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Ships Contruction and Calculation

Ships Contruction and Calculation

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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924005003367

SHIP

CONSTRUCTION
AND

CALCULATIONS.
WITH

NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS AND EXAMPLES.

FOR THE USE OF OFFICERS OF THE MERCANTILE MARINE, SHIP SUPERINTENDENTS, DRAUGHTSMEN, ETC.

BY

GEORGE
Member of
Institution

NICOL,
Surveyor
to

of

Naval

Architects,

Lloyd's Register

of Shipping.

GLASGOW:

JAMES BROWN & SON,

52-56

Darnley Street, Pollokshields,

E.

London; SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON,
[All Rights Reserved.']

KENT &

CO.,

LTD.

1909.

.

at on behalf of his employers of an old one. and he also desires to acknowledge Thompson. draughtsmen. Sunderland.. W. B. rendered while the work was passing through the 1909. Or. for their kind permission to publish diagrams and results of of vessels built by them indebtedness to Mr. may now be for said to be a compulsory master that those who wish in qualify the certificate of extra must pass reasons an of examination officer why an as and to theory ships. is Marine. for help in reading the proof . confidence in directing his crew in the carrying out of In the assist management of his him at any time trim vessel to afloat. and are "more readily applicable to the changing conditions It is of construction. cargo steamships. To one. But besides this. and shipyard to all • whom the in a more or less intimate knowledge of naval architecture officer essential. In other ways also such knowledge would prove useful. writer's apology for is placing the volume before the The book intended blems met with particularly it manner some of the proand subsequent management afloat of ships. advances THE rapid the and in that have been made in recent years both construction present of steel in design best details of ships is the public. sheets. to explain in a in simple and practical the building is be hoped that the matter presented will be found up mentioned that publication has been specially delayed to to date. Thompson & Sons. calling for immediate temporary act inspector the the building of to a new vessel or repair his vessel it were receive repairs. J. unattainable by make Ltd. Glasgow. if called upon. mariner the subject to it. and in verifying the examples.Preface. calculations his L. if sudden damage. . would give him these. In conclusion. November. as well as for other valuable assistance press. ship of superintendents. and while no claim to special originality is made. there are other good should know something regarding the construction For instance. a knowledge at of simple theory would of arrive quickly satisfactory conditions draught. and every effort has been exerted to and stability. mere guess-work or a system of trial and error. the author begs to thank Messrs. the explanations simple." hoped the book will be found useful by officers of the Mercantile apprentices. which differ in certain important from those preceding them. It may so as to include respects reference Lloyd's latest rules.Sc. it would enable him. The examples chosen for illustration throughout the book have been selected for their practical interest.

.

... .. ..177 197 Trim .... PAGE i CHAPTER CHAPTER Outlines of Construction .... CHAPTER I... 254 272 APPENDICES. . . Stability of Shits at Large Angles of Inclination X..... of Materials . 324 . Loading and Ballasting Appendix A . 305 309 Appendix C Index Additional Questions . . 217 Rolling . II.... Rates of Stowage . Centre of Buoyancy III. . 25 42 CHAPTER CHAPTER IV.. CHAPTER XL . 75 Practical Details .. .. 93 VII.. .. Metacentric Stability VIII...... Bending Moments. CHAPTER VI. Weights ... CHAPTER CHAPTER IX. 45 Types of Cargo Steamers . Shearing Forces... .. Stresses and Strains V.. . .. Centre of Gravity. . 297 Appendix B Table of Natural Tangents. ... . Moments. Equilibrium of Floating Bodies. ......CONTENTS. Simple Ship Calculations ... . Sines and Cosines.. CHAPTER CHAPTER .

.

to find the number of units in any square it is only necessary to multiply therefore. although is and sometimes. respectively. The area of moments. but as the square foot is more familiar to us. centimetre. and as drawn the through the points of division parallel to these sides. subjects. CHAPTER I. say. shown has its figure.SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. Simple Ship Calculations. simplest figure of which all we may of obtain all the area right is a square. and angles angles. 6 A B and A D. we shall make it the standard square inch. whose chief properties are — sides equal. It is obvious that 36 units in a square having a side of 6 feet. in our calculations. system is employed. and afterwards. The fig. and encloses one unit of area. the units of surface being the square metre and square These metrical units have many points of advantage. as of may be found ship or convenient. feet. although more rarely. in English measure. each of which There are. it The unit. the length in lineal units of one side by itself. the metrical square yard. and on the Continent generally. A first KNOWLEDGE areas of the principle of of surfaces having curved boundaries in moments and of how to calculate may perhaps be said to dealing be the only indispensable requisites with ordinary ship calculations. In view of the principle this we propose to spend a little time on these problems. one side being. a usually a square foot. as a times taken as In France. . be divided into 6 equal the length parts. the square will contain 36 small squares. such as two adjacent lines sides. In If A BCD be in is a square. taking up areas of surfaces. 4 sides equal to a foot. i. especially as applied a plane surface bounded by is to straight curved lines its may some- be defined as the number of units of surface contained within boundaries.

By we have Fig. Area = 16x8 = 128 square h . for In passing to a rectangle the square. a rectangle be 16 and 8 long respectively. in case. these however. being. As an feet example. the adjacent the rule. rule the area is the same let as for a the length in this of two feet adjacent unequal. sides are multiplied together. feet..— 2 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS.e. sides i.

and a feet. vertical height of 22 feet.2 ). ED are called ordinates to the curve let these lines be represented by the letters y y. FGDE ^ — (ijz + y) D Eh — (#1+ 2y 2 whole area A B + y 3 ). RF By this rule the of any the triangle may be obtained know length of one side in and it is seen that we only require and the vertical distance between that side intersect. and. ABCF : 1 . in (fig. bounded by straight lines may be found by one and it of the foregoing or by a combination of applied this to them. then and FGDE will be trapezoids. AP v triangle ABO equals . of the should be noted that the of ship earliest rules the finding areas waterplanes and sections were of nature. . meeting C F in then— Area B0G= these BG x G . have an area . of — 75 square The area of any plane figure rules. and through F draw a line perpendicular to A E to intersect the curve in 0. F= — h (</ x + y. a triangle having will feet. Join B and D by straight lines. as we have just seen Area Therefore.2 and f/ 3 respectively and let h be the common distance between consecutive ordinates. A B. FO will be parallel to A B and DE. may be 2 written Area B 06 = ^^ x h. Obtain now the areas of the trapezoids and FGDE by ap- Let ABODE F. G. the area of the area to ACBD = ACxBE. . 4) Bisect A E be a portion of a ship's waterplane. and area A B G F = A Fx A B.SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS. Using the symbols. Draw B G parallel to A F. and the point a base of 25 x 22 25 2 which the other two sides Thus. and area A B G F = h x yv Combining we get Area A B In the same way area . ABCF plying the rules already established. Obviously A 3 B bisects the parallelogram A GB D.-. F 0.

multiplied by the normal distance sum of the end ordinates between any two ordinates. giving a common 1 interval y. take one having 5. . add half the the result. of 12 and 12 . The rule may be applied to five curves as in any number of ordinates. taking one foot or one inch as the unit of measurement then to the sum of all the ordinates. . as in figure 5 measure the length of these ordinates. obtain the and a curved which is taken as the base of the figure divide the base between the end ordinates into any number of equal parts. with fig. area EDHJ = —(y->+ 2y 4 x -\-y 5 ) . surface.\ the whole area. approximately. area ABDE = —(y + 2y 2 + y x %) and. as — Let in length of base = = 48 10 feet. For example.2 + a(/ 3 + 2</ 4 + £/ 5 ) This area line. Ordinates. let 5 the 4. is called the trapezoidal rule for obtaining areas of surfaces lines. By the rule. except the end ordinates. Tabulating the information. spaced directed.2 . Let there be feet. 5 ordinates. y3 = 16 y±= y — respectively. bounded by being three straight to lines two the straight lines perpendicular the — . measured in same unit. and through the points of division draw perpendiculars to the curved line. It bounded by curved and straight of may be stated as follows : — To other. will be the area of the any of plane surface.— . ABDHJ = —{y + 2y. value of the ordinates be feet —y = 3 . 4 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. the calculation becomes . Example.

is areas may be made extremely the is but however always greatest numerous less ordinates may be. A parabola may be described as the curve forming the line of intersection of a right its cone with a plane parallel to one of point which moves. the difference will w hen the results excessive.SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS. to therefore. It area obtained that this manner give than the actual curvature obvious. this is it not is so. too. so sides . No this rigid equation error can is be applied to usually ordinary in ship curves. as but found that no great involved treating them parabolas. ordinates is and the that curve. It clear by taking in a great small. this rule. enclosed by them up to any point could be written down. The the area areas obtained enclosed as above is less than the lines actual area required by small between the straight joining the extremities of each two consecutive spaces these the in fig. . it is also sometimes defined as the locus of a that— its its distance from a fixed point line distance from a fixed straight A. as indicated by the of hatched ordinates. 5. In applying the rule to curves the ordinates should be close spaced at the points of greatest curvature.* * and is now the common practice. If the curves met with in ship design were of regular form. most accurate little when applied surfaces having boundaries with comparatively ordinary ship curvature. number is is hatched area. equations them could be deduced by means of which the correct areas of surfaces Unfortunately. to and wider spaced elsewhere.

as By an important inventor. and the ordinates y y2 y 3 are drawn Fig. rule formula. 8. of and through the points of division draw ordinates to the curve be odd in number. divided indicated in the rule. and the ordinates. the area in is fig. Finally. 2t/ij BG = ~{ly x + + ihy 2 + 4y. be is which the area required. 7. We may It write— Area A B frequently = j(y 1 + 4# 2 + 2^4-4^4+ 2^ + 4^+ happens that closer at 2t/ 7 +4 at */ 8 + &) ends of the the curvature to is greater the waterplane. first and last. calculations. named after the the area enclosed by any parabolic curve may be obtained. known Simpson's Rale. This rule a ship's is of immense value of and we shall (fig. portions.. verticals — Through the extremities Divide the distance spaces. 7). and pro- a close approximation the be an ordinary shipshape one. attained 8. verticals :— Simpson's First Rule. between an even the number . and then add this together four times the sum the of the even ordinates first odd the ordinates. is Let ABC . To the and twice the sum of the total add the sum of result . ( 1) . by inserting total intermediate is ordinates as shown : The area now made up of three Fig. and a approximation these places. omitting last Measure length of which ordinates will therefore each ordinate. )- DEF6 j h (</ 2 + 4 </ 5 + h 2</ 6 +4 </ 7 + Axe&FGC = Combining these Area A j-iyt + Ay&t+y*) = we get j(ii/ 8 + ays* + £#>) + portions. as follows JL Area A Area ED = -(0i 6 + 40U + 0s) = ~(ki + + 4^ + 2</ 4 2</H + i# 2 </ 8 ). multiply the by one-third this will the the length of common surface to interval if it between curve curve in ordinates a give exact area of the the if be that of ship common parabola. + 2</ 4 + 4 </ 5 + 2 y6 + 4^7 i£jy a + 2y 9 + Jy 9 ). of any chosen these draw into to cut the curve. The may be stated as follows base-line. ceed to take a few examples showing half-waterplane as its application. through the points of division . h is the common interval between the ordinates.— — SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. x The base A G etc.

. 14/5. 'i. i6"8. Suppose with (/i. n"6. we could find the area more convenient to tabulate as follows : No. jyo. ordinates have certain definite 16*9.SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS. 15*4. 16*4. now that as follows: — the 5. feet: is. and that the total length of the plane is 200 by filling in the values in equation (1). but it the figures.h. *i. values beginning 9-4. of Ordinates.

there must be an odd number of ordinates. the common interval between the ordinates. 9. however. — The feet. the common being 9 first feet. and area D C £ If F = —(5^ + 8z/ 2 -(/ x these be added we get. between the Find the area of the portion of the Tabulating. the namely. For example Area A BCD (fig. for instance. full waterplane . between f/i and y 2 in fig. and not less than three. the Five Eight the based that same assumption parabola. as. we get and second ordinates. the ordinate forming the other boundary to the space whose area we are finding by 5. £ Ordinates. It is. length of the half ordinates of a portion 6.— — — S SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. on the which as shows first that rule. Three ordinates being given. after re-arrangement Total area A BEF = Rule curve ™ is (</ 1 + 4</a + ffs). respectively. To do Fig. this we employ another rule known as the 9 Eight Rule. sometimes necessary to find the area between two consecutive ordinates. to obtain the area between any two multiply the middle ordinate by 8. which may be stated thus :— Five Eight Rule. We have seen that to apply Simpson's First Rule to finding the area of any surface having a curved boundary. and the remaining ordinate by . a ship's waterplane are in 7 '6 and 8. that is of a common Take a of interval practical example. 9) = — (Stfi +%*-&) ). when multiplied by TV Five — . will give the area required.1 the algebraic sum of these products.

i third ordinates were required.SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS.M. . If the area between the second and be £ Ordinates. the calculation would S.

22*3.. 12. 29-9. 9. Combining these quantities and re-arranging the bracket. and the remainder Proceeding by the first. and as 10. will surfaces having ordinates whose number with 6. will to feet apart. find as with Reviewing our rules for having 3. we have so as to get a common factor outside Whole Calculate area A B EF = -(i^ +3§# of fig. etc. 7. The work No. thus. we note that the portion A BCD may be treated second rule. n. ordinates. 13. h 2 + 3§03+ 2S& + 4& + ordinates 30*3. of Ordinates. and a a combination of the rules given surface with eight must be resorted Take. not included in the foregoing. 27-3. 4. 13. ordinates required by the Second Rule. and of the following lengths: 14-9 feet.. areas. : ^ be 6 + 4#7 + 12 </ 8 )- the area 10. no single to. 28-9. for instance. and respectively. be as follows . 5.— — —— 10 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. etc. 7. rule apply. we get by the DGEF Area A B C D = g% 4 x + 3</ 2 441/ 5 3^3 + ^) and area DC E F = ~(y + + 2y 6 + 4*/ 7 + y B ).. such those 8. we now as is that surfaces can be dealt for ordinates. assuming the 167. etc. 16. 24*4. required by the First Rule. ordinates as shown in figure 10 : Examining the figure. 14.

and multiply the by the length base line of the figure. and numbered i. ordinates . Fig. of Ordinates. and we leave the reader for work it out himself. have been these placed in position. we have No. Here we 2. etc. 20 feet.. Rule. spaced according A B D (fig. have in six let us find the area to of rule. The ordinates.SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS. the sketch the total length of the base is Applying the rule. instance. II to would be very similar to the above. . 11. Tcheuychkff's Rule. as of in . 3. according to the number of them employed nor are they treated by multipliers. All that it is necessary to do to obtain the is area to in a given the case when of the the ordinates latter. having curved Simpson's the — This differs method of finding the areas of plane in for surfaces boundaries certain important are respects from that spaced. not equally latter case. but arbitrarily. result measure the lengths add divide the sum by of the number of the ordinates. 1 1). As an example. together.

.t 2 SHIP CONSTRUCTION It AND CALCULATIONS. should at be noted that there is an odd number of the of one occurs the origin. ordinates. Number of Ordinates and Multipliers for Same. line. where is. determined. that the middle point base Table i.

*3 No. of Ordinates. .SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS.

— — • u feet SHIP CONSTRUCTION thick. shows. with rules which admit of direct application In the volume is sometimes found convenient to proceed as follows of assume the body be divided by an odd number equidistant . 1. Let fig. these however. the actual volume will obviously be quantity. AND CALCULATIONS. fig. 2. of an Ellipsoid = length x breadth x depth x - —— p Passing from these. roughly. The area of the upper surface A BCD = 15x25 = 375 square feet. There are various rules for obtaining the and we proceed to state a few of them without. such as that in 14. for example. solids of we come next to consider methods of finding the more or less irregular form. : may be supposed no it represented ED FA. giving the proofs may be obtained by referring to any work on mensuration. volumes of Fig. a a ship's body by A to waterplane — which dealt — say below the load Obviously. Volume Volume of sphere = diameter 3 x - ~f~~~* 3. volumes of regular solids. If the block were one foot thick. Volume of a pyramid with any form of base = area of base x J height (perpendicular). we have finding First. such. 14 represent this block. 375 would also measure 3! times the the this capacity in cubic therefore feet : . as the portion of immersed body of a 15 ship. here. . volume = 375* 3 '5 = 1312*5 cubic feet From this it appears that to obtain the volume of any rectangular solid. it is merely necessary to find the continued product of the three principal dimensions.

capacity the vessel. . take a horizontal line. corresponding section of so obtained. which are numbered 1.VOLUME. rectangle at 2l 2 represent the volume of a vertical layer between 2± sections vessel at the points 2. 22 23 . 2 3) and where they intersect the Now.. scale. measuring from the base line H J. mark off to scale the number of square feet in the Next. 2*. transverse 15 planes (nine is shown in the figure). in fig. 16. since the be drawn parallel to H </. on some and erect equal-spaced ordinates to correspond with the transverse sections of the body previously mentioned. HJ to the length of the vessel. 16. as shown. let lines the ordinate at the little 2 represents 2 the will area of a section of the vessel at that point. space between any two sections. and 23 3. 2. fig. HL J have an area representing the cubic of the 2 2i2 2 2*3 Let That the foregoing statement is true may be very simply shown. be subdivided by ordinates drawn through the points 2 1. such as 2 and 3. 5. and having a constant section equal to area of 2 X section In the same way the rectangles 22 . curve. 4. On each of these ordinates. having a length equal. Draw a will fair curve through the points and the surface body. etc. and calculate the areas of each of these planes from the keel up to the horizontal waterplane AFDEA. 3.

of follows : /rea of . Take a numerical example. between sections at 2 and 3. them will 12 feet. 400. areas of the vertical transverse feet. base line. between vessel at and will be less than the actual volume of the and the deficiency is obviously represented by the areas of the little triangles But by between the tops of the rectangles and the curve. H L J H. is 750. 350. o. of the volumes sections this of at 2 layers represented by 2 etc. body represented by the area load line. 2 Xi 22 The sum 22 .. up to the in square are. the total volume of the sections 40. Calculate this is the and the common interval between immersed volume of the body. vertical layers. It of obtaining the be seen that merely a question area of a figure as such as H LJ //. and the work may therefore be tabulated No. the bounding ordinates. and the part. of a vessel 230. is Thus it is clear that. of whose sections will be those of the vessel at the beginning of each interval. as stated above. will be truly represented by the area of that portion of fig. respectively. — The 50. 270. the areas little will volumes of the vertical 3. 14 enclosed by the curve. making the division close enough.— i 6 SHIP CONSTRUCTION represent AND CALCULATIONS. so that in the limit the volume of the body. the areas of these little triangles can be made as small as we please. 163. 470. and total o.

