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Pavement Design
CEE 320
Steve Muench

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Outline
1. Pavement Purpose
2. Pavement Significance
3. Pavement Condition
4. Pavement Types
a. Flexible
b. Rigid
5. Pavement Design
6. Example

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Pavement Purpose

Load support

Smoothness

Drainage
DC to Richmond Road in 1919 – from the Asphalt Institute

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Pavement Significance

How much pavement?

3.97 million centerline miles in U.S.

2.5 million miles (63%) are paved

8.30 million lane-miles total

Largest single use of HMA and PCC

Costs

$20 to $30 billion spent annually on pavements

Over $100 million spent annually in WA

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Pavement Condition

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Pavement Condition

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Pavement Condition

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Pavement Condition
F
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S
D
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I



9
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f
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s
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Pavement Condition

Defined by users (drivers)

Develop methods to relate physical
attributes to driver ratings

Result is usually a numerical scale
From the AASHO Road Test
(1956 – 1961)

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Present Serviceability Rating
(PSR)
Picture from: Highway Research Board Special Report 61A-G

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Present Serviceability Index (PSI)

Values from 0 through 5

Calculated value to match PSR
( ) P C SV PSI + − + − · 9 . 0 1 log 80 . 1 41 . 5
SV = mean of the slope variance in the two wheelpaths
(measured with the CHLOE profilometer or BPR Roughometer)
C, P = measures of cracking and patching in the pavement surface
C = total linear feet of Class 3 and Class 4 cracks per 1000 ft
2
of pavement area.
A Class 3 crack is defined as opened or spalled (at the surface) to a width of
0.25 in. or more over a distance equal to at least one-half the crack length.
A Class 4 is defined as any crack which has been sealed.
P = expressed in terms of ft
2
per 1000 ft
2
of pavement surfacing.
FYI – NOT TESTABLE

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Typical PSI vs. Time
Time
S
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v
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e
a
b
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y

(
P
S
I
)
p
0
p
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p
0
- p
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Design Parameters

Subgrade

Loads

Environment

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Subgrade

Characterized by strength
and/or stiffness

California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
• Measures shearing resistance
• Units: percent
• Typical values: 0 to 20
– Resilient Modulus (M
R
)

Measures stress-strain relationship

Units: psi or MPa

Typical values: 3,000 to 40,000 psi
Picture from University of Tokyo Geotechnical Engineering Lab

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Subgrade
Some Typical Values
Classification CBR M
R
(psi) Typical Description
Good ≥ 10 20,000
Gravels, crushed stone and sandy
soils. GW, GP, GM, SW, SP, SM soils
are often in this category.
Fair 5 – 9 10,000
Clayey gravel and clayey sand, fine
silt soils. GM, GC, SM, SC soils are
often in this category.
Poor 3 – 5 5,000
Fine silty sands, clays, silts, organic
soils. CL, CH, ML, MH, CM, OL, OH
soils are often in this category.

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Loads

Load characterization

Tire loads

Axle and tire configurations

Load repetition

Traffic distribution

Vehicle speed

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Load Quantification

Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL)

Converts wheel loads of various magnitudes and repetitions
("mixed traffic") to an equivalent number of "standard" or
"equivalent" loads
– Based on the amount of damage they do to the pavement

Commonly used standard load is the 18,000 lb. equivalent
single axle load

Load Equivalency

Generalized fourth power approximation
factor damage relative
lb. 000 , 18
load
4
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Typical LEFs
Notice that cars are insignificant and thus usually
ignored in pavement design.

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LEF Example
The standard axle weights for a standing-room-only loaded Metro
articulated bus (60 ft. Flyer) are:
Axle Empty Full
Steering 13,000 lb. 17,000 lb.
Middle 15,000 lb. 20,000 lb.
Rear 9,000 lb. 14,000 lb.
Using the 4
th
power approximation, determine the total equivalent
damage caused by this bus in terms of ESALs when it is empty. How
about when it is full?

