constant factor. g(n) serves as an upper bound to the curve you are analyzing. The actual time to perform each of our steps will depend upon our processor speed. Palai . the condition of our processor cache. rather than giving exact speeds. etc. the value of f(n) always lies on or below cg(n). for non-negative functions. our concern for computational cost is for the cases with large inputs.

This makes f(n) = 2n. so that 2n + 8 <= n2? The number 4 works here. looking at each item once. at some value of c. we can remove all constants from the runtime. f(n) is bound by g(n). cutting it in half repeatedly until there's only one item left. giving us 16 <= 16. let's take an example of Big-O. It could then be said that f(n) runs in O(n2) time: "f-of-n runs in Big-O of n-squared time". It could also be said that f(n) runs in O(n) time. we can say that f(n) is generally faster than g(n). For example. in this case. To find the upper bound . O(ln n): also "log n".Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 28 Theory Examples So. for convenience of comparison. Since we're trying to generalize this for large values of n. This makes f(n) = n. 3) aren't that important. they become irrelevant. 2. and comparing every item to every other item. Palai . Practical Examples O(n): printing a list of n items to the screen. and will always be less than it. For any number c greater than 4.the Big-O time . that is.assuming we know that f(n) is equal to (exactly) 2n + 8. the 2. and g(n) = n2. we remove constant multipliers. that lets us put a tighter (closer) upper bound onto the estimate. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. taking a list of items. we can take a few shortcuts. and small values (1. this will still work. Say that f(n) = 2n + 8. Also. O(n2): taking a list of n items. eventually. Can we find a constant c.

f(n) ≥ cg(n). this makes g(n) a lower bound function. This is denoted as "f(n) = Ω(g(n))". Generally. instead of an upper bound function. If you think of the amount of time and space your algorithm uses as a function of your data over time or space (time and space are usually analyzed separately). then f(n) is omega of g(n). the value of f(n) always lies on or above cg(n). There are space issues as well. It describes the best that can happen for a given data size. Asymptotic notation empowers you to make that trade off. Palai . Ω-Notation (Lower Bound) This notation gives a lower bound for a function to within a constant factor. except that "f(n) ≥ cg(n)". How asymptotic notation relates to analyzing complexity Temporal comparison is not the only issue in algorithms.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 29 BIG-OMEGA NOTATION For non-negative functions. f(n) and g(n). a trade off between time and space is noticed in algorithms. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. We write f(n) = Ω(g(n)) if there are positive constants n0 and c such that to the right of n0. if there exists an integer n0 and a constant c > 0 such that for all integers n > n0. This is almost the same definition as Big Oh. you can analyze how the time and space is handled when you introduce more data to your program.

n]) // First. for n elements. how can we use asymptotic notation to discuss the find-min function? If we search through an array with 87 elements. a trade off can be made for a function that does not behave well for large amounts of data. we use asymptotic notation as a convenient way to examine what can happen in a function in the worst case or in the best case. a[i]) repeat Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. a[i]) repeat return j end Regardless of how big or small the array is. we have to initialize the i and j integer variables and return j at the end. Therefore we say the function runs in time O(n).n]) let j := for i := 1 to n: j := min(j. A few examples of asymptotic notation Generally. every time we run find-min.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 30 This is important in data structures because you want a structure that behaves efficiently as you increase the amount of data it handles. find the smallest element in the array let j := . Therefore. we can just think of those parts of the function as constant and ignore them.. For example. for i := 1 to n: j := min(j. Keep in mind though that algorithms that are efficient with large amounts of data are not always simple and efficient for small amounts of data. if you want to write a function that searches through an array of numbers and returns the smallest one: function find-min(array a[1. So if you know you are working with only a small amount of data and you have concerns for speed and code space. Likewise. What about this function: function find-min-plus-max(array a[1. So. Palai .. the for loop iterates n times. then the for loop iterates 87 times. even if the very first element we hit turns out to be the minimum.

10n2+4n+2=theta(n2). 3n+3= theta(n). we can see that if g(x) = x. and n0 such that c1g(n) <=f(n)<=c2g(n) for all n. Because 2 is a constant. for i := 1 to n: j := max(j. and 6 * 2n +n2 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. we throw it away and write the running time as O(n). n>=n0. This rule is general for the various asymptotic notations. 3n+3 != theta(n2). 10n2+4n+2 !=theta(1). The theta notation is more precise than both the big oh and big omega notations.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) let minim := j 31 // Now. the function whose bound you're testing can be multiplied by some constant. add it to the smallest and j := . 6*2n +n2 !=theta(n100). 10n2+4n+2 !=theta(n). so c1=3. and 10* log n+4= theta (log n). find the biggest element. that each iterate n times. Thus O(2n) = O(n). The function f(n)=theta(g(n)) iff g(n) is both lower and upper bound of f(n). Example: The function 3n+2=theta(n) as 3n+2>=3n for all n>=2 and 3n+2<=4n for all n>=2. a[i]) repeat let maxim := j // return the sum of the two return minim + maxim.c2=4 and n0=2. If f(x) = 2x. 6*2n+n2 !=theta(n2).c2. Palai . end What's the running time for find-min-plus-max? There are two for loops. Why can you do this? If you recall the definition of Big-O notation. so the running time is clearly O(2n). 3n+2 !=theta(1). !=theta(1). THETA Definition: The function f(n)=theta(g(n))(read as ―f of n is theta of g of n‖) iff there exist positive constants c1.6*2n+n2=theta(2n). then the Big-O condition holds.

3n+2 !=o(n). 6*2n+n2 !=o(2n). 3n+2= o(n log log n). 6*2n+n2=o(3n). 6*2n+n2=o(2n log n). f(n)/g(n)=0 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 32 Little oh Definition: The function f(n)=0(g(n)) (read as ―f of n is little oh of g of n‖) iff Lim n->infinity Example: The function 3n+2=o(n2) since lim n->infinity (3n+2)/n2=0. 3n+2=o(n log n). Palai .

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 33 Little omega Definition: The function f(n)=w(g(n)) (read as ―f of n is little omega of g of n‖) iff Lim n->infinity Example: g(n)/f(n)=0 Algorithm Sum(a. Palai . Prove or disprove each of the following conjectures. So. for i=1 to n do s:=s+a[i]. Iterative function for sum For this algorithm Sum 2n+3. tSum(n)=theta(n) wec determined that tSum(n)= Asymptotic Notation Properties Let f(n) and g(n) be asymptotically positive functions.n) { S:=0. return s.0. } Alg 1. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

Reflexivity: f(n)= (f(n)). e. f(n)=O(g(n)) implies lg(f(n))=O(lg(g(n))). d. assume that f(n) and g(n) are asymptotically positive. f(n)+g(n)= (min(f(n). Transitivity: f(n)= (g(n)) and g(n)= (h(n)) imply f(n)= (h(n)). f(n)=O(g(n)) implies g(n)=O(f(n)).where lg(g(n))>=1 and f(n)>=1 for all sufficiently large n. Symmetry: f(n)= (g(n)) if and only if g(n)= (f(n)). f(n)=O(g(n)) and g(n)=O(h(n)) imply f(n)=O(h(n)). f(n)= (f(n/2)). f(n)=Ω(g(n)) and g(n)=Ω(h(n)) imply f(n)=Ω(h(n)). 34 c. b. f(n)=O(g(n)) implies g(n) and Ω(f(n)). f(n)=o(g(n)) and g(n)=o(h(n)) imply f(n)=o(h(n)). f(n)=Ω(f(n)). f(n)+o(f(n))= (f(n)). f(n)=O(g(n)) implies 2^f(n)=O(2^g(n)). h. f(n)=ω(g(n)) and g(n)=ω(h(n)) imply f(n)=ω(h(n)). f. f(n)=O((f(n))^2). f(n)=O(f(n)).g(n))). COMMON COMPLEXITY FUNCTIONS Comparison of functions Many of the relational properties of real numbers apply to asymptotic comparisons as well. Palai . For the following.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) a. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. g.

We say that f(n) is asymptotically smaller than g(n) if f(n)=o(g(n)). f(n)=o(g(n)) similar to a<b. for two functions f(n) and g(n). exactly one of the following must hold: a<b. or a>b.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Transpose symmetry f(n)=O(g(n)) if and only if g(n)=Ω(f(n)). f(n)=O(g(n)) if and only if g(n)=Ω(f(n)). f(n)= (g(n)) similar to a=b. since the value of the exponent in n^(1+sin n) oscillates between 0 and 2. That is. f(n)=ω(g(n)) similar to a>b. f(n)=Ω(g(n)) similar to a>=b. One property of real numbers. Palai . however. not all functions are asymptotically comparable. it may be the case that neither f(n)=O(g(n)) nor f(n)=Ω(g(n)) holds. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. one can draw an analogy between the asymptotic comparison of two functions f and g and the comparison of two real numbers a and b: f(n)=O(g(n)) similar to a<=b. Although any two real numbers can be compared. taking on all values in between. 35 Because these properties hold for asymptotic notations. a=b. the functions n and n^(1+sin n) cannot be compared using asymptotic notation. and f(n) is asymptotically larger than g(n) if f(n)=ω(g(n)). For example. does not carry over to asymptotic notations: Trichotomy: For any two real numbers a and b.

to obtain a function defined on natural numbers that satisfies the recurrence. some small n is ok). Palai . The main tool for analyzing the time efficiency of a recurrence algorithm is to setup a sum expressing the number executions of its basic operation and ascertain the solution‘s order of growth To solve a recurrence relation means . Ok. Let‘s solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + n using substitution – Guess T(n) ≤ cn log n for some constant c (that is. Assume holds for n/2: T(n/2) ≤ c n∕2 log n∕2 Prove that holds for n: T(n) ≤cn log n T(n)= 2T(n/2)+n Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Examble: tn = 2tn-1 T(n)= 3T(n/4)+(θn²) Different methods for solving recurrence relation are:Substitution method Itration method Changing variables method Recurrence tree Characteristic equation method n^α method Master theorem Solving recurrences by Substitution method Idea: Make a guess for the form of the solution and prove by induction.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 36 RECURRENCE RELATIONS The recurrence relation is an equation or inequality that describes a function in terms of its values of smaller inputs. Can be used to prove both upper bounds O() and lower bounds Ω(). since function constant for small constant n. T(n) = O(n log n)) – Proof: Base case: we need to show that our guess holds for some base case (not necessarily n = 1.

Palai . .In above recurrence the problem is divided in to ‗a‘ subproblems each of size atmost ‗n/b‘. Masters theorem The master method is used for solving the following type of recurrence T(n)=aT(n/b)+f(n). 37 Solving Recurrences with the Iteration In the iteration method we iteratively ―unfold‖ the recurrence until we ―see the pattern‖. The hard part of the substitution method is often to make a good guess.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) ≤ 2(c n/2 logn/2) + n = cn log n/2 +n =cn log n-cn log 2+ n =cn log n-cn + n So ok if c ≥ 1 Similarly it can be shown that T(n) =Ω (n log n) Similarly it can be shown that T(n) = T([n/2]) + T([n/2]) + n is θ(n lg n). Example: Solve T(n) = 8T(n/2) + n² (T(1) = 1) T(n) = n² + 8T(n/2) = n² + 8(8T( n/2² ) + (n/2)²) = n² + 8²T( n/2 ²) + 8(n²/4)) = n²+ 2n² + 8²T( n/2² ) = n² + 2n² + 8²(8T( n/2³ ) + ( n/2² )²) = n² + 2n² + 8³T( n/2³ ) + 8²(n²/4² )) = n² + 2n² + 2²n²+ 8³T( n/2³ ) =.. = n² + 2n² + 2²n²+ 2²n³ + .a 1 and b>1.The subproblems are solved recursively each in T(n/b) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. The iteration method does not require making a good guess like the substitution method (but it is often more involved than using induction). ..

The cost of split the problem or combine the solutions of subproblems is given by function f(n).log n) CASE 3: If f(n) € Ω( for some e>0 and f(n) € O( for some e then T(n) € (f(n)) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.It should be note that the number of leaves in the recursion tree is E= where THEOREM Let T(n) be defined on the non-negative integers by the recurrence T(n)=aT(n/b)+f(n) where a 1.then T(n)€ ( ) CASE 2: If f(n) € ( ) then T(n) € (f(n).Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 38 time.b>1 are constants and f(n) be a function. Palai . CASE 1: If f(n) O( for some e>0.Then T(n) can be asymtotically as.

log n) T(n) € Case 3 problem: 3. Palai ) ) Department of Computer Science & Engineering .T(n)=4T(n/2)+ a=4.T(n)=4T(n/2)+ a=4. T(n) € ( ) SJCET. b=2 f(n)= E=log 4/log 2=2 ( ) ( . T(n)=4T(n/2)+n E=log 4/log2=2 O( O( T(n) € =n ( ) Case 2 problem: 2.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 39 RECURRENCE PROBLEMS Case 1 problem: 1. b=2 f(n)= E=log 4/log 2=2 Ω( = Ω( = Ω( O( = O( = O( ) ) ) ).

Palai ..Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 40 RECURSION TREES FOR COMPLEXITY CALCULATIONS A different way to look at the iteration method: is the recursion-tree we draw out the recursion tree with cost of single call in each node—running time is sum of costs in all nodes if you are careful drawing the recursion tree and summing up the costs. just like iteration and substitution Example: T(n) = 8T(n/2) + n² (T(1) = 1) T(n)=n²+ 2n²+ 2²n²+ 2³n²+ ..+2^(log n-1) n²+8^(log n) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. the recursion tree is a direct proof for the solution of the recurrence...

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Changing variables

Sometimes reucurrences can be reduced to simpler ones by changing variables Example: Solve T(n) = 2T(√n) + log n Let m = log 2^m = n √n = 2^m/2 T(2^m) = 2T(2^m/2) + m

T(n) = 2T(√n) + log n )

Let S(m) = T(2^m) T(2^m) = 2T(2^m/2) + m ) S(m) = O(mlogm)) T(n) = T(2^m) = S(m) = O(mlogm) = O(log n log log n) S(m) = 2S(m/2) + m)

Other recurrences

Some important/typical bounds on recurrences not covered by master method: Logarithmic: θ(log n) – Recurrence: T(n) = 1 + T(n/2) – Typical example: Recurse on half the input (and throw half away) – Variations: T(n) = 1 + T(99n/100) Linear: θ(N) – Recurrence: T(n) = 1 + T(n − 1) – Typical example: Single loop – Variations: T(n) = 1+2T(n/2), T(n) = n+T(n/2), T(n) = T(n/5)+T(7n/10+6)+n Quadratic: θ(n2) – Recurrence: T(n) = n + T(n − 1) – Typical example: Nested loops Exponential: θ(2^n) – Recurrence: T(n) = 2T(n − 1)

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PROFILING

Profiling or performance measurement is the process of executing a correct program on data set and measuring the time and space it takes to compute the result.

NONDETERMINISTIC ALGORITHMS

The notation of algorithm that we have been using has the property that the result of every operation is uniquely defined.Algoithm with this property are termed deterministic algorithms. Such algorithms agree with the programs are executed on computer. In a theoretical framework we can remove this rustication on the outcomes of every operation. We can allow algorithms to be containing operations whose outcomes of every operation. We can allow algorithm to contain operations whose outcomes are not uniquely defined but are limited to specified set of possibilities. The machine executing such operations is allowed to choose any one of these outcomes subject to be a defined later. This leads to the concept of nondeterministic algorithms, we introduce three functions.

1. Choice (S) arbitrarily chooses one of the elements of element of set S.

2. Failure () signals an unsuccessful completion.

**3. Success () signals a successful completion.
**

The assignment statement x=Choice (1, n) could result in x being assigned any one of the integers in the range [1,n].there is the rule of specifying how this choice is to be made. The Failure () and Success () signals are used to define a computation of the algorithm. These statements cannot be used to effect a return. Whenever there is a set of choices that leads to a successful completion, then one such set of choices is always made and the algorithm terminates successfully. A nondeterministic algorithm terminates unsuccessfully if and only if there exists no set choices leading to a success signal. The computing times for. Choice, Failure, and Success are taken to be O(1).A machine capable of executing a non Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET, Palai

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nondeterministic algorithm in this way is called a nondeterministic machine. Although nondeterministic machines do not exist in practice, we see that they provide strong intuitive reasons to conclude that certain problems cannot be solved by fast deterministic algorithms. Example Consider the problem of searching for an element x in a given set of elements A[1:n],n>1.We are required to determine an index j such that A[j]=x or j=0 if x is not in A.

1. J:=Choice(1.n); 2. If A[j]=x then {write (j);Success();} 3. Write (0); Failure();

From the way a nondeterministic computation is defined, it follows that no is 0 can be the output if and only if there is no j such that A[j]=x. Complexity of nondeterministic search algorithms =O(1). Since A is not ordered, every deterministic algorithm is of complexity Ω (n).

**DETERMINISTIC ALGOITHM for n>p
**

The deterministic algorithm for a selection whose run time is O(n/p log log p+ log

n)The basic idea of this algorithm is same to sequential algorithm. The sequential algorithm partitions the input into groups(of size,says,5),finds the median of each group, and output recursively the median(call it M)of these group meadians.Then the rank rM of M in the input is computed, and as a result, all element from the input that are either ≤ M or >Mare dropped, depending on whether Respectively. Finally recursively. We showed that run time of this algorithm was O(n). i >rM or i ≤ rM,

an appropriate selection is performed from the remaining keys

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Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 44 MODULE 2 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

return combine(DandC(p1).the function S is invoked. Palai .p2. These subproblems must be solved.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 45 DIVIDE AND CONQUER Given a function to compute on n inputs the divide and conquer strategy suggests splitting the inputs into k distinct subsets.Below algorithmDAndC is initially invoked as DandC(p).p3-----p(k).and then a method must be found to combine subsolutions into a solution of whole.----. ALGORITHM Algorithm DAndC(p) { if small(p) then return s(p).If this is so. If the subproblems are still relatively large.DandC(p2).These subproblems P1.where p is the problem to be solved.yielding k subproblems.-----.The principle is natrually expressed using recursive algorithm. apply DandC to each of these subproblems. else { divide p into smaller instances p1.k>=1.DandC(pk)).that is smaller and smaller subproblems of the same kind are generated untill eventually subproblems that are small enough to be solved without splitting are produced.Otherwise the problem p is divided into smaller subproblems. } } Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.then the divide and conquer strategy can possibly reapplied.P2.1<k<n. CONTROL ABSTRACTION Control abstraction means a procedures whose flowof control is clear but whose primary operations are specified by other procedures whose precise meanings are left defined.Combine is a function that determines the solutions to P using the solutions to the k subproblems.Pkare solved by recursive applications of DandC. Small(p) is a boolean-valued function that determines whether the input size is small enough that the answer can be computed without splitting.

} } This is a straight forward algorithm to accomplish the above problem. average. If n=2. The number of element comparisons is (n-1). The maximum and minimum are a[i] if n=1. the problem can be solved by making one comparison. The best case occurs when the elements are in increasing order. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. The problem is to find the maximum and minimum items in a set of ‗n ‗elements. StraightMaxMin requires 2(n-1) element comparisons in the best.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) FINDING THE MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM 46 This is a simple problem that can be solved by the divide and-conquer technique. a[i] is greater than max. { max:=min:=a[1]. min) //Set ‗max’ to the maximum and ‗min‘ to the minimum of a[1:n]. and so the average number of comparisons is 3n/2-1. On the average. The average number of element comparisons is less than 2(n-1). ALGORITHM-1 Algorithm StraightMaxMin (a. n. and worst cases. The frequency count for other operations in this algorithm is of the same order as that for element comparisons. In this case. if a[i]<min) then min:= a[i]. the number of element comparisons is 2(n-1). max. In analyzing the time complexity of this algorithm. half the time. Palai . The worst case occurs when the elements are in the decreasing order. we concentrate on the number of element comparisons. for i:=2 to n do { if (a[i]>max) then max:= a[i].

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) ALGORITHM-2 Algorithm MaxMin ( i, j, max, min )

47

//a[1:n] is a global array. Parameters I and j are integers, 1<=i<=j<=n. The effect is to set //max and min to the largest and smallest values in a [i : j] ,respectively. { if (i=j) then max :=min :=a[i]; // Small(p) else if (i=j-1) then //Another case of Small(p) { if( a[i] < a[j]) then { max:=a[j]; min:=a[i]; } else { max:=a[i]; min:=a[j]; } } else { // If P is not small, divide P into subproblems. Find where to split // mid := [(i+j)/2]; // Solve the subproblems. MaxMin ( i, mid, max, min ) MaxMin ( mid+1, j, max, min) if (max<max1)then max:=max1; if (min>min1)then min:=min1; } } MaxMin is a recursive algorithm that finds the maximum and minimum of the set of elements {a(i),a(i+1),…………….a(j)}.The situation of set sizes one (i=j) and two (i=j-1) are handled separately. For sets containing more than two elements, the midpoint is determined (just as in binary search) and two new subproblems are generated. When the maxima and minima of these subproblems are generated, the two maxima are compared and the two minima are compared to achieve the solution for the entire set.

