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It may also refer to the study of crimes and criminal and the attempt of analyzing scientifically their causes and control and the treatment of criminals. Criminology is a multidisciplinary study of crimes (Bartol, 1995). This means that many disciplines are involved in the collection of knowledge about criminal action, including psychological, sociology, anthropology, biology, neurology, political science and economics. But over the years, sociology, psychology and psychiatry have dominated the study of crime. The study of crime focused on the group of people and society as whole. It is primarily based on the examination of the relationship of demographic and group variables to crime. Variables such as socioeconomic status, interpersonal relationships, age, race, gender, and cultural groups of people are probed in relation to the environmental factors that are most conducive to criminal action, such as time, place, and circumstances surrounding the crime. b. Psychology (Psychological Criminology) The science of behavior and mental process of the Criminal behavior-how it is acquired, evoked, maintained and modified. Both the environmental and personality influences are considered, along with the mental processes that mediate the behavior. c. Psychiatry (Psychiatry Criminology) The science that deals with the study of crime through Forensic psychiatry, the study of criminal behavior in terms of motives and drives that strongly relies on the individual. (Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud Traditional view). It also explains that criminals are acting out of uncontrollable animalistic, unconscious or biological urges (modern view). Scope of the Study of Criminology Criminology is a broad field of study of crimes and criminals. It covers several principal areas or divisions (Tradio, 1999), which are: 1. Criminal Behavior or Criminal Etiology the scientific analysis of the causes of crime. 2. Sociology of Law the study of law and its application; a. Sociology (Sociological Criminology)
maybe utilized in crime detection. It requires therefore a systematic and balanced knowledge in the examination of why they exist. mathematics.3. In this sense. 4. However. the analysis of physical evidences of physical evidences take from the crime scene left behind by a criminal perpetrator. physics. understanding why it occurs and that to do about it has always been a problem. To foster a higher concept of citizenry and legal responsibilities to his fellowmen. They should be understood in order to know how to control them. 2. To develop an understanding of the constitutional guarantees an due process of law in the administration of justice. Importance of Studying Criminology Studying crime is very important. A background for a profession or for social service. his community and the nation. ect. psychology. Criminalistics is included as a division in criminology because of Criminologists are also engaged in studying criminal things. 2. Purpose of Studying Criminology Studying criminology is aimed towards the following: 1. 3. medicine. 5. An Applied Science Anthropology. sociology and other natural sciences may be applied in the study of the causes of crime while chemistry. To prepare for a career in law enforcement and scientific crime detection. But understanding crime as a complex phenomenon can be: 1. Penology or Correction the study that deals with punishment and the treatment of criminals. To understand crimes and criminals which are basic to knowing the actions to be done to prevent them. . Because crime is a costly and intangible costs of pain and suffering is too high as a result of victimization. In fact in crime has always been high (Bartol. Nature of Criminology Understanding crime is a s complex as other fields of interest. 4. The primary aim is to prevent the crime problem. Criminalistics or Forensic Science one more are of concern in crime detection and investigation. 4. The offer is simple solutions for obliterating crime is not enough because of its complexities. 3. 1995). Because criminals are legitimate objects of interest. criminology is: 1. A source of philosophy of life the knowledge derived from studying crime is a good foundation for an individual s philosophy and lifestyle.
Dynamic Criminology changes as social condition changes. Offense is an act or omission that is punishable by special laws (a special law is a statue enacted by Congress. That means the progress of criminology is concordant with the advancement of other sciences that have been applied to it. A Social Science Inasmuch as crime is a societal creation and the it exists in a society.2. CRIME defined Inasmuch as the definition of crimes is concerned. an act that is injurious. felony and delinquency or misdemeanor. Memorandum Circulars. CRIME in also generic name that refers to offense. Ordinances and Rules and Regulations (Reyes 1960) Felony is an act or omission that is punishable by the Revised Penal Code. sociology and psychology have their respective emphasis on what crime is: Crime maybe defined as: 1. Criminologists consider the following as criminological classification of crimes (Criminology Reviewer. 1960) Delinquency/Misdemenor acts that are in violation of simple rules and regulations usually referring to acts committed by minor offenders. Presidential Decrees. 2. treatment of criminals and the criminal law are discussed in the other chapter of this book. the criminal law in the Philippines (Reyes. Criminological Classification of Crime Crimes are classified of Crime Crimes are classified in order to focus a better understanding on their existence. 4. 3. crime is not an act. 1996) . its study must be considered a part of social science. 3. criminals (perpetrators of crime). Psychologically. criminal behavior and the study of victims. OBJECT OF INTEREST IN CRIMINOLOGY The four major of interest in criminology are crimes (criminal acts). penal in Code) such as Republic Acts. they are the unacceptable acts in its social definition. Executive Orders. An act or omission in violation of a criminal law in its legal point. An anti-social act. many field of study like law. Nationalistic The study of crime must always be n relation with the existing criminal law with in the territory. which is considered undersirable due to behavioral maladjustment of the offender acts that are caused by maladaptive or abnormal behaviors. Other interests in criminology such as criminal detection. detrimental or harmful to the norms of society.