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Environment

Temperature extremes

Frost action

Frost heave

Thaw weakening

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Pavement Types

Flexible Pavement
– Hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements
– Called "flexible" since the total pavement structure
bends (or flexes) to accommodate traffic loads

About 82.2% of paved U.S. roads use flexible pavement

About 95.7% of paved U.S. roads are surfaced with HMA

Rigid Pavement

Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements

Called “rigid” since PCC’s high modulus of elasticity
does not allow them to flex appreciably
– About 6.5% of paved U.S. roads use rigid pavement

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Flexible Pavement

Structure

Surface course

Base course

Subbase course

Subgrade

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Types of Flexible Pavement
Dense-graded
Open-graded Gap-graded

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Flexible Pavement – Construction
FYI – NOT TESTABLE

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Rigid Pavement

Structure

Surface course

Base course

Subbase course

Subgrade

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Types of Rigid Pavement

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP)

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Types of Rigid Pavement

Continuously Reinforced Concrete
Pavement (CRCP)
Photo from the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute

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Rigid Pavement – Construction
Slipform
Fixed form
FYI – NOT TESTABLE

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Pavement Design

Several typical methods

Design catalog

Empirical
• 1993 AASHTO method

Mechanistic-empirical
• New AASHTO method (as yet unreleased)

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Design Catalog
Example design catalog from the Washington Asphalt
Pavement Association (WAPA) for residential streets

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Empirical

1993 AASHTO Flexible Equation

1993 AASHTO Rigid Equation
( ) ( )
( )
( ) 07 . 8 log 32 . 2
1
1094
40 . 0
5 . 1 5 . 4
log
20 . 0 1 log 36 . 9 log
10
19 . 5
10
10 18 10
− × +
+
+

,
`

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|


+ − + × + × ·
R o R
M
SN
PSI
SN S Z W
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

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`

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− ′
× − +
+
×
+

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+ − + × + × ·
25 . 0
75 . 0
75 . 0
10
46 . 8
7
10
10 18 10
42 . 18
63 . 215
132 . 1
log 32 . 0 22 . 4
1
10 624 . 1
1
5 . 1 5 . 4
log
06 . 0 1 log 35 . 7 log
k
E
D J
D C S
p
D
PSI
D S Z W
c
d c
t o R

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Terms – Flexible

W
18
(loading)
– Predicted number of ESALs over the pavement’s life.
• SN (structural number)
– Abstract number expressing structural strength

SN = a
1
D
1
+ a
2
D
2
m
2
+ a
3
D
3
m
3
+ …
• ΔPSI (change in present serviceability index)
– Change in serviceability index over the useful pavement life
– Typically from 1.5 to 3.0

M
R
(subgrade resilient modulus)
– Typically from 3,000 to 30,000 psi (10,000 psi is pretty good)

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Terms – Rigid

D (slab depth)

Abstract number expressing structural strength
– SN = a
1
D
1
+ a
2
D
2
m
2
+ a
3
D
3
m
3
+ …
• S’
c
(PCC modulus of rupture)

A measure of PCC flexural strength
– Usually between 600 and 850 psi
• C
d
(drainage coefficient)
– Relative loss of strength due to drainage characteristics
and the total time it is exposed to near-saturated conditions

Usually taken as 1.0

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Terms – Rigid
• J (load transfer coefficient)
– Accounts for load transfer efficiency
– Lower J-factors = better load transfer
– Between 3.8 (undoweled JPCP) and 2.3 (CRCP with tied shoulders)

E
c
(PCC elastic modulus)
– 4,000,000 psi is a good estimate
• k (modulus of subgrade reaction)
– Estimates the support of the PCC slab by the underlying layers
– Usually between 50 and 1000 psi/inch

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Reliability
X = Probability distribution of stress
(e.g., from loading, environment, etc.)
Y = Probability distribution of strength
(variations in construction, material, etc.)
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
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t
y
Stress/Strength
Reliability = P [Y > X] [ ] ( ) ( ) dx dy y f x f X Y P
x
y x ]
]
]

· >
∫ ∫
∞ ∞
∞ −

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WSDOT Flexible Table

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WSDOT Rigid Table

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Design Utilities
From the WSDOT Pavement Guide Interactive
http://guides.ce.washington.edu/uw/wsdot

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New AASHTO Method

Mechanistic-empirical

Can use load spectra (instead of ESALs)

Computationally intensive

Rigid design takes about 10 to 20 minutes

Flexible design can take several hours

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Design Example – Part 1
A WSDOT traffic count on Interstate 82 in Yakima gives the following
numbers:
Parameter Data WSDOT Assumptions
AADT 18,674 vehicles
Singles 971 vehicles 0.40 ESALs/truck
Doubles 1,176 vehicles 1.00 ESALs/truck
Trains 280 vehicles 1.75 ESALs/truck
Assume a 40-year pavement design life with a 1% growth rate
compounded annually. How many ESALs do you predict this pavement
will by subjected to over its lifetime if its lifetime were to start in the same
year as the traffic count?
( ) ( )
i
i P
Total
n
1 1 − +
·

