English Jamshoro.

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Chapter 2 STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF LIFE
The cell is the basic unit of life. It is the smallest entity in which the life can exist. All the things that living organism can do are done by its cells. In fact some living things are made up of only one cell. Each cell gets food for energy, obtains oxygen, produces energy, gets rid of wastes, maintains homeostasis and produces new cells. How are all these life activities carried out? The answer can be found by examining the composition and working of its parts. Learning objectives: Cell as a basic unit of living organism. Discovery of cell and cell theory. Concepts of light microscopy and electron microscopy. Microscopic and Ultramicroscopic structure of plant and animal cells. Structure and functions of different cell structures. Concept of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells and their differences. Reproduction of cell, different methods. Mitosis and Meiosis and their significances. Three level of organization in living organism i.e. tissues, organs and system. Types of plant tissues, simple and compound tissues, their further classification and function in different parts of plant body. Types of animal tissues, epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissues, structure of these in relation to their function. Unicellular organization, Amoeba a unicellular organism. Multicellular organization. Brassica as multicellular organization, with root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit and seed as their parts. Frog as multicellular organization with digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, nervous and reproductive organs and systems. Cell is as fundamental to biology as an atom is to chemistry. All organisms are made of cells, which behave as basic unit of their structure and function. The contraction of muscle cells moves your eyes as you read this book; when you decide to turn this page, nerve cells will transmit that decision from your brain to the muscle cells of your hand so every thing performed by organism is fundamentally occurring at the cellular level. 2.1 DISCOVERY OF CELL AND CELL THEORY In early classes we have studied that all living organisms are composed of cells. The question arises here how did biologist come to know that, obviously through observations. These observations started with the discovery of magnifying glasses and later on with the development of microscope. (Latin word micro = small; skopion = to see). In 1610 Galileo, an Italian astronomer and physicist developed microscope to observe small organisms. In 1665, Robert Hook made an improved microscope by combining lenses, called compound microscope and examined a slice of cork under it. He found small honey comb like chambers, which reminded him small rooms of monastery and are said cellula in Italian, so he also named these structures as cellulae or cell (small rooms). The cork was made from bark of oak, so he actually saw the cell-wall only. in 1842, Dutrochet, boiled plant material in nitric acid and then examined under microscope. It was found to consists of cells. In 1831, Robert Brown discovered a spherical body, the nucleus in the cells of orchids. Schleiden (1838) a German botanist, proposed that all plants are made up of cells. Next year another German Zoologist, Theoder Schwann stated that all animals are made up of cells. He

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observed nuclei in all types of animal cells but failed to observe cell-wall in them. From here the difference between plant and animal cell started to establish. In 1858, Rudolf Virchow stated that new cells come only from other cells i.e animals cells come from animal cell and plant cells from plant cell. The combined efforts of Schleiden, Schwann and R.Virchow finally gave rise to cell theory. The salient features of the cell theory are as under: i) ii) iii) All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. The cell is the smallest, basic structural and functional unit of all organisms. New cells are formed by the division of pre-existing cells.

2.2 LIGHT MICROSCOPY AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY The evolution of biology as well as science often parallels the invention of instruments that extend human senses to new limits. The discovery and early study of cells progressed with the invention and improvement of visual instrument, like microscope. Microscopes of various types are still important tools for the study of cells. Resolution Resolution is the capacity to separate adjacent objects. Resolution is maintained upto certain magnification. Resolution improves as the wave length of illumination become shorter. Magnification Magnification is a means of increasing size of the object. By increasing magnification resolution is disturbed. Magnification improves with the focal length of lens.

The microscopes first used by scientist, as well as the microscope you use in the biology laboratory are light microscopes. These microscope use visible light as the source of illumination and glass lenses for magnification. These lenses reflect the light in a way that the image of the specimen is magnified as it is projected into the human eye. The light microscope can magnify the object upto 1000 times but its resolving power is very limited, i.e just 0.2µm (Resolving power is a measure of the clarity of the image). In 1935, a new type of power full microscope called Electron microscope was invented by scientist to improve the resolving power of microscope. It uses a beam of electron as a source of illumination. The electron beam increases its resolving power. Modern electron microscope can achieve a resolution of about 0.2 nm, a thousand times improvement over light microscope. The electron microscope uses electromagnet as lenses instead of glass lenses. This image cannot focus in human eye, therefore screen or photographic plates are used to review and focus these images. Units of measurement 1 centimeter (cm) = 10-2 meter. 1 millimeter (mm) - 10-3 meter. 1 micrometer (µm) =10-6 meter. 1 nanometer (nm) = 10-9 meter. Electron microscopes reveals many organelles that are impossible to be seen with the light microscope. But the light microscope has many advantages especially for the study of live cells. In electron microscopy, chemicals and physical methods are used to prepare sample which kills cells.

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It gives a definite shape to the cell. The threads of chromatin become prominent during cell-division. cytoplasm. cell membrane consists of lipid (Phospho-lipid) bilayer. characteristic of living things. chloroplast etc. 2. the first wall of plant cell is chemically composed of cellulose and pectin.Structural and Functional unit: Microscopic studies reveal that all living organisms are composed of cells. 2. The nucleoplasm contains nucleoli and a network of thread like structures called chromatin network. Bacterial cell-wall is made up of protein and carbohydrate while fungal cell wall is made up of fungal cellulose and chitin. Middle lamella is formed between the primary walls of neighbouring cells. it is also called unit membrane. In animal cell it is usually present in the center but in plant cell. Therefore. nucleus. plasma membrane itself is surrounded by a cell-wall.mynoteslibrary. Cell. It is not found in animal cell. Cell-wall provides protection and support to the cell. Ultra microscopic structure of cell-wall shows that cellulose make the fibers which are arranged in criss cross manner. It is composed of three main layers: middle lamella. In plant cell. inspite of variation found in their shape. Therefore. in which protein molecules float like iceberg in the sea. Nucleus is enveloped by a double membrane called nuclearmembrane. In plant cell it is mainly composed of cellulose and pectin. Primary wall. taking in materials in the form of vacuoles. The most acceptable model among them is Fluid mosaic model presented by Singer and Nicholson (1972). It controls all the activities of cell.1 Cell . This basic structure is found in all the membranes of mitochondria. All basic functional activities. Cell-wall: Cell-wall is the non living.English Jamshoro. outermost boundary of plant cells. some limes. 2. 3. therefore. This process is called endocytosis. Nucleus or Karyon: Nucleus (discovered by Robert Brown in 1831) is an important arid prominent structure present inside the cell. These fibers are kept in their position by a cementing material called calcium pectate (Pectin). secondary wall and some times tertiary wall.membrane: The cell-membrane or plasma membrane surrounds nucleus and cytoplasm in all types of cells. it is permeable in nature. Therefore. 1. However in bacteria and plants. It is secreted by the protoplasm of the plant cell. due to presence of large vacuole it is pushed towards cellmembrane. occur in the cell. as they have to perform different functions.3 BASIC STRUCTURE OF CELL Cells are of different shapes and size according to their functions. Sindh Text Book Board. cell-membrane is surrounded by a cell-wall.com 19 . primary wall.3. According to it. This membrane possesses large number of nuclear pores. lignin. In many animal cells the cell membrane infolds. It also performs the function of transport of material from outside to inside or vice versa. Nucleus is filled with a gel like substance called nucleoplasm. Thickness of cell-wall varies in different cells of plant. cell is a unit of structure of living organisms. It may be spherical or irregular in shape. It can repair itself to some extent. cell is also a unit of function of all living organisms. all cells basically share many structures in common like cell membrane. Cells are of different shapes and sizes. Different models have been presented to understand the structure of cell membrane. DNA plays significant role in the Book arranged by www. They are composed of Deoxyribo nucleic acid (DNA) and protein. etc. Cell membrane is a selectively permeable membrane because it regulates selective movement of molecules. Each thread is called chromosome. bacterial cells and fungal cells. These structures of major importance.