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Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Eg:- Suppose we simulate MaxMin on the following nine elements: a: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] 22 13 -5 -8 15 60 17 31 47

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A good way of keeping track of recursive calls is to build a tree by adding a node each time anew call is made. For this algorithm each node has four items of

information: i, j, max, and min. On the array a[] above, the tree is produced. Trees of recursive calls of MaxMin

1, 9,60,-8

1, 5, 22, -8

6,9,60,17

1, 3, 22, -5

4, 5, 15,-8

6,7,60,17

8, 9, 47, 31

1,2,22,13

3,3,-5,-5

We see that the root node contains 1 and 9 as the values of i and j corresponding to the initial call to MaxMin. This execution produces new call to MaxMin where i and j have the values 1 ,5 and 6,9, respectively, and thus split the set into two subsets of approximately the same size. From the tree, we can immediately see that the maximum depth of recursion is four(including the first call). The order in which max and min are assigned values are follows: [1,2,22,13] [3,3,-5,-5] [1,3,22,-5] [4,5,15,-8] [1,5,22,-8] [6,7,60,17] [8,9,47,31] [6,9,60,17] [1,9,60,-8]. Number of element comparisons needed for MaxMin: If T(n) represents the number of element comparisons needed, then the resulting recurrence relation is:

T ([n/2]) + T ([n/2]) +2 T (n) = 1 0

n>2 n=2 n=1 SJCET, Palai

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**Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) When n is a power of 2, n=2k we can solve this equation by successive substitutions: T(n) = 2T(n/2)+2 = 2(2T(n/4)+2) +2 = 4T(n/4)+ 4 + 2 . . = 2k-1T(2) +∑ 1< = i < = = 2k-1 + 2k -2 = 3n/2 - 2
**

k-1 2 i

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When n is a power of 2, the number of comparisons in the best , average and worst case is 3n/2-2. COMPLEXITY ANALYSIS OF FINDING MAXIMUM&MINIMUM Consider the following nine elements to simulate MaxMin 22 13 -5 -8 15 60 17 31 47

Fig below shows the tree constructed for the algorithm. Each node has four items of information: i, j, max and min. 9

1, 9, 60,-8

5

1, 5, 22,-8

8

6, 9, 60,17

3

1, 3, 22,-5

4, 5, 15,-8 4

6, 7, 60,17 6

1, 9, 60,-8 7

1, 2, 22, 13

3, 3, -5,-5

1

2

Consider the total number of element comparison needed for MaxMin? If T(n) represents this number, then the resulting recurrence relation is T (┌ n/2 ┐) + T(┌ n/2 ┐) + 2 T (n)= 1 0 n>2 n=2 n=1

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average case and worst case complexity is θ(n) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. then T(n) = 2T( n/2 ) + 2 = 2(2T (n/4) +2) +2 = 4T (n/4) +4+2 : : = 2k-1T (2) +∑1<=i<=k-1 2i = 2k-1+2k-2 =3n/2-2 50 Therefore 3n/2 is the best. then divide and conquer method is more efficient In both cases mentioned above the best case. average and worst case number of comparisons when n is a power of two. Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) When n is a power of 2. Consider the count when element comparisons have the same cost as comparisons between i and j. n=2k for some positive integer k. Let C (n) be this number. Assuming n=2k for some positive integer k. we get C(n) = 2C(n/2) + 3 n>2 2 n=2 C (n) = 2C (n/2) + 3 =4 C (n/4) + 6 + 3 : : =2k-1C (2)+3∑0k-2 2i =2k+3*2k-1-3 =5n/2-3 if comparisons between array elements are costlier than comparisons of integer variable.

Consider the following recurrence relation. T (n) =3T (n/4)+ θ(n2) = 3T (n/4) + cn2 cn2 c(n/4)2 c(n/4)2 c(n/4)2 : T(n/16) T(n/16) T(n/16) 2 2 2 T(n/16) T(n/16) T(n/16) : : : : : : T(1) : : : : : T(1) : : : : : : T(1) c(n/16) c(n/16) : c(n/16) : : : : : : : T(1) T(n/16) T(n/16) T(n/16) : T(1) : T(1) : : : T(1) T(1) T(1) Sub problem size at depth i=n/4i Boundary condition (n=1) :=(n/4i)=1 ie i=log4n Depth of the tree=log4n+1 (0.………logn) Cost of each node at level i=c(n/4)i No: of node at level log4n=3log4n Cost of each node=3log4n. 2. Palai .T(1)=θ(3log4n)=θ(nlog43) Total cost=cn2+3/16cn2+ (3/16)2cn2+ (3/16)log4n-1cn2 = (3/16)I cn2+ θ(nlog43)+ θ(nlog43) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. 1.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 51 RECURSION TREE DEFINITION: A recursion tree is a tree that depicts the entire recursion process.

while ( first <= last ) { mid = (first + last) / 2.1.length( ) -1. else -1 { int mid. Palai . if ( list[mid] == target ) return mid. int target. int first = 0. int last) // pre: list is sorted in ascending order //post: RECURSIVE binary search will return the index of the target element. else -1 first = mid + 1. int first. int last = list.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) = (3/16)I cn2+ θ(nlog43) = 1/(1-3/16)cn2+ θ(nlog43) = 16/13cn2+ θ (nlog43) = O (n2) 52 BINARY SEARCH ALGORITHMS The Binary search requires an ordered list. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. else } return -1. } Recursive Algorithm int find (const list. if ( list[mid] > target ) last = mid . int target) // pre: list is sorted in ascending order //post: ITERATIVE binary search will return the index of the target element. Iterative Algorithm int find (const list.

A binary search tree can be created to explain the binary search where the mid value of each node is the value of the node. last). return find(list. mid and x. target. target. high. if n=14. mid-1). storage is required for the n elements of the array plus the variables low. } Complexity Analysis of Binary Search For binary search.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) { if (first > last) return -1. For example. 53 int mid = (first + last) / 2. Palai . mid+1. the resultant tree will be like the one shown below. if (list[mid] == target) return mid. first. 7 3 11 1 5 9 13 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. if (list[mid] < target) return find(list.

2k). then the next comparison is with a[3]. As (n) =1+I/n The number of comparisons on any path from the root to an external node is equal to the distance between the root and the external node. Let As (n) is the average number of comparison in a successful search and Au (n) is the average number of comparison in an unsuccessful search. If x is present. then the next comparison is with a[11]. Au (n) + Au (n))/n -1 = Au (n) + Au (n)/n -1 As (n) = Au (n) (1 +1/n) -1 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. The number of comparison to find an element represented by an internal node is one more than the distance of this node from the root. similarly. Since every binary tree with n internal nodes has n+1 external nodes Au (n) =E/ (n+1) As (n) =I/n+1 = (E-2n/n) + 1 =E/n-1 = (Au (n). E=I+2n Where E=External path length (sum of the distance of all external nodes from the root) I=Internal path length (sum of the distance of all internal nodes from the root). In other words the time for a successful search is O (log n) and for an unsuccessful search is ϴ (log n). then binary search makes at most k element comparison for a successful search and either k-1 or k comparison for an unsuccessful search. Theorem: If n is in the range [2k-1. if x>a[7].if x<a[7]. If x is not present the algorithm will terminate at one of the square nodes.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 54 The first comparison is s with a[7]. then the algorithm will end at one of the circular nodes tat lists the index into the array where x was found. Palai . (n+1))/n -1 = (n.

ϴ (log n) DIVIDE-AND-CONQUER MATRIX MULTIPLICATION ALGORITHM The product of two n x n matrices X and Y is a third . and each takes linear time. with (i. and also Y: A B C D . Strassen announced a signi_cantly more ef_cient algorithm. n x n matrix Z=XY . matrix multiplication is not commutative. Average and Worst. For quite a while. XY= A B E F = AE+BG AF+BH Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. To see what this means. carve X into four n/2 x n/2 blocks. not the same as YX. based upon divide-and-conquer. Matrix multiplication is particularly easy to break into subproblems. because it can be performed blockwise.j)th entry n Zij=∑Xik Ykj k=1 In general XY.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Successful searches Best-ϴ (1) (only one element is compared) Average. The formula above implies an O (n3) algorithm for matrix multiplication: there are n2 entries to be computed.ϴ (log n) 55 Unsuccessful searches Best. and is exactly as if the blocks were single elements. Palai . and it was even proved that no algorithm which used just additions and multiplications could do better. It was therefore a source of great excitement when in 1969. E F X= Y= G H Then their product can be expressed in terms of these blocks. this was widely believed to be the best running time possible.ϴ (log n) Worst.

and as with integer multiplication.DG.AF.CE.81).Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) C D G H CE+DG CF+DH 56 We now have a divide-and-conquer strategy: to compute the size-n. which comes out to O(n3).C) (E + F) XY = P +P – P +P 5 4 2 6 P +P 3 4 P +P 1 2 P +P – P – P 1 5 3 7 This translates into a running time of T(n)= 7T(n/2) + O(n2). the same as for the default algorithm. it relies upon algebraic tricks. P1 = A(F – H) P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 = = = = = = (A + B)H (C + D)E D(G – E) (A + D) (E + H) (B .BH.D) (G + H) (A . However. recursively compute eight size-n/2 products AE. The total running time is described by the recurrence relation T(n)= 8T(n/2) + O(n2).BG. product XY. which by the result is O(nlog2 7 )≈ O(n2. Palai .CF. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. an improvement in the time bound is possible. It turns out that XY can be computed from just seven sub problems.DH and then do a few O(n2) time additions.

We partition A. Combine the solutions for S1. …. The base case for the recursion are subproblems of constant size. We want to calculate the matrix product C as If the matrices A.Divide matrices in sub-matrices and recursively multiply sub-matrices Let A. We define new matrices Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. B be two square matrices over a ring R. Now comes the important part. We still need 8 multiplications to calculate the Ci. B are not of type 2n x 2n we fill the missing rows and columns with zeros.j matrices. This reduce can be done by Divide and Conquer Approach.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 57 STRESSEN’S MATRIX MULTIPLICATION Strassen showed that 2x2 matrix multiplication can be accomplished in 7 multiplication and 18 additions or subtractions. S2.Divide the input data S in two or more disjoint subsets S1.Analysis can be done using recurrence equations. S2. the same number of multiplications we need when using standard matrix multiplication. Solve the subproblems recursively. B and C into equally sized block matrices with then With this construction we have not reduced the number of multiplications. into a solution for S. Palai .

It has been estimated that Strassen's algorithm is faster for matrices with widths from 32 to 128 for optimized implementations and 60. Numerical analysis The standard matrix multiplications takes approximately 2n3 arithmetic operations (additions and multiplications). for which they are more efficient.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 58 which are then used to express the Ci.j in terms of Mk. Because of our definition of the Mk we can eliminate one matrix multiplication and reduce the number of multiplications to 7 (one multiplication for each Mk) and express the Ci.j as We iterate this division process n-times until the submatrices degenerate into numbers (group elements). Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Practical implementations of Strassen's algorithm switch to standard methods of matrix multiplication for small enough submatrices. the asymptotic complexity is O(n3).000 or more for basic implementations. The particular crossover point for which Strassen's algorithm is more efficient depends on the specific implementation and hardware. Palai .

int *B. Palai . n/4).e. for some constant l that depends on the number of additions performed at each application of the algorithm. Then by recursive application of the Strassen algorithm. we see that f(k) = 7f(k − 1) + l4k. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. j k 1 ai . int *R. j N N N Thus T ( N ) i 1 j 1 k 1 c cN 3 O( N 3 ) The number of additions and multiplications required in the Strassen algorithm can be calculated as follows: let f(k) be the number of operations for a matrix.k bk .. Algorithm void matmul(int *A. } else { matmul(A.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) N 59 Ci . The reduction in the number of arithmetic operations however comes at the price of a somewhat reduced numerical stability. int n) { if (n == 1) { (*R) += (*A) * (*B). Hence f(k) = (7 + o(1))k. B. R. i. the asymptotic complexity for multiplying matrices of size n = 2k using the Strassen algorithm is .

matmul(A+3*(n/4). B+3*(n/4). n/4). n/4). R+(n/4). R+2*(n/4). B. B+(n/4).Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) matmul(A. R. n/4). R+(n/4). B+2*(n/4). B+2*(n/4). n/4). R+3*(n/4). R+3*(n/4). matmul(A+2*(n/4). n/4). matmul(A+2*(n/4). Palai . R+2*(n/4). n/4). B+3*(n/4). } } 60 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. matmul(A+(n/4). matmul(A+3*(n/4). B+(n/4). matmul(A+(n/4). n/4).

a[2:2].a[8:8].a[10:10] Pictorially the file can now be viewed as (310|285|179|652. Split them into two sets like a[1].. Consider the following example: Consider the array of ten elements a [1:10] = (310.423..a[n].a[5:5].it is already sorted.310|179|652.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 61 MERGE SORT Merge sort is an example of divide and conquer algorithm.254.351.a[4:4]. Palai .a[6:6].520) The merge sort algorithm first divides the array as follows a[1:5] and a[6:10] and then a[1:3] and a[4:5] and a[6:8] and a[9:10] and then into a[1:2] and a[3:3] and a[6:7] and a[8:8] and finally it will look like a[1:1]. 2.a[n/2] and a[(n/2)+1]..254.285.179. Conquer Step: Combine the elements back in A by merging the sorted arrays A1 and A2 into a sorted sequence.254.652. Divide Step: If given array A has zero or one element.861. Its worst case complexity is O(nlog n).861. each containing about half of the elements of A. Merge-sort is based on the divide-and-conquer paradigm. divide A into two arrays.520) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. and the resulting sorted sequences are merged to produce a single sorted sequence of n elements. Each set is individually sorted.520) Elements a[1] and a[2] are merged as (285.450....a[9:9].a[2].351|423. Assume a sequence of n elements a[1]. 3.a[2].450.450.a[7:7]. The Merge-sort algorithm can be described in general terms as consisting of the following three steps: 1. To understand merge sort assume that elements are arranged in the non decreasing order..a[n].351|423.861. Recursion Step: Recursively sort array A1 and A2.. Otherwise.a[3:3].

285.285.861) At this point there are two sorted subarrays and final merge produces the fully sorted result 62 1.652|423.254. 5 6.423. 2 3. 7 8.450.351|423. 5 6. then the computing time for merge sort is described by the recurrence relation a n= 1a a constant SJCET. 10 1.423.520. 3 4. 8 9.520) next a[4] and a[5] (179. 10 1.254. 450. 351.861.520)and then a[1:3] and a[4:5] (179. 310 |351. 310 |652.520.520) Repeated recursive calls are invoked producing the following array (179. 310. 8 9.861.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) And then a[3] is merged with a[1:2] (179.652|254.652|423.285.254.285.351.351. 1 2. 6 7. 2 6.861) and finally (179.450.861. 4 5. Palai Department of Computer Science & Engineering .310. 10 1.285.450. 7 If the time for the merging operation is proportional to n.254. 450. 10 1.652. 310 . 5 6. 3 4. 9 10.

. Algorithm MergeSort(low. //In this case the list is already sorted.high) //a[low:high] is a global array to be sorted. //Small(P) is true if there is only one element to sort.n) causes the keys to be rearranged into nondecreasing order in a. c a constant 63 When n is a power of 2. then T(n)<=T(2k+1). Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. { if(low<high) then // If there are more than one element. n=2k we can solve this equation by successive substitutions: T(n) = 2(2T(n4)+cn/2)+cn = 4T(n/4)+2cn = 4(2T(n/8)+cn/4) + 2cn . = 2kT(1) + kcn = an+cn log n It is easy to see that if 2k < n <2k+1. { //Divide P into subproblems. 24 MergeSort describes the process very succinctly using recursion and a function Merge which merges two sorted sets. Before executing MergeSort . the n elements should be placed in a[1:n].Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) T(n)= 2T(n/2)+cn n>1. Then MergeSort (1. Palai . Therefore T(n)=O (nlogn).

i:=low. Merge(low.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) //Find where to split the set . } } Algorithm Merge(low.high). { h:=low. while ((h ≤ mid) and (j ≥ high)) do { if (a[h] ≤ a[j]) then { b[i]:=a[h].mid. j:=mid+1. mid:=[(low+high)/2].The goal is to merge these two // sets into single set residing in a[low:high].mid.high). //Combine the solutions. //Solve the subproblems.b[] is an auxiliary global //array. MergeSort(mid+1. } else Department of Computer Science & Engineering 64 SJCET. MergeSort(low. h:=h+1. Palai .high) //a[low:high] is a global array containing two sorted subsets in //a[low:mid] and in a[mid+1:high].high).

} 65 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. } for k:=low to high do a[k]:=b[k]. } else for k:=h to mid do { b[i]:=a[k]. } i:=i+1. } if(h>mid) then for k:=j to high do { b[i]:=a[k]. i:=i+1. j:=j+1. Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) { b[i]:=a[j]. i:=i+1.

MergeSort describes this process using recursion and a function Merge which merges two sorted sets.. 861 .285. Palai . 310 . Pictorially the file can be viewed as ( 310 | 285 | 179 | 652 .. Given a sequence of n elements a[1].. 450 . the general idea is to imagine them to split into two sets a[1].. 861 . 310 | 179 | 652 . The two values in a[1:2] are split final time into one-element subarrays . 861 . 652 | 423 . 285 .. 520 ) And then a[1:3] and a[4:5]: ( 179 . Example: Consider an array of ten elements a[1:10] = (310. Algorithm MergeSort begins by splitting a[] into two subarrays each of size five (a[1:5] and a[6:10]). 310 | 652 .a[n].179.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 66 COMPLEXITY ANALYSIS OF MERGE SORT Merge sort is an ideal example of the divide and conquer strategy in which the given set of elements is split into two equal-sized sets and the combining operation is the merging of two sorted sets into one.861. 520 ) is produced. 351 | 423 . and now the merging begins.. 450 . 254 .a[n]. 520 ) where vertical bars indicate the boundaries of subarrays. 254 .254. 520 ) Then a[3] is merged with a[1:2] and ( 179 . 861 . 254 .Each set is individually sorted and the resulting sorted sequences are merged to produce a single sorted sequence of n elements. 861 . 285 . 520 ) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. 310 | 351 . 450 .. 254 .. The elements in a[1:5] are then split into two subarrays of size three (a[1:3]) and two (a[4:5]).520). 450 . Next elements a[4] and a[5] are merged: ( 179 .a[n/2] and a[n/2+1]... 652 | 423 . 285 .450.. 351 .351. 450 . 351 | 423 .423.. Then the items in a[1:3] are split into subarrays of size two (a[1:2]) and one (a[3:3]). 254 .652. A record of the subarrays is implicitly maintained by the recursive mechanism. 351 | 423 . Elements a[1] and a[2] are merged to yield ( 285 .

1) is a tree that represents the sequence of recursive calls that are produced by MergeSort when it is applied to ten elements. 351 . 652 | 423 | 861 | 254 | 450 . 351 . 285 . 520 . 285 . Repeated recursive calls are invoked producing the following subarrays: ( 179 . Palai . 310 . 423 . 520 ) Next a[9] and a[10] are merged and then a[6:8] and a[9:10]: ( 179 . 520 . 254 . 423 . Then a[8] is merged with a[6:7]: ( 179 . 652 . Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. 310 . 310 . 285 .2) is a tree representing the calls to produce Merge by MergeSort. 861 ) Figure (1. 450 . For example. 310 . 861 ) At this point there are two sorted subarrays and the final merge produces the fully sorted result ( 179 . 423 . 652 | 254 . 450 . the node containing 1 .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 67 At this point the algorithm has returned to the first invocation of MergeSort and is about to process the second recursive call. 285 . 520 ) Elements a[6] and a[7] are merged. 351 . The splitting continues until the sets containing a single element are produced. The pair of values in each node are the values of parameters low and high. 351 . 861 | 450 . Figure (1. 2 and 3 represents the merging of a[1:2] with a[3]. 652 | 254 .

7 1.6.10 1.1 ) 6.3 1.3 4.1.1 2.9 9.5 6.4.8.2.8 6.8 9.10 Tree of calls of MergeSort(1.10 10.8 9.10 1.10 1.7 8.7 7.4 4.5 6.10 1. Palai .2 1.5.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 68 1.5 6.7.2 3.9.10 1.10) ( Fig 1.5 6.3 4.6 Tree of calls of Merge ( Fig 1.3.2 6.2 ) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.5 5.

c a constant When n is a power of 2. n = 2^k. = 2^kT(1) + kcn = an + cn logn It is easy to see that if 2^k < n < 2^(k+1) . Palai . then T(n) < T(2^k+1). . then the computing time for merge sort is described by the recurrence relation T(n) = { a { 2T(n/2) + cn n=1 . a a constant n>1 . T(n) = O(n logn) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. . we can solve this equation by successive substitutions: T(n) = 2(2T(n/4)+ cn/2) +cn = 4T(n/4) + 2cn = 4(2T(n/8) + cn/4) + 2cn .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 69 If the time for the merging operation is proportional to n.

Figure 1: Quicksort(n) The first step of the partition procedure is choosing a comparison element x. It works recursively by a divide-and-conquer strategy. All elements of the sequence that are less than x are placed in the first part. Then the two parts are sorted separately by recursive application of the same procedure (conquer). such that all elements of the first part b are less than or equal to all elements of the second part c (divide). all elements greater than x are placed in the second part. In the following algorithm it may also happen that an element equal to x remains between the two parts. For elements equal to x it does not matter into which part they come. Palai . Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. the sequence to be sorted a is partitioned into two parts.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 70 QUICK SORT Quicksort is one of the fastest and simplest sorting algorithms . Recombination of the two parts yields the sorted sequence (combine). Figure 1 illustrates this approach. Idea First.

while (a[j]>x) j--.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 71 After partitioning the sequence. In order to sort n elements. } Analysis The best-case behavior of the quicksort algorithm occurs when in each recursion step the partitioning produces two parts of equal length. if (i<=j) { h=a[i]. hi is the upper index // of the region of array a that is to be sorted int i=lo. int lo. h. a[i]=a[j]. j). // recursion if (lo<j) quicksort(a. // partition do { while (a[i]<x) i++. Program The following Java program implements quicksort. i++. void quicksort (int[] a. if (i<hi) quicksort(a. hi). Palai . j--. j=hi. } } while (i<=j). quicksort treats the two parts recursively by the same procedure. a[j]=h. in this case the Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. The recursion ends whenever a part consists of one element only. int hi) { // lo is the lower index. lo. i. int x=a[(lo+hi)/2].