b. Continuing crime are crimes that are committed in several places. Under World Crimes are committed by members of the lower or under privilege class of society. Acquisitive and Extinctive Crimes Acquisitive Crime is one which when committed. Instant crimes are those that are committed the shortest possible time. Service Crimes . Crimes by Imitation and Crimes by Passion Crimes by Imitation are crimes committed by merely duplication of what was done by others. offender does not know the nature of his act. White Collar and Blue Collar Crimes White Collar and are those committed by a person of responsibility and of upper socioeconomic class in the of course of their occupation activities. Seasonal and Situational Crimes Seasonal crimes are those that are committed only at a certain period of the year while situational crimes are committed only when given a situation conducive to its commission. offender is in full possession of his mental faculties/capabilities while irrational crimes are committed without intent. Blue Collar Crimes are those committed by ordinary professionals to maintain their livelihood. the offender acquires something as a consequence of his criminal act.a. f. Rational and Irrational Crimes Rational crimes are those committed with intent. g. d. Crimes by the passion are crimes because of the fit of great emotions. i. h. they are committed by means of series of act within a lengthy space of time. Static and Continuing Crimes Static crimes are crimes that are committed only in one place. e. c. The crime is extinctive when the result of criminal act is destruction. Episodic and Instant Crimes Episodic crimes are serial crimes. Upper World and Underworld Crimes Upper World Crimes are those committed by individuals belonging to the upper class of society.
obscenity. Crimes against Honor Example Libel. Fraud e. Crimes against Personal Liberty and Security Example Illegal Detention. Crimes against Person Example murder. Coup d etat d. Crimes against Public Order Example Rebellion. Oral Defamation m. Physical Injuries h. offenses against decency and good customs like scandals. and prostitution. Piracy b. Legal Classification of Crimes Under the law. criminal may be defined in three ways: . crimes are classified as: a. Crimes against National Security and the Law of Nations Example Treason. vagrancy. Crimes against Civil Status of Persons Example Bigamy and other Illegal Marriages l. Quasi offenses or Criminal Negligence Example Imprudence and Negligence THE CRIMINAL On the basis of the definition of crime. Crimes against Properties Example Robbery. Violation of Domicile c. Crimes against the Fundamental Law of the State Example Arbitrary Detention. Sedition. Crimes against Chastity Example Bigamy and other Illegal Marriages k. f. Threat and Coercion j. Kidnapping. Crimes against Public Morals Example Gambling and betting. Trespass to Dwelling. Crimes against Public Interest Example Forgery. Rape. Theft i. Crimes Committed by Public Officers Example Malfeasance and Misfeasance g. Falsification.Service Crime refers of crimes committed through rendition of a service to satisfy of another. Espionage.