4500.P. it is only necessary to calculate the area of BCD. 7000.VOLUME. the vessel being symmetrical about of each of the horizontal planes to is 17 the middle line plane. W. 6000.P. ew. to on a horizontal 1 opposite the water- plane for which it refers.P. 4W. A fair curve GG^D. shown. drawn through these points will obviously. of W. 17. . what at be the : total volume? The work of finding this area we tabulate as follows No. In 1 fig. If the areas of the waterplancs of the vessel beginning feet.E 3 W. 7 these areas are represented by B the first waterplane. and so on. 17. 7600. FG for the second. 2800. from our previous consideration. Take one numerical example: in fig. and 150 square will the upper one. enclose an area representing the volume of the vessel from the keel to the first waterplane. and therefore. be 8000. first calculated and set off to line the right of the middle line 5/3.P. to obtain the immersed volume of the vessel. The some area scale. respectively. Fig. and the distance between them be 3 feet.

for by when a vessel . water. with have the same weight as the vessel.. we must endeavour to explain an important hydrostatic This law asserts that if any principle known as the Law of Archimedes. solidified. for a reason which appear presently. those The immersed pressures portion will be pressed in every direction by the parallel which act by arrows. body be to immersed at in a fluid it will the weight of float the volume of of the body total the surface the fluid be pressed upwards by a force equal fluid which it displaces .return to its former state and consequently the equilibrium will not occupying the cavity the will that to say. 18 represented by A it in fig. or may ozs.— At shall point. by experiment. will float with bulk above the surface as fluid. And since we know. to the the plane fluid indicated to now. since same this it resultant at have the same upward pressure keeps weight each of them of the equilibrium. we are able to write Weight of water displaced by vessel = = 28 5*7 tons - By the Law of Archimedes this weight is equal to that of the vessel and its contents. that the volume of fluid displaced weight of the body. Thus. The following is a simple proof of this important principle. of enormous value to the naval architect. exact the to immersed the form with of the the body. a box-shaped depth of 10 5 feet ioo'x2o'xio'. This it. From once follows that the floating body is the occupying a space equal to that principle is same as that of a volume of the fluid of the immersed portion of the body. 18 be placed in a a part of its fluid of greater specific gravity than itself. floating will in salt half its immersed.8 ' —— 1 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. that a cubic foot and therefore that a ton of salt water — = 35 cubic feet. shown. be disturbed statical — supposed to . displace ioo x 20 x = 10000 or 64 cubic feet of the verify fluid. a cavity will remain having the finally. on a section If. If the body Fig. fluid If cavity be supposed fluid same and the there surrounding will solidified free is be be a level surface. we imagine body of filled itself paper being surrounding the body of the become this and the shape to be top non-existent. this DISPLACEMENT AND BUOYANCY. easily of salt water weighs 1025 2240 occupies a space of -7 lbs.. and if the with only a portion of its bulk im will mersed. the fluid effect as the body in itself.

the volume to area DFG total y . because of greater affords convenience. In the following table we show these calthe final results are arranged by themselves Displacement Calculation.* volume up to the load waterplane Dividing this by 35 we obtain = a 2538 tons as the ordinate of the displace- 35 ment curve at a draught of 15 up to the 2nd waterplane. is !9 is floated. which this work can be done. No. and therefore the weight of the displaced water at the various waterplanes indicated on fig. Referring now 12 to feet. The 1st the rule will be suitable being for finding case. give a curve from which the displacement at any draught up to the load-line may be read off.825 cubic >25 Con- The feet. whose waterplane areas were used in the example on page 17. while for the value 4th volume between the 1st and 4th planes should be got by Simpson's 2nd rule. The displacement 1st rule. the displacement to the 5th plane. when plotted to corresponding draughts. the half interval used in this culations carried out as suggested for easy reference : . of Sect.DISPLACEMENT AND BUOYANCY. equal to that of the displaced water. and pointed the use We out the have described two ways that the method involving its it of horizontal areas is preferable to other. fig. the 3rd waterplane to may be the found by direct application of the waterplane. is 17. tions He has thus an infallible means of checking his calculabasis and of forming a will on which of to estimate the amount of cargo the correctly vessel carry. in the ready means which of obtaining the each of volume. or the feet. These intermediate although not of special value of themselves. including contents. and the result deducted from the total volume. for instance. scale at displacements. was there determined to be 88. We now see the importance being able to calculate the in volume of the immersed body of a ship. . As a practical sider the vessel example let us construct such a diagram in a specific case. This curve constitutes what is known as the displacement diagram. This is seen. 17. he knows that its weight. The the simplest 1st the layer between and by way of obtaining this volume is to deduct 2nd plane represented by the area BFG l C to draught of represented from the volume.

A fair curve drawn through the points the diagram required. a vertical scale of draught A B (fig. Now measure along these lines.P. = 578oox3X3 = 35x3 25 — = 79 680 x 3 226 tons. 35 x 3 Displacement of layer between Displacement to 4th waterplane Displacement to 5th waterplane and 4th \V. Displacement to 2nd waterplane Displacement to 3rd waterplane 1S68 tons. ments corresponding will give to these draughts. divide it into five equal parts and draw horizontal lines from the points of division. to some convenient scale. Fig. 19. and 2nd W. l8 b 8tonStons. 19). ^ 43425 ist x 3 1240 tons. tons. distances representing the displace- The construction of the displacement curve 35 x 3 an easy matter.20 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS SSS25 x 3 35 x 3 Displacement to load waterplane Displacement of layer between ist — 3 2 Q = 2^S . SCALE OF DISPLACEMENT IN TONS . Number these horizontal lines from B downwards. 93800 x 35 x I2 3 670 tons. Take is now and let the distance from A to B equal 15 feet. P.

In the same way the displacefeet. at any moment during loading operations. ment any mean draught. From officers the displacement diagram another very useful one It is specially may called a "scale of deadweight. found by interpolation. 19. exhibits in graphic form the weight of cargo put aboard as the vessel sinks in the water. be observed to consist of two columns. 20. provided did not exceed 15 could be found." constructed for the use of ships' It and others who may have to do with loading operations. the draught to be taken on the scale should be line 2 1 = io£ in feet. In It will 20 we an illustration of such a diagram deduced from is fig.DISPLACEMENT AND BUOYANCY. amount give still to be dealt with to bring the vessel to her assigned load-line. and may be looked upon as a kind of loading meter by which the officer is able to tell. of course. The effect on the draught of quantities less than 200 tons is. Fig.* A horizontal drawn out at at this draught would intersect the curve a point showing on the scale of tons a displacement of 1530 it tons. be constructed. and the fig. the amount of cargo he has got aboard. one of which a scale of draughts in feet. while the other indicates the amount of immersion caused in the vessel by the addition of each 2007 tons in her load. .

this would be affected by shipping the mean draught were known.— Sometimes know how much the draught of a vessel If is de- or discharging a moderate quantity of cargo. this draught there feet will be 380 tons aboard. aft. therefore the 1356 tons. will give the number of inches by which the draught has been altered.22 SHIP CONSTRUCTION 7 feet AND CALCULATIONS. at forward and 10 feet 4 inches and that it is required to ascertain still how much to sink cargo has been put on board. Fig. 27. be more conveniently got by means of a diagram. however. and how much has to be shipped her to a mean draught of 15 feet? Mean At At draught at time of observation = — 2 ' —— - - = 8 ft. weight scale it can. called a "Curve of tons per inch of Immersion. divided by a number read from the diagram. the vessel will carry 15 mean draught still 1738 tons. TONS PER INCH IMMERSION . 8 ins. special information could be obtained from the displacement diagram or the dead. the draught.380 = CURVE OF TONS PER INCH OF IMMERSION." which shows graphically number of tons required to sink or lighten the vessel one inch at any The weight of cargo shipped. it amount of cargo sirable to to be shipped = 1736 .

distance — 4. 11 "6 and 15*4. The i6'8. draw horizontal lines. and *2. To complete the diagram. 2. whose diagram given alDove. and their spacing n feet. 9"4. Simpson's First Rule due to the introduction of a half 6. and 9 feet as the common distance between them. — 303*6. in To what feet class of curve does it apply accurately? Given sides. I. 107. Second Rule. of these lines the corresponding quantities the points so obtained. of ordi5. what Rule would you employ to find the area between the first and second ordinates? If the ordinates in feet are 5. i6'9.CURVE OF TONS PER INCH OF IMMERSION. 5. What are the main points of difference between Tchebycheff's Rule and Simpson's First Rule for finding plane areas? Compare by an actual practical example the results obtained by applying Tchebycheff's two ordinate Rule and Simpson's First Rule. 9/3. 10. 7*4. 2. Ans. and 8*3 as the value of the half ordinates of a portion of a ship's waterplane. find the area between the first two. and for what 11 '6. nates? 15*4. a scale of draughts and of tons must be drawn and the construction lines erased. 6*5. Ans. What is are the advantages of Simpson's First Rule for finding plane areas. State *i. The half ordinates in feet of the load waterplane of a vessel are. fig. of which the areas are known. curve the Rule accurate? What 14*5. commencing from aft. n. therefore additional immersion — JL— = 16*6 ^- i inches. as shown in 21. 17. Trapezoidal Rule. State the Trapezoidal Rule for finding areas of plane surfaces having curved boun- and point out wherein it is inaccurate. 3*6. semi-ordinates of the waterplane of a vessel in feet are. and draw a curve through 420 This will be the curve of tons per inch of immersion. are the conditions as to the number and spacing 'I. — 210*6 square feet. ° QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER 1. —21 18 square feet. 2*6. Ans. 3. calculate the area including both Ans. respectively. 93*86 square feet. . is Example. a — If the of 9 vessel. l6'4. and the common interval between them is 15 feet. were floating at mean draught is what would be the increased immersion due to shipping 50 tons of cargo? From : the curve at 9 feet draught the tons per inch found to be i6 - 6. Given the values of three consecutive and equally spaced ordinates and the common between them. find the area of plane in square yards. and *l. Why are half ordinates sometimes introduced at the ends of plane figures? Deduce the modification in the multipliers of ordinate. The spacing of the ordinates is n feet. n. feet. Find the area of the plane by using the daries. 23 Mark off to scale fair on each A . Simpson's 5.

Explain why of it is preferable rather than of transverse vertical sections in calculating the of the waterplanes the a vessel employ the areas of horizontal sections or waterplanes volume of displacement. 2550. 120 and 8 square and the common 15 feet. expressed IOO. SHIP CONSTRUCTION Given the areas of the in to AND CALCULATIONS. — 1213-3. and the areas of other 3650. of the sections of a vessel. P. Referring to the latter part of question No. 32:0.P. S. is 4000 square feet. Ans. 3600. What is the "Law of Archimedes"? Explain in what way Law is important to the naval architect. between the sections mersion?" distance 2 ft. 1200. transverse vertical the L. calculate the displacement to the various waterplanes. If the tranverse vertical feet. a particular vessel are interval is 240. show that the volume sections displacement may be 4.400 cubic feet. neglecting the portion below the lowest plane.24 7. area.W. 11. as a plane 260. 242. Ans. 4S00. — 20. The areas are £000. 9 Construct the curve of "Tons per inch of Im- . 190. this 9. is Immersion" constructed? What use is made L. of a ship's sections respectively. Calculate the displacement in tons (salt water). 6000. and 24 square feet. 2400. The vertical ins. 1S0. and plut the diagram of displacement. and IOO square feet. How is a curve of "Tons per inch of of such a curve? parallel water The areas are. to is common interval between the waterplanes 2 feet. calculate the volume of displacement. 8.W. 10.

two items of may be deduced first. at two equal weights be placed one 22). and A from the B. 23). Cross multiplying. will If the weights at be un- balancing the point larger not be at the middle but some other position nearer weight.CHAPTER II. that the position of the point of support must acting : 25 . and OB the distances of the of application of the weights fulcrum. equation becomes It P x A = Q. n = irn PR (i). Centre of Buoyancy. it each end of a weight- lever A B (fig. is obvious that the point at which they may be Fig. Moments. C (1). Centre of MOMENTS. if Y P where points this c P and Q are the unequal weights. Fig. J^ P supported in equilibrium equal the lies midway between them. 23. — If less Gravity. it In exact books on elementary mechanics of is shown the that in all such cases the position C may be P obtained from relation (fig. 22. appears then. that forces from a consideration of a balanced system of two parallel interest on a rigid bar assumed to be weightless.

and F clear the above theorem will if RxOE = or. (2). or turning about the point of support on one side must be equal and opposite to other. using equation 2 — is — proved by i. multiplying . = P(0E -DE) + Q (0 E + EF) if P x D E = Q x £ F. and second. ft A c v P y be the points of application of the forces . Take the simple Let A and B 25. that the effort. 25. E. Drop a perpendicular from to upon the be line of action of in the forces. is That the point thus determined by X the one required moments is of the weights about this point are equal. x 12. be horizontal. 2i| x 8 = 14^ .e. and of the if X be the distance (1). Fig. s II extreme points of a weightless lever 36 inches long. from which we get X the fact that the = if inches. PxOD + OF. be fixed by equation (i).. that is. Let and R the resultant of the two forces. we have. weights of 8 and 12 be suspended at A and 24. A >. moment of the force. The acting the following an important theorem the re$idta?it The moment of on of a system of parallel forces in one plane a rigid body about any point in the plane is equal to the sum oj moments of the component forces about the same point. B (fig. It is assumed that vertical. if Q out and cancelling x (P+Q)0E like terms. the Fig. that on the Thus.— 26 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. which for simplicity are as shown. balancing point from A. if as indicated by equation lbs. join A B and assume the line to be the point about which the moments are to be taken. cutting them hold the points D. which may be called P and Q. case of two forces acting in the same direction. 24). as in fig.

We etc. of course. Consider the forces P P P& ly 2i shown 26. hold if there be any number of forces acting. therefore case to the one just proved. . which. are now in fig. this may be so PxAC = QxCB. in the first instance. able to deal with questions in which it is necessary to find the position of the resultant of parallel forces. 26. and this will reduce the But this relation we know true.. we shall suppose acting in Fig. must be the above theorem. the forces acting on either side of this line may be represented by a single force. Since 27 written A B is parallel to to D be F. The theorem will. for if the line of action of the resultant be found.MOMENTS.

in fig. Calling Y the distance of the plane of the resultant from the axis plane. Let the forces 26 act at the distances shown from the plane containing P normal l to the plane of the paper. Clearly. etc. The preceding least principle to admits of finding many important applications. the total weight is taken as acting at a fixed point when making stability and other centre of gravity of a the weight The point at which of the calculations. anJ vertical trace to be represented by the line of the force Plt by a simple moment calculation about this plane we will determine. CENTRE OF GRAVITY. Thus. not to the of which is that the of centres of gravity.P y p + p. as evidently the resultant of the forces due to the weight of the various portions of the lamina must pass through that point. - 5. + P + Pi + P 5 x 3 9 5 Putting in the numerical values 2.. it must coincide with the 7-2 will line of their intersection. It is frequently necessary in dealing with ship calculations it to obtain the centre of gravity of an area. its planes to be perpendicular to the plane of the paper. eacn one having same suffix as the force to which it refers. the idea of weight In approaching such questions is usual to keep and to consider the area as consisting of a homogeneous lamina of uniform but infinitely small thickness. is in the point of intersection To find the centre of gravity .— — 2o SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. but only of the vertical plane containing it parallel to the plane chosen as the axis. - 7. 9. + 8x4-6x7 40 7*2 + 12 X9-5X 1*4 feet. we have • Y _ fill + fttfg ~ gsj/g + P*y*. called the centre of gravity of the body. no matter what position it may occupy. body is also sometimes defined briefly as the body may be taken to act. for y 17 </ 2 . this becomes 4x2 The two values. will due to the attraction of parallel the earth.{js. uhich we must now into turn. not the position of the resultant. the Let these be given by the normal distances y u y<&-y& y* . To find the other one we must know the position of each of the forces from a plane parallel to the plane of the paper. be the distance from the axis of one of the planes containing the resultant. the centre of gravity of a lamina of circular form all at its geometric centre. To fully determine the position we must now find another plane it also is containing the resultant parallel to the plane of the paper. 10 " T 4 line of X ~ feet and Y = determine the the resultant of the system of the assumed parallel forces. since in both planes. is Thus. We begin with a general definition. the forces or weight parts. in the case of a ship and cargo. Also the centre of gravity of a lamina of square form of the two diagonals. whatever be the position is body with reference to the earth.— If the mass of any body be supposed divided an infinite number weight of parts. acting on the various of the form a system of resultant • forces of which the total body is the and the point through which the of the line of action of this resultant always passes. 4.

such. bisect one of the other sides. 20 follows: bisect A C in of all strips of the B C (fig.CENTRE OF GRAVITY. of The usual practice in effect to divide the lamina into an infinite number elements. the intersection of the two lines. moments by centre of gravity itself. G at a point one-third of BD from D. owing the irregularity of the form. A E. we cannot determine the centre of to gravity by such geometrical is methods. consequently the centre of D and join of gravity gravity of the triangle must be somewhere in it. each quotient being the distance of a line containing the centre of gravity parallel to its corresponding axis. also be in and A E join . we may proceed as B D. is must be G where the lines A E and BD intersect. as the half waterplane of a ship. In passing to the case of a lamina having a curved boundary. of a triangular lamina such as A First. 27). to take the moments of these elements about any two axes chosen at and to divide the sum of each series of the total weight of the lamina. for instance. This line contains the centre lamina parallel to A G. say B % in £". The it centre of gravity of the lamina must obviously at the point therefore. Next. and the right angles in the plane of the lamina. By employing Simpson's .

etc. and let 11 ordinates be taken so as to suit the application of Simpson's First Rule to the finding of the areas A D B and A B. The next two columns are for obtaining area enclosed the ordinates. and draw in the rectangle shown of area at y5 . As an illustration consider the half waterplane A B G Divide A B into a number of parts as shown. 28). With a little as base. No'. by the principle of moments. by the moment curve. the distance the centre of gravity of this area from the chosen axis will be given by the line A B. . and this may also stand for the weight since the lamina Now its is homogeneous and of uniform thickness. which will represent the moment of the strip In the same way obtain and plot the moments of elementary areas at #i> #2. simplionly necessary to deal with specimen elements. and the fourth the corresponding functions obtained when far the ordinates are treated is by these the multipliers. which greatly (fig. the fifth giving the squares of and the sixth the functions of the same when affected by the multipliers. A curve through the extremities of these little rectangles will en- close an area A D B. in the diagram. In the feet. The figures of this calculation are best arranged in tabular form as shown below. Rules is take a strip of the lamina of very small breadth a at ordinate 5. of Ordinates. two columns are the numbers of the ordinates and their The third column gives Simpson's multipliers. It will be seen that so the work simply in the direction of finding the area AGB.— — 3° SHIP CONSTRUCTION it AND CALCULATIONS. which will represent the moment of the area AGB about of and consequently. Total Moment Area about A B Total Area °r ' Area Area AD B AGB' As a numerical example. The moment of this little area about A B a as axis will be y*a- y* = yi. first values in respectively. fies the work. and draw ordinates to the curve. set down^2 as an ordinate below A B. say . let the above half waterplane be 140 feet long. area will be y 5 a.