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Design Example – Part 2
Design a flexible pavement for this number of ESALs using (1) the
WSDOT table, and (2) the design equation utility in the WSDOT
Pavement Guide Interactive. Assume the following:
•Reliability = 95% (Z
R
= -1.645 , S
0
= 0.50)
•ΔPSI = 1.5 (p
0
= 4.5, p
t
= 3.0)
•2 layers (HMA surface and crushed stone base)
HMA coefficient = 0.44, minimum depth = 4 inches
Base coefficient = 0.13, minimum depth = 6 inches
Base M
R
= 28,000 psi
•Subgrade M
R
= 9,000 psi

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Design Example – Part 3
Design a doweled JPCP rigid pavement for this number of ESALs
using (1) the WSDOT table, and (2) the design equation utility in the
WSDOT Pavement Guide Interactive. Assume the following:
•Reliability = 95% (Z
R
= -1.645 , S
0
= 0.40)
•ΔPSI = 1.5 (p
0
= 4.5, p
t
= 3.0)
•E
PCC
= 4,000,000 psi
•S’
C
= 700 psi
•Drainage factor (C
d
) = 1.0
•Load transfer coefficient (J) = 2.7
•Modulus of subgrade reaction (k) = 400 psi/in
HMA base material

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Primary References
• Mannering, F.L.; Kilareski, W.P. and Washburn, S.S. (2005).
Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, Third
Edition. Chapter 4
• Muench, S.T.; Mahoney, J.P. and Pierce, L.M. (2003) The
WSDOT Pavement Guide Interactive. WSDOT, Olympia, WA.
http://guides.ce.washington.edu/uw/wsdot
• Muench, S.T. (2002) WAPA Asphalt Pavement Guide. WAPA,
Seattle, WA. http://www.asphaltwa.com

Outline
1. 2. 3. 4. Pavement Purpose Pavement Significance Pavement Condition Pavement Types
a. Flexible b. Rigid

5. Pavement Design 6. Example
CEE 320 Winter 2006

Pavement Purpose
• Load support • Smoothness • Drainage

CEE 320 Winter 2006

DC to Richmond Road in 1919 – from the Asphalt Institute

Pavement Significance
• How much pavement?
– – – – 3.97 million centerline miles in U.S. 2.5 million miles (63%) are paved 8.30 million lane-miles total Largest single use of HMA and PCC

• Costs
– $20 to $30 billion spent annually on pavements – Over $100 million spent annually in WA
CEE 320 Winter 2006

Pavement Condition CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

Pavement Condition CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

Pavement Condition CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

CEE 320 Winter 2006 Pavement Condition From WSDOT I – 90 “fat driver” syndrome .

Pavement Condition • Defined by users (drivers) • Develop methods to relate physical attributes to driver ratings • Result is usually a numerical scale From the AASHO Road Test (1956 – 1961) CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

Present Serviceability Rating (PSR) CEE 320 Winter 2006 Picture from: Highway Research Board Special Report 61A-G .

P = measures of cracking and patching in the pavement surface C = total linear feet of Class 3 and Class 4 cracks per 1000 ft2 of pavement area.80 log 1 + SV − 0. A Class 3 crack is defined as opened or spalled (at the surface) to a width of 0.9 C + P SV = mean of the slope variance in the two wheelpaths (measured with the CHLOE profilometer or BPR Roughometer) C. CEE 320 Winter 2006 ( ) P = expressed in terms of ft2 per 1000 ft2 of pavement surfacing. or more over a distance equal to at least one-half the crack length.FYI – NOT TESTABLE Present Serviceability Index (PSI) • Values from 0 through 5 • Calculated value to match PSR PSI = 5.25 in.41 − 1. . A Class 4 is defined as any crack which has been sealed.

CEE 320 Winter 2006 Serviceability (PSI) p0 pt Time Typical PSI vs.pt . Time p0 .