They are the targeted offenders. Based on Behavioral System Ordinary Criminal is considered the lowest for m of criminal in a criminal career. Based on Activities Professional Criminals are those who practice crime as a profession for a living. 1996) BASED ON ETIOLOGY ACUTE CRIMINAL is one who violates a criminal law because of the impulse or fit of passion. Organized Criminal is one who associated him with other criminals to earn a high degree of organization to enable them to commit crimes easily without being detected by authorities. Criminla activity is constant inorder to earn skill and develop ability in their commission.1. He doesn t stick to crime as a profession but rather pushed to commit crimes due to great opportunity. A person who violated a social norm or one who did an anti social act. A person who committed a crime and has been convicted by a court for the violation of a criminal law. He plans the crimes ahead of time. they commit organized crimes. They commit passionate crimes. A person who violated rules of conduct due to behavioral maladjustment. (Psychological definition) CRIMINOLOGICAL CLASSIFICAITON OF CRIMINAL The following are the criminological classification of criminals (Criminology Reviewer. Accidental Criminals are those who commit crimes when the situation is conducive to its commission. Passive Inadequate Criminals are those who commit crimes because they are pushed to it by reward or promise. Habitual Criminals are those who continue to commit crime because of deficiency of intelligence and lack of self control. He is usually one who practices crime as a profession to maintain a living. . Chronic Criminal is one who commits crime acted in consonance of deliberate thinking. (Legal definition) 2. Based on Mental Attitudes Active Criminals those who commit due to aggressiveness. (Social definition) 3. Professional Criminal is a person who is engaged in criminal activities with high degree of skill.
in crime causation. offense or misdemeanor. therefore. Based on Legal Classification Habitual Delinquent is a person who. Contemporary approach SUBJECTIVE APPROACHES It deals mainly on the biological explanation of crimes. focused on the forms of abnormalities that exist in the individual criminal before. In general. at the time of his trial for one crime. is an intentional behavior tht violated a criminal code (Bartol. Recidivist is one who. or falsification is found guilty of any of the said crimes or a third time oftener. where would you look for the answer? Would you search for events that might have influence a criminal to commit crimes? There are many approaches in the explanation of crimes in order to come to an answer to these question. It is also the scientific process of gaining substantial amounts of knowledge on offender characteristics by studying the nature of victims. estafa. if any. 1999). Criminal behavior. Chapter 2 Approaches and Theories of Crime If you were to find answers of why some people commit crimes. CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Crimes in its legal definition may constitute act in violation of the criminal law and penalized by the state a felony. Included under this approach are: 1.Socialized Delinquents are criminals who are normal in behavior but defective in their socialization process or development. objective and the contemporary approval which most criminologists today adopted to be most significant. Among them are the subjective. shall have been previously convicted by final judgment of another crime embraced in the same of the Revised Code. . with in a period of ten years from the date of his release or last conviction of the crimes of serious or less serious physical injuries. Objective approach 3. Subjective approach 2. during and after the commission of the crime (Tradio. 1995) Criminal behavior may also refer to the study of crimes and their contributory role. robbery. the approaches in the study of crime are: 1. Anthropological Approach the study on the physical characteristics of an individual offender with non offenders in the attempt to discover covering criminal behavior (Hooton).
They are primarily derived from social sciences (Tradio. Under this are: 1. 5. (Freud. Geographic Approach 0 this approach considers topography natural resources. psychiatric and sociological drawn from different sources (Schemalleger. Economic Approach it deals with the explanation of crime concerning financial security of inadequacy and other necessities to support life as factors to criminality (Merton). geographical location. Scio Cultural Approach these that focus on institutions. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES Modern days put emphasis on scientific modes of explaining crime and criminal behavior. which constitute the development of deviations of normal behavior resulting to unpleasant emotions. Biological Approach the evaluation of generic influences to criminal behavior. social processes and institutions as influences to behavior. psychologists and sociologists whose primary interest was reforming the criminal law. Psychiatric Approach the explanation of crime through diagnosis of mental diseases as a cause of the criminal behavior (Positivist). 4. Most of those people were lawyers. which constitute the development of deviations of normal behavior resulting to unpleasant emotions it is concerned about the deprivation for the psychological needs of man. education political and religious influences to crime (Cohen). 3. It explains that the deprivation of the physical body on the basic needs in an important determiner of the commission of crime (Maslow). not in creating a science of criminal behavior. Physiological Approach the study on the nature of human being concerning his physical needs in order to satisfy his wants. 7. 1999). Ecological Approach it is concerned with the biotic grouping of men resulting to migration. It is noted that heredity is one force pushing the criminal to crime. but the ideas of people who might be called criminologists can be traced historically. 2997). social discrimination. division of labor and social conflict as factors to crime (Park). Maslow). doctors. Psychological Approach it is concerned about the deprivation of the psychological needs of man. competition. 6. THEORIES OF CRIME The formal development of criminology as a field of discipline is recent. Medical Approach the application of medical examinations on the individual criminal explain the mental and physical condition of the individual prior and after the commission of the crime (Positivist) 3. economic. This approach is focused on the psychoanalytical. OBJECTIVES APPROACHES The objective approaches deal on the study of groups. 2. (Positivist) 4. financial. their contributions to criminology are . and climate leads an individual to commit crime (Quetelet). philosophers. Psychoanalytical Approach the explanation of the repression of the basic drives (Freud).2. Nevertheless.