Using these figures 31 we obtain at once Distance of centre of gravity of half \ plane from axis A B }- Area enclosed b y moment curve Area of half plane *97i'93 2 x £4 3 c 4*53 feet 217-3 x It y position of 14 should be noticed that in the calculation the whole squares are employed in the table. the moments down as little thus found of the small areas are. h being the common interval between the ordinates and a At ordinate No. construct the as in moment diagram. is repeated at No. 4 will be y 4 Cth. determine the position of another line also containing to this one. the moment of a strip will be the breadth of the strip. containing the centre We must now. the previous case.to select nr at either end. ordinate which will allow at of Simpson's First Rule being applied in arriving the areas enclosed by the moment curves. it the plane. each on a base . the division by 2 being done at the end. and case so on for strips at the other ordinates. and in fixing upon an of axis for the purpose. at right angles The as principle of it moments usual to is again employed. as shown. choose an ordinate about the middle obviously mean a less laborious calculation than if Care must also be taken . rectangles. 6 unsuitable 29) 5 Taking No. as already menit tioned. the little area in each interval it being multiplied by the number of times of the axis. y3 CtX2h. the moment of a small strip at ordinate No. say. common for is removed from the chosen other side of the axis. In the present instance either is ordinate 5 or 7 might be employed. To a. will the axis were taken. the middle ordinate No. No. is 29. the that for strip at The process moment of a strip 2/7. 6 on the ordinate being y^a h the area . and fair curves drawn as A H F and FKB in the Evidently.CENTRE OF GRAVITY. We one line have. fixed the of gravity. 7. as axis. (See fig. 3. Fig. the centre of gravity will be on that side of the axis which figure. set on the other side of A B at the points to which they refer. */ 7 a and so on. as a result of the preceding calculation.

No. The first four columns are the same as before.32 SHIP CONSTRUCTION the greater AND CALCULATIONS. / . of Ordinates- . from the axis will has moment . 5. the sixth column gives the functions of the ordinates after treatment by these multipliers as well as those of Simpson's Rule. ~ Area FKB 5. in the fifth are the multipliers representing the number of intervals each ordinate is distant from the axis through No. and its distance be obtained by . dividing the difference of the moments by the area of the half plane thus— Distance of centre of gravity from axis! through ordinate No.Area Area A B AHF The work of finding the above areas is arranged below.

it will as before be at mid length and at the same distance below the surface as the centre of gravity of the transverse section. which act supports. viz. and at a distance In one of constant triangular below the surface equal to half the draught. the point obviously be at mid length in the centre line plane. and indicates the water pressures acting on her. which equal to. keel. 31 represents in section a ship floating freely and at rest in still water. therefore. when treating of displacement and buoyancy. or the centre of gravity of the water that would occupy the same space. and is therefore the total weight of the vessel.CENTRE OF GRAVITY. the conditions being given. The resulting distances obtained by dividing the sum of each of these systems of moments by the reduced area will deter- mine the position of the centre of axes. the point required can be easily determined. In a cylindrical vessel floating at even but at J the depth below the surface. everywhere normal to the surface in contact. that the weight of any floating body is supported by the upward pressure due to the buoyancy of the water. gravity of the partial plane from the chosen CENTRE OF BUOYANCY. Fig.— It was shown. We now proceed to show how this centre may be determined in any given case. the portion of the area. always passes through a certain point. will section floating with a side parallel to the surface it will also be at mid length. It is the resultant of the vertical components of these pressures. In all these cases. whatever be the position of the vessel. I 31 ancy. 33 CFLE. This point is called the centre of buoy- Hg. floating at a level waterplane. c . however. we had to do when finding areas of surfaces enclosed by ship curves. methods can be applied. the centre of the immersed bulk. In a vessel of simple box-shape. In ship-shape bodies. no such simple just as We must. owing to the irregularity of form.. resort to moment calculations. It now becomes necessary to state further that the line of action of this resultant.

by using Simpson's or TchebychefFs of displacement need be dealt with. and a some horizontal plane. Take. as in the case of calcularules. calculation of moments of the load-water line. since the vessel is symmetrical about the middle in plane. with layers and another calculation of moments made . the immersed body assumed divided into an infinite with respect to number of horizontal layers. only . be fully determined we know position relative a vertical and that it and a is horizontal line in the plane. a vessel of ordinary form floating at a draught parallel to the In setting out to find the centre of buoyancy. of areas specimen layers and volumes.34 3HIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. To made obtain the vertical position of the point. 32). in line will the first place. such as that of the after perpendicular. It is only necessary to correctly plot the results of these calculations in the middle-line plane to obtain the position of the centre of buoyancy. such as that Fig. or of a transverse section in the vicinity of amidships. the point required if must be somewhere its that to plane. 32. respect to a transverse vertical plane. we obkeel-line (see fig. vertical For the horizontal position. as example. the displacement is supposed divided into transverse in this case. that. tions In practice. serve.

and that the common distance between them vertical this.. 1 waterplane. be the areas of the waterplanes.CENTRE OF BUOYANCY. starting from the point £. the work in tabular form. 4. the density being constant. the areas of the waterplanes square 1800. off horizontally Now at any of the draughts 33) and mark just etc. 4500. 0. beginning from the upper one. planes being the corresponding waterplane represent total the area' of this 1 diagram will volume of the vessel it below No. distance all of the centre it of is buoyancy below the convenient to arrange and similar examples. and in the sixth. of Ordinates. The moments 2h. 35 the A 3i etc. about W. is the products of the lever multiples and the area areas such as functions.A 3 2h little and thus depths a. corresponding moments i found. and a very small of thickness of layer taken at each waterplane. 6000. In obtaining the upper waterplane. as third. : From our previous considerations clear that __ _ Distance of centre of buoyancy) below No.L. pliers. (fig. suppose feet are. and fouith columns respectively. which should be plotted as rectangles of breadths. I . volumes vertical 2. A 3 a and so take the on. of the A 2 h. respectively. A fair curve through the extremities rectangles obtained. will enclose an area representing the total moment the axis of the volume below the upper waterplane. on the other side of E /?. is with a half interval at the lower end. 8000. the ordinates at the various waterareas.. in In the second. fifth Simpson's multi- and functions for of areas. 3 ft. the elementary layers being treated scale etc. the another diagram be plotted. planes. Simpson's Rule. is waterplane. If. In the column are the multipliers leverage. weights.. common will in- between them.. h a. and 100. 3. are the areas. Let Au terval Aj. shown below. as be A 2 ah. The process seen to be simply that of obtaining E G B and E D B by No. / Area Area we may write ECB ED B in As a numerical example. 7600. 7000.

Through these points. etc. 2nd.36 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. or between the 1st and the 4th waterplanes. may now be obtained. due to the rising of the vessel to any of these planes. and spot off on it Fig. the point of intersection of this required height of centre of buoyancy. the other vvaterplanes !* . the fall in the centre of buoyancy. b3 /? 3 . will be the locus of centres of buoyancy required.. etc. We have here a means of constructing a diagram which will show the variation in the height of the centre of buoyancy with change in the displacement. set out 3) equal to those between the load watereach centre refers. Take a vertical scale of draughts A B (fig... 34). may be determined.. waterplanes. in the figure. 34. the position of the centre of buoyancy for any draught may be read off. indicated by 6 2) b etc.. height of the centre of buoyancy at any draught be required only necessary to draw a line on the diagram parallel to the middle line 6„ now the A B. Reverting to — area 33 area u t HN _ _ gives the distance 1st of the centre of the layer between the waterplane. and from which. :} . b 2 h 2 . the positions of the various centres of buoyancy as calculated for the vessel when immersed to the 1st. and at a distance from it equal to that between the load-line and the line with given draught. let us construct the diagram for whose centre of buoyancy at the load draught has already been . horizontally distances. 1st and 2nd waterplanes from the and by a simple moment calculation. plane and the points If it the waterplane to which /z 2 . In the same way. by first finding the centre of the layer between the 1st and 3rd waterplanes. therefore. the locus gives the the vessel As showing the work in an actual case. ot The position of the centre of buoyancy below any fig. the fall in the centre of buoyancy consequent on the vessel rising to the 2nd waterplane is derived. A fair curve through is h etc. 3rd.

the figures of the calculation are VOLUME. The latter area may be obtained by the Five-Eight Rule already described PEQ. . or A 3 by - and the inter- sum val of these products by one twenty-fourth the square of the between the ordinates. common : Arranged in tabular form. 33. . determined. A by 1. middle ordinate. cannot be correctly found by this Rule. it will be necessary to find the areas PEQ we the and area DEPN. In or this 19 case 3.CENTRE OF BUOYANCY. however. should proceed as follows: — Multiply io. 37 Reverting to fig. or A& by the end ordinate. the far near end ordinate.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. FEG DEFH.— 3§ plane. and we must find the areas .P. which may be done thus. of W. . using Simpson's First Rule No.

A 5 hct. the ordinntes. the the vertical areas A 19 A^ A2 A . represented measured along the by the area and lever ordinate. and the other side rectangle. Station 6 is On the lower side of A B. axis. etc. 35. each case. erected as an Fair curves drawn through the extremities of these little The area enclosed by rectangles on each side of the axis as shown in fig. 3. section 7 a moment A n ha\ case. are set off. the moments rule. of the layers chosen as the axis of moments. thus enclosing an area which represents the 39 volume of the as vessel below No.CENTRE OF BUOYANCY. As a in the in previous the moments are plotted as rectangles. the base of the being. and the distance between them moment at of an elementary layer of very small thickness a at section section 5. first the areas of the moments curves may then be obtained by Simpson's Calling h. at To 8. i waterplane. 6 will be zero. the right axis 9. and so on at to the left of the axis. are ADE and EFB each the of these curves and the axis A B represents the longitudinal moment of it volume on the side of the axis to which refers. etc. >4 we have 3/7 a. section A s 2ha. . A 4 2ha. of the section at section 4. multiple appropriate to the section under consideration..

. ing that. we are able to tabulate the figures as follows No.— 40 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. in calculating the moments. of Section. multiplication by the left common : interval is to the end.

except the last. however. 190. feet. the sections being spaced feet 15 feet apait. feet. 65CO. calculate the position of the centre of gravity with reference to the No. and 8 square Ans. find the T. If weights of 5. obtain the distance of the centre of buoyancy below the load waterplane. moment calculation. — 579 '4 feet from end. 3. Define Centre of Buoyancy. as calculated at from some chosen fair are marked the corresponding draughts. 36 diagram. 1 r 'O. and 4*3 feet. complete case. respectively. the areas of whose transverse vertical sections arc. Fig. feet. will be more laborious than previous to a new set of vertical a areas must be corresponding each draught. s section. one end being 4. 4 ordinate. case. 240. 13 and 17 lbs. distances of off the centre of buoyancy. out. starting from aft. QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER Tf IB. at beginning the are in '2. 4000. 2. 2*45 feet from side. 4. calculate the rises fall the position of the centre 0. If the lever be 48 inches long and the weights 11 lbs. find the balancing point from the end loaded with 5 lbs. 275 feet. 6.4*5S 4. two unequal weights be suspended one at either end of a weightless lever. and 5 lbs. If the longitudinal distance between the ordinates in the preceding question be 14 feet. Define Centre of Gravity. 5-5. aft. obtain the position of the longitudinal position of the centre of a vessel.—. and from one side 175. point at which the lever must be supported in order to be exactly balanced. 260 242. outline. 7 their posi"5 tions taken in the order given and measuring Iioni 1. the diagram may be easily con- structed. similar to the one just worked made each Assuming the horizon- tal positions of the centre of buoyancy found up to a series of draughts between the top of keel and the load-line. Explain buoyancy? of buoyancy 100. — I'ji forward of Xo. 2*5. 8. The area of a ship's load waterplane is 7000 squaie and the areas of other parallel waterplanes spaced 3 feet apart are respectively. 180.CENTRE OF BUOYANCY. — Ans 6. as The and in work. 7'o and feet and half ordinates introduced find extremities the usual way have values 4 line. feet. 5. 64. . 5500. 104. — 33 on inches. Arts. lie n table of rectangular 3. and plot the locus of centres of buoyancy. 4 ordinate. 120. 7. in Referring to the previous question. find the position of the point through which the re- sultant force acts. — *43 feet forward of No. Ans. Ans. A vertical scale of draughts is taken. 10/2. be made found for 4 the in longitudinal the position. — 5*03 feet below load waterplane. of a vessel's watcrplanc. the horizontal axis. and a illustrates this curve drawn through these points. and 2000 square feet (neglecting the volume below the lowest section).1 buoyancy as the vessel to each of the given waterplanes. — The equidistant \ ordinates teet. As how you would proceed to calculate the longitudinal position of the centre of a practical example. 11. 3. the distance of the centre of gravity from the middle Ans.

as the transverse system. an opposite direction At the bottom of the to the frames as shown in vessel. built on the transverse keel. proper shape. are angles running from the keel to the gunwale. vessels were on what is known ships. or of housing is passengers. usually one or more decks might be might In fitted be for the below the upper one. structure. There were. which the midship section of a all small steel vessel to. or ribs. offer equal distances along the transverse vertical erected to give the form of the vessel at each point. and. the names of principal in a later way at modern ship. the sides of the ship and 42 . called reverse frames from the circumverse frames. and. and it convenience of stowing certain cargoes. BB are the beams. of course. fig. and with chapter we shall take up In the old days. are riveted to the frames and the reverse frames. important differences in when to that material began of construction due to the great difference in the nature of the materials. Outlines of Construction. stance of their looking at in horizontal section A. and associated with bars of similar shape. is system. and to support a horizontal If the vessel were a large one. as was perhaps the earliest iron were built on the same plan. are seen the characteristics just referred A\ the a steel or iron bar of considerable depth and thickness. deep vertical plates called floor plates. in a general of the with the system the of construction parts . medium of construction. instance. which as above mentioned. running fore-and-aft. As a foundathe keel tion and sort of backbone the there was. this stage least. when wood was the invariably built natural. AT details. their adapted to keep the frames to platform or deck. the reverse of the tie frames being carried along at the upper edge floor plates.CHAPTER III. as shown. but the general principle was in each case the same. for keel. it is desirable to obtain an acquaintance. 37. the details to displace wood. at frames. this being necessary for strength. and to or shell a convenient means of fitting the watertight skin At their upper end the transverse frames were joined by horizontal girders or beams. The transmarked F.

any tendency to is change resisted ot transverse form. and keep the water out. which gives the vessel riveted its power. resist 43 Vertical pillars. The strakes of plating running fore-and-aft on the outer ends of the beams. 37. and .OUTLINES OF CONSTRUCTION. the change tie in the transverse form parts by means shape the into of which the the top to and bottom carry of the structure together. S. 160-0 * 22-0x12-1 Lloyds Numerals Transverse Longitudinal N* 34-92 W 5587 d = 11-87 FT V= 12-38 *SH£ER$TRAKE v3r SSX-46T0-M J6*-J6T0-3t 36T0 12 *-o TO -'HI 56 to 32 -36 to "32 K. It will be seen consist of strakes of plating to is each other and to the fore-and-aft flanges of the frames. distribute stresses. is and assist floor plates the cargo. The most Fig. also covered in with The top deck plating or wood to give strength. The longitudinal maintained by means parts of the keelsons the and side stringers.S. which tie transverse together. and make the framing one united structure.7XI* important part of floating all is the outer plating to or skin.