The channels seem to be in contact with plasma membrane as well as nuclear membrane. Golgi complex: They were discovered by Camillo Golgi and thus called Golgi complex or bodies or apparatus". Golgi bodies are mainly concerned with the cell secretions. Cells of organism Man Frog Chimpanzee Drosophila (fruit fly) Onion Potato Garden pea No. 3. glycoproteins and enzymes. Chemically cytoplasm is about 90% water and forms a solution and serves as store house of vital chemicals. Endoplasmic reticulum: (Endo= inside. It detoxifies the harmful effects of drugs.com 20 . They are set of smooth membranes that are stacked into flattened. 1. inheritance of characters as well as in controlling or regulating the cell activities. Endoplasmic reticulum plays important role in the synthesis and transport of material within the cell. Mitochondria contain enzymes which break the food for the production of energy.mynoteslibrary. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum.English Jamshoro. 6. It is a network of membranous channels or tubules extending throughout the cytoplasm. Many reactions can occur at the same time in different regions of the cytoplasm. Some important cytoplasmic organelles found in eukaryotic cells. fluid filled sacs or vesicles containing carbohydrate. Golgi complex Plastids Ribosomes 1. glycolysis etc. 3. plasma = protoplasm. 4. 2. It also provides mechanical support to the cell so that its shape is maintained. Sindh Text Book Board. It consists of an aqueous ground substance called cytosol and granular portion called cytoplasmic organelles. It is a site of metabolic reactions like protein synthesis. of Chromosomes 46 26 48 08 16 48 14 4. Mitochondria (Sing. The number of chromosomes in the cells of all individual of the same species always remains constant. Cytoplasm: It is the translucent fluid portion of the cell lying in between plasma membrane and nucleus. These infoldings are called cristae while the fluid present inside is called matrix. i) Rough endoplasmic reticulum having ribosomes at its outer surface which are involved in protein synthesis. The number of mitochondria in cell relates to its activities. mitochondrion): They are generally rod-like or bean shaped organelles consisting of double membrane. 5. reticulum=net work). Plastids: Book arranged by www. As producers of energy they are called Power house of the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondria Centrioles Vacuoles 2. 7. ii) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum without ribosome. 4. The inner membrane is folded.

Book arranged by www. Respiratory enzymes are located on the inner surface of the cell Eukaryotic cell A double nuclear membrane is present. Plants and animals are composed of this type of cells and are called eukaryotic organisms. Ribosomes are of small size and freely scattered in cytoplasm. They serve as sites where proteins are synthesized hence called protein factories of cell. They form fibrous protein spindle which help in movement of chromosomes towards poles during animal cell division. Eukaryotic (eu: true.e. Such organisms are called prokaryotic organisms. 5. Sindh Text Book Board.11) i) Chloroplasts have green pigment i.R. 6. the centrosome is present near the nucleus in animal cells. 6. 1. It means its nuclear material is not enclosed in a proper nuclear membrane. These are the organelles which contain different types of pigments. They do not have many of the membrane bound structures e. ii) Chromoplast have coloured pigments other than green found in fruit. They are concerned with storage of cell sap.4 PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELL There are two types of cells. Prokaryotes have prokaryotic cell while eukaryotes have eukaryotic cells. chlorophyll found in leaves and other green parts of a plant. Each centriole consists of a cylindrical array of 9 rows of microtubules. Ribosome: They are granules. Nucleoplasm is absent. flower. 3. Plastids are of three types on the basis of their pigment or colour (Fig: 2.g.English Jamshoro.12). rich in ribonucleic acid (RNA). 5. They have well defined nucleus. Plastids are found in the cells of all the higher plants. Ribosomes are of large size and present either on endoplasmic reticulum or free in cytoplasm. found in the cells of underground parts of plants. 2. 4. one or a few in number. small but temporary structures while in plant cell they are permanent and very large in size. 4. 6. A centrosome contains two centrioles (Fig: 2. Single chromosome is found. Vacuole: They are the fluid (other than cytoplasm) filled sacs surrounded by a membrane called tonoplast. 5. In animal cell they are numerous. Nucleoplasm is present Proper chromosomes in diploid numbers are present. Golgi apparatus etc. These types of cells are found in bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue green algae). 2. They manufacture carbohydrates by the process of photosynthesis. They are found free in cytoplasm as well as attached on the surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum. 3. Respiratory enzymes are 1. Followings are the differences found between them.mynoteslibrary. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cell Nuclear membrane is absent therefore prokaryotic cells do not possess distinct nucleus. Prokaryotic (pro: before. 2. mitochondria E. karyon: nucleus) cell does not possess true nucleus. Centrosome and Centrioles: A rounded structure. petals and other coloured parts of plants . They have membrane bounded structures (organelles). karyon: nucleus) cell possesses proper nucleus where nuclear material is enclosed in a proper nuclear membrane. They store food in the form of starch.com 21 . iii) Leucoplast (leucos = white or colourless) are colourless. 7.