Then the optimal partition is achieved. But on the average. It is possible to obtain a worst case complexity of O(n log(n)) with a variant of quicksort (by choosing the median as comparison element). Then the recursion depth is n-1 and quicksort runs in time Θ(n2). e. The worst case occurs when in each recursion step an unbalanced partitioning is produced. In the average case a partitioning as shown in Figure 2 b is to be expected. This would lead to the worst case behavior of the algorithm when the sequence is initially sorted. However. the beauty of quicksort lies in its simplicity. And it turns out that even in its simple form quicksort runs in O(n log(n)) on the average. these algorithms are by a constant factor slower than quicksort. it is better to choose the element in the middle of the sequence as comparison element. But this algorithm is on the average and in the Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Actually. the constant hidden in the Onotation is small. However. This variant of quicksort would run in time O(n log(n)) even in the worst case. namely in Θ(n2). Palai . Even better would it be to take the n/2-th greatest element of the sequence (the median). we trade this for the (rare) worst case behavior of Θ(n2). namely that one part consists of only one element and the other part consists of the rest of the elements (Figure 2 c). This is because the recursion depth is log(n) and on each level there are n elements to be treated (Figure 2 a). in the (very rare) worst case quicksort is as slow as Bubblesort.g. There are sorting algorithms with a time complexity of O(n log(n)) even in the worst case. Therefore. Moreover. The choice of the comparison element x determines which partition is achieved. Heapsort and Mergesort. Suppose that the first element of the sequence is chosen as comparison element. Proposition: The time complexity of quicksort is in Θ(n log(n)) Θ(n2) In the average case and in In the worst case Conclusions Quicksort turns out to be the fastest sorting algorithm in practice.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 72 running time is in Θ(n log(n)). it is possible to compute the median in linear time [AHU 74]. It has a time complexity of Θ(n log(n)) on the average. Therefore.

The selected element is called the "pivot element" because the other elements. The interesting part of the quick sort is how it comes up with the sub arrays. using a few figures of speech. I will illustrate. for example. I believe I've come upon a better way of explaining the algorithm. We might. like this: 04 06 13 15 25 27 33 34 36 51 58 64 69 73 74 75 78 95 The general approach of the quick sort is to select an element from the middle (or from close to the middle) of an array and then put all other elements which are less than or equal to the selected element to its left and all elements which are greater than the selected element to its right. want to take this collection of numbers: 06 34 69 33 75 64 04 74 25 95 15 58 78 36 51 73 13 27 and put them into numerical order. for example. The point of any sort routine is to take an array of objects and arrange the objects in some kind of sequence. we start with the original array above and use "25" as the pivot element. Kernighan and Dennis M.A. with the smallest number first. Hoare in 1962. leaves a hole in the array: Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. I found the K&R code a bit hard to follow. This. Second Edition" by Brian W. Of course. our first sorting yields: [ 04 06 15 13 ] 25 [ 64 34 74 69 95 33 58 78 36 51 73 75 27 ] The next step is for quicksort to call itself to have the left and right sub-arrays sorted.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 73 worst case by a constant factor slower than Heapsort or Mergesort. figuratively speaking.R. turn around it. The quicksort algorithm was invented by C. Palai . a "sub array" with zero elements or only one element is already in proper order and does not need to be sorted. Ritchie (page 87). This crude "sorting" around the pivot element yields two sub-arrays: a left one and a right one. figuratively speaking. it is not interesting in practice. therefore. If. take out the element in (or close to) the middle of the array for a pivot element. I learned about it from "The C Programming Language. From our original array.

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 06 34 69 33 75 64 04 74 __ 95 15 58 78 36 51 73 13 27 74 p.e. If it is less than or equal to the pivot element. If it is greater than the pivot element.e. we do nothing. = 25 Now we get to work. Palai .e. The first element of our sample array that needs to be moved is "04": +-----------------+ | V | | 04 34 69 33 75 64 __ 74 06 95 15 58 78 36 51 73 13 27 +--------------+ | | | V 04 _ 69 33 75 64 34 74 06 95 15 58 78 36 51 73 13 27 p. then we want to put the element in the hole and then re-establish the hole immediately to the right of the moved element. = 25 Now "move the hole" to the first position in the array by moving the current occupant of that position into the current hole's position: __ 34 69 33 75 64 04 74 06 95 15 58 78 36 51 73 13 27 p. We start with the first element to the right of the hole.e. = 25 At the end of the process. = 25 After we similarly process "06" we will have: 04 06 __ 33 75 64 34 74 69 95 15 58 78 36 51 73 13 27 p. we have: Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

Set a[p]=.m. all elements to the left of the hole are less than the pivot element. we sort the left sub-array then the right sub-array. a[m+1]. until(a[j]<=v). = 25 As you can see.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 75 04 06 15 13 __ 64 34 74 69 95 33 58 78 36 51 73 75 27 p. { v :=a[m]. Palai .a[k]<=t form<=k<q. then after completion a[q] =t for //some q between m and p-1. Algorithm partition (a. and a[k]>=t for //q<k<p.p) //Within a[m]. repeat { repeat I:=i+1. To finish up. until ( a[i]>=v). repeat j:=j-1. I :=m.a[p-1]the elements are rearranged in such //a manner that if initially t=a[m]. q is returned. j :=p. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.e.…. all elements to the right of the hole are greater than the pivot element. then we stuff the pivot element back into the hole and we are done.

i. { p :=a[i]. other choices for the partitioning element than the first item in the set are better in practice. i. }until(i>=j). a[j]:=v. This is accomplished by rearranging the elements in a[1:n] such that a[i]<=a[j] for all I between 1 and m and all j between m+1 and n for some m.1<=m<=n. No merge is needed. then a[n+1] must be defined and must be greater than or equal to all elements in a[1:n]. Palai .j) // exchange a[i] with a[j].i. The function Interchange (a. Thus the elements in a[1:m] and a[m+1:n] can be independently sorted. the division into sub arrays is made so that the sorted sub arrays do not need to be merged later.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) if(i<j) then interchange (a. } Algorithm interchange (a. The rearrangement of the element is accomplished by picking some element of a[].j). } 76 In quick sort. a[m]:=a[j].and then reordering the other elements so that all elements appearing before t in a[1:n] are less than or equal to t and all elements appearing after t are greater than or equal to t. The assumption that a[m] is the partition element is merely for convenience.It is assumed that a[p]>=a[m] and that a[m] is the partitioning elements.say t =a[s]. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. return j. a[j] :=p. Function Partition of Algorithm accomplishes an in-place partitioning of the elements of a[m:p-1]. a[i] :=a[j]. If m=1 and p-1=n. j) exchanges a[i] with a[j]. This is rearranging is referred to as partitioning.

q+1). Hence S1 and S2 can be sorted independently. we can directly devise a divide-and-conquer method for completely sorting n elements.…….a[q] which reside in the global array //a[1:n] into ascending order. QuickSort (p. } } Using Hoare‘s clever method of partitioning a set of elements about a chosen element. a[n+1] is considered to be defined and //must be >= all the elements in a[1:n]. Each set is sorted by reusing the function Partition Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.j-1). //j is the position of the partitioning element. Following a call to the function Partition. { if (p<q) then //If there are more than one element { // divide P into two subproblems.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Algorithm Quick Sort (p. j:=Partition(a. // Solve the subproblems. // There is no need for combining solutions. two sets S1 and S2 are produced.p.q). Palai .q) 77 //Sorts the elements a[p]. All elements in S1 are less than or equal to the element in S2. Quick Sort(j+1.

Palai . because its inner loop can be efficiently implemented on most architectures. makes Θ(nlogn) (big O notation) comparisons to sort n items. and in most real-world data. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Hoare that. Class Sorting algorithm Data structure Varies Worst case performance Θ(n2) Best case performance Θ(nlogn) Average case performance Θ(nlogn) comparisons Worst case space complexity Varies by implementation Optimal Sometimes Quicksort is a well-known sorting algorithm developed by C. R. it is possible to make design choices which minimize the probability of requiring quadratic time. A. it makes Θ(n2) comparisons. However. The horizontal lines are pivot values.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 78 Quicksort Quicksort Quicksort in action on a list of numbers. in the worst case. Typically. on average. quicksort is significantly faster in practice than other Θ(nlogn) algorithms.

which are always sorted. The correctness of the partition algorithm is based on the following two arguments: Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. and the pivot selected is the last among those of equal value). This makes quicksort a comparison sort. Reorder the list so that all elements which are less than the pivot come before the pivot and so that all elements greater than the pivot come after it (equal values can go either way). from the list. 3. In simple pseudocode. This version is also a stable sort (assuming that the "for each" method retrieves elements in original order. is not a stable sort. The steps are: 1. in efficient implementations. pivot. the algorithm might be expressed as this: function quicksort(array) var list less. the pivot is in its final position. Recursively sort the sub-list of lesser elements and the sub-list of greater elements. 79 Algorithm Quicksort sorts by employing a divide and conquer strategy to divide a list into two sub-lists. Pick an element. greater if length(array) ≤ 1 return array select and remove a pivot value pivot from array for each x in array if x ≤ pivot then append x to less else append x to greater return concatenate(quicksort(less). called a pivot.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Quicksort is a comparison sort and. This is called the partition operation. Palai . 2. The base case of the recursion are lists of size zero or one. After this partitioning. quicksort(greater)) Notice that we only examine elements by comparing them to other elements.

all the elements processed so far are in the desired position: before the pivot if less than or equal to the pivot's value. which is as bad as merge sort. Each iteration leaves one fewer element to be processed (loop variant). right. The disadvantage of the simple version above is that it requires Ω(n) extra storage space. which it returns. There is a more complex version which uses an in-place partition algorithm and can achieve the complete sort using O(nlogn) space use on average (for the call stack): function partition(array. the final list has the same elements as the original list. blue elements are less or equal. It partitions the portion of the array between indexes left and right. In the process it also finds the final position for the pivot element. pivotIndex) pivotValue := array[pivotIndex] swap array[pivotIndex] and array[right] // Move pivot to end storeIndex := left for i from left to right − 1 if array[i] ≤ pivotValue swap array[i] and array[storeIndex] storeIndex := storeIndex + 1 swap array[storeIndex] and array[right] // Move pivot to its final place return storeIndex In-place partition in action on a small list. left. leaving all the greater elements following them. Palai . The correctness of the overall algorithm follows from inductive reasoning: for zero or one element. The additional memory allocations required can also drastically impact speed and cache performance in practical implementations. Notice that an element may be exchanged multiple times before reaching its final place. and red elements are larger. elements less than or equal to the pivot and elements greater than it. after the pivot otherwise (loop invariant).Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 80 At each iteration. The boxed element is the pivot element. by moving all elements less than or equal to a[pivotIndex] to the beginning of the subarray. Because it only uses exchanges. the algorithm leaves the data unchanged. for a larger data set it produces the concatenation of two parts. inclusively. This is the in-place partition algorithm. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. so that it doesn't get in the way. themselves sorted by the recursive hypothesis. It temporarily moves the pivot element to the end of the subarray.

uses Θ(n) time. which simply loops over the elements of the array once. thus. pivotNewIndex + 1. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. writing quicksort itself is easy: procedure quicksort(array. Once we have this. such as versions not having the storeIndex. this form is probably the easiest to understand. multiple variations can be found in various textbooks. right. In the best case.g. left. The result is that the algorithm uses only Θ(nlogn) time. Because a single quicksort call involves Θ(n) factor work plus two recursive calls on lists of size n / 2 in the best case.1) quicksort(array. the time needed to sort a list of size n. pivotIndex := left) pivotNewIndex := partition(array. But no two calls at the same level of the call tree process the same part of the original list. left. In versions that perform concatenation. this operation is also Θ(n).Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 81 This form of the partition algorithm is not the original form. Consequently. However. right) if right > left select a pivot index (e. right) However. An alternate approach is to set up a recurrence relation for the T(n) factor. the relation would be: The master theorem tells us that T(n) = Θ(nlogn). pivotIndex) quicksort(array. each time we perform a partition we divide the list into two nearly equal pieces. this is subsumed in the Θ(n) factor). Palai . It's not hard to see that the partition operation. each level of calls needs only Θ(n) time all together (each call has some constant overhead. Formal analysis From the initial description it's not obvious that quicksort takes Θ(nlogn) time on average. left. but since there are only Θ(n) calls at each level. pivotNewIndex . This means each recursive call processes a list of half the size. This means that the depth of the call tree is Θ(logn). this version of quicksort is not a stable sort. we can make only logn nested calls before we reach a list of size 1. since partition reorders elements within a partition.

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In fact, it's not necessary to divide the list this precisely; even if each pivot splits the elements with 99% on one side and 1% on the other (or any other fixed fraction), the call depth is still limited to 100logn, so the total running time is still Θ(nlogn). In the worst case, however, the two sublists have size 1 and n − 1 (for example, if the array consists of the same element by value), and the call tree becomes a linear chain of n nested calls. The ith call does Θ(n − i) work, and . The recurrence relation is: T(n) = Θ(n) + T(0) + T(n − 1) = O(n) + T(n − 1) This is the same relation as for insertion sort and selection sort, and it solves to T(n) = Θ(n2). Given knowledge of which comparisons are performed by the sort, there are adaptive algorithms that are effective at generating worst-case input for quicksort on-the-fly, regardless of the pivot selection strategy.

**Randomized quicksort expected complexity
**

Randomized quicksort has the desirable property that it requires only Θ(nlogn) expected time, regardless of the input. Suppose we sort the list and then divide it into four parts. The two parts in the middle will contain the best pivots; each of them is larger than at least 25% of the elements and smaller than at least 25% of the elements. If we could consistently choose an element from these two middle parts, we would only have to split the list at most 2log2n times before reaching lists of size 1, yielding an Θ(nlogn) algorithm. A random choice will only choose from these middle parts half the time. However, this is good enough. Imagine that you are flipping a coin over and over until you get k heads. Although this could take a long time, on average only 2k flips are required, and the chance that you won't get k heads after 100k flips is highly improbable. By the same argument, quicksort's recursion will terminate on average at a call depth of only 2(2log2n). But if its average call depth is Θ(logn), and each level of the call tree processes at most n elements, the total amount of work done on average is the product, Θ(nlogn). Note that the algorithm does not have to verify that the pivot is in the middle half - if we hit it any constant fraction of the times, that is enough for the desired complexity.

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The outline of a formal proof of the O(nlogn) expected time complexity follows. Assume that there are no duplicates as duplicates could be handled with linear time pre- and postprocessing, or considered cases easier than the analyzed. Choosing a pivot, uniformly at random from 0 to n − 1, is then equivalent to choosing the size of one particular partition, uniformly at random from 0 to n − 1. With this observation, the continuation of the proof is analogous to the one given in the average complexity section.

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Average complexity

Even if pivots aren't chosen randomly, quicksort still requires only Θ(nlogn) time over all possible permutations of its input. Because this average is simply the sum of the times over all permutations of the input divided by n factorial, it's equivalent to choosing a random permutation of the input. When we do this, the pivot choices are essentially random, leading to an algorithm with the same running time as randomized quicksort. More precisely, the average number of comparisons over all permutations of the input sequence can be estimated accurately by solving the recurrence relation: Here, n − 1 is the number of comparisons the partition uses. Since the pivot is equally likely to fall anywhere in the sorted list order, the sum is averaging over all possible splits. This means that, on average, quicksort performs only about 39% worse than the ideal number of comparisons, which is its best case. In this sense it is closer to the best case than the worst case. This fast average runtime is another reason for quicksort's practical dominance over other sorting algorithms.

Space complexity

The space used by quicksort depends on the version used. Quicksort has a space complexity of Θ(logn), even in the worst case, when it is carefully implemented such that in-place partitioning is used. This requires Θ(1). After partitioning, the partition with the fewest elements is (recursively) sorted first, requiring at most Θ(logn) space. Then the other partition is sorted using tail recursion or iteration. The version of quicksort with in-place partitioning uses only constant additional space before making any recursive call. However, if it has made Θ(logn) nested recursive calls, it needs to store a constant amount of information from each of them. Since the best case makes at most Θ(logn) nested recursive calls, it uses Θ(logn) space. The worst case makes Θ(n) nested recursive calls, and so needs Θ(n) space; Sedgewick's improved version using tail recursion requires Θ(logn) space in the worst case. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET, Palai

First. If we consider sorting arbitrarily large lists. External quicksort: The same as regular quicksort except the pivot is replaced by a buffer. and loop to sort the remaining partition. the list itself will also occupy Θ(nlogn) bits of space.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 85 We are eliding a small detail here. though. This isn't too terrible. and Its worst case is dismal. If greater than the greatest. we have to keep in mind that our variables like left and right can no longer be considered to occupy constant space. Keep the maximum lower and minimum upper keys written to avoid resorting middle elements that are in order. When done. leading to a best-case Θ(nlogn) and worst-case Θ(n2logn) space requirement. each would require about ΘO(logn) bits. requiring space. Palai . and then follow the regular quicksort algorithm. If the next element is less than the least of the buffer. for example. the problem grows even larger. write it to available space at the beginning. If the list elements are not themselves constant size. it takes Θ(logn) bits to index into a list of n items. Variants There are three variants of quicksort that are worth mentioning: Balanced quicksort: choose a pivot likely to represent the middle of the values to be sorted. Read the next element from the beginning or end to balance writing. because each level of the recursion uses half as much space as the last. in reality quicksort requires Θ((logn)2) bits of space in the best and average case and Θ(nlogn) space in the worst case. if most of the list elements are distinct. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Otherwise write the greatest or least of the buffer. far more than the list itself. In the best case its space is still limited to Θ(n). however. The not-in-place version of quicksort uses Θ(n) space before it even makes any recursive calls. write the buffer. Because we have variables like this in every stack frame. since if the list contains mostly distinct elements. and put the next element in the buffer. write it to the end. read the M/2 first and last elements into the buffer and sort them. Recursively sort the smaller partition.

Although quicksort can be written to operate on linked lists. when operating on arrays. Pick an element from the array (the pivot) and consider the first character (key) of the string (multikey). Recursively sort the "less than" and "greater than" partitions on the same character. Partition the remaining elements into three sets: those whose corresponding character is less than. using it directly will be faster than waiting for introsort to switch to it. mergesort only requires a small. constant amount of auxiliary storage. and greater than the pivot's character. equal to. and can be easily adapted to operate on linked lists and very large lists stored on slow-to-access media such as disk storage or network attached storage. The main disadvantage of mergesort is that. quicksort organizes them concurrently into a tree that is implied by the recursive calls. Palai . Comparison with other sorting algorithms Quicksort is a space-optimized version of the binary tree sort.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 86 Three-way radix quicksort (also called multikey quicksort): is a combination of radix sort and quicksort. Heapsort is typically somewhat slower than quicksort. (Note that when operating on linked lists. but in a different order. Recursively sort the "equal to" partition by the next character (key). Instead of inserting items sequentially into an explicit tree. it will often suffer from poor pivot choices without random access. unlike quicksort and heapsort. another recursive sort algorithm but with the benefit of worst-case Θ(nlogn) running time. though there remains the chance of worst case performance except in the introsort variant. The algorithms make exactly the same comparisons. Quicksort also competes with mergesort.) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. it requires Θ(n) auxiliary space in the best case. If it's known in advance that heapsort is going to be necessary. but the worst-case running time is always Θ(nlogn). Mergesort is a stable sort. Quicksort is usually faster. whereas the variant of quicksort with in-place partitioning and tail recursion uses only Θ(logn) space. The most direct competitor of quicksort is heapsort.

Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 87 MODULE 3 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

This is done by considering the inputs in an order determined by some selection procedure. The selected input‘s value is assigned to x. The selection procedure itself is based on some optimization measure. } return solution. however. will result in algorithms that generate suboptimal solutions. The function Select selects an input from a[ ] and removes it. several different optimization measures may be plausible for a given problem. once a particular problem is chosen and the functions Select.x). and Union are properly implemented. The function Greedy describes the essential way that a greedy algorithm will look. if Fesible(solution. This version of the greedy technique is called the subset paradigm. Feasible.x) then solution := Union(solution. Palai . Otherwise.// Initialize the solution.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 88 THE GREEDY METHOD – CONTROL ABSTRACTION The greedy method suggests that one can devise an algorithm that works in stages. { Solution :=ø. } Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. for i:=1 to n do { x:=Select(a). Algorithm Greedy (a. Most of these. The measure may be the objective function.n) //a[1 : n] contains the n inputs. If the inclusion of the next input into the partially constructed optimal solution will result in an infeasible solution. it is added. In fact. Feasible is a Boolean-valued function that determines whether x can be included into the solution vector. At each stage. considering one input at a time. a decision is made regarding whether a particular input is in an optimal solution. then this input is not assed to the partial solution. The function Union combines x with the solution and updates the objective function.

0 ≤ xi ≤ 1.0 . The objective is to obtain a filling of the knapsack that maximizes the total profit earned. n] / / pi/ wi ≥ pi+1/ wi+1 / / x[1 …. u=m . ALGORITHM ALGORITHM greedyknapsack(m. This is done by using greedy method. Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 89 GENERAL KAPSACK PROBLEM In the knapsack problem.. n] solution { for i=1 to n do x[1] =0. w[ 1. u = u – w[i] . for i= 1 to n do { If ( w[i] > u) then break . the problem can be stated as maximize ∑ pixi 1≤ i≤n Subject to ∑ wixi ≤ m 1≤i≤ n And 0 ≤ xi ≤ 1. then a profit of pixi is earned. n ) / / p[ 1. Since the knapsack capacity is m. } Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. x[i] = 1. Object i has a weight wi and the knapsack has a capacity m. } If ( i ≤ n ) then x[i] = u/ w[i] . Formally.. of object i is placed into the knapsack. we require the total weight of all chosen objects to be at most m. n] .0 . If a fraction xi . 1≤i≤ n The profit and weight are positive numbers. we have n objects and a knapsack or a bag.

That is why the approach is called greedy.5 g3 50 110 2. but rather locally optimal decisions are taken. value: 9. no global optimal solution is computed.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 90 If p1 / w1 ≥ p2 /w2 ≥ ……………. remaining capacity: 8 choose: g4. Palai . All optimum solutions will fill the knapsack exactly complexity of knapsack algorithm is 0( n). this need not always be the case! Knapsack capacity: 50 Object Size Value vs g1 30 90 3 g2 40 100 2. greedy algorithms are used to solve optimization problems. value: 9. ≥ pn / wn . In contrast to dynamic programming. Example: Knapsack Problem I 2 possible greedy-strategies: select the most valuable element in each step that still fits into the knapsack: Knapsack capacity: 15 Object Size Value g1 3 3 g2 4 5 g3 6 8 g4 7 9 choose: g4.2 The strategy will choose g1 (value 90). Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Greedy algorithms Similarly to dynamic programming. remaining capacity: 1 y not optimal Example: Knapsack Problem II select the relatively most valuable element (max( v(gi )s(gi ) ) ) This will lead to the optimal solution in the case described above. then greedy knapsack generate an Optimum solution to the given instant of knapsack problem. However.