. as is it we shall see when we come to consider the stresses to which a ship the diagram liable. Departures have been made at different times.44 connected to the able SHIP CONSTRUCTION shell AND CALCULATIONS. water-ballast tanks. 37 illustrates only the simplest lorm of construction of steel vessels. have added immensely to strength and safety. but in is general the principle of reducing the scantlings as above see presently the reason for all followed. can be manipulated in such manner as to ensure continuity of strength and absolute watertighlness with the ballast tank as part of the hull. in and these departures have eventually resulted considerable modifications in the structure of vessels. and then a gradually tapering process is begun. In vessels of wood. or thereabouts. the shell-plating is thickest Between the sheer strake. are called stringers. as we shall see. not evenly distributed throughout. at Also the centre keelson is much heavier than the keelsons and stringers higher too. The 'midship thickness requirements usually demand heavier materials just at the extreme ends. but they have now become incorporated its in the and. the top and at the bottom. they nre valu- elements of strength. When first introduced these tanks were mere additions to the ship's load. Thus we have structure. From is will be seen that the material forming the structure For instance. We shall this. up on the sides. Fig. these we shall consider come So parts more particularly with to actual types of the in detail when we modern cargo steamer. owing to a nature. are not the same right forward and aft and sizes are only maintained for half the vessel's length. but in those of steel is the natural thing to do. the plating is reduced in thickness. and the bilge strakes. far we have only attempted a vessel's hull to in obtain some familiarity with the various of the in of order to follow intelligently a liable. which runs in way of the gunwale or the top deck at side. being a minimum about midway between these points. as the mild steel its used in modern shipbuilding. minimum It should be mentioned that local sizes being reached at the bow and stern. by means of angles. discussion stresses and strains which ships aie which we propose to take up the next chapter. The scantlings. to build in such tanks was imit possible. called forth by the desire of the owners to increase the value of their property as producers of wealth. Other departures brought about by commercial considerations have resulted in modifications to deal of the framing.

since bending moment obviously varies directly with x. tending bend portion the beam as shown dotted. a minimum B is and a maximum * Also the shearing force for clearness. it will help us to begin with the simplest cases and gradually lead up to those which are more difficult. 1 % section.I. foot tons. Shearing: Forces.* (2) = W it tending to cause the the portion of the beam at CB to move downwards this relatively to A 0. ---. 38. we have here acting : B. Stresses. C\ n----. Bending Moments. ---j B of the (1) Take one at x feet from the extreme end beam itself.CHAPTER IV. and consider the system of forces in operation at any IN chapter are liable. Neglecting the weight to A A bending moment shearing force = WX tons. 38). fixed at one end and loaded with a weight W tons at the other. The deflection is shown much exaggerated 45 . Take a beam A B (fig. the at A. Fig. is In simple case. we propose to speak of the stresses and' strains to which ships and as the same principles are involved in calculations of the strength of ships and of simple beams. and this Strains.

be spread Fig. E F (fig. instead of being concentrated at end. at a section of the G F l being marked off equal to For the diagram of shearing angle beam is given by G B. (2) Shearing force wX tons. For instance. 39) to represent the length of the beam. beam from B to A. 39. the sama for all sections of the take a line . we can obtain the value of the bending moment acting at any point of the length of the beam. we shall (1) have Bending moment = wX w X' foot tons. From it. 40. W x AB foot tons. on EF as base. representing on some scale the maximum bending moment. forces we have merely the ordinate C G2 x of to construct a force rect- EL M F. the side EL representing to scale the the outer If. bending moment the diagram.— 46 the SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCUTATIONS. by simple measurement. (fig. evenly over the : surface of the beam x (fig. at 1 any section X feet from /?. . To express this in a diagram. Fig. The curve of bending moments its now KRF 39). the load W. 40). will w being the load per take the form foot of length. Join G F EGF is the diagram of bending moments. At E set up an ordinate E G. and is obviously a parabola having =* axis vertical.

BENDING MOMENTS AND SHEARING FORCES. that in is for the upper side of the beam to become the case of beams supported at and loaded at each end or uniformly. The shearing force diagram will be a triangle such as ELF. 41 illustrates the beam supported at each end and loaded in case. and zero at either end A B fig. 42 being the diagram. load in tons. convex. we have x) foot tons. the now a Fig. feet middle. It is therefore maximum at 0. A B is the length of the beam. The tendency here is for the beam to become is curved convex side downwards. the diagram being drawn below the line to indicate this. 47 The shearing force will thus vary directly with X. it is described as positive. and at sections to the right of the middle the reverse of forces acting being conveniently described as positive respectively. 'the right. it the diagram is drawn above the line. and P the re-action at each support. the ends rising relatively to the middle. where it will equal the total load. Consider EL giving to scale the shearing force at A. will be zero at B and a maximum at A. 41. the middle of the beam. P A A f*-i y a The bending moment increases directly as X diminishes. Where a bending moment gives AGS rise to an opposite tendency. W the At any section x neglected. and it convenient to describe the bending moment as negative. This . from the middle of : the beam. and With regard to the shearing forces. the weight of the beam itself being Bending moment = P (A Shearing force = P tons Fig. and in the middle should be noted that at sections to the to left of the middle. as the previous examples. the tendency is cause the left-hand portion of the beam to move upwards and negative relatively to the this.

— — 48 is SHIP CONSTRUCTION expressed left AND CALCULATIONS. say x feet to the left of the middle point. these maximum values are. In plotting the diagrams.X 2 2 ) foot. 42) had been constructed for this beam. shearing forces to the a diagram. At any section of the beam. that it will have zero values at each end of the beam.x) W = wX tons. foot tons. 42. Calling the the load per foot w tons. (1) (2) there will be acting A A bending moment shearing force w {J . we have Bending moment = 6 (10 . length of the 12 tons./. the it. +lw tons and -Iw tons. Calling. the diagram of shearing forces and bending moments length of the will 2 beam be modified somewhat from that given above. = Iw - (/ .tons. the load be distributed equally (fig. the values above of bending moment and shearing force corresponding to a section 2 feet from the middle of the beam. The shearing force diagram it is obviously a straight the ordinates vary directly as x . / w / tons. will have a zero value at the and maximum values at the supports. beam. 42 As an exercise it would be interesting to construct for a concentrated load. If. in an actual case. the of o above the base and those sections to B. assuming a distributed load. respectively. the in the diagram by plotting line.x) 2 (/-*) {l-x) = — (P . 44 illustrates the diagram for a distributed load. Fig. since X will there be equal to either +/ or . sav that of the . If the diagram (fig. the middle point of the beam. as the of below that line.2) = 48 and shearing force = + 6 tons. instead of concentrated at the middle. and it should be compared with fig. and the concentrated load at the middle of at Neglecting the weight of the point. as before. The diagram takes the form let A GHKL shown fig. and a maximum value at the line. left positive and those to the right negative. 0. I* ^L at either I end of the beam. we note from the equation above that the curve of bending moments will be a parabola. As a numerical example. could have been obtained by reading off the ordinates at the corresponding point in the diagram. 43. say 2 the supports will each be 6 tons. throughout the length of the beam 43). and Fig. middle where X since = 0. shearing for forces for sections right in to 0. we have for the re-aclion /. beam be 20 At a : feet. the re-actions feet to the left of 0.

and where the loads are irregularly distributed. may be represented by the rect- angle A BCD (fig. the ordinate of the shearing force the shearing force = w X tons 45) . This load is supported by the re-action of the wall Fig. diagram of loads. therefore. we know that at any point x feet from the end of the beam (fig. Diagrams of bending moments and shearing forces may be derived by a graphic process. 20-feet 49 to beam previously mentioned. Now. loaded uniformly. For this purpose. including its own weight from much per foot of length. 45). briefly. that is. but we shall only consider the external forces acting on the beam from the wall face outwards. on the portion of the beam embedded in it. diagram equals the area of the diagram of loads from the end of the beam up . We propose. being so let us consider again the beam fixed at one end and By the proposed method we must start with a curve or The weight on the beam. but we leave the student do this for himself. this as. A to /?. 45.BENDING MOMENTS AND SHEARING FORCES. graphic process to describe it is the one most convenient to follow. 44. Fig. in ship problems. for instance.

we have deduced the equation at a section feet Bending moment / = W — (P - x") foot tons. to half the area of Its value may be plotted as A L. x feet say. equals the area of the shearing force diagram from construct the bending B to G. To diagram moment diagram it is therefore only necessary on the beam. . as already shown. the half load and the re-action at A are equal. to take certain points from the Fig. From L the diagram of shearing force falls DABC in a straight line. from 0. 46 illustrates this convenient scale and DABC its the beam loaded uniformly and sup>A B being the beam drawn to diagram of loads upon it between the case. and to plot the bending moments thus derived on a convenient scale. In plotting the diagram of shear- we begin at. The a construction is quite as simple for a ported at the ends. Take now the bending moment. t — — that is. to calculate the area of the shearing force end of beam to these points. therefore. say at G X X bending moment — w X x foot tons. and there is therefore At no shearing force. being the shearing force at A minus the load represented by the portion of the area of the rectangle DA BO from A to the section. at which the shearing force is positive and equal to half the load. and. Fig. the middle point of the beam.— So to the is SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. For any section of the beam. 46. points of support. reaching maximum value at B x as For the bending moment of a beam loaded as described from middle. including ing forces own weight. At sections A and the shearing force previously shown. that is. the diagram a triangle. is the form that such a diagram would take in the present case. and W having the values previously given. to the right of is the load exceeds a the re-action at negative. or = shearing force x foot tons. point under consideration. the left-hand point of support. the value of an ordinate at any section. say. BLAB (fig. 45).

place. portant the case of a ship among waves. Thus. take a vessel. In fig. We shall show in detail. In the same way. moment diagram for this beam. The curve of shearing forces at any point in the length we know to be the area of the curve of loads from either end up to that point. by Mr. 47 shows weight in excess of buoyancy at each end and amidships. ILL is a diagram of loads for a the vessel acting downwards. these only necessary to calculate the area of the its former from either end of the beam to various points in areas is length. and elsewhere. except at one point forward. . presently. 47. or machinery consumable and assume her to be floating freely and at rest in still water. we are now in a position In the is first to consider the case of a floating vessel. diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments are also shown. say a steamer. but without bunker coal. moment's consideration will make it clear that a tendency to longitudinal straining. AM B A As the the bending the same principles apply. having obtained the shearing force diagram. the curve takes the form SSSS. boilers. In the present case.X) I l» which obviously expresses the area of the shearing force diagram from A to the point considered. with which we are here dealing. to plot as ordinates and to draw a fair curve through their extremities. This may be written 5 Bending moment = (/ . and with cargo.BENDING MOMENTS AND SHEARING FORCES. to get the it is curve of bending moment. when we consider the im"light" vessel. 47* wv action of the vertical forces pressures acting upwards. The excess of weight is obviously due to the buoyancy in excess of weight. reckoning the portions of area above the axis positive and those below negative. ordinates of the curve of bending * moments are given by the area of the diagram of shearing The diagrams North East Coast Institution of Engineers represented by figures 47 and 48 are taken from a paper read before the and Shipbuilders. must be principally caused by the A Fig. in "light" condition. small volume and the great weight of the structure at the extremities. completely built. 47. and to the concentration of the machinery amidships. Bergstr6m in 1 889. all aboard and water in stores. made up of the vertical components of the water and of the weight of all the particles in the mass of In fig. in meantime it is sufficient to note that fig. and the excess of buoyancy to the empty holds. how such diagrams are constructed. that to say.

the hull should be designed strong enough for the worst . the length at which they occur. In the forward and after holds. a line at right angles to the crests. given She may be traversing the be in one of several positions. It is The is curve 01 loads now line shown at L L L 48). and a minimum as at middle length. now B M has two vessel in maximum values. instant. end up to the points in We about thus obtain the cuive MM tlie M. as a rule. 48. and case. the case is becomes (fig. at a seaway. in some then that the ultimate strength of the structure cases with disastrous results. The shearing force curve crosses the axis at three points in the length. The bending moment and consequent water are. 49. Fig. or be rolling in the trough between or she may occupy some intermediate position with her length at an the waves The bending moment will be different in oblique angle to the crest lines. inconsiderable sea. in waves : every position. seen to cross and recross the oase slightly the machinery the weight in excess. In way of much more so in the is is mainhold. out many points. while weight is in excess at the extreme ends. With a homogeneous cargo filling the holds.52 forces from either SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. Fig. while the curve of aft. Let us try to conceive for a moment the position of a vessel when in a If the waves be of regular form and speed. buoyancy again predominant. considerably modified. the ordinates ot which are seen to be a forward ana afLer maximum at about the middle or holds. It is straining effects on compared with those sbe a vessel in rrjus'i still withstand is when among waves at called out. one forward and one tending to strain the opposite directions. the vessel may.

Fig. in the when we cases. Fig. 50. respectively. the being at mid-length. to is construct the diagrams. which longitudinal straining is greatest.' indicated in . are constructed on the assumption that the waves are stationary. 55 Of is the above conditions. sink relatively to the ends. therefore. and may. 51. fig. 49 and 50. to cause the middle in fig. with rise the crest amidships. as to shown in fig. in this respect be considered to include the other two cases. 52.BENDING MOMENTS AND SHEARING TOkCES. ordinarily cause the middle to relatively to Fig. in which the vessel is assumed at It wave crests. ends. 50). cargo aboard. but with stores voyage. we note that it has two critical phases. 51 complete with bunker coal and stores as well as cargo her worst condition in has a trough amidships and a crest at each end (see fig. Taking the of these is first condition. One indicated in 49. this case — — As we shall see moments are reversed presently. the right angles to line of the condition in first one. is assumed and bunker coal consumed where the vessel. Diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments for a vessel situated as figs. The when the vessel. as and with the hollow amidships. in full sea trim with as at the end of a shown poised instantaneously latter in an upright position on the crest of other phase is a wave. and that the problem may be treated as a purely statical one. has been most frequently investigated. the bending the two The general straining tendency. These strains are known as hogging and sagging. 52.

we know. In these diagrams. viz. 53. that diagrams as ordinarily constructed are only ap- proximately true. and should be used merely as a means of comparison between vessels.of its length. or are particles in the waves. Bergstr6m's paper to referred to on page length of the ship. with a wavef water. the strains brought upon her. that although clearly and of rolling motions. and consequently directly affecting the magnitude of the It may be bending moment. Other points which are the effect of found impracticable so is. and to obtain it we must first find the values of these forces. mentioned that.54 SklP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCtJLAflON§. line represents are the length of the represented 51.. for When so employed. altering her virtual weight and buoyancy from moment. due to the effect of the orbital that they are less in the wave crests motion of the water are ignored. to. particularly one of relatively fine ends. t In these calculations it is usual to assume the wave and a height of j. has a tendency to develop her. we begin. at various cross sections. and 5$ from Mr. have a length equal the . although and greater in the hollows the corresponding depths in still water. where they have been specially allowed for. longitudinal oscillations. Such a curve. apart. it strains. then. A curve of It is only necessary to calculate the buoyforces of buoyancy is easily drawn. usually taken at equal distances and then The diagrams in a diagram. Taking a vessel. in the condition as in the exhibited in fig. then. difference ancy per foot of length. these vertical an up and down motion in moment to oscillations have been found to reduce hogging and increase sagging too. they are most valuable as a guide in new designs determining the lines to be followed in making departures in construction. crest amidships. on the bending moments. 49. shows the of the forces of weight and buoyancy at all points in the length. they may have considerable influence pitching and 'scending. the general effect tending to a re- duction of both hogging and sagging bending moments. whose by figures base 54. is not usual to allow for the difference in the water pressures in the waves as it is known than at compared with those in still water. and. No note is ordinarily taken of the fact that the quick passage of waves past a vessel. It is obvious. therefore. far to deal with. simpler case of the vessel in still by constructing a curve of loads.

The complete weight seen from the curve or It diagram is of a very irregular form. are various ways to deal first with the by calculating the weight per frame space of that which is continuous at chosen points throughout the length. stern-post. In the example chosen. be wrong also as to trim. as different verticals not float at the . as it would be obviously impracticable to exactly allow for a general cargo. coal in bunkers. points. by penning a batten through these and shafting. tunnel The irregular weights are conveniently in plotted as rectangles on bases to extending over a portion of the length the diagram corresponding of that occupied by them on the vessel. There of doing this leading to the same result. and plotting the results on the same scale as employed for the buoyant forces at corresponding points on hull material. centre as these are the conditions of equilibrium. however. 55 ordinates at cor- to mark off responding points. of the weight curve be greater or less than that of the curve of will buoyancy. the weight per foot of hold space plotted. the results on some convenient scale as Thus we obtain the curve ABO (fig. we note that the actual load on the vessel to at correspond as is re- any point the . This is usual in strength calculations. assumed if water-line but at a deeper or the case a may be and trimming moment will their centres of gravity be in operation. homogeneous cargo of a density to completely fill the holds and bring the been assumed. To draw the curve of weights is more difficult. Having got the curves of weight and buoyancy quired. One of them is vessel. 53). super-imposing such as bulkheads. and then on the curve obtained the irregular weights. as will be figure. the vessel shallower draught. boilers. etc. should be noted that the weight its curve must be equal in area to the curve of buoyant forces and have of gravity in the same vertical If the area line.CURVES OK WEIGHT AND feUOYANCY. the diagram containing the curve of buoyancy . engines and cargo in holds. and is in the case of coal and of cargo. owing to the difficulty of obtaining the positions and weights of the various a vessel to her load-line has portions of it. propeller and rudder. In the case bulkheads. be in showing the assumed line to. the weight is sometimes spread over a frame space.

54. or diagram of loads. astride the other extreme condition in which the vessel (fig. of course. is way.— The and bending moments to give rise to stresses in in the and is. be of a different form. To ' simplify our explanations. give a curve. beam take the case of an ordinary rector girder. 53). as already pointed out. deformation. The conditions of equilibrium required in measured this line case are shall that the area of the portion line . same scale as the diagrams of weight and buoyancy. is we a shall angular * beam that A the for. It RESISTANCE TO CHANGE OF FORM. curve of buoyancy. the tendency being. consequently. marked L L L in fig. shearing for and bending moments. first.* but curve of loads will. in Except bunker coal and assumed consumed previous case musi now be allowed . important to prevent the stresses on the materials becoming sufficient to cause and the tendencies to change of form from becoming actual permanent We shall show presently that this may be done in three ways by increasing the weight of materials. forces. ship reall y huge stores. In the same These two curves is obtained by integrating the diagram of shearing forces. since the of the end to any point. by design of structure. To construct the curve of shearing the a simple matter. the curve of bending moment shearing force at that point. which will of weights will now take the form the BBB *(fig. two consecutive is waves. second. the point. 54. of the diagram above the base equal the area below that shall also that the centres of gravity of the upper and lower areas be in the same forces is vertical. of course rupture. by judicious disposition of materials third. with a hollow amidships 50). 55. 55). . is In constructing diagrams of loads. foregoing shearing forces materials. the main point of difference in the Fig. take the in the case assumed that of an ordinary well-deck cargo steamer area of the curve of loads from the value — — forms SSS and MMM in fig. and. and preferably. that is unbalanced force acting curves. at the difference between the two numerous ordinates and plotted to the These differences. the weights being in excess amidships and the supporting forces in excess at each end (fig. to con- sequent tendencies change of form the structure. The curve remain as before. to develop sagging strains amidships.$6 SklP CONSTRUCTION at AND CALCULATIONS'.