some familiarity with these approaches is essential. Cesare Beccaria in hhis ESSAY on Crimes and Punishment presented his key ideas on the abolition of torture as a legitimate means of extracting confessions. Freewill (Beccaria) a philosophy advocating punishment sever enough for people to choose. The accused were innocent if they could survive an ordeal. which caused good or evil behavior. stress is placed upon the criminal himself. neo classical and the positivist school of criminology. individuals were thought to be possessed by good or evil spirits. The Classical theory maintains that man is essentially a mortal creature with absolute free will to choose between good and evil. Harsh punishments were also given. 1995). Centuries ago. . The theory maintains that criminal behavior was believed to be the result of evil spirits and demons something of natural force that controls his/her behavior. which explains that a person always acts in such a way as to seek pleasure and avoid pain. Therefore. the theory. one of the most popular explanations was Demonology (Hagan. PRE TWENTIETH CENTURY (18th C 1738 1798) In the eighteenth century. 1990). or if miraculous sings appeared. or if omens were associated with them (Bartol. Hedonism (Bentham) the belief that people choose pleasure and avoid pain. sociological. The Classical School of Criminology This is the school thought advocated by Cesare Beccaria who real name is Cesare Beonsara Marchese de Beccaria together with Jeremy Bentham (1823) who proposed Utilitarian Hedonism . criminological literature. EARLY BEGINNING The Demonological Theory Before the development of more scientific theories of criminal behavior. They were guilty it they died at stake. guilt and innocence were established by a variety of procedures that presumably called forth the supernatural allies of the accused. has traditionally been divided into three bread schools of thought about the cause of crime: the classical. 1995). It includes the belief that a certain criminal act warrants a certain punishment without any variation. and for an adequate understanding of current criminologists theories. He proposed the following principles (Adler.immense. that every man is responsible for his acts. According to Beccaria. or psychiatric in bent. the crime problem could be trace not to bad people but to bad laws based on assumption of freewill. According to this explanation. whether psychological.
The Neo Classical School of Criminology The neo-classical school of criminology argued that situations or circumstances that made it impossible to exercise freewill are reasons to exempt the accused from conviction. not on the actor crimes are only to be measure by the injuries done to the society . ² Punishment should be prompt and effective the more immediate after the commission of a crime a punishment is inflicted. Arguments about the Classical Theory (Tradio. ² It is better to prevent crimes than to punish them. ² Capital punishment should be applied only to serious crimes against the state (Schamalleger. it should be modified in certain details: . ² The punishment should be determined by the crime if mathematical calculations could be applied to the obscure and infinite combinations of human actions. who represents the whole society united by the social compact . Although the classical doctrine had an immediate and profound impact on jurisprudence and legislation. ² Judge should impose punishment only in accordance with law. 1997) ² The use of torture to gain confession should be abolished. ² Punishment should be based on the pleasure-pain-principle please and pain are the only springs of actions in being endowed with sensibility If an equal punishment be ordained in two crimes that injure society in different degrees. ² All people should be treated equally the punishment of a nobleman is no differ from that of the lowest member of society . the more just and useful it will be . Unjust Having the same punishment for first and redicivists. 1999) 1. there is nothing to deter men from committing the greater as often as it is intended with greater advantage . It considers only the injury caused not the mental condition of the offender.² Laws should be used to maintain the social contract laws are the conditions under which men united themselves in society ² Only legislators should create laws the authority of making penal laws can only reside with the legislator. The nature and definition of punishment is not individualized. 2. Unfair . there are action arguments against it. there might be a corresponding scale of punishments descending from the greatest to the least . 4. 3.it treats all men as if they were robot without regard to the individual differences and the surrounding circumstances when the crime is committed. The school of thought maintains that while the classical doctrine is correct in general. ² Punishment should be based on the act.