.. . The programs are stored on a tape in order Pi1 . The resource can only be used by one activity at a time. . . . fi ). i. .e. for example a lecture hall. j) = li1 + · · · + lij . . . . . . . . in. . j) :. . Pn with lengths l1. . . . . Each activity i has a starting time si and a completion time fi with si < fi . . In exchange. . Average access time: T(i1. Time to access Program Pij : T(i1. . .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 91 However. . ln. the next activity can start at time fi . Palai . si _ fj _ sj _ fi . Given: set of activities S = {1. . Compatibility of activities: compatible(i . they are far less expensive than dynamic programming. n} that want to use some resource. Example: resource planning problem. Complexity of the greedy-knapsack: O(C) Optimal greedy algorithms There are problems where greedy algorithms produce optimal solutions. Problem: compute the largest possible set of compatible Activitie OPTIMAL STORAGE ON TAPES Optimal storage on tapes I Given: n programs P1. . the optimal would be g3 (value 110) Greedy algorithms do not always provide the optimal solution. . . j) = 1n Xn j=1 Xj i=1 li j = 1n Xn j=1 (n − j + 1)lij Optimal storage on tapes II How to store the programs on the tape so that the average access time becomes minimal? Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Pin . in) = 1n Xn j=1 T(i1. in. The activity takes place in the time interval [si .

a greedy strategy that always selects the shortest program leads to the minimal average access time. If the nodes of G represent cities and the edges represent possible communication links connecting two cities. ln the relation l1 _ l2 _ · · · _ ln holds. they may fail to determine the global optimum. . Another application of spanning trees arises from the property that a spanning tree is a minimal subgraph G‘ of G such that V(G‘) =V(G) and G‘ is connected. Hence. then the average access time is minimized by the order P1 .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Let n be fixed. they can be used to obtain independent set of circuit equation for an electric network. . order acess time P1P2P3 17 + (17 + 5) + (17 + 5 + 10) = 71 P1P3P2 17 + (17 + 10) + (17 + 10 + 5) = 76 P2P1P3 59 P3P1P2 69 P2P3P1 52 P3P2P1 52 92 Optimal storage on tapes III Fact: If for the lenghts l1. There are problems where a greedy strategy leads to an optimal solution. e. Spanning trees have many applications. 5. E) be an undirected connected graph. E‘) of G is a spanning tree of G if T is a tree. Example: Let P1. Pn. For example. What have we learnt on greedy algorithms? Greedy algorithms treat optimization problems by taking locally optimal decisions. A graph t= (V. Hence. .g.. P3 have lengths 17. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. 10. Greedy algorithms need less time than. . Any connected graph with n vertices must have least n-1 edges and all connected graphs with n-1 edges are trees. A minimal subgraph is one with fewest numbers of edges. Palai . hence 1n can be ignored. dynamic programming. SPANNING TREES-MINIMUM COST SPANNING TREES Definition: Let G= (V. . P2. .

These weights may represent the cost of construction. In practical situations. If this is not so. The cost of the spanning tree is the sum of all the edges in that tree. one would then wish to select cities to have minimum total cost or minimum total length. Removal of any of the links on this cycle results in a link selection of less cost connecting all the cities. In either case the links selected have to form a tree. the length of the link. and so on. then selection of links contain cycle. The spanning trees of G represent all feasible choices. Given such weighted graph. So that the minimum cost spanning tree of G can be obtained. the edges have weights assigned to them. Palai . 1 28 8 2 14 16 10 7 6 24 18 25 5 4 3 12 22 (a) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 93 then the minimum number of links needed to connect the cities is n-1.

not always with their numbering order..n}. The corresponding pointer of the newly connected peak will be deleted Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. that means they are not attached in the tree. will always contain the pointers of those peaks which are terminally attached in the T tree... The O set (the O is taken from the Greek word Oristiko which means Terminal). P={1.the 0={1} and P={2.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 94 1 10 14 2 16 7 6 3 25 5 4 12 22 (b) Figure (a) represents a graph and (b) represents the minimum cost spanning tree. The V(1) peak has already been attached in the T tree.which for simplicity we accept it as V(1). PRIM’S ALGORITHM At first a peak is chosen in random order . Palai . for example the V(4) peak can be connected to the tree before the V(2) peak. The P set( P is taken from the Greek word Prosorino which means Temporary) contains the rest of the pointers for the peaks.This way two sets of pointers are initialized .. In every execution of the Prim Algorithm a new peak will be connected to the T tree.n}-O which are those pointers who have not been terminally connected with a node of T.

n} For every j belonging to P :e(j):=c[e(j1)] .. When all peaks are connected there will be O={1.This of course means the end of the algorithm. If the chosen one is e(ij) then i belongs in the O set . 3.. P={2. :(initializations). Exchange the P set with the set produced by the difference of the P set and {k} . we change the O set by putting the j pointer.).. For every j belonging to P compare e(j) with c[e(kj)].. The new peak every time will be chosen by using greedy method ..c[e(ij)]. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. and we also change the P set by removing the j pointer. O={1} (V(1) root of the T tree). We put V(j) in the T tree.j belonging to {1. By definition of the cost function :e(j)=infinite when V(j) does not connect to V(1).. and V(j) peak has not been attached in the T tree yet. Pseudocode For The Prim Algorithm..i. Choose a k for which e(k)<=e(j) for every j belonging to P In case of tight choose the smaller one. This may seem to you extremely complicated but it is easily understood by a set of examples. INPUT :n.n}.. Palai .n} and P=0... 2. V(i) peak is already in the T tree.. p(j)=1 ( all peaks connected to the root. If e(j) >c[e(kj)] exchange e(j) <-c(e(kj)).. j belongs in the P set .(P<-P-{k}) If P=0 then stop..Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 95 from P set and will be inserted to the O set. OUTPUT :p(j) j=2. STEPS 1.we choose one with minimum cost.among all sides of G which connect peaks already inserted in the T (pointers in the O set ) tree with the rest of the peaks (pointers in the P set ).Go back to Step 1. Exchange the O set with the set produced by the union of the O set and {k} .n (pointer of peaks j father in the T tree)...

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) An example for Prim‘s algorithm 96 shortest paths from v0 to all destinations Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Palai .

Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 97 1 2 6 7 3 5 4 (a) 1 10 2 7 6 3 5 4 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 98 1 10 2 7 6 3 5 4 (c) 12 1 10 14 2 7 6 3 5 4 (d) 12 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Palai .

Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 99 1 10 14 2 16 7 6 3 5 4 (e) 12 1 10 14 2 16 7 6 3 5 4 12 22 (f) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

mincost := mincost + cost [u. 1] := u . Finally. It is discarded as it creates a cycle. Edge (2. t[ i. cost. 3) is considered next and included in the home fig (e). 4) is selected and included in the tree (fig(c)). v) from the heap and reheapify using Adjust . edge (6. 6) is the first edge considered. Next edge (3.4) is next edge to be added to the tree being built. It is considered next. n. It is included in the spanning tree being built. KRUSKAL’S ALGORITHM ALGORITHM ALGORITHM Kruskal ( E. k := Find (v) . 2 ] := v . t) / / E is the set of edges in G. Edge (1. 4) has the least cost. t [i. This yields the graph of fig (b). The resulting tree has the cost 99. G has n vertices. so this edge is discarded. Edge (5. if (j ≠ k) then { i := i+1 . 5). / / the final cost is returned. Its inclusion in tree is being built does not create a cycle. (7. Palai . Of the edges not yet considered. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. j := Find (u) . v] . mincost := 0. 5) is considered and included in the tree being built. The next edge to be considered is (2. / / Each vertex is in a different set.0 . { Construct a heap out of the edge costs using Heapify . This results in the configuration of fig (f). v). Its inclusion in the tree results in a cycle. for i := n do parent [i] := -1 . so we get the graph of fig (d). This completes the spanning tree. t is the set of edges in the minimum – cost spanning tree. The next edge to be considered is (7.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 100 Figure (a) shows the current graph with no edges selected. 7). i := 0 . Cost [u. while ( i < n – 1 ) and ( heap not empty )) do { Delete a minimum cost edge (u. v] is the cost of / / edge (u.

If u = v the edge (u. Only one machine is available for processing jobs. The value of a feasible solution J is the sum of the profits of the jobs in J. The sets containing u and v are combined in line 20. where e is the edge set of G. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. } } If ( i ≠ n – 1 ) then write (― no spanning tree‖) . For any job i the profit pi is earned if the job is completed by its deadline. else return mincost. To complete a job one has to process the job on the machine for one unit of time. Associated with job i is integer deadline di ≥0 and a profit pi>0. If j ≠ k then vertices u and v are in different sets and edge (u. 1] := u . The computing time is O( | E | log |E|). Line 23 determines whether a spanning tree was found. v) is included into t. edges are removed from the heap one by one in nondecreasing order of cost. v) can be added to t by the assignments t[ i. It follows that i ≠ n – 1 iff the graph G is not connected. k) . Palai . and y[ i. 2] := v. A feasible solution for this problem is a subset J of such that each job in this can be completed by its deadline. 1 : 2]. or ∑i€J pi an optimal solution is a feasible solution with maximum value. The set t can be represented as a sequential list using a two – dimensional array t [ 1: n – 1. Edge (u. Line 14 determines the sets containing u and v. In the while loop of line 10. .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Union (j. JOB SEQUENCING WITH DEADLINES If we are given a set of n jobs. v) is discarded as its inclusions into t would create a cycle. } 101 COMPLEXITY The set t is the set of edges to be included in the minimum – cost spanning tree and i is the number of edges in t.

The feasible solutions and their values are: No 1. 9. 3. These jobs must be processed in the order job 4 followed by job 1.p2.2.1 1.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 102 Example:. 4.Let n=4.d3.3 4. Thus the processing of job begins at time zero and that of job 1 is completed at time 2. } } Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.3) (1. 5.J.1 2. 7. { J:={1}.1.d4)=(2. 8.2) (1.1 4. 2.4) (2. Feasible solution (1.3 1 2 3 4 Value 110 115 127 25 42 100 10 15 27 Solution 3 is optimal.1).15. Palai . High level description of job sequencing algorithm Algorithm Greedy job(d. 6. In this solution only jobs 1 and 4 are processed and the value is 127.p4)=(100.10.27) and (d1.4) (1) (2) (3) (4) Processing sequence 2.3 or 3.d2.n) //J is a set of jobs that can be completed by their deadlines.3) (3. for i:=2 to n do { if(all jobs in J U {i} can be completed by their headlines) then J:=J U {i}.p3.(p1.

As the jobs are in the nonincreasing Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. { d[0] :=J[0]:=0.1≤i≤k. while((d[J[r]]>d[i]) and (d[J][r]]≠r)) do r:=r-1. J[1]:=1. The jobs are ordered such that p[1]≥p[2]≥. } 103 The fuction JS is a correct implemention of the greedy-based method. for q:=k to (r+1) step-1 do J[q+1]:=J[q].≥p[n].//initialize.n≥1..// Include job 1. k:=1. } } return k. // Find position for i and check feasibility of insertion.n) //d[i]≥1.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Greedy algorithm for sequencing unit time jobs with deadlines and profits Algorithm JS(d.. r:=k. Palai .the job with largest pi will always be in the greedy solution. //J[i] is the ith job in the optimal solution.1≤i≤k. for i:=2 to n do { //consider jobs in nonincreasing order of p[i]. //Also at termination d[J][i]]≤d[J[i+1]]. J[r+1]:=i.j. 1≤i≤n are the deadlines. if((d[J[r]]≤d[i]) and (d[i]>r)) then { //Insert i into J[ ]. k:=k+1. Since d[i]≥1.

At all times. is the set already included. Palai . Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. When job i is being considered.1≤i≤k. The worst case computing time of Algorithm JS is θ(n2).Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 104 order of pi‘s. the set of jobs already included in the solution is maintained in J. The computing time of JS can be reduced from θ(n2) to nearby O(n2) by using disjoint set union and find algorithms and a different method to determine the feasibility of a partial solution. If J[i].then J is such that d[J][i]]≤d[J[i+1]]. The for loop of the line 8 considers the remaining job in the jobs in the order required by the greedy algorithm method.line 6 in the above algorithm includes the job with largest pi.1≤i≤k. the while loop determines where in J this job has to be inserted.

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 105 MODULE 4 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Palai .

An optimal sequence of decisions is a least cost sequence.the remaining decisions must constitute an optimal decision sequence with regard to the state resulting from the first decision.But the time and space requirements may be prohibitive.We have to decide the values of xi.For many problems it is not possible to make stepwise decisions in such a manner that the sequence of decisions made is optimal. For some of the problems that may be viewed in this way.which the third and so on. 3)SHORTEST PATH-One way to find a shortest path from vertex i to vertex j in a directed graph G is to decide which vertex should be the second vertex.Dynamic programming often drastically reduces the amount of enumeration by avoiding the enumeration of some decision sequences that cannot possibly be optimal.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 106 DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING Dynamic programming is an algorithm design method that can be used when the solution to a problem can be viewed as the result of a sequence of decisions. PRINCIPLE OF OPTIMALITY The principle of optimality states that an optimal sequence of decisions has the property that whatever the initial state and decisions are.an optimal sequence of decisions can be found by making the decisions one at a time and never making an erroneous decision. Palai .In dynamic programming an optimal sequence of decisions is obtained by making explicit appeal to the principle of optimality.We could enumerate all decision sequences and then pick out the best.This is true for all problems solvable by the greedy method. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. 2)OPTIMAL MERGE PATTERNS-An optimal merge pattern tells us which pair of files should be merged at each step.It also satisfies the constraints ∑wixi≤m and 0 ≤ xi ≤1.An optimal sequence of decisions is one that results in a path of least length.An optimal sequence of decisions maximizes the objective function ∑pixi.Below are some of the examples of problems that can be viewed this way. One way to solve problems for which it is not possible to make a sequence of stepwise decisions leading to an optimal decision sequence is to try all possible decision sequences. 1)KNAPSACK-The solution to the knapsack problem can be viewed as the result of a sequence of decisions.1 ≤ i ≤ n.

Let s and t be the vertex in V1 and Vk. The sets V1 and Vk are such that | V1|=|Vk|=1. Example:SHORTEST PATH Consider the shortest path problem.. v) is an edge in E.ik.. j). 1<=i<k. decision sequences containing subsequences that are suboptimal are not considered.Therefore the principle of optimality applies for this problem.j be a shortest i1 to j path..Assume that i...rq..r1....i2.a decision has been made to go to vertex i1..... Let c (i...The cost of a path from s to t is the sum of the costs of the edges on the path.i1.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 107 Thus..... MULTISTAGE GRAPHS EXPLANATION Theory A multistage graph G = (V.j is a shortest path from i to j... then u ε Vi and v ε Vi+1 for some i.i1.ik..j must constitute a shortest i1 to j path.. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET... Palai .Following this decision the problem state is defined by vertex i1 and we need to find a path from i1 to j..let i1..i2.The use of these tabulated values make it natural to recast the recursive equations into an iterative algorithm.sequences containing suboptimal subsequences cannot be optimal(if the principle of optimality holds)and so will not be generated as far as possible..r1..Then i.many decision sequences may be generated...Starting with the initial vertex i.. E) is a directed graph in which the vertices are partitioned into k>=2 disjoint sets Vi. 1<=i<=k. The vertex s is the source.It is clear that the sequence i1. and t the sink..rq.i1...j is an i to j path that is shorter than the path i.j.If not . the essential difference between the greedy method and dynamic programming is that in the greedy method only one decision sequence is ever generated.. Because of the use of principle of optimality .j) be the cost of edge (i.However. Although the total number of different decision sequences is exponential in the number of decisions(if there are d choices for each of the n decisions to be made then there are dn possible sequences).In dynamic programming .r2.....ik.i2. If (u. Another important feature of dynamic programming approach is that optimal solutions to subproblems are retained so as to avoid recomputing their values.dynamic programming algorithms often have a polynomial complexity.

According to this principle a path (i. In forward approach the resulting path is obtained by moving in the direction of destination from source. EXAMPLE Consider the following figure. Here cost (i. Figure V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. In the latter case it from destination to source tracing the lowest cost path. The graph is a 5 stage graph. forward and backward . l) ε E where j is a vertex in Vi. Because of the constraints on E. k) are also optimal. every path from s to t starts in stage 1. Each set Vi defines a stage in the graph. A dynamic programming formulation for a k-stage graph problem is obtained by using the principle of optimality. The multistage graph problem has two approaches namely. l) + cost (i+1. with 12 vertices and the cost of each node is given. l)} l ε Vi+1 (j. j) and (j. j) = min {c (j. k) is said to be optimal if and only if the intermediate paths (i.. goes to stage 2. j) is given by the equation cost (i. then stage 4. then to stage 3. even though it appears in reverse. Equation The cost of a path (i. j) means i th level and the cost of edge from j th node to the last node. and eventually terminates in stage k. Palai . etc.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 108 The multistage graph problem is to find a minimum-cost path from s to t. The aim is to find the minimum cost path from the first node to the last node.

4) . 10) }=7 cost (3. 12) and in backward approach it is (1.2+ cost (3. 5)}=16 By selecting the least cost edges from each group we can determine which all edges will be involved in the minimum cost path. Thus the minimum cost path in forward approach is (1.11) =5 cost (3. 7).6+ cost (4.3).10) =2 cost (4.6+ cost (4. FORWARD APPROACH EXPLANATION: Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.7) = min { 4+ cost (4. 11+ cost (2. 9). 8)}=15 cost (1. 10) }=5 cost (3.Both have a cost of 16 each.2) = min { 4+ cost (3. 8) }=7 cost (2. 1+ cost (3. 2.4) = 11+cost (3. 6). 6). 7).Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 109 2 9 7 1 3 4 2 5 11 8 11 1 4 6 2 6 5 2 9 4 3 7 4 7 7 7 5 3 2 10 00 0 5 6 12 8 11 Cost Calculation cost (4.1) = min { 9+ cost (2.8) = min { 5+ cost (4.3) = min { 2+ cost (3. Palai .7+ cost (2. 2). 7)}=9 cost (2.2+ cost (2. 9) =4 cost (4. 9).7+ cost (3.5) = min { 11+ cost (3. 11) }=7 cost (2. 10. 8)=18 cost (2. 12). 7. 10.8+ cost (3. 10). 3.3+ cost (4. 6.6) =cost from 6 th to 12 th node = min { 5+ cost (4.

Consider the example given below. with 12 vertices and the cost of each node is given. then to stage 3.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 110 A multistage graph G = (V. In the latter case it from destination to source tracing the lowest cost path. j). goes to stage 2. The vertex s is the source. The aim is to find the minimum cost path from the first node to the last node. etc.The cost of a path from s to t is the sum of the costs of the edges on the path.. l)} l ε Vi+1 (j. then stage 4. The multistage graph problem has two approaches namely. According to this principle a path (i. Each set Vi defines a stage in the graph. and t the sink. l) ε E .we obtain the cost of a path (i.j) be the cost of edge (i. forward and backward . 1<=i<k. Let c (i. This is a 5 stage graph. The multistage graph problem is to find a minimum-cost path from s to t. and eventually terminates in stage k. 1<=i<=k. then u ε Vi and v ε Vi+1 for some i. every path from s to t starts in stage 1. The sets V1 and Vk are such that | V1|=|Vk|=1. In forward approach the resulting path is obtained by moving in the direction of destination from source. Let s and t be the vertex in V1 and Vk. A dynamic programming formulation for a k-stage graph problem is obtained by using the principle of optimality. j) which is given by the following equation: cost (i. If (u. Palai . even though it appears in reverse. j) = min {c (j. k) is said to be optimal if and only if the intermediate paths (i. l) + cost (i+1. k) are also optimal. By using the forward approach. j) means i th level and the cost of edge from j th node to the last node. Because of the constraints on E. Here cost (i. E) is a directed graph in which the vertices are partitioned into k>=2 disjoint sets Vi. j) and (j. v) is an edge in E. where j is a vertex in Vi. This can be done by using the forward approach as shown below: EXAMPLE: Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

8) = min { 5+ cost (4. 2+ cost (3. 8)}= 18 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.6) = min { 6+ cost (4. 11) }= 7 cost (2. 9). 6). 6+ cost (4. 7)}= 9 cost (2. 6+ cost (4.10) = 2 cost (4.8) have been reused so as to avoid their re-computation.2) = min { 4+ cost (3. 10) }= 5 cost (3.11) =5 cost (3. cost (3. Palai .7) = min { 4+ cost (4. 9).7) and cost (3. 8) }= 7 While calculating the value of cost (2.3) = min { 2+ cost (3. cost (2. 9) = cost from 4th node to the 9th node = 4 cost (4. 3+ cost (4. 6).6). 7).4) = min{11+cost (3.2) the values of cost (3. 7+ cost (3.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 111 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 2 9 7 1 3 4 2 5 11 8 11 1 4 6 2 6 5 2 9 4 3 7 4 7 7 7 5 3 2 10 00 0 5 6 12 2 8 11 CALCULATING THE MINIMUM COST: cost (4. 10). 1+ cost (3. 10) }= 7 cost (3.

j). This is the multistage graph forward approach problem.3).. 7.1) = min { 9+ cost (2.5) = min { 11+ cost (3.j)} l Є Vi-1 <l.j) = min {bcost(i-1. By selecting the least cost edges from each group we can determine which all edges will be involved in the minimum cost path. BACKWARD APPROACH : The Multistage graph problem can be solved using backward approach in the following manner.v> Є E Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. p and d are omitted for the same reasons as before.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 112 cost (2.l) + c(l. It is represented using dotted lines. Thus the minimum cost path in forward approach is (1. 11+ cost (2. for each vertex v we have a list of vertices w such that <w. Thus. Palai .j) be the cost of bp(i. 12) which has the cost of 16. 5)}= 16 A minimum cost s to t path has a cost of 16. This algorithm has the same complexity as FGraph provided G is now represented by itsinverse adjacency lists (i.(Algorithm 1. 8+ cost (3. 4) . 2+ cost (2. 10. From the backward approach we obtain bcost(i. Let bp(i.e. the cost of forward approach is= 16. 8)}= 15 cost (1. 7+ cost (2.j> Є E Algorithm in psedocode corresponding to obtain a minimum-cost s-t graph is BGraph.1) The first subscript on bcost. 2. 7). let bcost(i.j) be a minimum-cost path from vertex s to a vertex j in Vi . 2).