Anaphase and Telophase. 8. membrane. Each chromosome at this stage is already double. The centrioles are absent in plant cells. thread like structures called chromosomes.e. These cells are simple and comparatively smaller in size i. 7. consists of two chromatids. This is followed by division of the cytoplasm. In this way two daughter nuclei are formed in each cell. Anaphase: In this phase the centromere of a chromosome divides and the chromatids of each chromosome separates from each other and begin to move towards opposite poles. each moves towards the opposite pole of the cell and forms the spindle fibres. During this process the nucleus divides first. Sindh Text Book Board. Metaphase: During this phase each chromosome arranges itself on the equator of the spindle. These cells are complex and comparatively larger in size i.5 CELL DIVISION Cells reproduce and increase in number by division. i. This nuclear division is called Karyokinesis (karyon=nucleus. The nuclear membrane is reformed around each set of chromosomes. kinesis = division) while the cytoplasmic division is called Cytokinesis. Each chromosome is attached to separate spindle fibre by its centromere. Thus two daughter cells arise from a single division of a cell. The nucleus of each daughter cell contains the same ii) iii) iv) Book arranged by www. algae. Metaphase.e. After growing to a certain maximum size. its karyokinesis can be divided for convenience into four phases which are Prophase. In this way one set of the chromatids (each chromatid is now an independent chromosome) move towards one pole while the other set towards the other pole. present in mitochondria. Telophase: This is a stage when the chromatids (now called chromosomes) reach the poles and their movement ceases. There are two main types of cell division found in living organisms. (1) Mitosis (2) Meiosis 1.English Jamshoro. animal and plants are examples of eukaryotes. 7. 10l00nm in diameter average. average 0. 2. The nuclear membrane gradually disappears and at the same time centrosome divides to form two centrioles.com 22 . Soon the cytoplasm of the cell also divides and two daughter cells arise. a cell may undergo the process of cell division.e. Bacteria and cyanobacteria are examples of prokaryotes. Each pole receives the same number of chromosomes as were present in the parent cell.5 -l0nm in diameter. i) Prophase: During early prophase chromatin material condenses and becomes visible as thick coiled. Although mitosis is a continuous process. Let us now study mitosis is an animal cell. The chromatids are attached to each other at centromere. 8. Mitosis: In this type of cell division a parent cell divides into two daughter cells in a way that the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells remains the same as in the parent cell. Fungi.mynoteslibrary.

chromosome number as in their parent cell. Meiosis: Meiosis or reduction cell-division is a special type of cell-division S| which a parent cell finally divides into four daughter cells in a way that the number of chromosome in each daughter cell reduce to half of their parent cell. The difference between mitosis and meiosis starts at this point. Anaphase I: The members of the homologous pairs now begin to separate and move towards the opposite poles. (a) Meiosis I . It is responsible for development and growth of organisms by increasing exact copies of cells.Thus. Metaphase I: During this phase pairs of homologous chromosomes arrange themselves on the equator of the spindle. This exchange is called crossing over. Homologous chromosomes occur in pairs. the cytoplasm also divides and two daughter cells are formed.com 23 . Thus it is the reduction of the diploid (2n) number of chromosomes to the haploid (n) number.mynoteslibrary. The nuclear membrane disappears and at the same time spindle fibres are formed. 2. the first meiotic division reduces the 2n (diploid-2 sets) chromosomes to n (haploid-half or one set). it is the homologous pair and not the individual chromosomes which attach at separate fibre of the spindle. ii) iii) iv) (b) Meiosis II .First meiotic division or Reduction Phase: This division consists of the following phases.English Jamshoro.Second meiotic division or Equational Division: During second meiotic division the details are almost similar to those seen in mitosis. With few exceptions all kinds of asexual reproduction and vegetative propagation take place by mitosis. In this way the daughter cells are exact copies of their parent cell. such as blood cells depends on mitosis. repair of wear and tear within organism is also dependent upon the mitotic division. Each daughter cell has half (haploid) the number of chromosomes present in the parent cell (compared with the cell in prophase) . The healing of wounds. spindles are formed and the nuclear membrane Book arranged by www. Homologous chromosomes join to exchange their parts at certain places. The production of new somatic cells.Second meiotic division or meiotic mitotic phase (a) Meiosis I . In each homologous pair. since each member (chromosome) of the pair has already doubled itself. Telophase I: In this phase the chromosomes come to rest at the poles. In animals meiosis produces gametes (sperms and eggs) while in plants it gives rise to spores. During prophase. On completion of nuclear division. i) Prophase I: Those chromosomes in the cell which 'are similar to each other in shape and size are called homologous chromosomes. The nuclear membranes are reformed around each set of chromosomes resulting in formation of two daughter nuclei. there are four chromatids. Significance of mitosis: Mitosis plays an important role in the life of an organism.First meiotic division or reduction phase (b) Meiosis II . The process of meiosis involves two consecutive divisions. Unlike mitosis. In mitosis individual chromosomes remain separate from each other while in meiosis the homologous chromosomes come together and form pairs. Sindh Text Book Board. During crossing over exchange of genetic material takes place and new combination of genes result.

Meiosis is responsible for genetic variability i. ORGANS AND ORGAN SYSTEM So far you have learnt about the cell as the basic structural and functional unit of life. disappears. This genetic variability provides the basis of evolution by providing raw material for it. ii) Permanent tissue: Permanent tissue is formed from meristematic cells. In some cases.6 ORGANIZATION OP CELLS TO FORM TISSUES. They represent single cells capable of independent existence by making use of their organelles. Sindh Text Book Board. The question now is how can a cell express itself as an independent living thing? You know that some small organisms (Amoeba) are made of only one cell These organisms are called unicellular organisms. 2.e. When the haploid male gamete (sperm) fertilizes i. Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma. Once capable of independent existence.e. the cell has become an organism. This tissue is different from meristematic tissue because its cells do not divide. Both have laid down the foundation of multicellular level of organization of life. Significance of meiosis: Meiosis plays very important role in keeping chromosome number constant in a species from generation to generation. a) Simple tissue: Simple tissues may further be divided into following type on the basis of their structure. It is due to crossing over which takes place during prophase I. In metaphase. 1. So at the end of meiosis four daughter cells are produced in total.e.1 Tissues: A major step in the direction of multicellular organization of life has been the formation of tissues.mynoteslibrary. Book arranged by www. Permanent tissue may be classified into two groups i. cell with similar structure and function have formed groups. In telophase. Meristematic cells are smaller in size with comparatively thin walls and a nucleus in the center.e. Both plants and animals tissues have achieved increasing complexity by formation of organs and organ systems. the nuclear membrane reappears around each set of chromatids (now called chromosomes) and the cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. i) Meristematic tissue: This tissue contains cells which have ability to divide. Their chromatids separate from each other in anaphase and migrate to the opposite poles.6. cells have come together to form loose assemblies and live together as a colony. so that the number of cells increases and the organism can grow . Thus meiosis produces cells (gametes or spores) with a haploid number of chromosomes. simple tissue and complex tissue. the individuals of a given species differ from one another.English Jamshoro. The walls of these cells are thick enabling them to maintain their shape. each possessing a haploid nucleus. fuses with the haploid female gamete (ovum) to form a zygote. 2.com 24 . Simple tissue is made up of one type of cells forming a homogeneous or uniform mass and a complex tissue is made up of more than one type of cells working together as a unit. In others. the diploid number of chromosomes is restored (n + n = 2n). Such an organism represents the unicellular level of organization of life. Plant tissues: In plants there are two basic types of tissues which are as follows. This tissue is commonly present in root tips and shoot apex and helps to increase the length of the root and the shoot by adding primary tissue. A tissue consists of a group of cells which are similar in structure and function. Parenchyma. i. the chromosomes (each consisting of two chromatids) arrange themselves on the equator.