Cesare Lombroso (1836 1909) the Italian leader of the positivist school of criminology. Born Criminals there are born criminals according to Lombroso. economic and political determinants. his interest in socialism led him to recognized the importance of social. Insane Criminals are those who commit crime due to abnormalities or psychological disorders. not on the penalties to be imposed after conviction. 2. He wrote the essay entitled CRIME: Its Causes and Remedies that contains his key ideas and the classification of criminals. 6. was criticized for his methodology and his attention to the biological characteristics (father of modern criminology . Occasiona l Criminal are those who commit crime due to insigficant reasons that pushed them to do at a given occasion. His greatest contribution was his attack on the classical doctrine of free will. brilliant lawyer. 4. He believed that criminals could not be held morally responsible for their crimes because they did not choose to commit crimes but. They should be exempted from criminal liability. Enrico Ferri (1856 1929) He was the best known Lombroso s associate. His major contribution is the development of a scientific approach to the study of criminal behavior and to reform the criminal law. the belief that criminal behavior is inherited. It maintained that crime as any other act is a natural phenomenon and is comparable to disaster or calamity. Pseudo criminals are those who kill in self defense. rather.a. were driven to commit them by conditions in their . The Postiivist/Italian (1838 1909) The school that composed of Italians who agreed that in the study of crime the emphasis should be on scientific treatment of the criminal. b. Cesare Lobroso and his two students. That children and lunatics should not be regarded as criminals and free from punishment. Enrico Ferri and Rafaele Garofalo advocated this school. It must take into account certain mitigating circumstances. Although he agreed with Lombroso on the biological bases of criminal behavior. 3. That crime as a social and moral phenomenon which cannot be treated and checked by the imposition of punishment but rater rehabilitation or the enforcement of individual measures. accomplished public lecturer. Classification of Criminals by Lombroso 1. Member of Parliament. and scholar. Criminoloid a person who commit crime due to less physical stamina/self-control. 5. Criminal by Passion are individuals who are easily influenced by great emotions like fit of anger. which argued that criminals should be held morally responsible for their crimes because they must have made a rational decision to commit the crime.
2. The Classical and Positivist School Compared Classical School y y y y y Legal definition of Crime Punishment fit the crime Doctrine of fee will Death penalty allowed No empirical research y y y y y Positivist School Not to legal definition Punishment fit the criminal Doctrine of determinism Abolition of death penalty Inductive method EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY David Emile Durkheim (French. 1995) Raffaele Garofalo (1852 1934) Another follower of Lombroso. 1858 1917) He advocated the Anomie Theory . According to his theory. Like Lombroso and Ferri. he rejected the doctrine of free will and supported the position that the only way to understand crime was to study it by scientific methods influenced on Lombroso s theory of atavistic stigmata (man/s inferior/ animalistic behavior). He also claimed that strict adherence to preventive measures based on scientific methods would eventually reduce crime and allow people to live together in society with less dependent on penal system (Adler. Lascivious Criminals those who commit crime against chastity. senator. 4. Violent Criminals those who commit very serious crimes. Deficient Criminals those who commit crime against property. and professor of law. are those that offend the basic moral sentiments of probity (respect for property of others) and piety (revulsion against the infliction of sufferings on others) (Adler. 3. natural crimes are found in all human societies. Natural Crimes. he traced the roots of criminal behavior not to physical features but to their psychological equivalents which he called moral anomalities . the theory that focused on the sociological point of the positivist school.lives. regardless of the views of the lawmakers. an Italian nobleman. magistrate. 1995) Types of Criminals by Garofalo 1. which explains that the absence of norms is a society provides a setting conducive to . according to Garofalo. and no civilized society can afford to disregard them. Murderers those who are satisfied from vengeance/revenge.