10. 12. 5. In this generalization.j> for j :=2 to n do { / / Compute bcost[j]. 15. <r. // Same function as FGraph 3. 5+d(E.j) is set to ∞ for any <i. Eg: d(B. v Є Vj and i< j. } } / / Find a minimum-cost path. 14. for j := k – 1 to 2 do p[j] := d[p[j+1]]. bcost[1] :=0. 8. the graph is permitted to have edges <u.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) ALGORITHM 113 1. T) = min{9+d(D. one could use the maximum allowable floating point number for ∞. T). Algorithm BGraph(G. d[j] := r. 11. In the pseudocodes FGraph and BGraph.v> such that u Є Vi .n. 16+2} = 18. Let r be such that is an edge of G is an edge of and bcost is an edge of G and bcost[r] + c[r. a floatin point overflow might occur. Palai . T) } = 2+2 = 4 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. p[k] :=n. If the weight of any such edge is added to some other costs.k. 6. 9. { 4.0. bcost(i. When programming these pseudocodes. 13. It should be easy to see that both FGraph and BGraph work correctly even on a more generalized version of multistage graphs. T). 5+13.p) 2. bcost[j] :=bcost[r] + c[r. Care should be taken to avoid such overflows. d(C.j> Є E.j]. 16+d(F. T) = min{ 2+d(F. 7. p[1] := 1. T)} = min{9+18.j] is minimum.

D)=min{d(S. 5+4} = 9. E). D)+d(D. B)+d(B.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) d(S.d(S. C) = 5 d(S. T) = min{1+d(A. T)} = min{1+22. T) Backward (forward reasoning) d(S. D). F). 2+5 } = 7 d(S. A)+d(A. F)+d(F. T).F)=min{d(S. 2+d(B. The above way of reasoning is called backward reasoning.T) = min{d(S. Palai .E)+d(E. B)+d(B. 2+9 } = 5 d(S. T)} = min{ 5+18. A) = 1 d(S. B) = 2 d(S. 7+2 } =9 Department of Computer Science & Engineering approach SJCET.d(S.d(S. F)} = min{ 2+16. 2+18. T). 5+2 } = 7 d(S. d(S. B)+d(B.E)=min{d(S.T). 114 9 5 D E d(D. E)} = min{ 1+11. T) B T 16 F d(F. T) d(E. 5+d(C.d(S. A)+d(A. 7+13. A)+d(A. D)} = min{ 1+4. T).

Sample Graph and Simulation of the Algorithm Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV Stage V Stage VI 8 2 5 12 1 3 6 9 13 15 4 7 10 00 0 11 14 SIMULATION OF THE SOLUTION USING BACKWARD COSTS Format: COST(stage.2) = 0 + 10 = 10 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. beginning with the last decision On the other hand if the relations are formulated using the backward approach. STEP I COST(I..1) = 0 STEP II COST(II. node) = minimum cost of traveling to the node in stage from the source(node 1).2) = COST(I. i. they are solved forwards. Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Forward approach and backward approach: 115 Note that if the recurrence relations are formulated using the forward approach then the relations are solved backwards .e.1) + cost(1.

COST(II.8). COST(II.7). 20+∞.6) + cost(6.7) + cost(7.4) = 0 + 30 = 30 STEP III COST(III.6)} =min{10 +20.4) + cost(4.5).5)} =min{10 +10.4) + cost(4. COST(III.2) + cost(2. COST(III.3) + cost(3.5) = min{COST(II.3) + cost(3.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) COST(II. COST(II.3) = COST(I.4) = COST(I. Palai .8)} =min{20+10.1) + cost(1.5).6) = min{COST(II.1) + cost(1.2) + cost(2.7)} =min{10 +30.3) + cost(3. 20+50.6).7).3) = 0 + 20 = 20 COST(II.40+∞ } Department of Computer Science & Engineering 116 SJCET. COST(II.8)=min{COST(III.2) + cost(2. COST(II. 30+∞} = 20---via the path 1-2-5 COST(III. 20+40.7) = min{COST(II. 20+∞ . 30+40} = 20---via the path 1-3-6 COST(III.4) + cost(4.6). COST(II. 30+30} = 40---via the path 1-2-7 STEP IV COST(IV.8).5) + cost(5.

10).6) + cost(6.40+∞ } =30---via the path 1-2-5-10 COST(IV.10)=min{COST(III. COST(IV.12)} =min{30+10 .11)} =min{20+30.12).9). COST(III.12).7) + cost(7.9)} =min{20+20.7) + cost(7.9) + cost(9. COST(III. Palai .5) + cost(5.10)} =min{20+10. 20+20 .12).10).12)=min{COST(IV.6) + cost(6.40+∞ } =40---via the path 1-2-5-9 or via the path 1-3-6-9 COST(IV. 20+30 .40+∞ .11)=min{COST(III.8) + cost(8. COST(III.11).11) + cost(11.9)=min{COST(III.5) + cost(5.7) + cost(7.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) =30---via the path 1-2-5-8 COST(IV. COST(IV.11).50+∞} = 40—via the path 1-2-5-8-12 Department of Computer Science & Engineering 117 SJCET. COST(IV. COST(III. COST(III.9). COST(III.30+∞.10) + cost(10. 20+∞ .5) + cost(5.6) + cost(6.40+30 } =50---via the path 1-2-5-11 or via the path 1-3-6-11 STEP V COST(V.

COST(IV.30+10. COST(IV.40+10 .10) + cost(10.50+10} = 40—via the path 1-2-5-8-13 COST(V.8) + cost(8. COST(V.9) + cost(9.13)} =min{30+20 .15)=min{COST(V.13).9) + cost(9.14).15).15)} =min{40+20 .8) + cost(8.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) COST(V. Palai .14)=min{COST(IV.13)+cost(13.14)} =min{30+30 .13). COST(IV.13).12)+cost(12.15). COST(IV.40+10 .40+20 .13)=min{COST(IV.50+30} =50---via the path 1-2-5-8-13-15 118 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.11) + cost(11.14). COST(IV.50+30} =50---via the path 1-2-5-10-14 or via 1-2-5-9-14 or 1-3-6-9-14 STEP VI COST(VI.14). COST(IV. COST(V.10) + cost(10.11) + cost(11.30+20.14)+cost(14.

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 119 ALL PAIRS SHORTEST PATH Finding all pairs shortest path consists of finding the shortest distance between every pair of nodes in a possibly directed graph. although they often perform worse or are harder to optimize FLOYD-WARSHELL ALGORITHM In computer science. until the estimate is known to be optimal. directed graph. Algorithms for single source problem might also be repeatedly used. The Floyd–Warshall algorithm is an example of dynamic programming Algorithm The Floyd-Warshall algorithm compares all possible paths through the graph between each pair of vertices. It is able to do this with only V3 comparisons. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Johnson's algorithm is harder to implement. and the following list gives a few of the common methods: Floyd-Warshall algorithm is an elegant. A single execution of the algorithm will find the shortest paths between all pairs of vertices. Now. This is remarkable considering that there may be up to V2 edges in the graph.k). each numbered 1 through N. It does so by incrementally improving an estimate on the shortest path between two vertices.. There are two candidates for this path: either the true shortest path only uses nodes in the set (1. then from k + 1 to j that is better. since Bernard Roy described this algorithm in 1959) is a graph analysis algorithm for finding shortest paths in a weighted. the Floyd–Warshall algorithm (sometimes known as the WFI Algorithm or Roy–Floyd algorithm..k) that returns the shortest possible path from i to j using only vertices 1 through k as intermediate points along the way. but might perform better for sparse graphs. or there exists some path that goes from i to k + 1. Further consider a function shortestPath(i. and every combination of edges is tested.j. our goal is to find the shortest path from each i to each j using only nodes 1 through k + 1. Various means of doing so are known. quickly implementable O(n3) algorithm (Assumes absence of negatively-weighed cycles). Consider a graph G with vertices V. Palai . given this function.

and we have found the shortest path for all (i.j. The algorithm works by first computing shortestPath(i. Therefore. Pseudocode Conveniently. then the length of this path would be the concatenation of the shortest path from i to k + 1 (using vertices in (1.i)=0 4 */ 5 6 int path[][].j) or infinity if there is no edge between i and j. when calculating the kth case...j) pairs using any intermediate vertices.k-1). and it is clear that if there were a better path from i to k + 1 to j.k)). Each path[i][j] is initialized to 9 edgeCost(i. 10 */ 11 12 procedure FloydWarshall () 13 for k: = 1 to n Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Be careful to note the initialization conditions: 1 /* Assume a function edgeCost(i. Also assume that n is the number of vertices and edgeCost(i.k) in terms of the following recursive formula This formula is the heart of Floyd Warshall.j) pairs. Palai . then using that to find shortestPath(i.j) which returns the cost of the edge from i to j 2 3 (infinity if there is none).j) pairs.j. This process continues until k=n.j. This means the algorithm uses quadratic memory..1) for all (i.k)) and the shortest path from k + 1 to j (also using vertices in (1. At each step in the algorithm. 7 /* A 2-dimensional matrix. etc.k).. path[i][j] is the shortest path 8 from i to j using intermediate vertices (1.j. we can define shortestPath(i.. one can overwrite the information saved from the computation of k − 1.2) for all (i.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 120 We know that the best path from i to j that only uses nodes 1 through k is defined by shortestPath(i.

Transitive closure of directed graphs (Warshall's algorithm). rather than taking minima as in the pseudocode above. so the addition operation above is replaced by the minimum operation. 121 Analysis To find all n2 of from those of requires 2n2 bit operations. Then the addition operation is replaced by logical conjunction (AND) and the minimum operation by logical disjunction (OR). the complexity of the algorithm is Θ(n3) and can be solved by a deterministic machine in polynomial time Applications and generalizations The Floyd–Warshall algorithm can be used to solve the following problems. the graph is unweighted and represented by a Boolean adjacency matrix. In this application one is interested in finding the path with the maximum flow between two vertices. Fast computation of Pathfinder Networks. path[i][k]+path[k][j] ).. Since we begin with . one instead takes maxima. Finding a regular expression denoting the regular language accepted by a finite automaton (Kleene's algorithm) Inversion of real matrices (Gauss-Jordan algorithm). . and compute the sequence of n zero-one matrices the total number of bit operations used is . Therefore. Path weights represent bottlenecks...Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 14 15 for each (i. Palai . . ....n}2 path[i][j] = min ( path[i][j]. This means that. In Warshall's original formulation of the algorithm. among others: Shortest paths in directed graphs (Floyd's algorithm). Optimal routing.j) in {1. The edge weights represent fixed constraints on flow. Maximum Bandwidth Paths in Flow Networks Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Testing whether an undirected graph is bipartite.

and O(V log V + E) for each of V instantiations of Dijkstra's algorithm. Finally. the algorithm is terminated. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. a new node q is added to the graph. using Fibonacci heaps in the implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm. starting from the new vertex q. In the reweighted graph. so a path that is shortest in the original graph remains shortest in the modified graph and vice versa. connected by zero-weight edge to each other node. Second. Palai .v) + h(u) −h(v). is given the new length w(u. is O(V2log V + VE): the algorithm uses O(VE) time for the Bellman-Ford stage of the algorithm. If this step detects a negative cycle. Next the edges of the original graph are reweighted using the values computed by the Bellman-Ford algorithm: an edge from u to v. all modified edge lengths are non-negative. 2. 4. all paths between a pair s and t of nodes have the same quantity h(s) -h(t) added to them.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 122 JOHNSON’S ALGORITHM Johnson's algorithm is a way to find shortest paths between all pairs of vertices in a sparse directed graph. but no negativeweight cycles may exist. due to the way the values h(v) were computed. First. for each node s. Analysis The time complexity of this algorithm. The distances in the original graph may be calculated from the distances calculated by Dijkstra's algorithm in the reweighted graph by reversing the reweighting transformation. It allows some of the edge weights to be negative numbers. However. Dijkstra's algorithm is used to find the shortest paths from s to each other vertex in the reweighted graph. to find for each vertex v the least weight h(v) of a path from q to v. 3.v). having length w(u. ensuring the optimality of the paths found by Dijkstra's algorithm. the Bellman-Ford algorithm is used. Johnson's algorithm consists of the following steps: 1.

which solves the same problem in time O(V3). when the graph is sparse. At the center is shown the new vertex q. On the right is shown the reweighted graph. but no negative cycles. the total time can be faster than the Floyd-Warshall algorithm. Note that these values are all non-positive. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. but the shortest path between any two nodes uses the same sequence of edges as the shortest path between the same two nodes in the original graph. a shortest path tree as computed by the Bellman-Ford algorithm with q as starting vertex. In this reweighted graph. The algorithm concludes by applying Dijkstra's algorithm to each of the four starting nodes in the reweighted graph. Palai . formed by replacing each edge weight w(u. The graph on the left of the illustration has two negative edges.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 123 Thus. Example The first three stages of Johnson's algorithm are depicted in the illustration below. and the values h(v) computed at each other node as the length of the shortest path from q to that node.v) by w(u. all edge weights are non-negative. because q has a length-zero edge to each vertex and the shortest path can be no longer than that edge.v) + h(u) −h(v).

and a realvalued weight function f : E → R).Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 124 SHORTEST PATH PROBLEM A graph with 6 vertices and 7 edges In graph theory. to distinguish it from the following generalizations: The single-source shortest path problem. and one element v of V. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. The problem is also sometimes called the single-pair shortest path problem. the shortest path problem is the problem of finding a path between two vertices (or nodes) such that the sum of the weights of its constituent edges is minimized. This can be reduced to the single-source shortest path problem by reversing the edges in the graph. in which we have to find shortest paths from all vertices in the graph to a single destination vertex v. given a weighted graph (that is. a set V of vertices. in which we have to find shortest paths from a source vertex v to all other vertices in the graph. Formally. Palai . the vertices represent locations and the edges represent segments of road and are weighted by the time needed to travel that segment. a set E of edges. in this case. An example is finding the quickest way to get from one location to another on a road map. The single-destination shortest path problem. find a path P from v to each v' of V so that is minimal among all paths connecting v to v' .

or to establish lower bounds on the time needed to reach a given state. in which we have to find shortest paths between every pair of vertices v. If one represents a nondeterministic abstract machine as a graph where vertices describe states and edges describe possible transitions. Johnson's algorithm solves all pairs shortest paths. Bellman-Ford algorithm solves single source problem if edge weights may be negative. and single-destination shortest path problems. single-source. shortest path algorithms can be used to find an optimal sequence of choices to reach a certain goal state. and may be faster than FloydWarshall on sparse graphs. Algorithms The most important algorithms for solving this problem are: Dijkstra's algorithm solves the single-pair. These generalizations have significantly more efficient algorithms than the simplistic approach of running a single-pair shortest path algorithm on all relevant pairs of vertices. such as driving directions on web mapping websites like Mapquest or Google Maps. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Floyd-Warshall algorithm solves all pairs shortest paths. For example. A* search algorithm solves for single pair shortest path using heuristics to try to speed up the search. Palai . shortest path algorithms can be used to find a solution that uses the minimum possible number of moves. Perturbation theory finds (at worst) the locally shortest path. if vertices represents the states of a puzzle like a Rubik's Cube and each directed edge corresponds to a single move or turn.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 125 The all-pairs shortest path problem. Applications Shortest path algorithms are applied to automatically find directions between physical locations. v' in the graph.

Unlike the shortest path problem. see Euclidean shortest path. The traveling salesman problem is the problem of finding the shortest path that goes through every vertex exactly once. transportation. Other applications include "operations research. or widest shortest (min-delay) path. the algorithm may seek the shortest (min-delay) widest path. or where actions (traversals) are probabilistic.g. changes over time. and returns to the start. is believed not to be efficiently solvable (see P = NP problem) . Palai . The problem of finding the longest path in a graph is also NP-complete. For example.. Related problems For shortest path problems in computational geometry.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 126 In a networking or telecommunications mindset. The Canadian traveller problem and the stochastic shortest path problem are generalizations where either the graph isn't completely known to the mover. and VLSI design". as such. plant and facility layout. this problem is NP-complete and. The problems of recalculation of shortest paths arises if some graph transformations (e. this shortest path problem is sometimes called the min-delay path problem and usually tied with a widest path problem. shrinkage of nodes) are made with a graph Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. robotics. A more lighthearted application is the games of "six degrees of separation" that try to find the shortest path in graphs like movie stars appearing in the same film.

so lower bound proofs are often hard to obtain. for many problems it is possible to easily observe that a lower bound identical to n exists. However . If f(n) is the time for some algorithm. Deriving good lower bounds is often more difficult than devising efficient algorithms. But for matrix multiplication the best known algorithm requires O(n2+€) operations (€ > 0) . so Ω(n) is a lower bound for any algorithm that solves this problem. then we write f(n)=Ω(g(n)) to mean that g(n) is a lower bound for f(n). Perhaps this is because a lower bound states a fact about all possible algorithms for solving a problem. we are also concerned with determining more exact bounds. In addition to developing lower bounds to within a constant factor. If two algorithms solving the same problem were discovered and their times differed by an order of magnitude.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 127 LOWER BOUND THEORY Our main task for each problem is to obtain a correct and efficient solution. a function g(n) . To establish a given algorithm in the most efficient way. where n is the number of inputs( or possibly outputs) to the problem. For example. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Palai . that is a lower bound on the time. consider all algorithms that find the maximum of an unordered set of n integers. is discovered. Then Ω(n2) is a lower bound on any such algorithm since there are 2n2 inputs that must be examined and n2 outputs that must be computed. and so there is no reason to believe that a better method cannot be found. If we have an algorithm whose computing time is the same order as g(n). then the one with the smaller order was generally regarded as superior. Or. then we know that asymptotically we can do no better. Bounds such as these are often reffered to as trivial lower bounds because they are so easy to obtain. We know how to find the maximum of n elements by an algorithm that uses only n-1 comparisons so there is no gap between the upper and lower bounds for this problem. Formally this equation can be written if there exist positive constants c and n0 such that |f(n)| ≥ c|g(n)| for all n > n0. Clearly every integer must be examined at least once. Usually we cannot enumerate and analyze all these algorithms. suppose we wish to find an algorithm that efficiently multiplies two n×n matrices. There is a mathematical notation for expressing lower bounds.

i. . < C[m+n]. ..e it shows all different sequences of comparisons undertaken by binary search when searching for keys that may or may not be present in the array. < A[m] and B[1] < .Thes algorithms are referred to as Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 128 COMPARISON TREES FOR SEARCHING AND SORTING A comparison tree for binary search on an array is a binary tree that depicts all possible search paths. . such that the n distinct values from S stored in A[1:n] satisfy A[p(1)] < A[p(2)] <. The sorting problem calls for determining a permutation of the integers 1 to n. these m+n values are to be rearranged into an array C[1:m+n] so that C[1] < . For all these problems we restrict the class of algorithms we are considering to those which work solely by making comparisons between elements. . . Palai . say p(1) to p(n). No arithmetic involving elements is permitted. . . The ordered searching problem asks whether a given element x E S occurs within the elements in A[1:n]. then we are to determine an I between 1 and n such that A[i] = x.< A[p(n)]. though it is possible for the algorithm to move elements around. . B[n]. X:A(1) Failure X: A(2) Failure X:A(n) Failure Failure Suppose that we are given a set S of distinct values on which an ordering relation < holds. The merging problem assumes that two ordered sets of distinct inputs from S are given in A[1:m] and B[1:n] such that A[1] < .

or x > A[i]. then no I has been found such that x = A[i] and the algorithm must declare the search successful.Now.the algorithm terminates. Consider the case in which the n numbers A[1:n] to be sorted are distinct. c) Selection Any comparison tree that models comparison-based algorithms for finding the maximum of n elements has at least 2^ n-1 external nodes since each path from the root to an external node must contain at least n-1 internal nodes. This implies at least n-1 comparisons for otherwise at least two of the input items never lose a comparison and the largest is not yet found.If the algorithm terminates following a left or right branch . otherwise right branch. Associate with every path from the root to an external node is a unique permutation. a) Ordered Searching In obtaining the lower bound for the ordered searching problem.any comparison between A[i] and A[j] must result in one of two possibilities: either A[i] < A[j] or A[i] > A[j]. Comparison trees comparison tree n! leaves : every permutation must be a leaf -case # comparisons = height of tree Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. We rule out algorithms such as radix sort that decompose the values into subparts.If A[i] < A[j] . Palai . we consider only those comparison based algorithms in which every comparison between two elements of S is of the type ―compare x and A[i]‖.So.If x=A[i]. The external nodes represent termination of the algorithm. Each internal node in the binary tree represents a comparison between x and an A[i].Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 129 comparison based algorithms. and the right is taken if x > A[i]. then the algorithm proceeds down the left branch of the tree. the comparison tree is a binary tree in which each internal node is labeled by the pair i:j which represents the comparison of A[i] with A[j]. The left branch is taken if x < A[i]. b) Sorting We can describe any sorting algorithm that satisfies the restrictions of the comparison tree model by a binary tree.