56. also true for the ship. also the top surface DC will be found reduced in length. though taking the curve of the beam. moments. The beam at will be seen to sag in the middle . shearing stresses 57 what is true is for the simple beam when under and bending be of some stresses. such as under tensional or compressive 56. the bottom surface increased. ad. is a rectangular beam.kfcStStANCE TO CHANGE Of fOkM. A Draw a lines. 57). at a distance the at each end. while E F. place this beam on supports middle and observe what happens (fig. the line mid height. A BCD. which we will yield equally will assume to elastic material. Fig. and load mid length also draw two vertical Now. bd. will have its length . horizontal line at little it mid at height. fig. and at apart.

we know the at any one point either above or below HA. bending moment and the area and form of the section of the beam. as we have seen. an external bend. and. to the distance of that point from the line ef. line the mole- Pulling stress + pushing at : stresses = (1). there is HA At NA no stress due to bending. therefore. any point in the height of the beam. so that this moment must be counteracted by the sum of the moments of the molecular forces of the portion of beam to the left acting at the section. we are able to find the internal stress at any point When we know the external . This shearing force acted by the resistance of the fibres of material to shearing. the strains are Since reduced from the outside of the beam in to zero at the middle. is clear the strain. the section. Now stress the to stress 1 due to the external obviously in- creased a 6 There is thus a compressive a b\ and reduced dc to d l G on the upper part of the beam. the strain at b is double that at is a point midway between b and /. We with its have seen that the distance stress any point of a section if. Besides these moments there is due to the load weight of the Fig.2 No other external forces are acting. 56 at any section such as ac. a section of the neutral surface and is called the neutral axis at ac. 59 we show enlarged end and side views of the section a C. Also. there is. 59. is The surface of which ef a portion of brium of the the portion of known as the neutral surface. a vertical shearing force in operation tending to of the move the right-hand is portion counter- beam upwards relatively to the left. varies in direct proportion for example. within the elastic limits. Taking beam to the right. and a tensional stress on the lower part. because in materials such as steel or wrought iron the resistance to compression and tension. as As the beam does not move in the direction of its length. is the same. is In fig. Let us now consider the equilibeam as loaded in fig. e f being unchanged it length. varies directly stress from the neutral axis therefore.— s« SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS bending moment has l . that the stresses must be correspondthe stress at ingly reduced. we are able to write down equation (1). that is cular stresses push Above and below this shown by the arrows. these horizontal stresses must neutralise each other. We shall return to this point again. and pull the beam. if we neglect the beam itself. ing moment due to W.

we shall have :— To find the value of the multiply Maximum This the • compressive or tensional is 1 stress in tons at section a C % =p=y -j-. the expression the a well-known quantity in physics If it it is called I. And for the whole section we a is may write : — Sum of moments : of internal stresses = §2(/ 2a inch tons. This fixes the neutral axis. reduced by increasing a quantity and increased by loaded that easy now to is understand why in ship or other beam is. it be and. about the neutral M. the moment of 2 the stress acting on a small portion of area a is syaxy — sy a inch tons. one inch at this from • the s. Let Calling us the it find it at in 2 unit distance. equated. it is only by the distance of the point from the neutral axis. and stress is — • Consequently. at distance from the neutral axis. stress will be ysa and the tons total stress acting at the section will be the sum of all such elements we may therefore write : Total pushing and pulling stresses at section a C = S^yct tons. . we must equate axis to sum of the moments internal at stresses section. at y inches either will be ys tons. axis. s (2) the formula which strength It of beams and girders. the external a bending moment. and is worthy of careful stress study. 2*/ 2 Now. we get: sI=M. where the symbol 2 signifies that the sum of the elementary forces is taken. if y inches be the distance of the upper or lower surface of the beam from NA. and -is an important point from this remember. say 59 section. But ~yct axis.resistance to Change. the moment area to of the area. shows that the maximum inversely as varies directly as M. So that the stress in tons at one inch from NA. a reduction of stress effected by increasing the sectional area. this On the a small portion ol area a. necessary to s Thus. per square inch point two inches from NA above or below NA. and for this to be zero. To get now the the stress at a point one inch of the axis as required. the neutral about which the moments have been taken. either above or below. be represented bv and the 8. must pass through the centre the of gravity of of the section. internal and external moments be. Now there must be no resultant is stress acting at the section. generally. the reducing It is it. the external bending moment the At any distance y inches from NA. of the neutral at of- form. moment of inertia of the section of the beam. stress will tons s tons. the . must always be employed when dealing with such as ships.= M -j-- stress at any point in the section. so that s^yct = 0. and p be the stress there. this with given bending moment.

or It merely means area that in each case the the modulus — y is Increase of sectional directly increases moment of inertia /. 1 2 inches deep. It is on the whole reasons at be to increase case of a y as / varies as modulus and reduce the ship it for these that in the is desirable to have at the thickest plates the plates. Take then take or steel one a first case. the position of the centre of gravity of the area of the section. axis. needed in the vicinity of We shall deal fully with this point presently. stress Begin by writing down the formula. and 3 its middle of under a bending moment of 600 inch-tons at the length. two practical examples of simple beams. the top and bottom of the girder. tells us that the neutral it there midway between The above no stress on the materials due to bending at the neutral axis this moment. and a horizontal would thus appear that the scantlings It might be reduced indefinitely. how the external bending moment may we may therefore assume this item as known.— 60 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. affect the modulus in two ways effect / will y% however. indeed. weight of materials. a considerable sectional area of material the neutral axis. the sides frequently may become. is Another reason against thinning down too much the side plating of ships found in the consideration that when rolling excessively at sea. and be upon withstand considerable bending stresses. the same will effect is attained without increase of sectional area by concentrating the latter at points remote from the neutral . to push the upper and lower portions of the structure its opposite has maximum more value. We must know the external bending moment inertia at the section containing the point. called approximately at to least. but so also will will . we In a previous page we have explained always be found as . that at place in the depth sliding or shearing action. To know apply formula (2) to find the stress at any point of a beam. happens. by changing the design. above beam the centre of gravity is at mid-depth . which is de- veloped by the variation of the length. vicinity of at ship. viz. in benJing moment from point to point of the and which tends directions. Deepening the beam or girder be increased. we must three things. In the ins. To -is counteract this straining tendency. and the keel and bottom the and the thinnest axis axis plates in deck and formula. the the stress. ---. by judiciously disposing them. and let us determine the maximum stress on the material. inches thick. however. increased. a beam of rectangular section 20 feet long. We propose to show how the work done shall in the case of a but before dealing with so com- plex a girder. about a horizontal axis through centre of gravity. upper deck the neutral stringers and a is sheerstrakes. and the value of the moment of its is of the sectional area in about detail a horizontal axis through centre of gravity. ship. therefore in is y = 6 Also the formula for the moment of inertia of the section its this case a rectangle. bottom. .

for instance. to be of economical design should^ have cross sections. we have 7 I = ^ ^6X12X12 — 1 — ^432 - in. > C 1 *• 1 Taking the strength of steel at 30 tons per square inch. The axis of moments must weaker side still pass through the by concentrating the For example. this stress allows a factor of safety of rather more than 3-^-. This material admits of many forms. the section must be ol centre of gravity.RESISTANCE TO CHANGE OF FORM. therefore r 600 p = x 6 — 8'3 . Fig. * Within elastic limits is mild steel and wrought iron are equally strong under compression or tension. and to show the great importance of distribution means of increasing the strength of beams against bending. has times greater stress under compression than under tension In such cases. . 5 to 6 being common for ship work. 2 . Cast iron. but the form to be as in fig. supported at the ends. inch. where A is 61 Substituting the the area of the section and h the full depth. special design. is being rolled into of material as a by no means the most economical for steel beams. depth. : Fig. greatest strength under tension. which. and . would be too The form* of section above given low. tons per sq. stress but the may be reduced on the pf such forms as indicated in fig. to us The only additional work remain as before. let assume the length. and sectional area. 61. and therefore the weight. but this six its by no means true of all materials. if of cast iron. will withstand a wood. beams loaded at the middle and material on that side near the neutral axis. in most cases. 61. on the other hand. given values. . 4 . 60. 60. for maximum strength on minimum weight.

. h the distance between the flanges. we must therefore choose as. to be that only continuous material lying in a considered as available for resisting longitudinal In ordinary cases the maximum bending moment the weakest of course. Taking them at 7 inches. for various reasons. it Careful note should be made of the fact that would be at this section. girders of this section are not usually rolled with flanges of greater width than 6 to 7 inches. a maximum stress which is only half of The above is only an illustration the previous one. the stress on the upper and lower flanges would be 600 x 9 ~i68T~~ p = = 3' 2 tons P er square inch. Substituting the values given in fig. 60 /= nx t- _•? 1728-2 x6x 1000 = n 872 i • in. 4 12 We therefore have Stress at top and bottom of beam — —-—— — 872 4*1 tons per square inch. We have seen obtain the external bending moment. section in this vicinity for the straining were to take place. The moment of inertia of such a girder would be 1685. As we shall see presently. Let us turn now to the case of a floating ship. and increasing their thickness to if inches say. if occurs at about mid- length . the beams to the deck-plating. and of calculating the the neutral position axis may moment of inertia about that axis. 3 with the same weight of material. and to apply the stress formula. which. In setting out find the moment and of inertia we must bear mind that we are dealing with a built girder. the calculais tion involved conducted simultaneously with that to for the moment in of inertia. Now. as we know that passes through the centre of gravity of the sectional area. and. as in the previous case. material under tension must be calculated minus the area of the holes for the rivets joining the frames to the shell plating. under the same bending moment of 600 inch-tons. depth of beam. is longitudinal direction strains. . at mid-height. its therefore be easily found. how it to only remains to determine for the material at the transverse section under the maximum bending moment. a girder of 18 inches depth and i T F inches web could be obtained. a method of fixing the position of the neutral axis. of inertia of the is be done here is to find the moment is new section about the neutral axis. moment of inertia calculation.— —— — 62 to SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. The formula for the moment of inertia in this case /= BH -2bh s s 12 where the H is the full breadth. B and b the breadth from the outer edge of the flange to the full side of the web.

is It will also inertia. what we require. the upper material being in upper works and tento tension and the lower stresses compression. first obtained . axis. 63 This precaution need not be taken with the material in compression. plate. are must be reduced on account of the butts. usually this separated by three passing whose moment of inertia calculation is given below. moment. For items of small scant- lings in the direction of the depth of girder. . about that be noted that the moment an assumed axis. The results obtained by this method do not is differ much from those by the ordinary one. for. I = moment of inertia about assumed axis. of inertia for This principle is also employed in the first instance to obtain the moment each item about the assumed axis. sagging strains stresses in the would be expected. As already mentioned. etc. while the work less. In the second case. will be as effective to resist this stress as the unpunched Where continuous wood decks are fitted. It will be observed that the at sectional areas are sum a of of those of the parts in tension being reduced by of rivet in \ as an allowance for line holes the a frame. and there are none in the vessel In the case of tension. instance. obviously a separate calculation is needed for each case. In modern cargo steamers continuous wood decks are seldom fitted. and is that of the is moment about the neutral the obtained from that about assumed axis. hogging strains usually predominate in in ordinary vessels. they are sometimes allowed wood being considered equivalent to about T\ of its sectional area in steel. Where / = moment of inertia about neutral axis. as if well fitted. Dr. x h = distance between axes. also on account of the bolt holes. the moment of inertia is expressed their dis- with - sufficient accuracy by multiplying the areas by the squares of Institution of See his paper on Stresses at the Discontinuities of a Shifs Structure^ read before the Naval Architects in 1899. Bruhn* has pointed out that the necessity of two calculations may be obviated by obtaining the moment of inertia without correcting for the rivet holes.RESISTANCE TO CHANGE OF FORM. In the first case. A = area of material in section. by employing the well-known : which property of the moment of inertia expressed by the formula I= I . For compression the full area is taken.A x h2 . In the following example we show in of inertia for a cargo steamer of detail how to find the moment the modern type subjected full to a hogging bending tabulated. the conditions dealt with in these strength calculations are those depicted in figs. and from the lower material in that for sagging strains. which strakes. the rivet. causing compressive sional below. in Since the the rivet holes require be for deducted hogging from the upper material moment of inertia calculations strains. 49 and 50. the stress so obtained being after- wards increased inversely with the reduced sectional area. the the distance position neutral of axis the neutral axis being unknown is between the the value and the assumed one of inertia next determined.

A in sq. of inertia of each item about an is axis through its centre of gravity. The moment on material at of inertia being obtained. in feet.S. special are M being in foot-tons. Assumed neutral axis above base. (Ship under a hogging strain). is quickly found. and intereostals. 16' o" Depth from base deck. any distance either above or below the neutral axis. should units be remarked that when applied to a large girder employed. and A the sectional area these quantities are given in column S. Below Assumed Axis. margin plate. and the vertical parts of the double bottom.. inches. 36' 10 feet. the figures of column 6 have to be increased by the moment that is. the stress in tons per square inch //. since It p = M — y. like a ship. S. . 64 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. y / in feet- and inches 2 Moment of Inertia Calculation. Items. In the case of the side plating. such as the centre girder. 350' o" x 50' 74" x 28' line to bridge o". tances from the axis as in column 7. . however. TV A d\ where d the depth of the item.

MOMENT OF INERTIA CALCULATION. Above Assumed Axis. 65 Items. .

their actual calculated stresses. a M —r ~y / = — QOOOO I2314 . for the calculated stress be not greater than in existing vessels whose * See the Shipbuilder for November. not the actual stresses experienced by the vessel. 8*09 which have proved satisfactory as show maximum stresses of between 8 and 9 tons and even higher The Servia. may be said that. The results. we shall get for the greatest stress acting on the vessel when under a hogging . the following being some of his results girders. With regard plating efficient is to compressive stresses. length. Small vessels have to be local strains. had a calculated stress at the upper deck of 10*2 tons per square inch when on the wave crest. size. of 760 ft. and are probably too strong. and strain . is stated to have a calculated maximum stress of 10*3 tons on the top member. obtain the greatest stress under a sagging strain. tons: 35 we use this figure with that just obtained for the value of — . are figs. 1*67 IOO 5 00 3"95 5'2 IOOO 2000 5*9 3000 Later calculations for steel vessels of large to strength. Tensional siress in tons per square inch at Upper Deck. while the Maurelam'a*. considered as floating At anyrate. these increase with size of vessel. the above. it the work is similar to that just explained and need not be here With regard built to resist the magnitudes of calculated stresses. show these to be very small indeed. 1907. length. however. it is important to note that thin deck is liable to buckle when in severe compression. since the conditions of 49 and 50 do not example. . In the case of a proposed vessel. generally speaking. such as has been pointed fully represent out that stresses. and of 8 o4 tons when in the wave hollow.— — — 66 of the instance SHIP CONSTRUCTION displacement : AND CALCULATIONS. otherwise detailed. tons per square inch. if those of a vessel among waves. are valuable for comparison. a passenger and cargo vessel of 515 ft. on the basis of Lloyd's scantlings. John investigated the longitudinal strength of iron vessels of from 100 to 3000 gross tonnage. It should be added that a special high tensile steel was largely used in the construction - of the upper works of the latter vessel. of which records are available.. : Gross tonnage of Ship. particularly It when considering maximum already stresses on bridge and awning-decks. as previously pointed new moment to of inertia calculation is necessary. Mr. strain pe To out. In 1874. multiplied by the we 5l_ shall have in the present Maximum and if bending moment = § = 96000 ft. = 779 . therefore not so under a sagging as under a hogging this should be borne in mind.

and we have now to determine the stresses caused thereby. If the vertical : shearing force at any section be taken as F. it then additional strength must be added. to far resist bending. vessels. we may obviously write Mean where stress per square inch / _ F_ due to shearing force \ A ' A is if the example. as there be of maximum efficiency in reducing the ing forces on a structure. calculated stress If it be much have the greater. be that will economical at position material /..*. 62. as as from neutral axis. shearing a rectangular number of square inches of material in the section. ^forces SHEARING STRESSES. be very different to show. however. recoids have been satisfactory. the top it or bottom will of the vessel. actual stress at any point this of the shall section mean 62 stress.— We come now to consider the We have already explained how the may be obtained effect of shear- values of such at all points in the lengths of beams. and zero values at . In fig. so as to approximate to the signs in vessels which clear shown most manifest weakness for when on new service. we have the diagram of bending ported at the middle and loaded each end. the scantling arrangements in the 67 new of ship may be considered adequate. Fig. For beam of section 8 inches by 4 inches be under a force of 64 tons.SHEARING STRESSES. possible be either the stress. then Mean The from stress per square inch = 64 8x4 = 2 tons. as we now proceed at may. will From our previous the considerations. moments for a beam The bending moment has supis a maximum at the point of application of the support. including floating under various systems of loading.

A x A 2 and A 3 A^ the bending moments nearer For any two the vertical sections may be the divide the read from diagram. the balanced by a this shearing over bottom surface L the areas force it R. mid-length has to greater bending moment. of a small portion of the beam A X RLA Z. R and A 3 L will At the of the beam the shearing /I/. be and gradually increase RL approaches N where will be a Fig. There are pulling forces acting on the end A r R As the former section is under a greater bending the stresses will moment than tending to the latter. also be greater. There" will' thus be a force equal to the difference of the the total 1 forces acting on the ends mid-length. may be considered is the beam into two portions. /!//!/. shown enlarged in fig. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. . 63.68 each end. - move is the portion of beam A R force L Az the towards This action Clearly. of which the upper one in tension and lower in compression. Section Aj A 2 being the neutral surface. Consider now the equilibrium 63. magnitude of shearing top as force will vary with of the will ends A X zero. and on the end A 3 L. .