Design Parameters • Subgrade • Loads • Environment CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

000 psi CEE 320 Winter 2006 Picture from University of Tokyo Geotechnical Engineering Lab .000 to 40.Subgrade • Characterized by strength and/or stiffness – California Bearing Ratio (CBR) • Measures shearing resistance • Units: percent • Typical values: 0 to 20 – Resilient Modulus (MR) • Measures stress-strain relationship • Units: psi or MPa • Typical values: 3.

GC. GM. Clayey gravel and clayey sand. SM. GP. fine silt soils. OH soils are often in this category.000 CEE 320 Winter 2006 . ML.000 Poor 3–5 5.Subgrade Some Typical Values Classification Good CBR ≥ 10 MR (psi) 20. CH. CM. organic soils. CL. SP. SM soils are often in this category. MH.000 Typical Description Gravels. OL. Fair 5–9 10. Fine silty sands. crushed stone and sandy soils. clays. SW. GM. GW. SC soils are often in this category. silts.

Loads • Load characterization – – – – – Tire loads Axle and tire configurations Load repetition Traffic distribution Vehicle speed CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

000 lb.000 lb.  4 .Load Quantification • Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL) – Converts wheel loads of various magnitudes and repetitions ("mixed traffic") to an equivalent number of "standard" or "equivalent" loads – Based on the amount of damage they do to the pavement – Commonly used standard load is the 18. equivalent single axle load • Load Equivalency – Generalized fourth power approximation CEE 320 Winter 2006  load    = relative damage factor  18.

CEE 320 Winter 2006 .Typical LEFs Notice that cars are insignificant and thus usually ignored in pavement design.

9. determine the total equivalent damage caused by this bus in terms of ESALs when it is empty.000 lb. Full 17.000 lb.LEF Example The standard axle weights for a standing-room-only loaded Metro articulated bus (60 ft. Flyer) are: Axle Steering Middle Rear Empty 13.000 lb.000 lb. How about when it is full? CEE 320 Winter 2006 .000 lb. Using the 4th power approximation. 20. 15.000 lb. 14.

Environment • Temperature extremes • Frost action – Frost heave – Thaw weakening CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

S.S.S. roads are surfaced with HMA • Rigid Pavement – Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements – Called “rigid” since PCC’s high modulus of elasticity does not allow them to flex appreciably – About 6.Pavement Types • Flexible Pavement – Hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements – Called "flexible" since the total pavement structure bends (or flexes) to accommodate traffic loads – About 82. roads use rigid pavement CEE 320 Winter 2006 . roads use flexible pavement – About 95.2% of paved U.5% of paved U.7% of paved U.

Flexible Pavement • Structure – – – – Surface course Base course Subbase course Subgrade CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

Types of Flexible Pavement Dense-graded CEE 320 Winter 2006 Open-graded Gap-graded .

FYI – NOT TESTABLE Flexible Pavement – Construction CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

Rigid Pavement • Structure – – – – Surface course Base course Subbase course Subgrade CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

Types of Rigid Pavement • Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP) CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

Types of Rigid Pavement • Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP) CEE 320 Winter 2006 Photo from the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute .

FYI – NOT TESTABLE Rigid Pavement – Construction Slipform Fixed form CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

Pavement Design • Several typical methods – Design catalog – Empirical • 1993 AASHTO method – Mechanistic-empirical • New AASHTO method (as yet unreleased) CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

Design Catalog CEE 320 Winter 2006 Example design catalog from the Washington Asphalt Pavement Association (WAPA) for residential streets .

22 − 0.19       ∆PSI     log10   0.132   4.63( J )  0.5 − 1.Empirical • 1993 AASHTO Flexible Equation  ∆PSI  log10    4.75  ( S c′ )( Cd ) ( D ) − 1.07 log10 (W18 ) = Z R × S o + 9.25   Ec      k          • 1993 AASHTO Rigid Equation CEE 320 Winter 2006 .5 − 1.5  + 2.35 × log10 ( D + 1) − 0.40 + ( SN + 1) 5.36 × log10 ( SN + 1) − 0.42    215.5  + ( 4.75 − 18.46  ( D + 1)  D 0.624 ×107    1+   8.32 p ) × log  log10 (W18 ) = Z R × S o + 7.20 + 10 R 1094 0.32 × log ( M ) − 8.06 +  t 10 1.