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 130 a1a2a3 : a1< a2? a1a2a3 : a2<a3 ? a2a1a3 : a1< a3? a1a2a3 a1a3a2 : a1< a3? a2a1a3 a2a3a1 : a2< a3? a1a3a2 a3a1a2 a2a3a1 a3a2a1 Comparison tree for insertion sort of three items LOWER BOUND FOR COMPARISON-BASED SORTING It is generally much more difficult to show that an algorithm is ‗‗best possible‘‘ for a certain task. But. one need only argue about one algorithm— the one that is supposedly ‗‗good‘‘. one must argue about all possible algorithms — even those which one knows nothing about! To answer the question ‗‗what‘s the best way to do a job‘‘ we must start by fixing the set of tools that may be used to do the job. sorting. we can justify this on the ground that Bin sorting is not a ‗‗general‘‘ sorting method: it is applicable only if keys have a particular form. In the latter case. Palai . Of course. in the former case. we will take pair wise comparisons of keys as the available tools. than to come up with a ‗‗good‘‘ algorithm for that task. this leaves out of consideration Bin sorting (which is not based on key comparisons). in a sense. it‘s important to keep in mind that the result Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. At any rate. For the problem at hand.

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) we are about to present only applies to sorting algorithms based on comparisons. 1 < 1:2 > 2:3 2:3 < > < > 1:3 123 1: 3 321 < > > 213 231 < 132 312 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. K2 . Suppose we want to sort n keys K1 . . K2 . . . The main theoretical device we‘ll use to analyze our problem is a decision (or comparison) tree. so that for any Ki . let‘s develop some intuition about decision trees by studying an example. Before introducing the formal definition. Palai . Kn . . K1 . either Ki < Kj or Ki > Kj. Let‘s assume that all keys are distinct. Kj where i j . K3 . This is a useful way of representing any comparison-based algorithm that sorts n keys (for any given n). 131 Example 1: Below is a decision tree that corresponds to one possible algorithm for sorting 3 keys.

consider the node with label "2. K3 . let us now give the formal Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. K2 . This indicates we must compare K2 to K3 and since K2<K3. then from node "2:3" to the left (signifying that K2<K3) and from node "1:3" to the right (signifying that K1>K3). The execution starts at the root of the tree. suppose that the input keys are K c.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 132 The internal nodes of this tree correspond to comparisons the algorithm makes. K1 .3. K3=b (where a < b < c). This means that K2<K3<K1. Thus the decision tree specifies the sequence of comparisons that the algorithm will perform to sort 3 keys. K3 else {K1>K3} sorted order of keys is K2 . These three comparisons imply that K2<K3<K1. A more programming language-like description of the algorithm corresponding to the above decision tree is: if K1<K2 then if K2<K3 then sorted order of keys is K1 . Since K1>K2. By comparing K1 and K3 we discover that K1>K3 and therefore we take the right branch which leads us to the leaf labeled "2. K3 . For example. K1 else {K2>K3} sorted order of keys is K3 . K2 else {K1>K2} if K2<K3 then if K1<K3 then sorted order of keys is K2 . This is the case for the path from the root to any -2. K a. we take the right branch from the root and arrive at the "2:3" node. The labels in those nodes. as indeed is the case.1". Palai . For example the label "1:2" of the root indicates that K1 is to be compared with K2. we take the left branch and arrive at the "1:3" node.leaf. This indicates that the keys in sorted order are K2<K3<K1. Depending on the outcome of the comparison in a node. specify which keys are to be compared.1". The label of each leaf is the permutation specifying how to rearrange the keys to get them sorted. K3 else {K2>K3} if K1<K3 then sorted order of keys is K1 . Note that the fact this is the order of the three keys is implied by the outcomes of the comparisons made in the path from the root to that leaf: To get to that leaf we must go from the root to the right (signifying that K1>K2).3. The node there specifies that K1 and K2 are to be compared. K1 . For example. An execution of the algorithm for a specific input (of 3 keys) corresponds to a path from root to a leaf. K1 Using the intuition we have gained by studying this example. the left or the right branch out of that node is taken. K2 else {K1>K3} sorted order of keys is K3 . K2 .

. the right subtree of ‗‗i : j‘‘ contains the subsequent comparisons.) The idea is that leaves correspond to the possible outcomes of sorting n distinct keys. n) there is either a node ‗‗p (i) : p (i from that node to its left child — or ‗‗p (i from that node to its right child — nodes too but must contain at least these. Definition 1: A decision tree of order n is a binary tree so that (1) It has n! leaves. . If the outcome is Ki < Kj then the left subtree of the node ‗‗i : j‘‘ contains the subsequent comparisons made until the order of the keys is determined. . 2. each labeled by a different permutation of 1. (The path may contain other order n. The execution of the algorithm on input sequence of keys K1. . 133 (3) In the path from the root to a leaf p (1) p (2) . Any comparison-based algorithm for sorting n keys corresponds to a decision tree of i j n. . p (n) (p is a permutation of — in which case the path goes i)‘‘ — in which case the path goes i < n. Kn follows the path from the root to the leaf labeled by the permutation p such that Kp (1) < Kp (2) < . . . . . Note that for a given sorting algorithm we need a different -3decision tree for each n to represent all possible executions of that algorithm when the input consists of n keys. . Part (3) of the definition essentially requires that every relationship determined by the algorithm must have been established by actual comparisons: the algorithm cannot ‗‗guess‘‘. 2. . . . n. K2. . . Palai . (2) Internal nodes are labeled by pairs of indices of the form ‗‗i : j 1. Symmetrically.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) definition of a decision tree. Example 2: Consider the algorithm for insertion sort: INSERTION -SORT(A) begin for i := 2 to n do for j := i down to 2 do if A[ j] < A[ j 1] then A[ j else break end A[ j 1] Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. . Internal node ‗‗i : j‘‘ corresponds to the comparison of Ki and Kj. if the outcome is Ki > Kj . < Kp (n).

all leaves have depth d or d 1 for some d. By Facts 1 and 2 we may assume that in the decision tree that minimizes the average number of comparisons. n (n/e)n n/e)n = n log n n log e n log n). Thus we have Cn = [(d 1) Nd− d Nd ]/n! (1) But we have: Nd Nd−1 = n! (2) and Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. If we assume that all initial arrangements of the keys to be sorted are equally likely.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 134 WORST CASE LOWER BOUND ON THE NUMBER OF COMPARISONS Let Cn denote the minimum number of comparisons required to sort n keys. Thus. it must have height at least approximation says that n Cn n (n/e)n. Thus. for some d. Recall that the number of leaves in T is n!. Palai . Lemma: Any binary tree of height h has at most 2h leaves. the worst case number of comparisons required by the algorithm represented by that tree is precisely the height of the tree. By definition. Let Cn be the minimum average case number of comparisons needed to sort n keys. For any decision tree.† The following fact can be easily proved: Fact 2: The tree that minimizes the external path length has all leaves in at most two depths d and d 1. n Cn n from which it follows that Cn AVERAGE CASE LOWER BOUND ON THE NUMBER OF COMPARISONS Consider a decision tree of order n representing some sorting algorithm. the average case number of comparisons performed by that algorithm is equal to the external path length of the decision tree divided by the number of leaves in the tree. any decision tree of order n is a binary tree with n! leaves. by the lemma. Proof: Trivial induction on h. Also. let Nd and Nd−1 be the number of leaves in the corresponding decision tree at depth d and d 1 respectively.

In olden times people would approach the oracle and ask it a question.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Nd Nd−1 =2d (3) 135 Equation (2) says that the total number of leaves in T is n!. -5Solving (2) and (3) for Nd and Nd−1. n log n) comparisons n(n/e)n n/e)n = n log n n log e. which is 2d . we would get the maximum possible number of nodes at depth d. Palai . This oracle can still be found. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. After some period of time elapsed. any comparisonboth in the worst and in the average case. we get: Nd =2 n and Nd−1 =2d n! (5) Substituting (4) and (5) in (1) we obtain: Cn = [(d 1) Nd− d Nd ]/n! = (d n n But d d )/n! n = log n n n! 2e )/n! d (4) Cn = (n! log n n = log n Cn n n log n). ORACLES AND ADVERSARY ARGUMENTS One of the proof techniques that is useful for obtaining lower bounds consists of making use of an oracle. † Recall that the external path length of the tree is the sum of the depths of all leaves. Cn Therefore. situated in the side of a hill embedded in some rocks. located in Delphi in Greece. the oracle would reply and a caretaker would interpret the oracle‘s answer. Hence. The most famous oracle in the history was called the Delphic oracle. For equation (3) note that if we gave 2 children to each leaf of depth d 1.

y.v. The conventional merging algorithm takes m+n-1 comparisons. MERGING Now we consider the merging problem. If we let MERGE(m.z.<A[m] and B[1]<B[2]……. And by keeping tracks of the work that is done. we assume that all the m+n elements are distinct and that A[1]<A[2]…….z.x.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 136 A similar phenomenon takes place when we use an oracle to establish a lower bound. we investigate lower bounds for algorithms that merge these two sets to give a single sorted set.z.u.u. a worst-case lower bound for the problem can be derived.x. Given the sets A[l:m] and B[l:n]..B[1]=u.x.y.<B[n].x. To derive a good lower bound.u. For example. It is possible that after these two sets are merged.v. there are ( )=10 ways in which A and B merge: u.u. It does this by choosing as the outcome of the next test. then there will be external nodes.….u. This should not be a surprise becoz the conventional algorithm is designed to work best when m and n binary insertion would required the fewest number of comparisons needed to merge A[1] into B[1].y.u.x. n=2. A[i]=x.x. the lower bound given by the comparison tree model is too and the number of comparisons for the conventional merging algorithm can be shown to be optimal.v.u.B[n]. then we have the inequality [log ] MERGE(m.y.z. and therefore at least [log ] comparisons are required by any comparison- based merging algorithm.A[3]=z.x.v.y.z.z.y. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Where the item in A and the item in B are sorted.v. the n elements of B can be inter leaved within A in every possible way.A[2]=y.u.v.z. Palai . As was the case of sorting.v. the oracle tells us the outcome of each comparison.v.x. When m and n are equal.u.n)-1 The exercises show that these upper and lower bounds can get arbitrarily far apart as m gets much smaller than n. if m=3.x.B[2]=v..y.y.v. Given some model of computation such as comparison trees.n) be the minimum number of comarisons needed to merge m items. and x.u. the oracle tries its best to cause the algorithm to work as hard as it can..y.y. the result that causes the most work to be required to determine the final answer.z. Elementary combinatorics tells us that there are ( ) ways that the A‘s and B‘s can merge together while preserving the ordering within A and B. Thus if we use comparison trees as our model for merging algorithm.z.

4. INSERTION_SORT (A) 1. So the algorithm will not neccessarly merge the A‘s and B‘s properly. inserting each in its suitable place among those already considered (keeping them sorted).…. Consider any comparison-based algorithm for solving A[1]<B[2]<A[2]<………<B[m]<A[m]. it builds the sorted sequence one number at a time. 3. INSERTION SORT If the first few objects are already sorted.. j-1] i ← j -1 while i > 0 and A[i] > key do A[i+1] = A[i] SJCET. for which the B‘s and A‘s alternate.m)=2m-1.<B[m]. Any merging algorithm must make each of the 2m-1 comparisons B[1]:A[1]. So any algorithm must make all 2m-1 comparisons to produce this final result. 137 Proof: Consider any algorithm that merges the two sets A[1] <……. An algorithm consider the elements one at a time.B[m]:A[m] while merging the given input. If a comparison of type A[i]:B[i+1] is not made. .B[2]:A[2]. Palai Department of Computer Science & Engineering .m)≥2m-1.< A[m] and B[1]<……. supose that a comparison of type B[i]:A[i] is not made for some i.<B[m]<A[m]. To see this. The theorm follows. that is. then the algorithm will not be able to distinguish b/w the cases in which B[1]<A[1]<B[2]<……<B[m]<A[m] and in which B[1]<A[1]<B[2]<A[2]……<A[i1]<B[i]<B[i+1]<A[i]<a[i+1]<……. an unsorted object can be inserted in the sorted set in proper place.. for m≥1.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Theorm: MERGE(m. 5. then the theorm follows.A[1]:B[2]. This is called insertion sort.<B[m]<A[m]. If we can show that MERGE(m. We already have an algorithm that requires 2m-1 comparisons. 6. Then the algorithm cannot distinguish b/w the previous ordering and the one in which B[1]<A[1]<……<A[i-1]<A[i]<B[i]<B[i+1]<……. Insertion sort is an example of an incremental algorithm. For j = 2 to length [A] do 2.. key = A[j] {Put A[j] into the sorted sequence A[1 .

8. This can happens if array A starts out in reverse order T(n) = an2 + bc + c = O(n2) It is a quadratic function of n. when line 5 executed j times for each j. This happens if given array A is already sorted. Worst-Case The worst-case occurs. Analysis Best-Case i = i-1 A[i+1] = key 138 The while-loop in line 5 executed only once for each j. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 7. T(n) = an + b = O(n) It is a linear function of n.

despite the fact that a time in order of n is sufficient to solve large instances in which the items are already sorted. Insertion sort is stable. Palai . Insertion sort use no extra memory it sort in place. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. For Insertion sort we say the worst-case running time is θ(n2). Stability Since multiple keys with the same value are placed in the sorted array in the same order that they appear in the input array. and the best-case running time is θ(n). The time of Insertion sort is depends on the original order of a input. It takes a time in Ω(n2) in the worst-case.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 139 The graph shows the n2 complexity of the insertion sort. Extra Memory This algorithm does not require extra memory.

i < array_size. for (i=1. } } 140 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Implementation void insertionSort(int numbers[]. index. Palai . } numbers[j] = index. j = i.1. i++) { index = numbers[i]. j. int array_size) { int i. j = j . while ((j > 0) && (numbers[j-1] > index)) { numbers[j] = numbers[j-1].

Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 141 Adversary argument • Suppose we have an algorithm we think efficient. The only requirement on the answers is that they must be internally consistent. The – The requirement is that the finally constructed date should be consistent to all your answers to the questions. then f(n) is the lower bound. • To question ―is it in winter‖.e. – Your purpose is forcing your friend to ask as many questions as possible. do a lot of decision..e. • To question ―is the first letter of the month‘s name in the first half of the alphabet‖? Your answer should be YES. • At each point in the algorithm. • Idea: – You did not pick up a date in advance at all. or to say. • Image an adversary tries to prove otherwise. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. the answer releases as less new information as possible). whenever an decision (i. key comparison) is made. and the friend will try to guess the date by asking YES/NO questions. • You can think the adversary is constructing a ―bad‖ input while it is answering the questions. • If the adversary can force the algorithm to perform f(n) steps. Simply Put: • Playing a guessing game between you and your friend. – Looks like cheating.. the adversary tells us the result of the decision. – You are to pick up a date. • The adversary chooses the answer which tries to force the algorithm work hard (i. i. your answer should be NO. but – Construct a date according to the questions.e. at least how many steps in the worst case. but it is a good way to find the lower bound.

However.…….Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 142 Lower Bound for Algorithms that remove at most One Inversion per Comparison Insertion Sort. either does nothing or moves the key in the jth slot to the (j+1)st slot.1. k3=2 R and s must be integers between 1 and n such that s > r. [Ralph. Clyde. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. To obtain the equivalent input. A permutation of the first n positive integers can be thought of as an ordering of those integers.3.3. we can assume that the keys to be sorted are simply the positive integers 1. suppose we have alpha input. for example. For the permutation [3. this is all we have accomplished. we have remedied the fact that ‗x‘ (number being compared with) should come before the key. We can associate 1 with Clyde. Clearly. However. Any algorithm that sorts these integers only by comparison of keys would have to do the same number of comparisons to sort the three names. We show that all sorting algorithms that sort only by comparisons of keys. Palai . [3. the worst case bound still holds true with this restriction removed because a lower bound on the worst-case performance from some inputs of some subsets is also a lower bound when all inputs are considered.1] This means that n! Different inputs (to a sorting algorithm) containing n different keys..3] [2.3] [1.n. k2=1. Because there are n! Permutations. These six permutations are the different inputs of size three (3). we are concerned with sorting n distinct keys that come from any ordered set. 1.2] [2. 2 with Dave and 3 with Ralph. and so on. By moving the key in the jth slot up one slot.1] [3. Dave].2. 2]. In general. because we can substitute 1 for the smallest key.2] [3.2. require at least quadratic time. and accomplish such a limited amount of rearranging after each time.2. We denote a permutation by [k1.kn]. For example. We obtain our results under the assumption that the keys to be sorted are distinct. That is ki is the integer at the ith position. For example the following six permutations are all the ordering of the first three positive integers: [1. K1=3. 1.1.…………. There are n! different orderings of those integers. without loss of generality. 2].k2. 2 for the second smallest. of the first n positive integers.

Palai . the pair (s.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 143 Given a permutation. and continue in this way until the entire array is sorted. on an average it must do at least this many comparisons to remove all inversion sand thereby sort the input. It works as follows: first find the smallest in the array and exchange it with the element in the first position.1 ) / 2 such pairs of integers between 1 and n is left as an exercise. SELECTION SORT This type of sorting is called "Selection Sort" because it works by repeatedly element. Insertion Sort removes at most the inversion consisting of S[j] and x after each comparison. min x ← A[i] for j ← i + 1 to n do If A[j] < min x then min j ← j Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. its about as good as we can hope to do (as far as comparisons of keys are concerned) with algorithms that sort only by comparisons of keys and remove at least one inversion after each comparison. SELECTION_SORT (A) for i ← 1 to n-1 do min j ← i. r) is an inversion in either the permutation or its transpose but not both. Showing that there are n ( n . This means that a permutation and its transpose have exactly. then find the second smallest element and exchange it with the element in the second position. n ( n . So the average no of inversions in a permutation and its transpose is. the average number of inversions in the input is also n (n-1) / 4. we consider all permutations equally probable for the input. 1 n(n 1) * 2 2 n(n 1) 4 Therefore. Because Insertion Sort‘s worst case time complexity is n ( n – 1 ) / 2 and its average – case time complexity is about n2/4. Because we assume that the algorithm removes at most one inversion after each comparison.1 ) / 2 inversions between them. and therefore this algorithm is in the class of algorithms addressed by Theorem.

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) min x ← A[j] A[min j] ← A [i] A[i] ← min x

144

Selection sort is among the simplest of sorting techniques and it work very well for small files. Furthermore, despite its evident "naïve approach "Selection sort has a quite important application because each item is actually moved at most once, Section sort is a method of choice for sorting files with very large objects (records) and small keys. The worst case occurs if the array is already sorted in descending order. Nonetheless, the time require by selection sort algorithm is not very sensitive to the original order of the array to be sorted: the test "if A[j] < min x" is executed exactly the same number of times in every case. The variation in time is only due to the number of times the "then" part (i.e., min j ← j; min x ← A[j] of this test are executed.

The Selection sort spends most of its time trying to find the minimum element in the "unsorted" part of the array. It clearly shows the similarity between Selection sort and Bubble sort. Bubble sort "selects" the maximum remaining elements at each stage, but wastes some effort imparting some order to "unsorted" part of the array. Selection sort is quadratic in both the worst and the average case, and requires no extra memory. For each i from 1 to n - 1, there is one exchange and n - i comparisons, so there is a total of n -1 exchanges and (n -1) + (n -2) + . . . + 2 + 1 = n(n -1)/2 comparisons. These observations hold no matter what the input data is. In the worst case, this could be quadratic, but in the average case, this quantity is O(n log n). It implies that the running time of Selection sort is quite insensitive to the input.

Implementation

void selectionSort(int numbers[], int array_size) { int i, j; int min, temp;

for (i = 0; i < array_size-1; i++) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET, Palai

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) { min = i; for (j = i+1; j < array_size; j++) { if (numbers[j] < numbers[min]) min = j; } temp = numbers[i]; numbers[i] = numbers[min]; numbers[min] = temp; } }

145

**SELECTION OF KTH SMALLEST ELEMENT
**

In computer science, a selection algorithm is an algorithm for finding the k-th smallest number in a list (such a number is called the kth order statistic.) This includes the cases of finding the minimum, maximum, and median elements. There are worst-case linear time selection algorithms. Selection is a subproblem of more complex problems like the nearest neighbor problem and shortest path problems. A worst-case linear algorithm for the general case of selecting the kth largest element was published by Blum, Floyd, Pratt, Rivest, and Tarjan in their 1973 paper Time bounds for selection, sometimes called BFPRT after the last names of the authors. The algorithm that it is based on was conceived by the inventor of quicksort,C.A.R.Hoare, and is known as Hoare's selection algorithm or quickselect. In quicksort, there is a subprocedure called partition that can, in linear time, group a list (ranging from indices left to right) into two parts, those less than a certain element, and those greater than or equal to the element. Here is pseudocode that performs a partition about the element list[pivotIndex]: Algorithm function partition(list, left, right, pivotIndex) pivotValue := list[pivotIndex] swap list[pivotIndex] and list[right] // Move pivot to end Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET, Palai

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) storeIndex := left for i from left to right-1 if list[i] < pivotValue swap list[storeIndex] and list[i] storeIndex := storeIndex + 1 swap list[right] and list[storeIndex] // Move pivot to its final place return storeIndex

146

In quicksort, we recursively sort both branches, leading to best-case Ω(n log n) time. However, when doing selection, we already know which partition our desired element lies in, since the pivot is in its final sorted position, with all those preceding it in sorted order preceding it and all those following it in sorted order following it. Thus a single recursive call locates the desired element in the correct partition: Algorithm function select(list, left, right, k) select pivotIndex between left and right pivotNewIndex := partition(list, left, right, pivotIndex) if k = pivotNewIndex return list[k] else if k < pivotNewIndex return select(list, left, pivotNewIndex-1, k) else return select(list, pivotNewIndex+1, right, k) Note the resemblance to quicksort; indeed, just as the minimum-based selection algorithm is a partial selection sort, this is a partial quicksort, generating and partitioning only O(log n) of its O(n) partitions. This simple procedure has expected linear performance, and, like quicksort, has quite good performance in practice. It is also an in –place algorithm, requiring only constant memory overhead, since the tail recursion can be eliminated with a loop like this: Algorithm function select(list, left, right, k) loop select pivotIndex between left and right pivotNewIndex := partition(list, left, right, pivotIndex) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET, Palai

Repeat the steps above for remainder of the list (starting at the second position) Effectively. Find the minimum value in the list 2.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) if k = pivotNewIndex return list[k] else if k < pivotNewIndex right := pivotNewIndex-1 else left := pivotNewIndex+1 147 Like quicksort. occupying the remainder of the array. Here is an example of this sort algorithm sorting five elements: 64 25 12 22 11 11 25 12 22 64 11 12 25 22 64 11 12 22 25 64 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. David Musser describes a "median-of-3 killer" sequence that can force the well-known median-of-three pivot selection algorithm to fail with worst-case behavior . If bad pivots are consistently chosen. Palai . this degrades to the minimum-based selection described previously. which we build up from left to right and is found at the beginning. Swap it with the value in the first position 3. we divide the list into two parts: the sublist of items already sorted. and the sublist of items remaining to be sorted. The algorithm works as follows: 1. the performance of the algorithm is sensitive to the pivot that is chosen. and so can require as much as O(n2) time.