Rules now require treble riveted edge seams in in bourhood of the neutral axis above length and beyond. longitudinal transverse. stress is. and b will be twice formula the thickness of the shell plating. double riveting the seams say Recent experience with large cargo vessels has shown that the usual plan of is only sufficient for vessels up to a certain size. the diagonal direction may be predicted. and point out the structural this arrangements which best resist deforming tendency. we have dealt exclusively with stresses a vessel longitudinally. Let us apply the formula to the case of the rectangular beam whose mean 2 tons. but the same In the may also be applied to the more complex case of a ship. greater than The above is for a simple beam of rectangular section. as the shear stress gives rise a tendency the edge of one strake to slide over that of the next. latter instance. 69 4 / = Moment of inertia of the whole section (in inches q = Stress per square inch at the given point. the subject of transverse known for any vessel. of course. in for this or to longitudinal neighbourhood. . which the to is a maximum end . indeed. the vertical shearing force. which tend to ably of first the fore and after bodies in vessels of the TRANSVERSE STRAINS. We see now why it is inadvisable unduly reduce the scantlings in the vicinity of the neutral It is also axis.SHEARING STRESSES. and while such stresses are prob- importance. b = Breadth of beam in inches at the given point. the beam is of hollow section. -1 Thus the maximum shear the mean. and we stresses are cannot do more here than indicate generally the external forces which operate on a vessel so as to alter her transverse form. 50 per cent. 450 or 480 Lloyd's feet in. length. . we must not omit to refer to those which come upon a vessel in other directions. this instance. shear stress was found above to be stress intensity at the neutral axis : ). of the shearing stress will vary with P. Substituting values. we get for the a = 16 X 2 x 12 x 64 3 = in 4 x 32 x 64 3 tons per square inch. in ordinary vessels at about one-fourth the vessel's length from each so that at the neutral axis at these points of the length shearing stress may be considerable. Structural stresses in other directions are. the value ous longitudinal materials must be used in rinding A. It is important to note that only continuObviously. partly. seams. important to give special attention to the rivets in the landings. and partly and where the predominant combination in a effect of their nately. Unfortustresses of ships is a complicated one. It has been customary to consider stresses which tend to change the trans- verse form as next in importance to those affecting a vessel longitudinally. Longer vessels will develop weakness at the the neigh- longitudinal seams unless precautions be taken to increase the strength of the riveting.— So strain far.

weakness may be developed at the lower turn of the bilge. The re- action of the weight at the middle line will tend to force up her bottom This is while the weight of cargo out in the wings will set up a considerable transverse will bending shown. There be tensile . is kept in shape by the frames. A vessel when docked or when aground on the keel considered as absolutely may be — particularly if loaded. Such tendencies. The floors. in fig. 64. Docking Stresses. particularly in the way of an empty compartment. are tied to the beams of the decks by means of Fig. are splendid preservers of the form. rigidly deformation of the vessel's form. too. rigid. stresses if of considerable magnitude acting along the top edges of the floors vessel and the be one having ordinary floors. is indicated in the figure by arrows. The comparatively thin shell plating. Where these occur and care should be taken to spread this excess of strength over the space unsupported by bulkheads by means of keelsons and hold stringers. still Consider in this is connection the case of a vessel afloat in water (fig. 64). are prevented from becoming actual strains by the internal framing. connected to the beams and to the spectively. 65. and fitted. The hull surface pressed everywhere at right angles by the water pressures. and in this ture is way a it stress communicated to as a whole. moment and cause much exaggerated of the bilges to have a drooping tendency. TTTrrr^ strong pillars. which might yield under heavy water pressure. floors at their top and bottom ends reand supported between these points by hold stringers and keelsons. The floors should therefore be kept as deep . which comes upon one part of the strucProbably the most efficient preservers steel of transverse the vessel form are the athwartship bulkheads. spaced at comparatively short intervals. 64. the deep floors. as shown exaggerated in fig. however.7° SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. as the framing has there to withstand a shearing stress due to the weight of the cargo above. in the first instance. In way of the bottom. and the resulting tendency towards a general Taking the transverse components of the water pressures. these obviously tend to force up the bottom and press in the sides. has to withstand severe transverse tresses. as supports to the cargo. course.

the heaviest items are instead — cargoes are sometimes loaded. A preventable cause is that due to the manner in which heavy deadweight Frequently. 66. the middle line secured at the of the vessel of being spread over the bottom. causing equal distribution of stress throughout. is what should be aimed at in and special pains should be taken Fig. This interdependence of parts. Thus. of transverse straining Transverse Stresses due to Incorrect Loading. as possible at the bilge. The straining ten- . 65. design. the straining tendency be resisted by the structure as a whole. which bring the resisting powers of the side framing into operation. The straining at the middle line will be arrested by the pillars. wings having therefore comparatively little weight to carry.transverse strains. if efficiently Fig. these will act as struts and communicate the still stresses to the deck beams. which will will resist a tendency to spring in the middle and to bring the sides together. as in the case of water tresses. 7i and should be this carried well is up the sides. to ensure efficient connections. fitted. In vessels to having double bottoms part of the structure very strong owing the deep wing brackets.

the water pressures the sides tending to the same end. owing to their position and close mum floors spacing. but not unfrequently the rivets connecting the pillars at top and bottom have been sheared in places with consequent dropping of the bottom pillars will The be here called upon to the top part of the hull. if size. This condition is illustrated in full fig. side careful attention should there- be given to point. offer powerful resistance to racking. and in is well known reducing the length such a case greatly increases the rigidity . but in order to attain maxiefficiency they should be securely riveted to the beam knees. Change of form at the bulkheads is practically impossible. and the tie lines the vessel and bottom of the structure. deck and the sides. heads. — The stress is a racking one. These brackets that virtually reduce the length of the frame. and they are obviously due to the resistance which the mass of the structure offers to change of the direction of motion o each time the vessel completes an oscillation in one direction and is about to return.72 SHIP CONSTRUCTION is AND CALCULATIONS. and tends to alter the angle between the Fig. the dotted lines representing the normal vessel. Transverse Stresses due to Rolling. These latter stresses probably reach maximum values when a vessel is rolling in a beam sea. it on the The parts of the structure most effective in preventing this change of bulkbar. and the or tank brackets should be carried well up the it sides. also to close the bilge on one side and to open Such a racking strain is exhibited graphically in fig. The beam knees should be of good they be fore stiffened sufficiently this against collapsing. if form are the beam knees. is web frames included efficiently or partial the ordinary side frames. 67. strained. and fitted well into the corner formed by the side plating and the deck. We have pointed out that it is when among waves at sea a vessel meets with the most trying longitudinal stresses. 66. transverse bulkheads. and any. The frames. 67. other. in which the reverse connected to the frames and beams. and it may now be added that tendencies to transverse straining are also greatest then. on as dency in such a case to elongate the transverse form.

as the name indicates. These are most severe the vessel is and pitching among the waves. These strains. scarcely and the next bring this with terrific force. and that this is the opinion of those having shipping interests. aft. where it is comparatively flat. and. and it is highly important. was evidenced by the appointment of the Royal Commission. should produce the results mentioned.TRANSVERSE STRAINS. therefore. efficient ballast- of vital importance. These are provided against in various ways. which are usually developed in the shell forward and aft. and her flatter ends are better able to faster boat. for the It is they are found much aggravated into pitching motions will one instant it it the fore end high out of the water. in the shape of loose rivets They are now recognised to be and generally shattered riveted connections. The parts that suffer most are the connections of the stern frame to the vessel. For example. and thus give rise to considerable local stresses. and consist chiefly propeller and checking of the same. a tendency to for slower. the vessel be fairly large. when we come to consider details of construction. by means of longitudinal girders and otherwise. and partly to the resistance offered by the water to the vessel's progress as she is is — driven forward by the propeller. due to the pounding which a vessel receives from the waves as she rises and falls after lift among them. under to consider Lord Muskerry. as it rises out of and sinks into the water. the desirability of fixing a minimum load-line to . ing is Obviously. resist flexibility than the usual form of the to The means taken if strengthen the shell against panting. a voyage made in ballast trim. vessels —Besides other longitudinal have to resist straining tendencies their and transverse due to seatings causes. that these should be made amply strong. We shall see presently. An ordinary cargo vessel not so she is much troubled by these full strains as a fine-lined passenger steamer. distribute the load to the less strained portions of the hull beyond. and connect well to the shell plating and framing with a short plating. They are partly due to blows from the sea. As might be expected. . the stringer should be associated tier of beams. wonderful that pounding. plating Panting Strains. stern of the vessel Other stresses due to the propelling machinery are those brought on the by the action of the propeller itself. the engines and boilers with together form a heavy permanent load on a comparatively small fraction of the length. somewhat akin full to those of panting are frequently found developed under the bows of cargo vessels. which act as struts and prevent movement in in the In very fine vessels the floor-plates should be deepened forward and panting arrangement for a cargo steamer class of strains is A A shown the chapter on practical details. Local Stresses. it is to fit a hold stringer in the vicinity affected. It may be said that the general principle is to increase the strength of the structure in way of the loaded zone. consist of pulsating movements of the plating. what the usual when rolling of vibrations caused by the frequent racing of the arrangements are in such cases. repeated throughout a long voyage. some details of which are given in a later chapter. 73 structural local stresses.

maximum 12. reasons. Assuming a cargo steamer in loaded condition to be poised on the crest of a wave sketch roughly the curves of loads. inch . shearing forces. - 96 tons.F. \B. there be a cargo of 715 tons uniformly distributed over half the vessel's length amidships. and also the /Mean shear stress = '66 tons per square inch. maximum 13. shearing force and bending moment. Enumerate the various local strains to which ships are liable. If the sides and top and bottom of composed of under a steel — maximum 10. and the methods adopted to strengthen the vessel against them. and show in one diagram the approximate forms these diagrams would take in the case of a cargo vessel floating *' light" in still water. find the greatest stress to which the material is subject 1 hogging moment of 8000 feet tons. what tests box-shaped vessel 200 feet long. for AND CALCULATIONS. and bending moments. indicate the forms which the curves of bending moment and shearing force will then take. special tie-plates should be arranged in a diagonal direction so as to communicate the stresses from the plating round the mast to the deck beams and side stringers.2tons. etc. A — Assuming the load in the previous question to be evenly distributed over the length of the beam. size In vessels not of to require a steel deck. and assuming her to be under a maximum shearing stress over the section. 30 feet broad. Draw the diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments. floats in still water at 8.. 7. '82 tons per square inch. The resulting stresses can windlass. and B. IV. and state the maximum shearing force and bending moment Max S F = *78'5 tons. Referring to the previous question.M. and B. and if a draught of 10 feet. vessel in previous question are plating \ inch thich. Max.M. point 2 feet from the middle of the length. steering gear. The Racking sufficient Strains brought on the deck of a sailing vessel sailing by stresses from the rigging and masts should be mentioned. . if the given load be spread evenly over the beam. employ in your explanation the case of a beam fixed at one end and uniformly loaded. B. calculate the maximum shearing force and bending moment. at what points approximately in the length will the shearing forces act and where will the maximum shearing stress intensity be developed? shearing Taking the box vessel of question force of 400 tons..F. 4.74 sea-going vessels.F. Given a beam fixed at one end and loaded with a weight tons at the other. W * m _fS.. Strains due to Deck Loads. draw the curves of S. 2. etc. shear stress = 1*82 . Referring to the previous question. = 1*5 tons acting at ^ ns \Max.M.. QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER i. and give numerical values for a section 4 feet from the free end of the beam. neglecting the weight of the beam. Explain how to construct a curve of loads for a ship floating in still water. B. B. usually be counteracted by an efficient system of pillaring. 9. find the mean shearing stress. donkey boilers. and indicate the value of the maximum bending moment. — 11. What is the connection between curves of loads. These loads consist of steam winches. If the beam be 10 feet long and the load 2 tons. \Max. Ans. various there was no practical result therefrom. and state you would apply to prove the accuracy of your work. 20 feet deep. with perhaps a few the extra — beams if the weights be very great. may be derived by a graphic process. and indicate the points in the length at which these are in operation. . 8. S. beam 20 feet long supported at each end has a. If the weight of the vessel be 1000 tons uniformly distributed.M. and 5. Show that diagrams of S. Ans.M. Ans * ns A _J - - - ' \Max.F. = 8925 feet tons. = 172-8 inch tons. plot the diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments. =90 inch tons actingpoints of support at middle. 6. load of 3 tons concentrated at a 3. . describe the system of forces acting at any section. to all of which the tie-plates should be securely riveted.M. SHIP CONSTRUCTION although. f Max.

At one time it seemed to be thought that ships must be built to certain fixed carried out in this matter.— It of great density. have good speed and deadmay prove herself very unsatisfactory. have been. variations The to their which have marked of : this evolution and brought cargo vessels in present stage viz. but deadweight Thus. weight capability. should less in of relatively their greater hold capacity. general outline and appearance (3) in disposition (4) in internal construction. and yet failure. in certain ship may be may be strong enough. and cargoes had often to be adapted to suit a vessel's arrangements rather than the latter being made to suit the former. wood. came a gradual evolution of type. and iron to steel and the progressive where applied for the spirit of the age. and become almost the last word of efficiency purpose intended. NOT the least among the many important ship. if not an utter the question of A trades. by an owner in deciding upon a new suitable as to cost. has excellence. and is careful to see that he gets a ship suited Nowadays. in oversea trade. — (i) in design of structure to provide hulls of degrees . cargoes. until recent revision. STRENGTH TYPES. generally speaking. resulting in much annoy- ance. which space in comparison with weight. is aware of this. is points to be settled type. in the following directions. an owner who knows his requirements can usually get them But this was by no means always the case.CHAPTER V. of in strength suitable for different (2) form of immersed body and of materials . inconvenience. should be strong vessels having great draught and displacement and limited ships hold space general and cargoes of less density. for was long ago recognised that occupy little for : economical that cargoes working different cargoes should have different classes of vessels instance. such as carried in . cotton. and light be accommodated capability. however. development trades . and expense. Types of Cargo Steamers. and heavy general cargoes. designs. until the cargo steamship of to special to-day has reached a high standard of trades. Lloyd's Rules provided special schemes of scantlings 75 for three strength types. but With the expansion changes in materials ot more especially with the construction — from wood to iron. Every owner of experience to his purpose. such as grain. iron ore or machinery. .

and the nicely rounded topmore or less vertical sides and bluff ends. spar-deck. Of course. In the development of ship construction. with displacement sides of former days. it must be admitted that body of the modern cargo steamer is no thing of beauty. in deadweight capability can be obtained by a moderate increase in therefore surface. the easiest and cheapest way for an owner to increase the earning resistance to — the — the speeds of power. rise An expert designer can do much even In general. lighter vessels were not of their less Their draughts were restricted. we have the authority of the late Mr.of his vessel is obviously to fill her out forward and aft. small of and relatively sharp bilges amidships. for saying that they were carriers. With regard to the spar and awning-deck types. and was reckoned to be able to carry any kind of cargo to any part of the world on a greater draught than any other type of vessel of equal dimensions. From *6 the fine-lined under water bodies. their loads reduced. The sentiment which demanded fineness of form and grace of outline has passed away under the the pressure of ever-increasing competition. co-efficients. types. FORM TYPES. these comparative strength. and hence also the leading movements acting upon them . Certainly this side of the development of cargo ships has not proceeded on co-efficients of from to we have come to sharp bilges. light draught and large capacity. the first-named was the strongest. SHIP CONSTRUCTION three-deck.. thus allowing most of the fining away to be done Lowards the extremities. not originally intended as exclusively cargo The upper weather 'tween decks were really meant to accommodate passengers. AND CALCULATIONS. were allowed to be of comparatively construction. the filling out process must be done with judgment. but has otherwise been greatly improved. however.. . and vessels. the foregoing types have undergone modification. Martell. and an awning or shelter-deck type. aesthetic lines. and this has become the order with the fullest of the day. a former chief surveyor to Lloyd's Register. and awning-deck Of these. 7. Appearances apart. only two distinct standard types are mentioned. the element of wave-making resistance only becoming As a considerable increase in displacement and important at higher speeds. for the best results. Froude and others. side and the deck built and of the shell plating and framing light above the second or main deck. with displacement co-efficients ranging from '8 upwards.— With regard to changes of form. The latter has the characteristics of other vessels of the class. namely. vessels floor of '8 blocks and upwards In some should have . In Lloyd's latest Rules. the still full scantling vessel. the changes have been in searches of the late Dr. and considering making standpoint.76 viz. The re- experience gained from actual 8 or 10 knots be overcome in propulsion is largely due to surface friction. so that thinner materials were quite sufficient to ensure as low a stress per square inch on the upper and lower works as in the corresponding three-deck type of vessel. But although thus smaller scantlings than the corresponding three- deck vessel of same absolute dimensions. viz. has shown that at moderate speeds like ordinary cargo vessels the case from a purely money- the right direction.

also harder to drive. as. the half girth appeared as a factor in calculating the numerals. which. freeboard could in their thereby be gained. under Government Regulations. Thus long bridges became common. than vessels of 'similar block co-efficients designed on normal lines. incidentally forming release admirable shield from the inroads of head and the of the under deck making a desirable addition to the carrying capacity. and eventually vessels were built with bridge and poop in one. e&e . this erection seas. particularly provided they had openings end bulkheads. More striking than the changes of the under-water forms. Fig. 68. one form of the well-deck type (see fig. making.' to-day (see 68). They were found difficult to and therefore unmanageable seaway. It should be said that in Lloyd's design former this full rules. 69). and those which have caused cargo vessels to be classified into various form types. The in next step in the development of deck erections was in the direction of increased lengths. still. and. whose outlines are fig. experience showing the necessity of raising the steering platform from the level of the upper deck. Then the obvious advantages of latter to having the crew on deck caused the accommodation for the be raised an space from below and fitted in a forecastle. thus causing the ends to be very clubby. the erections were allowed to be exempt from tonnage measurement. owners should not take too much for granted in ordering their cargo "tramps. and lighter induced some builders. for the sake of getting scantlings. and there is now no temptation to design freak ships of the kind mentioned. the necessity of affording some protection to the vulnerable machinery openings led to the latter being covered by small bridge erections. however. Very early in the history of the iron merchant ship. might be closed in a temporary manner." but should see that they get a maximum of good design with any given conditions. 69. cases this 77 method has not been followed.TYPES OF CARGO STEAMERS. which became operative in 1890. Fig. to cargo vessels with abnormally fine midship sections. characteristic of Thus the three-island type was many of the cargo steamers of arrived at. Under the new rules the girth does not influence the numerals. But such vessels when steer built invariably proved unsatisin a factory. poops were fitted. with a disconnected forecastle. have been those due to the imposition of deck erections on the fundamental flush-deck steamer. considerable reductions as. Finally.