Types of permanent tissues on the basis of function: i) Epidermal tissues: The cells of these tissues are rectangular in shape. These tissues form the outer layer of root. These tissues protect the inner parts of plant. Xylem and phloem together form vascular bundle in the stem while they remain separate from each other in the roots. iii) Supporting tissues: When cells reach a maximum size their cell wails become thick due to deposition of special material and become dead. Some important types of animal tissues are: i) Epithelial tissue: The cells of this tissue occur in a single layer and are closely packed together. iv) Conducting or Vascular tissues: These tissues consist of elongated cells with thick or thin walls. They are present in all the soft parts of plant. The xylem consists of sclerenchyma vessels and fibers. These cells have intercellular spaces. 2. b) Complex or Compound tissues: Compound tissues are mainly of two types: (a) Xylem (b) Phloem. Sclerenchyma (thick walled. This tissue forms surface layer under lines of the tubular organs of the body. They consist of a ground substance.The cells in it are very compactly arranged so that there is no space between them. Collenchyma occurs in a few layers under the epidermis of herbaceous dicotyledons. ii) Ground tissues: Ground tissues are composed of thin walled parenchymatous cells. iii. Sclerenchyma: Sclerenchyma (scleros =hard) consist of very long. which conducts water and salts from the soil to the leaves and also provides support. They become hard by deposition of chemical like lignin and thus provide support to the plants. Connective tissues: These tissues provide support to other tissues and organs and bind them together. This tissue is of various shapes and provides rigidity and support to the plant. Blood is also a special connective tissue with cells suspended in a fluid medium. These will be discussed later under conducting tissues. Collenchyma: It consists of some what elongated cells with the corners filled with cellulose and pectin. ii. Animal tissues: Like plants. Parenchyma: It consists of living cells which are more or less equally expanded on all sides. Cartilage and bone are special types of these tissues and are hard. in the stem and leaves. ii) Book arranged by www. These cells are basically meant for storing food. Xylem and Phloem are examples of this tissue. stem and leaf . animals have tissues which form organs and organ system. Epithelial tissue occurs in glands where it is variously folded. It is food storing tissue. narrow thick walled and lignified cells. The phloem is made up of living cells like sieve tubes. i. which axe formed from meristematic tissue.English Jamshoro. which conducts food from leaves to various parts of the plants. Fatty tissues are examples of the soft type. They are found in xylem and hard fruit coats etc. cells and fibres.mynoteslibrary. lignified and elongated) and collenchyma (living cells with thick cellular walls with few small intercellular spaces) are examples of the supporting tissues. However. These tissues are present in all parts of the plant except the epidermal and the vascular tissues. They range from soft to very hard tissues. pores called stomata are present through which gases are exchanged.com 25 . It transports materials in the body. They are dead cells. Such cells make up supporting tissue. Sindh Text Book Board.

Nucleus is usually present in the centre but as the Amoeba moves. liver and pancreas are all working together to digest food.6. or root and shoot systems. as conduction. All of these tissues have come together in the arm to make it an organ. nerves) is made up of this tissue. the systems. Nerve cells are specialized to conduct messages in the form of electrical currents. podia a feet). skeletal. In plants also. Its outer portion. are called unicellular organisms. kidney.8 MULTICELLULARORGANISMS Book arranged by www. The nucleus and cytoplasm are surrounded by a protective cell membrane. The food vacuoles contain food particles. These tissues are responsible for movement of the body and body parts. Each muscle fibre is an elongated cell. A simple diagram of this organization is given below: Cells Tissues Organs Systems Organism 2. Nervous tissues: These tissues are formed of cells called neurons or nerve cells. The contractile vacuole functions to remove excess water from the body.English Jamshoro. translucent and granular part is called endoplasm. supporting systems. storage. It does not possess a permanent form and' keeps on changing its shape.2 Organs: Your arm is an organ because it consists of various kinds of tissues such as epithelial tissue. The nervous system (brain. In this chapter you are studying life at various levels of organization from the simplest to the most complex. ' 2. Sindh Text Book Board. 2. spinal cord.3 Organ systems: Organs work together as a unit to perform a particular function to make an organ system. It is usual to study these in plants.7 UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS Those animals and plants. Amoeba respires by exchanging gases with the surrounding water through its surface.com 26 . and leaves) are organized to form systems. 2. the stem and the leaves arc organs. Amoeba: It is a unicellular aquatic organism found in stagnant water pools and ponds. the tissues and organs (root. respiratory. a contractile vacuole and other cells organelles. which enter the body as food vacuoles. nervous and reproductive systems. It is microscopic in size measuring about 0. muscle. There are other systems in the animal body such as transport.mynoteslibrary. Amoeba is one of the example. iii) iv) Muscular tissues: This tissue is formed of muscle fibres. connective tissue and nervous tissue. for example.25 millimeter. The structure of Amoeba is very simple. here are not so clearly organized as in the animals. The pseudopodia are also used to capture food particles. Cytoplasm is differentiated into two parts. in a plant the root. However. consists of several tissues such as epidermal tissue. The inner viscous. ground tissue and conducting tissue. muscular tissue. the nucleus changes its position. stem. Your heart. liver and many others structures are organs made in the same way. For example. excretory.6. The stem. the digestive system is made of organs such as mouth. The animal moves by producing temporary finger-like projections called pseudopodia (Pseudo = false. which is clear and transparent is called ectoplasm. Similarly. which are single-celled. The endoplasm contains many food vacuoles of different size. gut. which has the ability to contract and relax.