0 • MR (subgrade resilient modulus) CEE 320 Winter 2006 – Typically from 3. • SN (structural number) – Abstract number expressing structural strength – SN = a1D1 + a2D2m2 + a3D3m3 + … • ΔPSI (change in present serviceability index) – Change in serviceability index over the useful pavement life – Typically from 1.000 psi is pretty good) .5 to 3.000 psi (10.000 to 30.Terms – Flexible • W18 (loading) – Predicted number of ESALs over the pavement’s life.

Terms – Rigid • D (slab depth) – Abstract number expressing structural strength – SN = a1D1 + a2D2m2 + a3D3m3 + … • S’c (PCC modulus of rupture) – A measure of PCC flexural strength – Usually between 600 and 850 psi • Cd (drainage coefficient) – Relative loss of strength due to drainage characteristics and the total time it is exposed to near-saturated conditions – Usually taken as 1.0 CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

8 (undoweled JPCP) and 2.3 (CRCP with tied shoulders) • Ec (PCC elastic modulus) – 4.000.Terms – Rigid • J (load transfer coefficient) – Accounts for load transfer efficiency – Lower J-factors = better load transfer – Between 3.000 psi is a good estimate • k (modulus of subgrade reaction) – Estimates the support of the PCC slab by the underlying layers – Usually between 50 and 1000 psi/inch CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

environment.Reliability Reliability = P [Y > X] ∞  P[Y > X ] = ∫ f x ( x )  ∫ f y ( y )dy  dx −∞ x  ∞ Y = Probability distribution of strength (variations in construction. etc. etc. from loading.) X = Probability distribution of stress (e.) CEE 320 Winter 2006 Probability Stress/Strength . material..g.

WSDOT Flexible Table CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

CEE 320 Winter 2006 WSDOT Rigid Table .

Design Utilities CEE 320 Winter 2006 From the WSDOT Pavement Guide Interactive http://guides.edu/uw/wsdot .ce.washington.

New AASHTO Method • Mechanistic-empirical • Can use load spectra (instead of ESALs) • Computationally intensive – Rigid design takes about 10 to 20 minutes – Flexible design can take several hours CEE 320 Winter 2006 .

40 ESALs/truck 1. How many ESALs do you predict this pavement will by subjected to over its lifetime if its lifetime were to start in the same year as the traffic count? CEE 320 Winter 2006 P (1 + i ) − 1 Total = i n ( ) .674 vehicles 971 vehicles 1.Design Example – Part 1 A WSDOT traffic count on Interstate 82 in Yakima gives the following numbers: Parameter AADT Singles Doubles Trains Data 18.00 ESALs/truck 1.75 ESALs/truck Assume a 40-year pavement design life with a 1% growth rate compounded annually.176 vehicles 280 vehicles WSDOT Assumptions 0.

44.Design Example – Part 2 Design a flexible pavement for this number of ESALs using (1) the WSDOT table. minimum depth = 4 inches Base coefficient = 0. minimum depth = 6 inches Base MR = 28.0) •2 layers (HMA surface and crushed stone base) HMA coefficient = 0.5 (p0 = 4.645 . pt = 3.5.50) •ΔPSI = 1.13.000 psi CEE 320 Winter 2006 .000 psi •Subgrade MR = 9. and (2) the design equation utility in the WSDOT Pavement Guide Interactive. Assume the following: •Reliability = 95% (ZR = -1. S0 = 0.

000 psi •S’C = 700 psi •Drainage factor (Cd) = 1. S0 = 0. Assume the following: •Reliability = 95% (ZR = -1.0 •Load transfer coefficient (J) = 2.7 CEE 320 Winter 2006 •Modulus of subgrade reaction (k) = 400 psi/in HMA base material . and (2) the design equation utility in the WSDOT Pavement Guide Interactive.Design Example – Part 3 Design a doweled JPCP rigid pavement for this number of ESALs using (1) the WSDOT table.5 (p0 = 4.0) •EPCC = 4.000.5.40) •ΔPSI = 1. pt = 3.645 .

(2003) The WSDOT Pavement Guide Interactive. http://www.washington. WAPA.ce.L. Third Edition. L.edu/uw/wsdot • Muench..Primary References • Mannering. S. WA. and Pierce. F. S. (2005).P. http://guides. Kilareski. WSDOT. and Washburn. W.T.. Chapter 4 • Muench. J. Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis.asphaltwa. WA. (2002) WAPA Asphalt Pavement Guide.com CEE 320 Winter 2006 . Seattle.P.S. S.T.M. Olympia. Mahoney.

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