it has some drawbacks. The obvious advantage of having a continuous side and deck. 70. m f | £&6 ^ i> Fig. but Other modifications have consisted of short bridges on longer ones and on these can hardly be considered as constituting distinct types. For the smaller classes of cargo carriers all steamer has been developed. While the quarter-deck has certain advantages. AND CALCULATIONS. as a a somewhat special type is a one or two-decked vessel with the' main This raising of the after deck was undoubtedly due to considerations of trim. of cargo at the fore end causing aft To space making up the strength plan is sufficiently at the to double the shell plating break of the main deck. the tendency deck aft raised (see fig. 70) was evolved— a type in recent years much run upon for large cargo vessels. 71). who of take an interest in ships. which. In vessels of a . shelter decks. 72. familiar to quarter-decker. one of which is the difficulty of this. such as good trim and general handiness. the space would escape measurement for tonnage. 71. the predominance correct this state of things the hold was increased by raising the deck. In this way the shelter-deck type (see fig. and which.. very soon produced the suggestion to fill in the former gap between forecastle and bridge. and this was rapidly carried into effect when it was found that m 0j-° by having one or more openings in the deck with no more than temporary means of closing. the hold size requiring lapped.73 SHIP CONSTRUCTION Fig. The usual and overlap the main and quarter deck stringers at this part being also overa steel deck or part steel deck. the latter stringers in way of the break. It was found that owing to the finer form aft and the large amount of space taken up by the shaft tunnel. as previously mentioned. Fig. is now a standard of Lloyd's rules. the normal deck line was to trim by the head when with loaded. etc. in reality. and the admirable shelter which the enclosed space would afford for cattle.

which tends to raise the too. for some trades type remains a strong favourite. whether substantial lengths. J. in evidence. this Modern vessels are now required to be built in way by the rules of Lloyd's Register and of the old practice of making superstructures of light and massing the strength at the second deck from the top being disbuild This may be considered to mark an important advance in the continued. as the moment of inertia of the material at a section thereby increased. of all. Mr. It is seen to be a quarter-decker with the for filled and the precautions already described this maintaining at break have also to be taken in distributing case. however. is first cost of In the vicinity of the break. numerous tiers of beams. that the heaviest longitudinal materials should be placed at the deck. . and the two portions connected by substantial diaphragm plates. in spite much broken still stowage space. and deep hold * keelsons. Bridges which are very short have small otherwise. Moreover. the opening See an interesting paper on "Structural Development in British Merchant Ships.TYPES OF CARGO STEAMERS.— Coming now place in the internal to the changes that have taken to construction Fig. with in estimating the longitudinal strength. The good the foregoing. type would trim badly. The doubling of shell and overlapping of stringers is also carried out. which of maximum value at these parts. viz. and illustrates of the time. seen to involve a considerable there this to make amount of bracketing and troublesome the vessel. structural value. we find these be of a wide- reaching character. but it appears to have been found very suitable for It was at one time very popular. It is is what must be done of continuity. years has not been much in. to which the author is indebted for particulars in preparing some of the sketches in this chapter. an awning or a is is shelter deck. and sheerstrake of an erection." by Foster King. It is bridge erections of which must withstand the structural bending stresses acting on the vessels of which they form part. or loss something equivalent. is the It is to be supposed that with ordinary cargoes this partial awning-decker. the scientific construction of ships. and the stress under a given load. fitting work. reduced. 73* is the midship section of a large passenger all and cargo steamer as built 25 to 30 years ago. ordinary floors. the characteristics thin side framing. of vessels.. is One clear consequence of the long erections now become prevalent un- doubtedly the really part of modern system of the hull proper. in the Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects for 1907. is 79 overlapped where broken to form the quarter deck. other classification bodies. as they are not and should not be considered however. The expansion of commerce. fig. The external appearance of the partial awning-decker forward well the strength is shown the in 72. the materials of construction. yet. stringer. in some respects the opposite of the last in that it leads to an increased hold capacity forward over the normal type. Another modified type. it follows from the principles expounded in the previous chapter. CONSTRUCTION TYPES. it be a long bridge. but of recent special light bulky cargoes.

which. as shown in ordinary floors. AND CALCULATIONS. deepening of the holds by the Fig. and the whole forming a strong box-like arrangement which amply made up the deficiency caused by the omission of the hold beams (see fig. 73. and the fitting at every fifth beams. the hold being deepened to come in line with the inner edge of the plate webs. ultimately becoming fitting incorporated in the structure.So SHIP CONSTRUCTION trades. . caused the disappearance from the holds of the fig. huge plate side girders which. various modifications in their The trouble and expense attending the use of dry ballast led to the adoption of water ballast tanks. but their general design and arrangement may be the An early modification in the structure was gathered from figs. then internal economies. This style of construction long remained in favour capacity. but the eventually led to itself. its loss of stowage for case cargoes. required by the construction rules of or sixth frame of plate webs having face stringers bars on their inner edges. of vessels to for up of new and the specialising these trades. deepening of the frame girder or another is in favour of the the system of framing which in one form general abandonment found in the cargo steamers building in the yards to-day. 73. accompanied the in of In a later chapter we shall deal detail with ballast tanks. led first to increase in the average size of vessels. 74 to 85. 74). particularly and is still sometimes preferred. suppression of the lowest tier of the time.

TYPKS OF CARGO STEAMERS. Si .

prevent and stiffen between the frames. the extent to which these hold stringers assisted trifling. sections in Improvements the in the manufacture recent years. Their work tripping. Whether the hold stringer will ultimately disappear from the modern ship This. which. were obnoxious for all found not alone less than the the webs. as an element of construction remains to be seen. and frames in 76 In fig. 76. as stowage breakers. Moreover. A natural the reduction in development which came. me ship against bending was comparatively fifteen is hold stringers of years ago. Fig. but the general feeling seems is the view taken to be in favour of its retention in a modified of steel form. it may be said. was size of the hold stringers. by some naval architects. and since then vessels have been built with a re- up to duced number of hold stringers. although not quite immediately. 330 Feet Steamer. the deep side framing of local stresses. 75 those of the to shown the them side present day. fig. have made . was sufficient demands and owing is to their proximity to the neutral axis. Recent experiments made by Lloyd's Register have gone to show that a frame depth of 7 inches (the limit of the experiments) there is no tendency to side tripping. now to to keep the the shell in position. and in a few recent cases with none at all. and broad-minded view now taken by the classification societies.82 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS.

350' 77. Fig. possible for builders. it 33 of parts. by Lloyd's former deck type {see fig. 77) and two steel decks. until they it have attained likely lengths of 350 feet. 51' 0" X 0" x 2ff 0". three tiers of beams single steel deck and one tier of beams. transverse and longitudinal. LINT 0f_BBI0CEJ)KK single-deck vessels have gone on increasing proceed so in size feet. shell plating.TYPES O* CARGO VESSELS. . sition design has been built approaching this depth. and double bottomfurther satisfy beams. the construction of single deckers is depth about 31 feet provided for. no be in single-deck vessel of ordinary Fig. Hence has come the well-known singleVessels of a size ordinarily requiring. 78 illustrate? a type which the may be considered to It the tran- stage towards pure single decker. have been built with a rules. following the line of simplification to still the demands of shipowners for large holds clear of and numerous hold stanchions. the structural strength. but as up to a moulded we are aware. has bulb angle framing . and depths exceeding 28 long as and appears the advancement it. stringers. being made good by deepening the side frames and inPurely creasing the scantlings of the deck. will still the needs of commerce demand so far In Lloyd's of latest rules.

but with the increased breadths at- Fig. stanchions are the necessary. and the question of the omission of pillars had to Hence arose the system of fitting wide be reviewed from other standpoints. became imperative. the presence of numerous pillars A middle line row for most became specially objectionable. Lig£0F_8RUCE_DECK tendant day. and up to a the ordinary construction.84 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS.. designers and on the and first of this type are an important Wearside hold With the removal of hold stringers and beams. SS. but a limit was soon reached. the now the order of the and the side. by increasbeams and ot the middle row of pillars. certain point. with For a time. without resorting to the latter. in and strong hold beams widely spaced a broad hold stringer. 350' 0" 78.E. 49' X 0" X 28' 0". on the steady rise in general dimensions. was ing scantlings of the . coast and have builders association this with arched webs Many proved vessels of type have been built highly satisfactory. N. is trades perhaps no great drawback. The firm. the case of vessels with breadths beyond that at which quarter additional rows of stanchions between middle met.

— Besides may be considered acter. and although cost entails a considerable addition it. row has heavy great been pillar omitted. 340' 0" x 45' 6" x 27' 3" and 34' 3". is of shipowners. whole work being done specially columns in each The in convenience of the latter arrangement from a it stowage stand- point can readily be conceived. many shipowners have adopted 79. there are others of quite distinct charthe enterprise which the needs of commerce. SS. probably the and the most Fig. of shipbuilders.TYPES OF CARGO STEAMERS. turret-deck Of of these. over the common arrangement. now the four fonnd centre vessels of 50 breadth the and hold. and differences between them and those of ordinary form. the 79 shows the midship section of one of these vessels. spaced strong closely pillars pillars 35 Centre in line in association with deck girders. the types of vessels already described which the standard ones. have been to built shall so as to be able to dispense with pillars and these we refer presently SPECIAL TYPES. In some by. illustrates striking . Doxford. Fig. important the well-known type Messrs. pillars rows of spaced in with one or two quarter feet each hold are cases say. upwards. A of any few vessels kind. genius have called into being.

deck machinery. derricks. owing turret being much higher the weather deck increased its greater stiffness better it and longitudinal of to strength.86 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. etc. attachments to the turret deck. The internal framing of the majority of these vessels (see fig. and the strength made good by fitting deep web-plates the wide-spaced . Fig. outward form at The principal departure is in the the topsides. . which. up with a moderate tumble home. and everything requisite for efficiently working the vessel. x 26' 0" x 50' 0" 3" and 33' 6". 79) is on instead of being carried but in recent cases the hold beam and web-frame system no hold obstruction principle has been carried out. The working platform is on the top of this turret.. it this it type over the ordinary ones for are self-trimming safety which the make to all well suited bulk cargoes as . . ship So. 350' 80. forming a central trunk or turret. hold beams and pillars being entirely omitted. sides. owing to its shape * and circumstance making depth distribution possible the latter reduce the structural weight and thus in- longitudinal materials. and tank top. the greater which affords to vulnerable openings. with fig. as shown in Among its the advantages claimed for qualities. such than hatches ordinary ventilators. are curved inwards. SS. which runs forward and aft and contains all hatches.

above this there is a central trunk running fore-and-aft. 350' 0" x 60' 0" 3" and 33' 3". winches. is plated in. at hatchway ends. is The Dixon & Harroway self-trimming arrangements. the main frame of the vessel being carried up in the hold This corner space is well adapted for ballasting purposes. the turret specially suitable for (see fig. is ship. of which there is now a considerable number afloat. bulk cargoes like grain. the latter forms is the working deck and is fitted with hatchways. Although it cannot be said that these vessels have a must be admitted that they have been a long time in service.TYPES OF CARGO STEAMERS. 87 nice appearance. . it construction to the main or harbour deck. the top of etc. Ropner's patent trunk steamer. Another type. and seem to be increasing in popularity as purely cargo boats. crease the deadweight. ship kept in form by strong beams 81 x 25' SS. and the trunk This strongly built centre stanchions. the high This type is of position of the ballast conducing to steadiness in a seaway. the trunk forming an admirable self-trimmer patent ship 81). The Fig. is This class is of normal single deck Messrs. 82) the upper corner of the hold space. another type whose speciality is its In this vessel (see fig. the is stiffened like by webs and supported by design.

88 SkiP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. Co Em CO N X Co « .

thus obviating the the broken stowage space which might otherwise occur at the bilges. Self- trimming also forms the chief claim to distinction of the vessel shown in fig. Other special types have been or are building. and there are no hold pillars. sides and trunkways are supported by cantilever built. is of such distinctive to them. however. and. and on the latter account is not so efficient from a strength standpoint. It is seen to resemble the last type somewhat with the corner tanks away. differing more or less from the foregoing. Henry Burrell.types of cargo steamers. Still another variation of the trunk or turret type that this devised by Mr. has the corners at the bilges (see fig. ballast The deck. that of Mr. corners thus cut off from the holds form a desirable addition to the capacity. the ship is worked from a is central fore-and- platform. as well as the upper trunk. filled in 84) and the inner surface sloped towards the centre. and 30' 0" x 46' 9" x 24' 0" 3". Isherwood. Like the other vessels just referred to one is a self- Fig. SS. Incidentally. webs. and interesting a character as to warrant its being singled out. great 39 longitudinal strength transverse change of form set and is also well suited to resist the tendency to up when a vessel is labouring in a seaway. 305' 84. This type is . As aft in the Ropner trunk vessel. trimmer. 83. but in general not sufficiently to make it necessary to refer One design.

longitudinal instead of transverse. except that the sides. and stiffened on The transverses are spaced from about their inner edges by stout angles. no double skin on the spaced transverse partial bulkheads. floors has fore-and-aft continuous the tranverses with intercostal transverse latter in line with and also midway between them. the largest vessels having the closest spacing. in this framed on system. where they have to withstand loads. however. girders. that the settlings of the frames are gradually Fig. and respect recalls that famous work of Scott Russell and Brunei— the Great Eastern. the intensity the water pressure increasing in proportion to the depth below the surface. 85 shows this the midship section of a medium-sized cargo steamer to It framed consist on of system. type. increased greater towards the bottom of the of vessel. is the earlier vessel. The at bulb angles beams and frames are seen wider spacing than on the transverse system. as The double bottom.go SHIP CONSTRUCTION the longitudinal AND CALCULATIONS. 12 feet to 16 feet apart in ordinary cases. longitudinal should be noted. The transverse strength is made up by strong transverses or partial bulkheads attached to the shell-plating between the frames. Like with widely the new ship has main frames and beams running fore-and-aft. the being required to provide sufficient strength . There is. according to size of vessel. however. previously mentioned. the inner bottom being of the normal present-day main internal framing Fig. 85.

for 9 1 docking purposes and bottom through grounding. 355 feet. 29 feet. 86 is a section viz. — length. The Isherwood system oil of construction appears to be specially suitable for of an oil vessels. The beams 30 the feet angles spaced 27 apart. fitted The main in tanks are and two strong transverses are each for tank between boundary bulk- *See a paper by Mr. several samples of which are now it afloat and giving good accounts of themselves.TYPES OF CARGO STEAMERS. on are built of plates and bars inches . 1908. It is to resist the excessive stresses which come on the claimed for this type of vessel. A. 49 feet. 86. . it means for the and therefore increased earning power.N. 85 arul 86 are taken. 5 The longitudinal frames from the deck to the bottom they are bulb long. the upper turn of the bilge are bulb angles as shown.I. from which figs. the dimensions of which inches. extreme. are. depth at centre. breadth. apart any reduction of which may represent.: steamer framed in this way. The greater saving weight cost a of great importance. Isherwood in the T.* Fig. the spacing is 29 oil inches. vessel deadweight capability Fig. relative that has greater in first strength is and point this less weight than as the normal from type.

showed the former to be cent. and attached thereto. them by double-riveted watertight the A comparison of this of longitudinal stress acting amidships vessel with that acting on this an oil on the bridge gunwale vessel of the same is dimensions built on the ordinary system. In spite of there stated to 18J per be an estimated saving in weight of materials. and connected to collars. under the new system. double bottom. . The transverses are fitted to the shell-plating between double angles and have heavy double angles on their inner edges. is fitted for a portion of the vessel's length amidships. The remaining transverses stopped at the deep girder in the double bottom next the margin-plate. heads. The longitudinal frames and beams and longitudinal stiffeners on middle line bulkhead are cut at the transverse bulkheads and efficiently bracketed In way of the thereto in order to maintain the continuity of strength. less than the latter. of 275 tons.92 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. to transverses are fitted continuously around the bottom are fitted the middle these are and the longitudinal efficiently girders in long lengths between transverses. The between the transverses. which alternate line. and are then fitted is intercostally fitted margin-plate intercostally between the longitudinals to the centre line.

joined vertical scarphs nine times the thickness of the keel in length.CHAPTER V. three items together forming a complete Fig. use of the keel are fitted in lengths averaging about 40 feet. 93 . and sternpost. Practical Details. if it be necessary to remove a keel length. RIDER longitudinal The bars forming 87. The simplest form in iron vessels consists of a it forged is bar running into almost the length of the vessel. tack rivets. KEELS AND CENTRE KEELSONS. so as to allow the keel to be faired. At the ends scarphed the stem rib.—The foundation of or steel the keel may be of keel considered the fitted full a ship's structure. in that. PUTE STRAKX together by These scarphs are frequently riveted up previous to the fitting of the shell by means of small There is an objection to the tack rivets.

care must be taken It keep the rivets clear of the garboard strake butts. centre centre. in larger In the largest plate vessels. to to be removed the in order they are sometimes omitted. and a vertical plate and four floors two top and bottom. Fig. are of large in diameter. in the latter case. a rider plate is fitted on top of the upper angles This style of keel- and a foundation on top of below lower angles. fitted in association with a centre keelson running along the tops of the consisting of double bulb angles in small angles. although zig-zag to riveting is occasionally adopted. 8 7 that the only connection that main structure is through the riveted connection to the this garboard strakes. plates on both sides of the keel have knock out the tack rivets for this reason The main rivets connecting the scarphs together. vessels. 88. simple bar keel is sometimes floors. BAR RIDER PLATE HvEEL : INTERCOSTAL CENTRE KEELSON The vessels. SHIP CONSTRUCTION for AND CALCULATIONS. repairs after grounding. .94 say. . For reason it is frequently called a hanging keel. two rows. 89. usually chain style. 87. and arranged Fig. and also keel to to the shell. will be to seen the this keel has by referring to fig. spaced five diameters as in apart. fig.

son. the floors lying at right the line of stress give no support. but develop a tendency to trip. plan shown exaggerated in fig._ . from the Fig. 95 is which is depicted in fig. see that means a the same angles as to one. seen to already have no direct connection with the From what we the know of the bending of beams. external keel. Moreover. perfect we must separately. but without a foundation plate. The weaknesses pointed out in the above may be largely corrected by fitting plates between the floors. FOUNDATION PLATE -. 87. 90.KEELS AND CENTRE KEELSONS. as Bending if the keel by no and keelson do not offer arrangement is resistance rigidly joined. 88.