2. It bears branches and flowers. The central part of the stele is occupied by a star shaped xylem. These parts are root. which gives rise to leaf. During its growth it gives off secondary and tertiary roots. ii) Stem: This part of plant develops from the plumule of the seed and grows away from the soil. Next to the epidermis is cortex. The plant absorbs water and minerals from the soil through the root hairs only. It also transports prepared food from the leaves to all parts of the plant. stem. thus enabling the leaves to receive maximum amount of sun light for photosynthesis. is known as the node. The first part of the root to arise from the radicle is known as the primary root. Cortex is composed of parenchyma cells. These parts can be divided into two categories on functional basis i. Each bundle consists of xylem and phloem. Next to epidermis is the cortex.com 27 . Internal structure: A cross section of Brassica stem shows that it is surrounded on the outside by a single layered epidermis. Sindh Text Book Board.mynoteslibrary. which grows under the soil and develops from the radicle of the seed. The part between two adjacent nodes is called the internode. The stele of the root is surrounded on the outside by a layer of cells called endodermis.1 Brassica: Brassica campestris is the botanical name of mustard (sarsoun). Vegetative parts: i) Root: The root is that part. The stem and the branches transport water and salts from the root to the leaves. on the stem or on a branch. flowers. Branch of the root originate from the pericycle. 1. Within the cortex is a central cylinder region called the stele. In addition. The root bears fine. the root cap. respectively. Parenchyma cells store food material. The stem and its branches also bear flowers. Internal structure: The outer part of a root is the epidermis (epi=above. In between the arms of the xylem is phloem. Root hairs are outgrowths of epidermal cells. The cortex is made up of parenchyma and collenchyma cells. which are the reproductive organs. the rest of the root fix the plant to the soil. The vegetative parts are those which do not directly take part in sexual reproduction. leaves. The reproductive parts consist of sex organs which are directly related to sexual reproduction. the stem supports the leaves and the branches in the air. derma=skin). thin root hairs. The primary roots are thicker than the secondary and tertiary roots. vegetative parts and reproductive parts.e. fruit and seeds. Xylem is located towards the inside and phloem towards the outside. These are flowers. Next to the endodermis is a layer of cells called pericycle.English Jamshoro. there is a region consisting of meristematic cells Book arranged by www. The majority of living organisms consist of many cells and are called multicellular organisms. Structure of Brassica: This plant consists of roots.8. stem. Food material is stored in the cortex. The tips of all the roots bear a cap. Brassica and frog have been selected here as representative examples of multicellular plants and animals. In between xylem and phloem. branches and leaves. You are very familiar with this plant since its oil (mustard oil) is used for cooking and its leaves are used as vegetable (saag). Rest of the stele is made of parenchyma cells. which protects the root. Next to the cortex is a ring of vascular bundles. The point.

Flowers are the most beautiful and important parts of the plant. It is called the palisade layer. These veins are actually vascular bundles consisting of xylem and phloem. which contains stomata (Sing: Stoma).----------------------------------------The leaves are arranged on the stem and branches in such a way that their upper surfaces remain directly exposed to sunlight while the lower surface does not get the same amount of light. butterflies and other insects are easily attracted and thus help in pollination. There is a swollen vein in the middle of the leaf which is known as midrib. Leaves having different upper and lower surfaces are called bifacial leaves. The lower stalk like part is the petiole and upper green expanded portion is the lamina. Therefore. The upper layer of a leaf is called the upper epidermis. Because of the petals. Corolla: This is the second whorl and is composed of four free yellow petals. Xylem is located towards the upper side and the phloem towards the lower epidermis. They are arranged on young branches in a special way. Reproductive parts Flower: With growing age. their colour also becomes yellowish like that of the petals. ii) Book arranged by www. Generally. all of its tissues are arranged in such a way that photosynthesis can take place easily. yellowish flowers. the flower becomes very conspicuous that honey bees. Running through the leaf are many vascular bundles or veins. This special arrangement of the flowers on the stem is called inflorescence. The centre of the stem is occupied by pith. iii) Leaf: Leaves grow out on the stem and its branches from the nodes. The sepals are light greenish in young flowers but as the flower matures. The tip of the pedicel bears thalamus. 2. The mesophyll cells below the upper epidermis are longer than broad and are closely packed. The most important function of the calyx is to cover the inner parts of the flower and to protect them from sunlight and rain. The branch veins emerge and spread in the leaf like a net. The lower layer of the leaf is called the lower epidermis. i) Calyx: This is the outermost whorl and consists of four free sepals. It is made up of parenchyma cells and stores food material.mynoteslibrary. This network of veins supports the leaf and keeps its lamina in an expanded position. the leaf of Brassica consists of two parts. New branches of the plant arise from buds present in the axil of the leaf. Internal structure: A leaf is composed of several distinct cell layers. Parts of the flower: The flower in Brassica is situated on a stalk known as pedicel. Photosynthesis takes place in palisade and spongy mesophylls.com 28 . The floral leaves are arranged in four whorls on the thalamus. starting from the outermost to the central one. Brassica plant bears small. The cells next to the palisade layer are irregular in shape and loosely arranged having spaces like sponge and is called the spongy layer. called cambium. The tissue between upper and lower epidermis is called the mesophyll. These whorls. The veins are composed of xylem and phloem. Each stoma has a pore and two guard cells. Young leaves are without petioles and their margins are entire or smooth but in mature leaves the margin is wavy. are in the following order. The function of the leaf is to prepare food. Sindh Text Book Board. Due to this difference the upper and lower surfaces are slightly different from each other.English Jamshoro.