In this case it's more common to remove the minimum element from the remainder of the list. and then insert it at the end of the values sorted so far. such as a linked list. For example: 64 25 12 22 11 11 64 25 12 22 11 12 64 25 22 11 12 22 64 25 11 12 22 25 64 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 148 Selection sort can also be used on list structures that make add and remove efficient.

Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 149 MODULE 5 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

.…..xn).x[k])!=0) then { Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.…. the desired solution is expressible as an n-tuple(x1.. Palai . x[2].. The set Si is finite and includes the integers 1 through n. Often the problem to be solved calls for finding one vector that maximizes (or minimizes or satisfies) a criterion function P(x1. Sometimes it seeks all vectors that satisfy P. For any problem these constraints can be classified into two categories: explicit and implicit.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 150 BACKTRACKING Many problems with searching a set of solutions or which ask for an optimal solution satisfying some constraints can be solved using the backtracking formulation.…. In many applications of the backtrack method. where the xi are chosen from some from finite set Si. Thus implicit constraints describe the way in which xi must relate to each other.x[k-1] of the solution vector x[1:n] have been assigned. { for (each x[k] Є T(x[1]. The explicit constraints depend on the particular instance I of the problem being solved.... x[ ] and //n are global.. the first //k-1 values x[1]. The criterion function P is the inequality a[xi]≤a[xi+1] for 1 ≤ i < n.….. Many of the problems we solve using backtracking require that all the solutions satisfy a complex set of constraints..xn).….x[k-1]) do { if (Bk(x[1]. All tuples that satisfy the explicit constraints define a possible solution space for I. the implicit constraints are the rules that determine which of the tuples in the solution space of I satisfy the criterion function. On entering. CONTROL ABSTRACTION (i) Recursive backtracking algorithm Algorithm Backtrack(k) //This schema describes the backtracking process using recursion.x[2].

xk-1).xi+1) is false for a path (x1..xn) are those values which are generated by T and satisfy Bi+1.….….. The last unresolved call now resumes. and adjoined to the current vector (x1.x2. Palai .xn) =Ф.….x2.x2.. //All solutions are generated in x[1:n] and printed as soon as they are determined.. (ii)General iterative backtracking method Algorithm IBacktrack(n) //This schema describes the backtracking process. then the path cannot be extended to reach an answer node. one by one...xi) be the set of all possible values for xi+1 such that (x1. { Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.….…. is treated as a global array x[1:n]. All the possible elements for the kth position of the tuple that satisfy Bk are generated.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) if (x[1]..x2.x[2].x2.x2.xi+1) from the root node to a problem state.x2.…. Thus the candidates for position i+1 of the solution vector (x1.xi+1) is also a path to a problem state.x2.…. The above recursive algorithm is initially invoked by Backtrack(1). When the ‗for‘ loop is exited. Then the algorithm is recursively invoked. Each time xk is attached.xn). Let T(x1. no more values for xk exist and the current copy of Backtrack ends...….. if (k<n) then backtrack(k+1). The solution vector (x1. T(x1.….xi) be a path from the root to a node in a state space tree.x[k] is a path to an answer node) then write (x[1:k]). a check is made to determine whether a solution has been found. } } } Explanation 151 Let (x1..x2.….. We assume the existence of bounding function Bi+1 (expressed as predicates) such that if Bi+1(x1.

Conclusion The efficiency of both algorithms depends very much on four factors: 1.x[k]) is true) then { if (x[1].…. while(k≠0) do { 152 if (there remains an untried x[k] Є T(x[1]. The variable k is continually incremented and a solution vector is grown until either a solution in found or no untried value of x k remains. The number of xk satisfying the Bk Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. When k is decremented. The component x[1] will take on those for which the bounding function B1x(1) is true.//Consider the next set. } } Explanation T() will yield the set of possible values that can be placed as the first component x[1] of the solution vector. the algorithm must resume the generation of possible elements for the kth position that have not yet been tried. Palai .x[k] is a path to answer node) then write (x[1:k]).x[2].x[k-1]) and Bk (x[1].….. The time to generate next xk 2.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) k:= 1.….. The time for the bounding functions Bk 4.. //Backtrack to the previous set. The number of xk satisfying the explicit constraints 3. k:=k+1.. } else k:=k-1.

Palai . Thus implicit constrains describe the way in which the xi must relate to each other.x8) where xi is the column on which queen i is placed Constraints • • Explicit constraints – Si={1.2.…. implicit Definition 1: Explicit constraints are rules that restrict each xi to take on values only from a given set. Classic combinatorial problem Place eight queens on an 8*8 chessboard so that no two attack Without loss of generality. assume that queen i is placed on row i All solutions represented as 8-tuples (x1.8} – So. solution space consists of 88 8-tuples Implicit constraints – No two xi‘s can be the same (By this.x2. eg) xi 0 or Si = { all nonnegative real numbers } 153 xi = 0 or 1 or Si = { 0. solution space reduced from 88 to 8!) – No two queens can be on the same diagonal Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Constraints Solutions must satisfy a set of constraints Explicit vs. 1 } li xi ui or Si = {a : li a ui } All tuples satisfying the explicit constraints define a possible solution space for I (I=problem instance) Definition 2: The implicit constraints are rules that determine which of the tuples in the solution space of I satisfy the criterion function.….

….‖ that is. or diagonal. Here n queens are to be placed on an nxn chessboard so that no two attack.xn) called bounding functions. Edges from level 1 to level 2 nodes specify the values for x1.2. The edges are labeled by possible values of xi. If n=4.……. The solution space consists of all n! permutations of the n-tuple (1. that is no two queens are on the same row.….n). column.. Its basic idea is to build solution vector.. so that no two of them are on the same row. For eg.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 154 BOUNDING FUNCTIONS The backtrack algorithm as its virtue the ability to yield the same answer with far fewer than m trials. xi) can in no way lead to an optimal solution. x2. or diagonal. Edges from level i to i+1 are labeled with values of xi. Eg: 8-queens problem A classic problem is to place eight queens on an 8x8 chessboard so that no two ―attack. Palai . The major advantage of this method is this: if it is realized that the partial vector (x1. The solution space is defined by all the paths from the root node to a leaf node. one competent at a time and to use modified criterion functions Pi(x1. then mi+1……mn possible test vectors can be ignored entirely. then there will be 4! =24 leaf nodes in the tree. The tree is called permutation tree. column. N-QUEENS PROBLEM The n-queens problem is a generalization of the 8-queens problem. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. to test whether the vector being formed has any chance of success.

two queens placed on the same diagonal iff |j-l| = |i-k| Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.j) and (k. j-l=k-i) • So.e. Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 155 • Bounding function – No two queens placed on the same column xi’s are distinct – No two queens placed on the same diagonal how to test? • The same value of ―row-column‖ or ―row+column‖ • Supposing two queens on (i.. j-l=i-k) or i+j=k+l (i.l) – i-j=k-l (i.e..

Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 156 This example shows how the backtracking works(4-Queens) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

Edges from level 1 to level 2 nodes specify the value for x1. There are 4! =24 nodes in the tree.Thus the leftmost sub tree contains all solutions with x1=1 and x2=2. Palai .the solution space is defined by all paths from the root node to a leaf node. Now n queens are to be placed on an n×n chess board so that no two attack. ί) // Returns true if a queen can be placed in the kth row and //ith column. ALGORITHM Algorithm Place (k. no two queens are on the same row. the solution space consists of all n! permutations of n-tuple (1. that is.. Nodes are numbered as in depth first search. Edges from level to level i+1are labeled with the value of xi.Generalising our discussions. column or diagonal.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 157 TREE STRUCTURE Tree organization of the 4-queens solution space. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. The n-queens problem is a generalization of the 8-queens problem. Otherwise it returns false. x[] is a //global array whose first (k –1) values have been set.and so on. The edges are labeled by possible values of xi.The above figure shows a possible tree organization for the case n=4. 2.. n). //Abs (p) returns the absolute value of p. A tree such as this is called a permutation tree.

n) // Using backtracking. else Nqueens (k+1. { for ί: =1 to n do { if Place (k.n). } } } Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. this procedure prints all // possible placements of n queens on an n x n // chessboard so that they are nonattacking. if (k=n) then write (x[1:n]).Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) { for j: =1 to k-1 do if ((x [j] = ί) // Two in the same column or (Abs (x [j] – ί ) = Abs (j-k)) ) // or in the same diagonal then return false. ί) then { x [k] : = ί. return true. } 158 Algorithm Nqueens (k. Palai .

and m=31.1<=i<=n.13. 1≤i≤n.1) and (0.7) and m=31 Solutions are (11.. and m.1}.2.4) Explicit constraints: xi ∈ { j | j is integer and 1≤j≤n} Implicit constraints: no two be the same.4) and (3. (1.For example if n=4.13.24.….( w1.w2.13.x2.This is called sum of subsets problem.1) Variable tuple size Suppose we are given n distinct positive numbers(usually called weights) and we desire to find all combinations of these numbers whose sums are m.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 159 SUM OF SUBSETS Given positive numbers wi.1. find all subsets of the wi whose sum is m eg) (w1.1.w4)=(11.2.0.xn) where xi∈{0.7) and (24..7). the sums are m Fixed-sized n-tuple (x1.Now the two solutions are described by the vectors (1. this problem calls for finding all subsets of the wi whose sums are m.Rather than represent the solution vector by the wi which sum to m we could represent the solution vector by giving the indices of these wi.x2.In general all solutions are ktuples (x1.0.13.. Palai . and m. (1...7) and (24.xk).w3.24.7) Representation of solution vector Variable-sized By giving indices In the above example.w4) = (11.4) and (3. 1≤i≤n In the above example.4).7).w3. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.then the desired subsets are (11. We could formulate this problem using either fixed-or variable-sized tuple Given positive numbers wi.w2. 1<=k<=n and different solutions may have different sized tuples.

xk) cannot lead to an answer node if Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. (x1. Palai ....xk)=true iff – Assuming wi’s in nondecreasing order....Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) • Solution space defined by all paths from the root to any node 160 Fixed tuple size: • • Solution space defined by all paths from the root to a leaf node Bounding function • Bk(x1.

∑i=1.nwi) Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 161 – So. the bounding function is • Backtracking algorithm for the sum of sunsets – Invoked by SumOfSubsets(0.1.

10.13. Palai . m=30 162 • Terminology – A node which has been generated and all of whose children have not yet been generated is called a live node – The live node whose children are currently being generated is called E-node – A dead node is a generated node which is not to be expanded further or all of whose children have been generated • Two different ways of tree generation • Backtracking • Depth first node generation with bounding functions – Branch-and-bound – E-node remains E-node until it is dead Four factors for efficiency of the backtracking algorithms Time to generate the next xk Number of xk satisfying the explicit constraints Time for the bounding function Bk Number of xk satisfying Bk Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Example:n=6.18}.12. w[1:6]={5.15.

2.(1. Palai .4). and the last dependent X1=1 1 1 X1=4 X1=2 3 3 X2=4 X2=3 9 99 X3=4 15 6 10 11 11 1 4 4 5 5 2 2 X2=2 X 6 6 X3=3 12 13 X3=4 14 6 7 7 X3=4 8 X2=4 X4=4 16 Fig 1 The tree of fig 1 represents corresponds to variable tuple size formulation.the next subtree defines all subsets containing w2 but not w1 and so on. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.(1.(2.2).3.(1.Nodes are numbered in BFS * The first three relatively independent of the problem instance.since any such path corresponds to a subset satisfying the explicit constraints.Thus the leftmost subtree defines all subsets containing w1.The solution space is defined by all paths from the root node to any node in the tree.(1.4).2.3.Thr possible paths are (1).The edges are labelled such that an edge from a level i node to a level i+1 node represents a value for xi.(2).2.(1.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 163 A solution space organization for the sum of subsets problem. the solution space is partitioned into subsolution spaces.3).3) and so on.4).At each node.

Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.the right subtree defines all subsets not containing w1.Now there are 24 leaf nodes. and so on.Nodes are numbered in D-search X1=1 1 1 X1=0 X2=1 2 12 1 3 1 X2=0 X2=1 4 1 X3=0 21 11 X4=1 25 22 X4=0 1 22 0000 1 == X3=0 X3=1 1 12 13 11 X4= 10 15 1 11 1 0 1 X3=1 6 11 X4 11 =1 8 1 11 X2=0 X3=1 26 22 6 1 18 11 81 X3=0 27 12 1 X3=1 20 20 1 19 19 1 5 11 30 11 X4=1 31 28 X4=0 11 22 8 1 X4=1 29 24 X4=0 11 24 1 11 X4=1 2 X4= X4= 23 1 16 1 17 0 14 14 1 61 1 1 1 1 FIG 2 The tree of fig 2 corresponds to the fixed tuple size formation.Edges from level i nodes level i+l nodes are labelled with the value of xi w hich is either zero or one.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 164 Another organization for the sum of subsets problem.The left subtree of the root defines all subsets containing w1. Palai .All paths from root to a leaf node defining the solution space .

Palai . x[i]. Two possible tree organizations are possible. 1≤ i≤ n. A bounding function for this problem is obtained by using an upper bound on the value of the best feasible solution obtainable by expanding the given live node and any of its descendants. then an upper bound for Z can be obtained by relaxing the requirement xi=0 or 1 to 0≤xi ≤1 for k+1≤i≤n and using the greedy algorithm to solve the relaxed problem. It was obtained form the recursive backtracking schema. Hence.k) determines an upper bound on the best solution obtainable by expanding any node Z at level k+1 of the state space tree. the bounding function need not be used whenever the backtracking algorithm makes a move to the left child of a node. Bound is used to test whether a right child should be generated. n positive profits pi. If this upper bound is not higher than the value of the best solution determined so far. The Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. In lines 8 to 18 children are generated. is such that ∑ni=1 p[i]x[i] = fp. The object weights and profits are w[i] and p[i]. Regardless of which is used. When fp ≠ -1. In line 20.cw.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 165 KNAPSACK PROBLEM Explanation: Given n positive weights wi . have already been determined.0). and a positive number m that is the knapsack capacity. then that live node can be killed. Backtracking algorithms for the knapsack problem can arrived by using either of these two state space trees. 1≤i<n. Initially set fp.. From Bound it follows that the bound for a feasible left child of a node Z is the same as that for Z. One corresponds to the fixed tuple size formulation and the other to the variable tuple size formulation. This algorithm is invoked as BKnap(1. 1≤i≤k. if at node Z the values of xi. Thus the solution space is the same as that for the sum of subsets proble. this problem calls for choosing a subset of the weights such that ∑ i≤i≤n wixi ≤ m and ∑ i≤i≤n pixi is maximized. The xi‘s constitute a zero-one-valued vector. It is assumed that p[i]/w[i]≥p[i+1]/w[i+1]. Now by using the fixed tuple size formulation. Function Bound(cp. bounding functions are needed to help kill some live nodes without expanding them. The solution space for this problem consists of the 2n distinct ways to assign zero or one values to the x i‘s.=-1.0. The resulting algorithm is BKnap.

c:=cw. w[] and p[] are the weights and profits.cp. cw is the current //weight total. else x[k]=1. //p[i]/w[i] ≥ p[i+1]/w[i+1]. n is the number of weights. k is the index of the last removed //item. Algorithm Bknap(k. In lines 13 to 17 and 23 to 27 the solution vector is updated if need Algorithm: Bounding Function Algorithm Bound(cp. if (cw + w[k] ≤ m) then Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. So far. for i:=k+1 to n do { c:=c+w[i]. fp is the final maximum profit. { b:= cp. The current weight cw = ∑k-1i=1 w[i]y[i] and cp= be. if(c<m) then b:=b+p[i]. all the backtracking algorithms have worked on a static state space tree.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 166 path y[i].cw) //m is the size of the knapsack. } Algorithm: Backtracking solution to the 0/1 knapsack problem. is the path to the current node. { // Generate left child.cw. //and profits. fw is the final weight of //knapsack. x[k] = 0 if w[k] //is not in the knapsack. and m is the knapsack size. } return b.k) //cp is the current profit total. Palai . ∑i=1k-1 p[i]y[i]. 1≤ i ≤ k. else return b+(1-(c-m)/w[i])*p[i].

Palai . } } // Generate right child.cw). cw +w[k]).cp+p[k].c=cw. for P=K+1 to n do { c=c+w[i]. fw:=cw+w[k]. if((cp>fp) and (k=n)) then { fp:=cp.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) { y[k]:=1.k)≥fp) then { y[k] :=0. for j:=1 to k do x[j]:=y[j]. for j:=1 to k do x[j]:=y[j]. //K-index of last removed access { b=cp. } } } 167 ALGORITHM // CP-Current Profit. if(k<n) then BKnap(k+1. fw:=cw. if (k<n) then BKnap(k+1. if (Bound(cp.cp. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. if ((cp+p[k] > fp) and (k=n)) then { fp:=cp +p[k].cw. if(c<n)the b=b+p[i].

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) else return b+(1-(c-m)/w[i])+p[i]. If((cp=p[k])>fp)and(K=n)then { fp=cp+p[K].cp.cp+p[K]. If(k<n)then Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. } 168 Algorithm B knap(K.fw=cw+w[K]. for j=1 to K do x[j]=y[j]. If(K<n)then B knap(K+1. } Return(b).cw+w[K]).w.cw) { If(w+w[K]<=m) then { Y[K]=1. Palai . } } If(Bound(cp.K)>=fp) then { Y[K]=0.

it is mainly used for combinatorial and discrete global optimizations of problems.cp. dynamic programming. As a result. Palai . It is really useful to understand the differences. If you have followed this article series then you know that we have already covered the most important techniques such as backtracking. the greedy strategy. In a nutshell. we are going to focus on the so-called A* algorithm that is the most distinctive B&B graph search algorithm. as it is often abbreviated. } } } 169 BRANCH AND BOUND ALGORITHM TECHNIQUE Introduction Branch and bound is another algorithm technique that we are going to present in our multipart article series covering algorithm design patterns and techniques. and even genetic programming. B&B. Thus. If((cp>fp)and(k=n)) then { fp=cp.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) B knap(K+1. fw=cw. divide and conquer. in this part we will compare branch and bound with the previously mentioned techniques as well. we opt for this technique when the domain of Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. is one of the most complex techniques and surely cannot be discussed in its entirety in a single article. Branch and bound is an algorithm technique that is often implemented for finding the optimal solutions in case of optimization problems.cw). for j=1 to k do x[j]=y[j].

then. but not all nodes get expanded (i. The general idea of B&B is a BFS-like search for the optimal solution. The truth is that maybe the problem can indeed be solved with dynamic programming. if applied carefully. This technique is based on the en masse elimination of the candidates. though they take opposite routes. Since the original ―large‖ problem is hard to solve directly.The conquering (fathoming) is done partially by (i) giving a bound for the best solution in the subset.. Dynamic programming approaches this in a sort of breadth-first search variation (BFS). it often leads to exponential time complexities in the worst case. You see. additionally.e. but the implementation wouldn't be an efficient approach. it would be very hard to implement.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 170 possible candidates is way too large and all of the other algorithms fail. it can lead to algorithms that run reasonably fast on average. The dividing (branching) is done by partitioning the entire set of feasible solutions into smaller and smaller subsets. Indeed. The basic concept underlying the branch-and-bound technique is to divide and conquer. unless proven otherwise mathematically. However. and another criterion tells the algorithm when an optimal solution has been found. Palai .(ii) discarding the subset if the bound indicates that it can‘t contain an optimal solution. it is much slower. if we have a complex problem where we would need lots of parameters to describe the solutions of sub-problems. both the backtracking and divide and conquer traverse the tree in its depth. Out of the techniques that we have learned. a carefully selected criterion determines which node to expand and when. On the other hand. The greedy strategy picks a single route and forgets about the rest.it is divided into smaller and smaller subproblems until these subproblems can be conquered. the backtracking and divide and conquer algorithms are out. by definition.These Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. As our last resort we may even think about dynamic programming. Rather. DP becomes inefficient. Now if the decision tree of the problem that we are planning to solve has practically unlimited depth. You should already be familiar with the tree structure of algorithms. Branch and bound is a systematic method for solving optimization problems B&B is a rather general optimization technique that applies where the greedy method and dynamic programming fail. We shouldn't rely on greedy because that is problem-dependent and never promises to deliver a global optimum. their children generated).

X.H). and fathoming – are illustrated on the following example. X->CC := E->CC + AX->I. endwhile for job=1 to n do if S[job] = 0 then X := new(node). p := p-> Parent. while (p is not the root) do S[p->J] := 1. X->J := job. endif endfor Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. Palai . bounding. */ I := E->I.X->J-mX->I. the algorithm traverses a spanning tree of the solution space using the breadth-first approach. Branch-and-Bound Algorithms A counter-part of the backtracking search algorithm which. X->Parent := E. That is. S[1:n]: Boolean.p: nodepointer. X->I := I + 1. Insert(X. in the absence of a cost criteria. /* S is a bitmap set initialized to 0*/ /* S will contain all the jobs that have been assigned by the partial path from the root to E */ p := E.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 171 three basic steps – branching. a queue is used. and the nodes are processed in first-in-first-out order Procedure Expand(E) begin /* Generate all the children of E.

