The jakhe (Thai: จ ะ เ ข้ , pronounced [tɕa.kʰêː], RTGS: chakhe, deriving from the word chorakhe, จระเข้ , meaning "crocodile") is a plucked zither used in Thai music. It is made of wood in a stylized crocodile shape and is approximately 20 cm high and 140 cm long. Its highest two strings are made of silk yarn or nylon and lowest is made of brass. It has raised frets made of bamboo, which are affixed to the fretboard with wax or glue. The player uses his or her left hand on the fretboard while plucking the string by his right hand with a tapered plectrum made from ivory or water buffalo horn, which is tied to the player's index finger. The instrument has a buzzing sound due to the fact that the strings are raised just off the flat bridge by a sliver of bamboo or other thin material such as plastic. The jakhe is similar to the Cambodian krapeu (takhe), the Burmese mi gyaung. and the Mon kyam.

The saw u (Thai: ซ อ อ้้ , pronounced [sɔː ʔûː], RTGS: so u, also spelled saw ou) is a Thai bowed string instrument. It has a lower pitch than the saw duang. Its soundbox is made from a coconut shell that is covered on the front by cowskin. It is held vertically and has two silk strings that are played with a bow. The bow is between the strings so a player has to tilt the bow to play each string. The bridge is usually made up of rolled up cardboard paper. The saw u is a very fragile instrument. The saw u is similar to the Cambodian tro u and the Chinese yehu.

The khim (Thai: ขิ ม , Thai pronunciation: [kʰǐm]; Khmer:) is a hammered dulcimer from Thailand and Cambodia. It is made of wood and trapezoidal in shape, with brass strings that are laid across the instrument. There are 14 groups of strings on the khim, and each group has 3 strings. Overall, the khim has a total of 42 strings. It is played with two flexible bamboo sticks with soft leather at the tips to produce the soft tone. It is used as both a solo and ensemble instrument. The instrument was introduced to Thailand and Cambodia from China, where a similar (though, since the late 20th century, usually larger) instrument is called yangqin; the khimproduces a significantly softer sound. Traditional khims have two bridges, though in the late 20th century some players began using larger instruments with more bridges. The Australian-born musician and vocal artist Lisa Gerrard specialises in the use of a khim hammered dulcimer, featuring its music on several albums and performing with the instrument live on tour.

Glong khaek (Thai: ก ล อ ง แ ข ก , pronounced [klɔːŋ kʰɛ̀ːk], RTGS: klong khaek) is a type of double-headed barrel drumused in Thai music. The instrument's name comes from glong (meaning "drum") and khaek (meaning "Indian" or "Malay"). There are two types of glong khaek: glong khaek tua phu (which is considered to be male) (Thai: กลองแขกตัวผ้้) and glong khaek tua mia (female) (Thai: กลองแขกตัวเมีย). They are always played in a pair, usually by two players, although if two players are not available a single player may play both drums. The two drums fit their beats together in hocket, or interlocking form. Both drumheads are played with the hands, like the glong songna. The glong khaek tua phu has a higher pitch and the glong khaek tua mia has a lower pitch.

The khong mon (Thai: ฆ้ อ งมอญ, pronounced [kʰɔ́ːŋ mɔːn]) is a gong-circle instrument that is associated with theMon people of mainland Southeast Asia. It produces the same range of pitches as the more common khong wonggong circle, but rather than resting on the ground, the wooden frame of the khong mon extends into the air in the shape of a horseshoe. The image of a half-man, half-bird figure carved onto the frame is traditional, and is meant to symbolize a celestial musician. The frame is also typically decorated lavishly in gold paint and glass inlay. Khong mon are featured in a special type of Thai ensemble called pi phat, which plays pi phat mon or pi phat nang hong into the mainstream of traditional Thai music as well; pi phat mon or pi phat nang hong is usually performed by Thai musicians.


The ranat ek (Thai: ร ะ น า ด เ อ ก , pronounced [ranâːt ʔèːk], "alto xylophone") is a Thai xylophone. It has 21 or 22 wooden bars suspended by cords over a boat-shaped trough resonator, and is played with two mallets. It is used as a leading instrument in the piphat ensemble. The ranat ek is played by two types of mallets. The hard mallets create the sharp bright sound when they keys are hit.The hard mallets are used for more faster playing. The soft mallets create a mellow and more softer tone which is used for slower songs. Ranat ek bars are typically made from rosewood (Dalbergia oliveri; Thai: ไม้ ชิ ง ชั น ; mai ching chan), although in rare instances instruments with bamboo bars can be found. Some ranat ek players are able to play two instruments at the same time, placed at right angles to each other. The ranat ek is very similar to a Cambodian xylophone called roneat ek.


The ching (Khmer: ឈឹង; Thai: ฉิ่ ง , IPA: [tɕʰìŋ]; sometimes romanized as chhing) are small bowl-shaped fingercymbals of thick and heavy bronze, with a broad rim commonly used in Cambodia and Thailand. They are made of an alloy (mixture of iron, copper, and gold) mixed with bronze. They measure about 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter and are joined together with a cord, which passes through a small hole at the apex of each one of them. Each cymbal of the pair is held in one hand and the two are struck together. The ching are the timekeepers of the ensemble. While cymbals, in general, are used for various occasions (ritual, martial, theater, and at war), the Khmer peopleuse them purely in theater, dance, and music contexts. They produce open and closed sounds—chhing andchhepp—marked respectively by the signs (o) and (+) in transcriptions. To produce the open sound—chhing—the cymbal in the right hand hits the other in the left with an outward sliding motion, while the closed sound—chhepp—is produced by hitting both cymbals and holding them together; thus dampening the sound. The chhing and chheppor open and closed sounds of the ching mark the unaccented (o) and accented (+) beats in the actual music making.


Angklung is a musical instrument made out of two bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame. The tubes are carved so that they have a resonant pitch when struck. The two tubes are tuned tooctaves. The base of the frame is held with one hand while the other hand shakes the instrument rapidly from side to side. This causes a rapidly repeating note to sound. Thus each of three or more angklung performers in an ensemble will play just one note and together complete melodies are produced. Angklung is popular throughout Southeast Asia, but originated fromIndonesia and it has been used and played by the Sundanese since the ancient times.


The Goblet drum (also Chalice drum, Darbuka or Doumbek) is a goblet shaped hand drum used mostly in music originating in countries near the Middle East. Its thin, responsive drumhead and resonance help it produce a distinctively crisp sound. Though it is not known exactly when these drums were first made, they are known to be of ancient origin. Traditionally, goblet drums may be made of clay, metal, or wood. Modern goblet drums are also sometimes made of synthetic materials, including fiberglass. Modern metal drums are commonly made of aluminum (either cast, spun, or formed from a sheet) or copper. Some aluminum drums may have a mother-of-pearl inlay, which is purely decorative. Traditional drum heads were animal skin, commonly goat and also fish. Modern drums commonly use synthetic materials for drum heads, including mylar and fiberglass.

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