integration and smooth functioning characterize social life. moral. ² Criminal behavior is a means of obtaining gratification of need. According to him. or lawful behavior. Sigmund Feud (1856 1969) Psychologists have considered a variety of possibilities to account for individual differences defective conscience. He advocated the Human Ecology Theory . This theory maintains that crimes is a function of social change that occurs along with environmental change. The concept of wrong is necessary to give meaning to what is right. competition.crimes and other anti social acts. Crime help society for change it means that society to be flexible to permit positive deviation must permit negative deviation as well. the order of social life does not derive from individuals but from society because the individual is not sufficient unto him. Robert Ezra Park (1964 1944) Park is a strong advocate of the scientific method in explaining criminality but he is a sociologist. It also maintains that the isolation. ² Criminal conducts represents a displace hostility. He also maintained that crime is an important ingredient of all health societies because crime make people more aware of their common interest and help to define appropriate. He argue that mainly order. emotional immaturity. segregation. . it is the society that receives everything necessary to him. He also framed the early development of the Consensus Theory in sociology. Durkheim proposed the following principles: y y y Crime is a natural thing in the society. According to him. maternal deprivation and poor moral development. Human Ecology is the study of the interrelationship of people and their environment. the explanation of human conduct lies not in the individual but in the group and the social organization. ² Crime is the result of the compulsive need for punishment to alleviate guilt and anxiety. that criminality may result from an over active conscience. Sigmund Freud in his Psychoanalytical Theory maintains that ² Criminal behavior is a form of neurosis. Criminality is essentially representation of psychological conflict. inadequate childhood socialization. The Freudian view on criminal behavior was based on the use of Psychology in explaining an approach in understanding criminal behavior.
Thus.lean slightly built. This theory explained that society leads the lower class to want things and society does things to people. like other animals. OTHER THEORISTS Charles Darwin s Theory (1809 1882) In the theory of evolution. He argued that the state exist as a device for controlling the exploited class the class that labors for the benefit of the ruling class. course bones He advocated the Dot Differential Opportunity Theory. He claimed that upper classes create laws that protect their interest and at the same time the unwanted behavior of all other members of society. Howard Becker (1822 1982) They are the advocates of the Labeling Theory the theory that explains about social reaction to behavior. Charles Goring s Theory (1870 1919) . interaction and social hierarchy of people are the major influences of criminal behavior and crimes. he claimed that humans. Frank Tennenbaum Edwin Lemert. muscular. social contract . Ohlin claimed that is different opportunity. to success goals by both legitimated and illegitimate means depending on the specific location of the individual within the social structure. The theory maintains that the original cause of the individual within the social structure. Quinney major contribution is that he proposed the shift in focus from looking for the causes of crime from the individuals to the examination of the Criminal Justice System for clues. Asthenic . strong. lower class groups are groups are provided with greater opportunities for the acquisition of deviant acts.conflict. are parasite. Thus. narrow shoulders. MIDDLE TWENTIETH CENTURY Ernest Kretschmer (1888 1964) The idea of somatotyping was originated from the work of a German Psychiatrist. who distinguished three principal types of physique as: 1. Earl Richard Quinney (1934) Quinney is a Marxist criminologist who advocated the Instrumentalist Theory if capitalist rule. man kills and steal to live. Ernest Kretschmer. Man is an organism having an animalistic behavior that is dependent on other animals for survival. Athletic medium to tall. Thus. lower class groups are provided with greater opportunities for the acquisition of deviant acts. 2. or access.
basing on his research. 1995) Karl Marx. He contradicted the Lombroso s idea that criminality can be seen through features alone. whereas mediocre (average) physique flounder around among other crimes. unemployment and blocked opportunities while the inner containment refer to the person s self control ensure by strong ego. both of which provide defense. on the other hand. short heavy person commit assault. which is made up of the underprivileged usually the unemployed and underemployed. good self image. He discovered. and that crime is the result of the impact of environment. crime is an inevitable outcome. place more emphasis on working about crimes of economic gain. This theory is a form of control.The medical officer in prison in England who accepted the Lombroso s challenge that body physique is a determinant to behavior. high frustration tolerance and high sense of responsibility. According to Reckless. a Marxist Socialist. thus crime and delinquency are reflected on the demoralized surplus of population. Adelphe Quetelet (1796 1874) Quetelet was Belgian statistician who pioneered Cartography and the Carthographical School of Criminology that place emphasis on social statistics. well developed conscience. rape and other sex crimes. undersized men are thieves and burglars. 1998) The Containment Theory assumes that for every individual there exists a containing external structure and a protective internal structure. Willem Bonger (1818 1940) They are the proponents of the Social Class and Capitalism Theory. which suggests that a series of both internal and external factors contributes to criminal behavior (Schmalleger. protection or insultation against crime or delinquency. Marx and Engel claimed that the ruling class in a capitalist society is responsible for the creation of criminal law and their ideological basis in the interpretation and enforcement of the laws. Goring concluded that there is no such thing as physical criminal type. All are reflected in the ruling class. He believes that profit-motive of capitalism generates an egoistic personality. Hence. (Adler. Earnest Hooton s Theory (1887 1954) An Anthropologist who reexamined the work of Goring and found out that Tall thin men tend to commit forgery and fraud. A broad analysis of the relationship between personal and socials is found in Walter Reckless Containment Theory. Frederick Engel. that crimes against increased during summer against property tends to increased during winter. William Bonger. . He also contended that criminals are originally inferior. the outer structure of an individual are the external pressures such as poverty.