This nectar is the food of insects. 2.English Jamshoro. The androecium consists of six free stamens which are the male reproductive organs of the flower. The ovary ripens and is converted into fruit. Each anther contains numerous pollen grains. There are five toes in each foot but the hand has only four fingers because the thumb is rudimentary. pharynx. The fruit of Brassica is a long dry capsule with many seeds. The outer circle has two small stamens. The style has swollen tip. Behind each eye is a circular area called tympanic membrane. the stamens are arranged in two circles. the style. Frog has neither a neck nor a tail. There are dark green nectaries of small size at the base of the androecium. In male frog the first finger is thicker than the others. Each stamen has two well defined parts. This results in the pollination of flowers. which is called stigma. When these seeds fall on a suitable place they germinate and produce new Brassica plants. gynoecium is formed by the union of two carpels. At the tip of the snout it has two openings called external nostrils by which frog breathes. stomach and intestine. Each carpel is divisible into three main parts. When the anther matures a longitudinal slit in its wall enables the pollen grains to escape. which ripen into seeds. Internal organs: The internal organs are located in the body cavity. These membranes help in hearing. The conical head has two large bulging eyes. In Brassica flower. which is also called coelom. The inner circle has four long stamens. They can be easily dispersed by air currents. The seeds are very small and light. The parts of the gynoecium are called carpels.2 Frog: The frog lives both in water as well as on land. When the insects are attracted towards the flowers to collect this nectar pollen grains get attached to their bodies and are transferred from one flower to another. The tongue of frog is unique in being attached in front to the floor of Book arranged by www. This phenomenon is called hibernation or winter sleep.mynoteslibrary. These organs make up various systems. a lower delicate stalk called the filament and an upper swollen part called the anther. As the head is directly attached to the trunk frog cannot move it as we can. The alimentary canal consists of buccal cavity. These are as follows: 1. Above the ovary carpel extends into a thin stalk. The upper jaw has a row of weak but pointed teeth. It swims in water and moves by jumping when on land. who are the female reproductive organs of the plant. These nectaries contain nectar (a honey-like substance). Gynoecium: This is fourth whorl occupying the central position in the flower. They are not meant for chewing food but prevent it from slipping out of the mouth.com 29 . It makes the third whorl of the floral leaves. oesophagus. They hibernate during the winter season by burying themselves in the mud and stay there throughout the winter. There is a membranous skin between its toes which helps in swimming. i) Buccal cavity: Food enters into the buccal cavity through mouth. which perform specific functions.8. In the ovary many ovules are present. This system is composed of a tube. Its parts are not leaf-like. The skin of the frog is loose and slippery. It is slippery due to secretions produced by glands present in it. Sindh Text Book Board. Digestive system: The organs involved in the breakdown of complex food into simpler form (digestion) constitute the digestive system. the alimentary canal and special glands associated with it. iii) iv) Androecium: The androecium lies inside the petals. In Brassica. Frogs are found in abundance in the rainy season during which they lay eggs. The lower swollen part is the ovary.

is carried by the pancreatic duct. A bile duct arises from it. Intestine: The intestine is a long narrow coiled tube. The digested food is absorbed into blood. Its secretion. Respiratory system: Energy is required by every organism to carry on all the life activities. This entire process called respiration. pancreatic juice. Food is grounded in stomach and mixed with enzyme pepsin. The short terminal part of rectum is called cloaca. a) b) Gaseous exchange or Extra-cellular respiration Cellular respiration. It is divisible into small and a large intestine.mynoteslibrary. which leads into a wide tube. it suddenly throws out its tongue. Frog has three types of respiration on the basis of organs involved in the gaseous exchange. Sindh Text Book Board. Oesophagus and stomach: Pharynx opens into a wide tube called oesophagus or gullet. The digested food is then absorbed into the blood through the intestinal walls. this duct passes through pancreas and joins the pancreatic duct. Pharynx: The buccal cavity opens into a short but narrow pharynx. These are: i) Pulmonary respiration Book arranged by www. Between the lobes of the liver is a rounded pouch called gall bladder. The undigestible parts of the food enter the large intestine. It transports food into the stomach. The tongue is then immediately withdrawn and the prey is swallowed. 2. The prey sticks to its sticky tongue. When the food passes into the oesophagus. This allows the animal to throw it outward. For oxidation the cells require oxygen and as a result of oxidation of food they produce CO2 as waste product. On seeing the prey. the glottis is closed and during respiration it is opened. The partially digested food from the stomach enters the small intestine through pyloric end. It is produced by the oxidation of food specially glucose. which then opens into duodenum. Anterior end of stomach is called cardiac end while posterior end is called pyloric end. also called rectum. reproductive and undigested food discharge. where its digestion is completed. which partially digest proteins. Its secretion is known as bile. Liver and pancreas: The liver is a large reddish-brown gland located adjacent to the stomach.. ii) iii) iv) v) the buccal cavity and being free behind. The bile and the pancreatic juice help in the complete digestion of the food in the small intestine. which stores bile. muscular and glandular sac. the first part of small intestine. This is a common aperture for urine. divided into two phases. We will restrict our discussion upto gaseous exchange as respiration. From cloaca undigested food is expelled out as faeces through its opening called cloacal aperture. Immediately behind the tongue on the floor of the pharynx is a slit like opening.---------------------------------------------------------Frog feeds mainly on insects. the oesophagus. The pancreas lies between stomach and duodenum.-------------------------------------------Digestion is a process by which the complex insoluble food substances are converted into soluble form by the action of enzymes.com 30 . which opens into the lungs. This process takes place in the cells.English Jamshoro. Stomach is a thick walled. the glottis. On its way. The pancreatic duct and the bile duct join to form a common hepato-pancreatic duct. Food in stomach changes into a paste like substance called chyme.

The two bronchi open into a larynx. Frog uses skin as a respiratory organ during swimming and hibernation. ii) iii) Cutaneous respiration:---------------------------------------------------Gaseous exchange carried out by skin. Ventricle. ii) ii) i) Cutaneous respiration Buccal respiration Pulmonary respiration:---------------------------------------------------The gaseous exchange. This contraction and expansion of heart is called heart beat. The lungs are richly supplied with blood vessels.mynoteslibrary. Aresting human breathes out about 500 litres of CO2 every 24 hours. is called cutaneous respiration. Three kinds of blood vessels: (a) Arteries - Which carry blood away from heart. The frog has two lungs. which are balloon like structures. exchange of gases between air and blood takes place i. From here it enters the glottis. which takes place in lungs is called pulmonary respiration. oxygen is taken up by the blood and CO2 is given out. It passes into the buccal cavity through the internal nostrils. It consists of: i) ii) Heart. Oxygen diffuse into blood through skin while CO2 diffuses out from the network blood capillaries in skin. muscular pumping organ. It contracts and expands continuously through out the life. Buccal respiration:--------------------------------------------------------The lining of buccal cavity is thin. 3.e. This system is also called cardiovascular system. (c) Capillaries - Exchange material between tissues and blood. The glottis opens into the larynx. due to which blood circulates continuously in the body. located in the anterior region of body cavity. moist and richly supplied with blood capillaries. Circulatory system: Every cell requires a supply of oxygen and nutrient molecules and must get rid of waste products.English Jamshoro. Heart: Heart is a conical. Here also exchange of gases takes place between the air and blood. Blood transports these materials during its circulation through out the body. passes through the larynx and bronchi finally reach the lungs. It is enclosed in a membrane called pericardium. Book arranged by www.com 31 . Frog has a closed type circulatory system in which blood circulates in the closed circuit of blood vessels being pumped by an organ called heart. This type of respiration is called buccal respiration.strong muscular pumping organ. The longest heart stoppage was 4 hours. (i) (ii) (iii) Right auricle or Atrium. Each lung has a bronchus at its upper end. Frog heart consists of three chambers. Sindh Text Book Board. A Norwegian fell into the sea in December 1987. which leaves the body through same route.------------------------During respiration air is taken in by the external nostrils. For this purpose a transport system usually called circulatory system is required. Left auricle or Atrium. Their outer surface is smooth but their inner surface has numerous folds which increase the area for gaseous exchange. (b) Veins - Which return blood to the heart. In the lungs.