1. Besides for a tree generator function.. In such a case. A priority queue is needed here.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) end . Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. The following function produces a complete binary tree of 11 nodes. the branch) is the one with the best cost within the queue.. The algorithm proceeds in the following manner.e. we also need a cost function to decide in what order to traverse the nodes when searching for a solution. 172 If a cost criteria is available. the cost function may also be used to discard (i. and its children are inserted into the set. Replacement: The chosen node is removed from the set of live nodes. the node to be expanded next (i. the bound) from the queue nodes that can be determined to be expensive. Visit: The cost criteria decides which of the live nodes is to process next. if when given a node X and index i it produces the i‘th child of the node. 4. 3. Iteration: The visitation and replacement steps are repeated until no alive nodes are left. 2.e. Cost-Based Tree Traversal of branch and bound A function can be considered to be a tree generator. The children are determined by the tree generator function. Initialization: The root of the of the tree is declared to be alive. Palai . The recursive function provided for deriving permutations is another example of a function that may be used to generate trees.

which can be realized with a stack memory.A dead node is a node that has been expanded..e. If an optimal solution is found to a subproblem. and it can be realized with queue memory. Therefore. A live node is a node that has not been expanded. If a cost criteria is available.e. A generalization to arbitrary cost criteria is the basis for the priority branch-and-bound algorithm. called an approximate cost function CC. Starting by considering the root problem (the original problem with the complete feasible region). A priority queue is needed here. is assumed to have been defined. A first-in-first-out cost criteria implies the FIFO branch-and-bound algorithm. these subproblems partition the feasible region. then an optimal solution has been found and the procedure terminates. The algorithm is applied recursively to the subproblems. the cost function may also be used to discard (i. in the absence of a cost criteria. the node to be expanded next (i. Each solution is assumed to be expressible as an array X[1:n] (as was seen in Backtracking). While implementing FIFO B&B algorithm it is not economical to kill live nodes with c®> upper each time upper is updated. In such a case. The search proceeds until all nodes have been solved or pruned. and the nodes are processed in firstin-first-out order. If the lower bound for a node exceeds the best known feasible solution. The expanded node (or E-node for short) is the live node with the best CC value. or until some specified threshold is met between the best solution found and the lower bounds on all unsolved subproblems. That is. A counter-part of the backtracking search algorithm which. and a priority queue memory can be employed to realize the function. the branch) is the one with the best cost within the queue. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. the feasible region is divided into two or more regions. the bound) from the queue nodes that can be determined to be expensive. no globally optimal solution can exist in the subspace of the feasible region represented by the node. A predictor. it is a feasible solution to the full problem. Palai . Branch and Bound is a general search method. a queue is used. Otherwise.. FIFO BRANCH AND BOUND ALGORITHM FIFO branch and bound algorithm for the job sequencing problem can begin with upper= infinity.If the bounds match. the algorithm traverses a spanning tree of the solution space using the breadth-first approach. the node can be removed from consideration.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 173 In the case of backtracking the cost criteria assumes a last-in-first-out (LIFO) function. the lower-bounding and upper-bounding procedures are applied to the root problem. but not necessarily globally optimal.

is the dummy start node H: heap. end Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.and a max-heap for maximization problems. -. Palai . . -.Generate all the children of E.Insert each child into the heap H.this is the root node which -. . E := new(node). return. -.A heap for all the live nodes -. endwhile end Procedure Expand(E) begin .E is an optimal solution print out the path from E to the root. endif E := delete-top(H). endif Expand(E). if (H is empty) then report that there is no solution. while (true) do if (E is a final leaf) then -.Compute the approximate cost value CC of each child.H is a min-heap for minimization problems.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 174 The general FIFO B&B algorithm follows: Procedure B&B() begin E: nodepointer. return.

A->J .. while (p is not the root) do Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.2. observe that if X is a pointer to a node. Each node must point to its parent so that when an optimal leaf is generated.We need to fully implement the Expand procedure Every node corresponds to something like X[i]=j. the path from that leaf to the root can be traced and printed out as the optimal solution.. End Take the 2nd CC formula: CC(X at level k) = cost so far + sumni=k+1mi where mi is the minimum of row i. S[1:n]: Boolean.Job J is assigned to person I CC: real.Therefore. -.mX->I Write a piece of code that computes the mis for i=1. Every node must store its CC value.n Code for Expand(E): Procedure Expand(E) begin /* Generate all the children of E. Palai . -. then X->CC = X->Parent->CC + AX->I.person I J: integer. X. a node record structure should look like: Record node Begin Parent: nodepointer.. */ I := E->I. which signifies that the job X[i] assigned to person i is j. I: integer.p: nodepointer..Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 175 We need to define the full record of a node . /* S is a bitmap set initialized to 0*/ /* S will contain all the jobs that have been assigned by the partial path from the root to E */ p := E.

H).The following function produces a complete binary tree of 11 nodes. X->I := I + 1. Insert(X. Palai . X->CC := E->CC + AX->I. if when given a node X and index i it produces the i‘th child of the node. 176 Although a number of algorithms have been proposed for the integer linear programming problem. Fifo B&B Cost-Based Tree Traversal A function can be considered to be a tree generator. X->J := job. the FIFO branch-and-bound technique has proven to be reasonably efficient on practical problems. endif endfor end.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) S[p->J] := 1.X->J-mX->I. and it has the added advantage that it solves continuous linear programs as sub problems. endwhile for job=1 to n do if S[job] = 0 then X := new(node). p := p-> Parent. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.The technique is also used in a lot of software in global optimization. X->Parent := E.

but replace the FIFO queue with a stack (LIFO branch and bound). Replace the FIFO queue with a priority queue (least-cost (or max priority) branch and bound). Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. A generalization to arbitrary cost criteria is the basis for the priority branch-and-bound algorithm.Backtracking may never find a solution because tree depth is infinite (unless repeating configurations are eliminated). The priority of a node p in the queue is based on an estimate of the likelihood that the answer node is in the subtree whose root is p. So it could perform better than backtracking. • Least-cost branch and bound directs the search to parts of the space most likely to contain the answer. we also need a cost function to decide in what order to traverse the nodes when searching for a solution. and a priority queue memory can be employed to realize the function. Initialization: The root of the of the tree is declared to be alive. Search the tree as in a bfs. and its children are inserted into the set. The algorithm proceeds in the following manner. and it can be realized with queue memory. which can be realized with a stack memory. 2. • • • Search the tree using a breadth-first search (FIFO branch and bound). FIFO branch and bound finds solution closest to root.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 177 The recursive function provided for deriving permutations is another example of a function that may be used to generate trees. The children are determined by the tree generator function. Replacement: The chosen node is removed from the set of live nodes. Palai . 1. Besides for a tree generator function. Iteration: The visitation and replacement steps are repeated until no alive nodes are left. 4. Visit: The cost criteria decides which of the live nodes is to process next. 3. A first-in-first-out cost criteria implies the FIFO branch-and-bound algorithm. In the case of backtracking the cost criteria assumes a last-in-first-out (LIFO) function.

While implementing LIFO B&B algorithm it is not economical to kill live nodes with c®> upper each time upper is updated. A general LIFO B&B algorithm : Procedure B&B() begin E: nodepointer.e. these subproblems partition the feasible region. a queue is used. Palai . the bound) from the queue nodes that can be determined to be expensive. Branch and Bound is a general search method. A live node is a node that has not been expanded. the node can be removed from consideration. the lower-bounding and upper-bounding procedures are applied to the root problem.. in the absence of a cost criteria. The algorithm is applied recursively to the subproblems. Otherwise.this is the root node which -. The search proceeds until all nodes have been solved or pruned. or until some specified threshold is met between the best solution found and the lower bounds on all unsolved subproblems. called an approximate cost function CC. the node to be expanded next (i. the algorithm traverses a spanning tree of the solution space using the breadth-first approach. In such a case. Therefore. the feasible region is divided into two or more regions. no globally optimal solution can exist in the subspace of the feasible region represented by the node. If an optimal solution is found to a subproblem. A predictor. A priority queue is needed here. If a cost criteria is available. Each solution is assumed to be expressible as an array X[1:n] (as was seen in Backtracking). Starting by considering the root problem (the original problem with the complete feasible region). A counter-part of the backtracking search algorithm which.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 178 LIFO BRANCH AND BOUND ALGORITHM LIFO branch and bound algorithm for the job sequencing problem can begin with upper= infinity. it is a feasible solution to the full problem. That is. -. then an optimal solution has been found and the procedure terminates. If the lower bound for a node exceeds the best known feasible solution. is assumed to have been defined. E := new(node). but not necessarily globally optimal.A dead node is a node that has been expanded..e.If the bounds match. the branch) is the one with the best cost within the queue. and the nodes are processed in firstin-first-out order.is the dummy start node Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. the cost function may also be used to discard (i. The expanded node (or E-node for short) is the live node with the best CC value.

if (H is empty) then report that there is no solution. Each node must point to its parent so that when an optimal leaf is generated. Every node must store its CC value. a node record structure should look like: Record node Begin Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.Insert each child into the heap H.Therefore. -. return.A heap for all the live nodes 179 -. end We need to define the full record of a node . Palai .Compute the approximate cost value CC of each child.H is a min-heap for minimization problems. endif Expand(E). return. endwhile end Procedure Expand(E) begin .We need to fully implement the Expand procedure Every node corresponds to something like X[i]=j. -.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) H: heap. which signifies that the job X[i] assigned to person i is j.E is an optimal solution print out the path from E to the root. . .and a max-heap for maximization problems. while (true) do if (E is a final leaf) then -.Generate all the children of E. the path from that leaf to the root can be traced and printed out as the optimal solution. endif E := delete-top(H).

Palai . Lifo B&B Cost-Based Tree Traversal A function can be considered to be a tree generator.n Although a number of algorithms have been proposed for the integer linear programming problem. then X->CC = X->Parent->CC + AX->I.2. The recursive function provided for deriving permutations is another example of a function that may be used to generate trees. -.. -.A->J . the LIFO branch-and-bound technique has proven to be reasonably efficient on practical problems. and it has the added advantage that it solves continuous linear programs as sub problems.mX->I Write a piece of code that computes the mis for i=1.The following function produces a complete binary tree of 11 nodes. End 180 Take the 2nd CC formula: CC(X at level k) = cost so far + sumni=k+1mi where mi is the minimum of row i. if when given a node X and index i it produces the i‘th child of the node.person I J: integer. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET..The technique is also used in a lot of software in global optimization. observe that if X is a pointer to a node.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) Parent: nodepointer.Job J is assigned to person I CC: real.. I: integer..

Palai . and it can be realized with queue memory. A generalization to arbitrary cost criteria is the basis for the priority branch-and-bound algorithm. • Least-cost branch and bound directs the search to parts of the space most likely to contain the answer. Visit: The cost criteria decides which of the live nodes is to process next.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 181 Besides for a tree generator function. and its children are inserted into the set. LIFO branch and bound finds solution closest to root. 7. Iteration: The visitation and replacement steps are repeated until no alive nodes are left. Replacement: The chosen node is removed from the set of live nodes. and a priority queue memory can be employed to realize the function. Initialization: The root of the of the tree is declared to be alive. 5. The children are determined by the tree generator function. Replace the FIFO queue with a priority queue (least-cost (or max priority) branch and bound). In the case of backtracking the cost criteria assumes a last-in-first-out (LIFO) function. The algorithm proceeds in the following manner. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. A last-in-first-out cost criteria implies the LIFO branch-and-bound algorithm. but replace the FIFO queue with a stack (LIFO branch and bound). The priority of a node p in the queue is based on an estimate of the likelihood that the answer node is in the subtree whose root is p.Backtracking may never find a solution because tree depth is infinite (unless repeating configurations are eliminated). which can be realized with a stack memory. • • • Search the tree using a breadth-first search (FIFO branch and bound). So it could perform better than backtracking. we also need a cost function to decide in what order to traverse the nodes when searching for a solution. Search the tree as in a bfs. 8. 6.

} Algorithm LCSearch(t) //Search t for an answer node.//Pointer for path to root } If there are no more live nodes then { Write(―No answer node‖). Repeat { for each child x of E do { If x is an answer node then output the path from x to t and return.//x is a new live node. } E:=Least(). //E-node Initalize the list of live nodes to be empty.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 182 LC CONTROL ABSTRACTION listnode= record { Listnode *next. }until(false). } Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. { If *t is an answer node then output t and return E:=t. Float cost.*parent. Add(x). Palai . (x->parent):=E.return.

the puzzle is called the 8-puzzle or 9puzzle. Theorem: The goal state is reachavle from intial state iff ∑16 i=1less(i)+x is even. The n-puzzle is known in various versions. the 15 puzzle. If the size is 3×3. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. The object of the puzzle is to place the tiles in order (see diagram) by making sliding moves that use the empty space. and if 4×4.Let position(i) be the position number in the intial state of the tile numbered i. and with various names. but for others. the puzzle is called the 15-puzzle or 16-puzzle. including the 8 puzzle. The goal is to reposition the squares from a given arbitrary starting arrangement by sliding them one at a time into the configuration shown above. this rearrangement is possible. It is a sliding puzzle that consists of a frame of numbered square tiles in random order with one tile missing. For some initial arrangements.PUZZLE The 15 puzzle consists of 15 squares numbered from 1 to 15 that are placed in a box leaving one position out of the 16 empty. it is not.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 183 15. Palai . For any state let less(i) be the number of tiles j such that j<I and position(j)>position(i).

Palai .Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 184 First ten steps in depth first search Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

j)} giving the length of edge (i. visits each city exactly once and returns to the first city. the distance from one city to the other need not equal the distance in the other direction. the underlying structure is an undirected graph between. such that the distance traveled is as small as possible.W) consisting of a set N of n nodes (or cities). and the concept distance represents travelling times or cost. The graph is directed. such as planning. logistics. or a similarity measure between DNA fragments. and the manufacture of microchips. so that an Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.j)} connecting cities. In the asymmetric TSP. or DNA fragments.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 185 TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM The Travelling Salesman problem (TSP) is a problem in combinatorial optimization studied in operations research and theoretical computer science. In these applications. The TSP has several applications even in its purest formulation. each tour has the same length in both directions. and it is widely believed that no polynomial time algorithm exists.j) (distance from city i to city j). The goal is to find a tour which starts at the first city. Given a list of cities and their pairwise distances. i. Thus. we want to compute an approximate solution. Slightly modified. no serial algorithm exists that runs in time polynomial in n. In practice.e. especially. Asymmetric and symmetric In the symmetric TSP. the concept city represents. the distance between two cities is the same in each direction. i. customers. it appears as a sub-problem in many areas. Palai . we are given a graph G=(N. soldering points. It is used as a benchmark for many optimization methods. a set of edges V = {(i. only in time exponential in n. a single tour whose length is as short as possible.e. the task is to find a shortest possible tour that visits each city exactly once. such as genome sequencing.V. for example. Problem: You are given a list of n cities along with the distances between each pair of cities. More formally. and a set of nonnegative weights W = {w(i. in general. there may not even be a connection in the other direction. This problem is known to be NP-complete . in a given amount of time.

j) does not necessarily equal w(j. i2. wB ) = Best_S_so_far if k = n then new_w = w + w(ik.. [ i1.. and edge (j.. ik ].. . . [ i1... i2. Naive Branch-and-Bound Solution of TSP w = w(1. . there is no reason to continue searching that path. . Palai ..j) if new_w < wB then New_S = ( k+1. + w(n-1.2) + w(2... inB ]. i2. Branch-and-Bound for TSP A simple improvement on the algorithm prunes the search tree by observing that if a partial tour is already longer than the best solution found so far.. Best_S_so_far ) print Best_S_so_far procedure Search( S. [ 1. i2. . 0 ) Search( S. 3. .3) + w(3. Similarly. 2. w ) S = ( 1. ik ]. ..i1) if new_w < wB then Best_S_so_far = ( k. new_w ) Search( New_S.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 186 edge (i. [ i1. i2B.i). n ]. [ i1B. . j ].i) may or may not exist. if both edges exist..1) Best_S_so_far = ( n. Best_S_so_far ) end if end for endif return end Better Branch and Bound Algorithm for TSP Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. n-1. w(i. . ik ] new_w = w + w(ik. new_w ) end if else for all j not in [ i1. Best_S_so_far ) let ( k.n) + w(n.. w ) = S let ( n. [ 1 ]. ik.4) + . . . .j) may only be traversed in the direction from i to j..

Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 187 Another strategy for searching the solution space is to repeatedly divide it into two parts: those with a given edge and those without the edge. We therefore normalize the matrix by subtracting the minimum value in each row from the row and the minimum value of each column from the column.---------.----------- Bounding the solutions: Assume the input is given as a dense adjacency matrix. as long as the values remain nonnegative. but not the set of legal tours or their relative weights.---------. rather than zeros on the diagonal to avoid traversing these self-edges.----------| with e_j | | w/out e_j | | with e_k | | w/out e_k | ----------. We will put infinities. This changes the weight of each tour.---------. This results in a matrix with at least one zero in every row and column. i\j 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 \ ________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 |Inf 3 93 77 13 42 36 33 21 16 56 9 16 28 7 25 57 34 25 91 57 7 | 4 Inf | 45 | 39 | 28 | 3 | 44 17 Inf 90 46 88 26 80 Inf 88 18 33 33 Inf 46 92 Inf 27 84 39 Inf We can subtract a constant from a given row or column. Palai . The search tree would unfold as follows: ----------| all solns | ----------/ ---------------| solns with e_i | ---------------/ \ \ ----------------| solns w/out e_i | ----------------/ \ ----------.---------. i\j 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 \ ________________________________________ 1 2 3 |Inf 0 83 66 9 37 19 30 17 0 6 12 12 50 26 5 | 0 Inf | 29 1 Inf Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.

its entry is changed to infinity so that it will never be chosen. When an edge is eliminated from the solution. we subtracted [3 4 16 7 25 3 26] from the rows and then [0 0 7 1 0 0 4] from the columns. so it remains unchanged.4) is no longer usable. The minimum value in row 4 is now 32. In the above example.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 4 5 6 7 | 32 | 3 | 0 | 18 83 21 85 0 66 Inf 56 8 0 49 0 0 80 28 0 188 7 Inf 42 0 89 Inf 58 13 Inf Any solution must use one entry from every row and every column. Representing the set of solutions: The adjacency matrix can be used to represent the set of solutions. so the lower bound on the weight of any solution is 96. edge (6. yielding a lower bound of 96+3=99 and the matrix: i\j 1 2 3 4 5 7 \ __________________________________ 1 |Inf 0 83 9 30 50 Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.6). so we can renormalize the matrix and improve the lower bound to 96+32 = 128. Palai .4) with infinity. since we have used edge (4. so the sum of the values we just subtracted is a lower bound on the weight of solution.The matrix can now be renormalized. we replace the (4. For the right subtree. in this case by subtracting 3 from the row with i=5 (now the 4th row in the smaller matrix).6). In this case. When an edge is chosen for the solution. which represents all solutions not containing (4. We therefore delete row 4 and column 6 from the matrix and renormalize. so we replace the (6. The matrix for the right subtree is: i\j 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 \ ________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 |Inf 0 83 66 9 37 19 30 17 0 6 12 12 50 26 5 48 28 0 | 0 Inf | 29 | 0 | 3 | 0 | 18 1 Inf 51 21 85 0 34 Inf 56 8 0 17 Inf 0 7 Inf 42 0 89 Inf 58 13 Inf The left subtree represents all solutions containing (4.6) entry by infinity. In addition.6). assume we choose to split the search space on the edge from 4 to 6. Column 6 has another 0 entry. the row and column containing that edge is deleted.

we are trying to avoid the creation of non-covering cycles in the tour.5). Following the right branch. and (2. all cycles were prevented by marking (6. but the improvement in the lower bound for that case would have been only 1 (for row 3) plus 17 (for column 5). Following the left branches we are guaranteed to reach some solution in n levels. For the example above. not counting the zero at (i. Therefore. There are other zero entries in the matrix. cycles that traverse only a subset of the nodes. for example.e. (3. At this point the partial solution contains three disconnected paths. we noted that edge (j. In the example.6). In general.2) as infinity.j)). we look for something that will raise the lower bound of the right-hand subtree as much as possible. edge (4. Palai .i) should be made infinity. the general rule is to search for the zero entry at (i. at which point the lower bound Choice of the splitting edge: In general..Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 2 3 5 6 7 | 0 Inf | 29 | 0 | 0 | 18 66 37 19 17 0 26 5 25 0 189 1 Inf 18 85 0 53 4 Inf 89 8 Inf 0 0 58 Inf The process outlined so far can be used by repeatedly following these steps. in choosing the splitting edge.1). Therefore. Insertion of infinities in left-branches: When expanding a left branch in the search tree for edge (i. Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET. (5.j).j) that maximizes the increase in the lower bound (largest sum of minimum in row i and minimum in column j. and (1. (3. i.6) was chosen because its value was zero and the next larger value in row 4 was 32.3).4).5). the right branches represent a larger set of solutions than the left branches. we will eventually have a matrix full of infinities. assume that the left-most search path unfolds with the following edge splits: (4.

1)| -----------\ ------------| w/out (3.Algorithm Analysis and Design (R 606) 190 ----------| all solns | ----------/ -----------| with (4.1)| -----------\ -----------| w/out (2.6) step.1) should be changed to infinity. at this point the adjacency matrix does not contain a row for 4. However.5)| ------------\ ------------| w/out (4. since it was removed with the (4. Palai .5)| -----------/ -----------| with (2.4). Department of Computer Science & Engineering SJCET.6)| ------------- The next choice of splitting edge is (1. the partial solution is now: 2-1-4-6 &3-5. Moreover. so according to our above rule (4.6)| -----------/ -----------| with (3.

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