Merton s explanation to criminal behavior assumes that people are law abiding but when under great pressure will result to crime. Pyknic medium height. He combines the biological and psychological explanation to understand deviant behavior. Pyknic to manic depression. broad face. origins. He became popular of his own Somatotyping Theory. Classification of Body Physique by Sheldon . His key ideas are concentrated on the principle of Survival of the Fittest as a behavioral science. People become law abiding if they feel they are benefited by it and they violate it if these laws are not favorable to them. rounded figure. massive neck. William II. Much of this behavior comes to be called delinquent behavior. the lower class gathered share their common problems. Cohen called this process as reaction formation. 3. It means that an individual will obey or disobey societal rules depending upon his or her ability to rationalize whether he is protected from hurt or destruction. which related body built to behavior. Gresham Sykes (1922) He advocated the Neutralization Theory. the subculture is called a gang and the kids are called delinquents. forming a subculture that rejects middle class values.Culture Theory of Delinquency. Thus. process and purposes as factors to crime. He put emphasis on the explanation of prevalence. which maintains that the failure of man to achieve a higher status of life caused them to commit crimes in order for that status/goal to be attained. Cohen claims that the lower class cannot socialized effectively as the middle class in what is considered appropriate middle class behavior. He advocated the Strain theory. Albert Cohen (1918) He advocated the Sub.LATE 20TH CENTURY: THE CONTEMPORARY PIONEERS Robert King Merton (1910) He advocated is the premier sociologist of the modern days who are Durkheim also related the crime problem to anomie. He argued that crime as means to achieve goals and the social structure is the root of the crime problem. asthenics and athletics t oschizophrenia. Sheldon (1898 1977) Sheldon is an influenced of the Somatotype School of Criminology. Krestchmer related theses body physique to various psychotic behavioral patterns. Sheldon s Somatotyping Theory maintains the belief of inheritance as the primary determinants of behavior and the physique is a reliable indicator of personality.
Crime is learned by participation with other in verbal and non verbal communications. Ectomogrphy this physique. c. hard and firm. Differential associations vary in frequency. For this reason. 6. and they are the most likely to commit crimes. Persons with typically relaxed and comfortable disposition. roundness throughout the regions of the body. 9. priority and intensity. sting and tough. bone and connective tissue. While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and value. Sutherlnad s Nine Propositions (Adler. since non criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values. 8. . The learning process includes the techniques of committing the crime and the specific direction of motives. The process of learning behavior by association with criminal and anti criminal patterns involves all the mechanism that are involved in any other learning. b. poorly muscled. 4.a. delicacy through the body. They have low specific gravity. A person becomes delinquent because of an excess definition favorable to the violation of laws over to the definitions will result in criminality patterns involves all the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning. Not everyone in the society agrees that the laws should be obeyed. 2. 5. flat chest. They tend to look more fatigue and withdrawn. normally heavy. it is not explained by those general needs and values. The extent to which associations and definitions will result in criminality patterns involves all the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning. Edwin Sutherland (1883 1950) Sutherland has been referred to as the most important criminologist of the twentieth century because his explanation about crime and criminal behavior can be seen as a corrected extension of social perspective. Endomorphy a type with relatively predominance of soft. 1995) 1. They are the people who are routinely active and aggressive. some people define it unimportant. Criminal behavior is learned. drive and attitude. duration. slender. 3. 7. Families and friends have the most influence on the learning process. predominance of muscle. Mesomophy athletic type. he was considered as the Dean of Modern Criminology .