which bring it to the left auricle of the heart. is collected through veins. From sinus venosus. tongue. which bring the blood from all the parts of the body towards heart. They fuse together to form a major vessel of this system called aorta. For an adult. intestine. which carries blood away from heart to the various body parts is called an artery. genital organs. Survival was due to the low temperature of his body in the sea. called veins. the flow of blood is continuous and moves in two path ways. genital organs and muscles.English Jamshoro. which join together and form one major vein called post caval. When the two auricles contract. Sindh Text Book Board. it reaches the right auricle. head muscles.com 32 . Venous system: It is a set of blood vessel. The truncus arteriosus originates from ventral side of the ventricle and divide into two branches each of which divides into three arches (arteries). The arterial system can be simply stated to comprise of the following three main components. ears etc. 5. (ii) The deoxygenated blood from head and fore limbs is collected through several veins. pancreas. liver. hind limbs etc. The oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left auricle through pulmonary veins. the blood is pushed into the single ventricle. on each side. pancreas. Carotid arteries: These vessels arise from the truncus arteriosus. which join together to form one major precaval vein. this is about 4 or 5 liters. digestive system. When ventricle contracts it is pumped into the truncus arteriosus From here it enter (a) the pulmonary arteries. which gives off branches to various parts of the body such as fore and hind limbs. which carry the blood to lungs for oxygenation and (b) the systemic arteries.pf the body and (c) the carotid arteries. Another thin walled triangular sac called sinus venosus formed by major veins opens into right atrium.mynoteslibrary. liver. A human being contains about 70 ml of blood per Kilogram of body weight. which supply it to all parts. eyes. (iii) Blood from all the lower parts of the body such as stomach. and supply the oxygenated blood to various parts of the head region such as brain. which supply it to the brain. Arterial system: A blood vessel. The venous system consists of the following major components. The deoxygenated blood from all other parts of the body enters the sinus venosus. kidneys. In heart. The opening between various chambers of the heart are guarded by valves. Both of these structures are not true chambers of heart but often called accessory chambers. Pulmocutaneous arteries: They supply deoxygenated blood to lungs and skin where it gives up carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen. Both the pre-cavals and the post-caval open into the sinus venosus from where the blood is pumped into the right auricle of the heart. muscles. which prevent the flow of blood in reverse direction. (i) The oxygenated blood from the lungs is collected by pulmonary veins. 4. Systemic arteries: These vessels carry oxygenated blood to all the parts of the body except the head and lungs. Book arranged by www.

Portal system: Set of veins. Excretory system: It is the set of organs involved in the process of excretion i.com 33 . Hepatic portal system: The veins collecting the blood from the digestive system do not carry it directly to the heart. which breaks up into capillaries in the liver to allow transfer of some of the digested food into the liver for storage. The brain consists of the following regions: (i) The most anterior region comprises the olfactory lobes.e the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Sindh Text Book Board. which joins the hepatic portal vein in the liver and drains blood into liver from where it is collected by the post caval vein. These veins begin in capillaries in the hind limbs and breaks up into capillaries in the kidneys. which open into the cloaca. They all join to form a hepatic portal vein. The brain is protected in the skull and the spinal cord is enclosed in the vertebral column.e. The ova are released into water through the cloaca in the mating season. From the kidneys. The urine is carried from the kidneys by a pair of tubes called ureters. is called portal veins. muscles. The male produces sperms during the breeding season. The animal with the heaviest brain is the sperm whale. Sexes are separate in the frog. It is composed of two parts. 6. the urinary bladder. The central nervous system includes the brain and the spinal cord whereas the peripheral nervous system comprises of nerves. Organs involved in this process are included in reproductive system.2 Kg. which carries it to the sinus venosus. Its brain weighs about 9. The sex cell of male is sperm and that of female is ovum (Plural ova) or egg. The gonads are paired structures and are located near the kidneys. From the cloaca. The set of veins draining their blood into liver are included in hepatic portal whereas the set opening into the kidneys are called renal portal system. Some of the blood from hind limbs is collected in an abdominal vein. glands and sense organs. it is either passed out directly through cloacal aperture or is stored for some time in a bag. i. There are two kidneys in frog. the removal of metabolic waste matters from the body. 7. This function is performed by kidneys. which filter out the excretory matter from the blood and pass it out in the form of urine. The gonads produce germ cells and the ducts pass them but of the body. this blood enters the post caval by renal veins and ultimately returns to the heart.e. Nervous system: The set of organs. blood enters the postcaval. which collect the blood from one organ and discharge it into another organ. These veins arc included in renal portal system. Renal portal system: The alternate route of blood from the hind limbs is by the way of a renal portal vein. Sperms are also released from the testes into water near the eggs. These veins are also included hepatic portal system. Reproductive system: Reproduction is the process of production of new babies by their parents. Book arranged by www. Each sperm fuses with a egg and a new frog starts developing.mynoteslibrary. i. The male gonad is known as the testis (plural testes) and the female gonad is called the ovary.English Jamshoro. They are elongated reddish brown organs attached to the dorsal wall of the body cavity. which control and co-ordinate all the activities of the body is called nervous system. 8. From the liver. which connect the central nervous system with various parts of the body. The reproductive organs consist of gonads and their ducts.

Immediately behind the olfactory lobes. circulation and digestion. lungs. there are two large outgrowths called the cerebral hemispheres. and many other functions independently. which work automatically. The diencephalon receives a variety of messages from the internal and external environment of the body and also controls the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland. Using its antennae. sight. stomach. On the dorsal surface of diencephalon is present a pineal body while the pituitary gland is attached to its ventral surface. it can detect a female emperor moth 11. On the inner side of this membrane is a cavity known as tympanic cavity. This system consists of cranial and spinal nerves. Its outer most part is the tympanic membrane. Sindh Text Book Board. For the sense of taste sensory cells are present in taste buds on the tongue. Ear: In frog.com 34 .mynoteslibrary.3 tonnes. Autonomic nerves control the internal organs of the body such as heart.Km upwind The biggest mammalian tongue that has ever been weighed belonged to a Blue whale caught by Russian trawlers in 1947. They have a system of canals which is filled with a fluid. vessels and glands. The frog has many types of receptors. (iii) Behind the hemispheres are located two prominent outgrowths called the optic lobes. (ii) 1. 2. Book arranged by www. The optic lobes are associated with the eyes and vision. (iv) The part between the optic lobes and hemispheres is known as the diencephalon. The peripheral system connects body parts with the central nervous system. (v) The last part of the brain consists of the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata. Its tongue weighed 4. there are olfactory receptor located in the nostrils. Brain and spinal cord are not solid. smooth muscles of the intestine. Ears are used for receiving sound waves and maintaining balancing and eyes for receiving light i. These receptors send sensations to the central nervous system via nerves. like the other vertebrates. which are the seats of intelligence and memory. It passes from the skull through a hole and enters the canal of the vertebral column. the organ of hearing is the ear. The spinal cord starts from the posterior end of the medulla oblongata like a thick thread. For smell. Some special nerves are present in the head and trunk region called the autonomic nerves. The cerebellum and the medulla oblongata co-ordinate body movements and maintain balance of the body. Cranial nerves connect and establish communication between various parts of brain and parts of the head while the spinal nerves connect structures of the trunk area with the spinal cord.English Jamshoro. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord just as the skull protects the brain. An external ear called pinna is absent in frog.e. The medulla also controls respiration.9 SENSE ORGANS To get the informations about the environment organisms like frog have receptor organs. The cavity contains three small rod.like bones called ossicles Its one end is attached to the tympanic membrane and the other with the internal ear. Olfactory lobes are associated with the sense of smell and transfer of olfactory sensation to the cerebral hemispheres. The spinal cord controls the movements of the trunk area. Its skin has many small microscopic receptors for the sense of touch. The animal with the most acute sense of smell is the male emperor moth.

Outside the retina is the choroid. Some bats can hear ultrasonic sounds upto about 160 KHz.com 35 .43) is a very delicate organ. vibrate the internal ear and thus. outer most layer of the eye. The internal ear. The internal ear (Fig: 2.44). The iris has a window called the pupil. Eye: The frog has two eyes one on each side of the head (Fig: 2. When sound waves strike the tympanic membrane it is set into vibration. A watery fluid is present in between the cornea and lens. which is richly supplied with blood capillaries supplying nutrients to the retina. through which light passes before it strikes retina. also keeps the balance of the body. in addition to hearing. This vibrates ossicles which in turn. The sclerotic is the hard.English Jamshoro. 2. pupil and lens focus light on the retina. Sindh Text Book Board. sound waves stimulate the hearing receptors in the inner ear. Human can hear sounds which vibrate at about 19 KHz. If we make vertical section of the eye. Similarly a jelly like fluid is present between the lens and retina. Behind the pupil is the lens of the eye. The cornea. The anterior transparent part of the eye is called cornea. The retina contains photoreceptor cells. Behind the cornea is iris. These canals are filled with a fluid and sensory cells are located at special places in these canals. Book arranged by www. High pitched sounds are rapid vibrations of the molecules In air. we find that the innermost layer of the ball is the sensory retina. Optic nerve takes the sensory messages from the eye to the brain. It provides shape to the eye ball.mynoteslibrary. It consists of three semicircular canals.

plastids etc. the blanks with appropriate terms: Animals which consist of only one cell are called________ Finger like projection in amoeba are called________ Botanical name of mustard plant is__________ Reproductive part of a higher plant is_______ Part of stem from where leaf arises is called Write whether the following statements are true or false: i) Gonads are the organs responsible to produce germ cells. iv) Truncus arteriosus and sinus venosus are the true chambers of the heart of frog. ii) Brain and spinal cord are the parts of peripheral nervous system. Encircle the appropriate answer: i) ii) iii) iv) Nucleus of cell was discovered by (a) Robert Hooke (b) Schleiden (c) Robert Brown (d) Virchow The type of lenses of light microscope is (a) Biconcave (b) Convex (c) Concave (d) Electromagnetic DNA is found in (a) Nucleus (b) Chromosome (c) Cell (d) Nucleoplasm Prokaryotic cells do not contain 3. Mitosis is the equational type of cell-division in which chromosome number does not change. ribosome. endoplasmic reticulum. Amoeba is an example of unicellular organization. Meiosis is the reductional cell-division in which number of chromosomes reduces to half. golgi bodies. in an animal cell all these parts are present except cell-wall.mynoteslibrary. Cell membrane is a thin.English Jamshoro. Translucent material filled in between nucleus and plasma membrane is called cytoplasm. Cytoplasm contains many granular bodies called cytoplasmic organelles like. Fill in i) ii) iii) iv) v) 2. Cells divide to increase in numbers. cytoplasm and nucleus. Sindh Text Book Board. Tissues are the groups of similar cells. Brassica and frog of multicellular organization EXERCISE 1. Prokaryotic cell is the type of cell with out proper nucleus while eukaryotic cell contains proper membrane bound nucleus. Book arranged by www. Cells are observed under light and electron microscopic. mitochondria. iii) Pulmonary vein contains de-oxygenated blood. Cell wall is non-living part of cell. Plant cell consist of cell-wall. SUMMARY Cell is the basic unit of living organisms. Resolution power of electron microscope is very much high. differentially permeable membrane which limits the cytoplasm.com 36 . All the living organisms are made up of one or more cell. lysosome. mainly composed of cellulose and pectin. v) During pulmonary respiration gaseous exchange takes place through skin. cell membrane.

v) Arteries and veins. v) What is the difference between cellular respiration and gaseous exchange? Describe different methods of gaseous exchange in frog. v) (a) Nucleus (b) Membrane bound nucleus (c) Ribosome (d) Cell-membrane The number of chambers in the heart of frog is (a) Two (b) Three (c) Four (d) Five 4. How do the chromosome number remains the same in the members of same species? Why is meiosis called reductional cell-division? Why is upper surface of dicot leaf much darker than the lower surface? Define the following terms: i) Cell ii) Tissue iv) Eukaryotic cell v) Chromosomes vii) Connective tissueviii) Meiosis x) Compound tissue xi) Mitosis xiii) Neuron or Nerve cells Distinguish between: i) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. Book arranged by www. ii) Cell-wall and cell-membrane. Write detailed answers of the following questions: i) Make a chart of different types of plant tissues: ii) Draw a diagram showing different parts of a typical plant cell. 7. iv) Light and electron microscope. vi) What do you mean by cell-division? Describe the method of celldivision by which gametes or spores are produced. iv) Describe digestive System of frog with the help of diagram.mynoteslibrary.English Jamshoro. iii) Describe those organelles which are only found in plant cell. iii) Mitochondria and plastids. i) ii) iii) iv) v) 6.com 37 . iii) Prokaryotic cell--------------vi) Mitochondria-----------------ix) Meristematic tissue---------xii)Hibernation 5. Sindh Text Book Board. Give scientific reason of the following: Why is cell membrane differentially permeable? Why is cell called the basic structural and functional unit of life?.

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