96 It SHIP CONSTRUCTION will AND CALCULATIONS. passage for the rivet — should rivets not be encouraged. of driving so as to clear a known. renders it brittle and therefore liable tapered bar round steel or drift punch into them. The reason. to break away. The objectionable a of drifting partially blind holes — that It is is to say. open to a vessel. cases floor and abut against the and centre plates are of the parts. keels is An objection entail. if of shallow draught. FLAT PLATE KEEL INTERCOSTAL CENTRE KEELSOM FLOOR INTERCOSTAL' particularly in a cargo vessel. of course. loose resulting in to all consequence. the holes should be rimered out. be observed that a practical difficulty crops up in the riveting to the garboard strakes. vertical centre the two for the rigid vertical bar of the ordinary conjunction with an intercostal or continuous being connected together by double angle bars. they are frequently more or less obstructed. connected by double vertical bars It this prevents any keel. that the bruising which the material round the edges of the holes gets by drifting. rows of such usual to before proceeding with the plan of riveting. vessel instead of being stopped on each side of a projecting keel the middle to adopt . in the case of a side bar keel. the ordinary shell-plating is continued under the dealing with. is that many ports will be which would otherwise be closed. as five There are two thicknesses of plating require to be united by the same rivets. common It is projecting the increase of draught in which they always considered a good feature a vessel. what is called a flat-plate In this case. be the This horizontal plate would of itself is and considered to be a very inefficient is keel. These considerations have led many owners keel in preference to the one we have been line strake is increased (see keel of the vessel somewhat figs. As a matter of fact. 91 and substitute in in thickness. to have a moderate draught of water. with a con- centre plate plate. and as it is punch these holes before fitting the plates. and has been proved many times in practice. 91a). however. they side. With an tinuous centre intercostal centre plate. it can be imagined that very careful workmanship is needed to keep the rivet holes concentric. the floor plates are continuous . of the keel rivets. movement rolling should be noticed that with a projecting keel is flat-plate It is the reducing property of the lost. the custom. but it usually fitted plate. on each In both . of size and spacing similar to the bar keel. In such cases. 91. are severed at middle the line. and Fig. in modern caro-o .

until the transverse number angles reaches 66.).KEELS AND CENTRE KEELSONS. 91b. As the floor plates are then of considerable depth. 300' x 40' x 26. required for when double half length amidships. vessels. by Lloyd's Rules double angles are not required in this except in machinery space. corresponding to a vessel say. The bottom flat-plate type of keel frequently fitted where there is a double (fig. for 75. satisfactory connection with the the centre plate is obtainable than ordinary shallow floors. Fig. CENTRE THRO PLATE KEELSON CENTRE THRO PLATE Fig. 91a. etc. where they are are always necessary. 91b). 97 bars or rolling to make up (see figs. - CONTINUOUS CENTRE GIRDER 1 DOUBLE BOTTOM . a much with more case. this by is fitting longitudinal chocks at the bilges 76.

of an thick ? length amidships. the vessel.D). are indicated in fig. BRlOCEQECK INC OR SHELTER PSjCK OR does not exceed outline 8 feet . to — The after length part (L) is to the of the sternpost be measured from the fore part of the on the range of the upper-deck to except in awning or shelter-deck vessels.— — qS SHJP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. stem beams. 92. Thus. which shows an thus midship section these of a From dimensions the scantling numbers are obtained : The the transverse number = B 4.D Longitudinal number — L x (B 4. of keel to — The top depth (D) at is to be measured of at mid-length beam side uppermost continuous taken of to deck. B and D vessel. Breadth. tapering to -38 of an inch at ends. AWN 1 92. number regulates the frame spacing and Transverse taking a vessel the scantlings feet of floors. where it may be below the awning or shelter deck. Length. of 45 feet breadth 28 and 28 depth. where it is on the range of the deck beams next below the awning or be measured shelter deck. And under the this number we inch find frame spacing should be '46 24 Jfor appropriate Table of the Rules that inches. we have Transverse number = 45 in 4- = 73. . awning vessels. provided the height or shelter-deck the deck next decks the 'tween Fig. — The of breadth (B) is to be the greatest moulded breadth of from the top except in Depth. and the floors 30 inches deep at the middle.

In is 93 the framing of three single-deck vessels dimensions given. In the this case is there is an inner scantlings bottom of . stem. another assuming the frame to be It will be observed that bilge to the upper deck. keelsons.Lloyd's numerals. and also by the extent to which the frame assumed to be supported at the first tier of beams above the base and unsupported length of frame. Fig. lower deck .e. and bottom double bottom. The frame are governed by the transverse number. regulates the scantlings of the keel. The side number plating. figure apparently marking the limit a purely of single-deck different vessel. line bilge d is measured from a squared out from the tank at side. 93. provide The this fig. d is the tier Two cases are indicated. is is unsupported. rules frames of values of d up to 27 feet. sternpost. line squared out from the height of the floors at middle. when a for vessel has ordinary floors. 99 The i. and shows how the longitudinal scantlings increase with increase in size of vessel. side stringers. one assuming a beams the to exist unsupported at from the below the upper deck. of at the bilge. 92.. Reverting to fig. scantlings size of the frames by the of the vessel.

the three equivalent types being indicated. the spacing fore may exceed 33 from a to fifth made. the frame -is probably the most floors. are to be determined by taking the depth for proportions to the upper deck. of a single angle or bulb angle or it may be of channel section. In the still shallower of namely. of a Lloyd's Rules provide tables of scantlings of frames of these reversed angle. or it may . — Next fundamental part of. compensation in As the deck becomes depth those of the deck. when the depth to be taken at to the upper deck. and deck-plating of upper. consist. as described in in bars. the frame spacing should not be greater than 24 inches. in the case of a large vessel. % a as Chapter III. Frames of built Lloyd's Rules size may In be spaced from special cases. the pounding stresses which exceed this part of inches. } fully recognised the side materials are concentrated shelter less at and depth of girder. flange in The the part fore-and-aft flange. the the At the is end. to FRAMES. form of the ship vessels at the to point at which it 37 and 74).e. When construction consists of a frame . many modern cargo steamers. for The depth employed use with the Tables top of keel to is obtaining the proportions of length to depth at to be measured at the middle of the length from the all the top deck is side in cases. if the of vessel.. vessel the frame spacing should not 27 unless the frames are doubled to the lowest tier of the beams. are or this required have a bridge extending over the lieu. and the at and of long vessel in bridges. with the addition. the vessel's compensation be length from the stem to suitable to collision bulkhead. especially in vessels with ordinary it As is previously explained. to also employed with a number the giving the proportions length depth in fixing scantlings of the upper works. pointed Thus the heaviest Rules. a ship's structure. according to inches. The scantlings the upper deck beyond the ends of a long bridge. 93 is shown. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. In the peaks Each complete transverse frame may be made up of two angle frame and reversed frame. except in way of a short bridge. means a case of the substantial increase vessels. awning. which thus becomes the strength deck. It is and lower deck of plating. IV. 20 to 2>Z inches apart. the ship strength girder. The importance out in of distribution is of materials in Chapter decks.IOO stringer plates. is and lower transverse vessels having the ordinary floors. midship half length. Shallow vessels. Also the scantlings that is these parts are in a deep than in one proportionately shallow. question the longitudinal strength to be considered. at its attached to a floorplate. and Lloyd's Committee require proposals keel the transverse be before them. and gives fitted (see figs. various in fig. which taken to the upper have lengths equal to to or exceeding bridge of the 1 3J depths. owing liable at sea. having has lengths to laid exceeding carefully 14 depths. deck. extends from the keel to the top of the vessel in the a transverse plane. In fig. of a frame is riveted to the shell-plating. i. 94 the side framing required for the vessel marked A styles.

latter is riveted the frame on the the sides of the of to the turn of the bilge. impracticable to them. back to Fig. which being thus line. the heel-pieces are is not usually fitted. and are placed back with the frame. and where the former fit associated with a flat-plate keel it of course. as the combination of beam. as they are called. the floor-plate being between. These heel-pieces should be so fitted as to bear on the top of the keel. Where is. the framing on each cross beams.without unduly straining the rivets connecting the keel strakes. Both the frames and reversed frames are usually butted bar straps being fitted. to the garboard length Heel-pieces the are only fitted for three-quarters the vessel's amidships. 94. directly to the framing. the vessel. 101 to it and reversed frame. becomes an efficient transverse girder. frame. line form is at the ends making them unnecessary. At the decks. the middle keelson a centre through plate. are usually about 3 feet long. shell-plating and deck-stringer in this neigbour- . whence sweeps along top edge the floor. as in this way stresses due to docking or grounding are communicated or heel-pieces. when of simple bar type.FRAMES. at the centre covering angle The frame butt-straps. . stiffened at top and bottom. special attention side of the vessel is connected by being given to the beam-knee connections.

93 be seen that the angles connecting the of the three vessels indicated in Fig. Rules. WEB FRAMES. web frame being held and at the bilge by at the or deck tank by side its connection to the floor connection. A beams. for with comat intermediate frames. When and webs become of considerable depth.102 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. 95. they are to bulkheads. In fig. the largest It will shown with web frames. forms a . SECTION SECTION SHOWINt SHOWING WEB FRAME INTERMEDIATE FRAME 'iNTERWlDiATCl TfUMES / 6V5V-4ZB-A webs as to the shell-plating and to the side stringers are of the fitted the webs. it consists of a deep plate with frame. — When angles a transverse rib edge. is tier of beams fig. shell develop their full efficiency should have a substantial connection. stiffening on its inner is known six as a web the Lloyd's Rules permit a system of web frames at paratively light frame spaces apart. as we have seen. hood is most efficient for resisting the transverse racking stresses to which. in vessels built to double angles to the shell-plating. to be substituted heavier frames of the ordinary frame table. provided a deck be laid on the the height d. 95. or equivalent single rigidly its double riveted. Thus webs Lloyd's angles require 24 inches and above. and that angles are to the inner edges of the webs really same thickness and partial stringers. a vessel may be subjected when rolling among waves at sea.

one side keelson in larger fig. terminating at height is from the base line equal to twice the depth at the frame. a substantial gusset plate the or from top of the web on will to inner bottom plating fig. with. shown. Except the at floor-plates are fitted two pieces. floor. These intercostal plates need not be connected to the floors. the upper edge of each floor sweeps into the line of the inside of the frame. vessels. and this usually connection to nection angle angle (see is the floor being to an overlapped bottom. on each side of that floors line. bending the line — These vertical plates be observed to have a maximum sides.WEB FRAMES. the knees being double riveted in each arm and flanged on their inner edge. sizes two are necessary. the inner edge of the web frame is swept into the top edge of the former.) FLOORS. a transverse girder. In small vessels. side keelsons vessels of various are . The loss of transverse strength due to cutting the as shown in fig. depth three-quarters the measured out from the middle on the run of the frame. Web frames are attached by bracket knees to beams at their heads. governed by the size of vessel. connected by an overlap or buttstrap the middle line. In 96. and by fitting a stout buttstrap to the stringer face bar (see fig. when associated with an ordinary floor. a riveted connection being made by double vertical angle bars. 90. vessel floor at each frame. middle line. Thence they gradually taper towards the half breadth. under 27 feet breadth. depth. the is advisable make is intercostal. at the stresses at middle line where the transverse are greatest. in addition. as SIDE KEELSONS. referred to when dealing with centre keelsons. at least when stringers. intercostal plates are fitted between the floors and connected to the shell-plating and to double angles on top of the floors. half that at centre line. When inner bottoms are fitted. compared with the side For this reason web frames continuous and the side stringers done. 95. The main and floors in their correct relative positions. There of a one such indeed. floors is also partly made good by a horizontal keelson plate fitted at the centre line on top of floors. When it a vertical through centre-plate the are fitted close against on each side. floors — As well the centre keelson. this part of the structure undergoes considerable modifications. which the most charin feature built without in an inner bottom. being a From its this point. or is alternately fitted. forming. the discontinuity of the latter is made good by a double angle connection to the webs. At the junction of each web and stringer. girder of 103 comparatively short span. is and small reversed frame acteristic vessels. considered sufficient. but in order have keelsons midway between the bilge and the middle of these function keelsons being to keep the frames to develop their full efficiency should be fitted close is between them. vessels with ordinary line. as we shall see presently. riveted it one. 27 feet and under 50 for feet in breadth. 95). At the lower part. it which are to only properly the held at the bulkheads. When of the con- to be the made margin the an bar inner should consist a riveted on bar to plate.

to4

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
50
feet

BILGE KEELSON.
in

— In
as
far

vessels

of

and under
is

54

feet

breadth,
side,

addition

to

two side keelsons,
carried

a

bilge

keelson
aft

required

on each

and should be
like

forward and

as

practicable.

This keelson,
shell-

a side keelson,
(see
fig.

should have an intercostal

plate

connected to the

plating

96).

Fig.

96.

SIDE STRINGERS.— Between
is

the bilge and the deck

beams the framing
by
stringers

tied

together,
in

and

stresses

to

some
angles angles

extent
riveted

distributed
to

con-

sisting

small vessels
vessels

of single of
similar

reversed
with

frames and lugs,
intercostal
stringers

and
latter

in

larger
to

associated

an
side

plate
this

connected

the

shell-plating.
all

Lloyd's

Rules
to

require
these

of

type in vessels of

sizes.

According
Fig.

Regulations, the

number

97.
SECTION

A

AT A.B.

©
~^r~
of
side
stringers
feet,

7

\_y

depends
is

B on the value of
very
small
vessels,

w

^u

s^7~
d.

i
When
is

this

is

7

feet

and

less

than
feet
feet,

14
to

that

in

one

sufficient;
is

21

feet,

two

are

necessary;

and when d and angle
bars,

20

feet

where d is 14 and under 27

three
All

should be

fitted.

keelson

and

stringer

plates

when continuous, should

BEAMS.

105

be

fitted

in

long

lengths,

and

to

obviate

any sudden

discontinuity

of

the

strength,
plates

adjoining butts

should be carefully shifted from

each

other.

Both

sisting
feet

and bars should be strapped at the butts, the angle-bar straps conof bosom pieces of the same thickness as the keelson bar and two long, having not less than three rivets on each side of a butt (see fig. 97).

BEAMS. — A
strength
in
(see

tier

of

beams
of

is

always
;

fitted

so

as

to

tie

the top of the
as elements of

frames together and support the deck
the
structure
71,

the functions of generally
as

beams

a

ship

are

have

been already dea

scribed

pages

72).

The number

of tiers
it

of beams
also

required in any vessel
for

is

question
is

of

transverse strength, but

depends on the trade

which she

intended.

Fig.

98.
ELEVATION SHOWING STRINGER FACl ANCLE.,

Passenger boats usually require one or more decks below the upper one for
purposes of accommodation.
cargo,
ever,

Many cargo vessels, owing to the nature of their need one or more 'tween deck spaces; in most cargo boats, howas has been said elsewhere, the desire is for deep holds, clear of beams
also

or

other

obstructions.
in
this

Lloyd's

latest

Rules allow considerable scope to the

in a previous paragraph, they allow him, up to a certain point, to design his vessel entirely clear of beams below the upper deck, if he so wishes. The value of tf, in such a case, will, of

designer

matter.

As was seen

course,

be
(see

relatively
fig.

great,

and the scantlings of the
is

side

framing relatively

heavy
it

93).

This
just

the
for

penalty

is

obviously
its

a

one;

each

exacted for unobstructed holds, and frame is a girder, whose strength is

governed by

span.

Io6

SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND" CALCULATIONS.

Spacing of
beams, such as
in
is

Beams.

— According

to

Lloyd's

Rules,

a

complete

tier

of

required to form the upper point of support of the frames
:

regulating

scantlings of the latter, may consist of Beams at every frame. (2) Beams at alternate frames. (3) Beams widely spaced up to 24 feet apart. In arrangements (2) and (3) the beams are heavier than

the

(i)

in

(1)

;

and

in

(3)

a

broad

stringer

must be

fitted

heavy
stringer
fitted

face

bar, and large horizontal and the beams (see fig. 98).

on the ends of the beams with a gussets must be fitted between the
Lloyd's
:

Rules

require

beams

to

be

at

every

frame in the following places
watertight
flats.

(1) (2) (3)

At

all

At upper decks of single-deck vessels above 15 feet in depth. At unsheathed upper decks, when a complete steel deck is required
by the Rules.

(4)
(5)

At unsheathed bridge, At upper, shelter, or
length,

shelter

and awning decks.
decks
in

awning

vessels

over

450

feet

in

whether the decks be sheathed or not.

Under

erections,

such as poops, bridges, and forecastles in vessels
in
for

breadth,

less than 66 feet upper deck beams may be on alternate frames, except

one-tenth the vessel's length within each end of a bridge, where
of
all

they are to be fitted at every frame.
(6)

At

the

sides
in

hatchways,

including
steel

those
iron

of

engine

and

boiler

openings,

unsheathed

or

decks.

Elsewhere,
only
if

deck

beams

may be spaced
27

two

frame

spaces

apart,

but

the
is

frame spacing does not exceed

inches.

easy to grasp the reason for close spacing the beams on unsheathed With thin decks and widely spaced beams, the plating would probably sag between the latter, which would make the decks most unsightly; with beams at every frame the sagging tendency will be very slight. The close beam spacing in way of hatches is necessary in view of the heavy weights which may be brought upon the deck there during loading operations. When a wood deck is laid, beams may be at alternate frames (except as above stated in vessels over 450 feet). In this case, the steel deck is supported between the beams by the wood deck, the deck fastenings for the wood deck being fitted between the beams. The beams forming the weather
It

decks.

decks are usually cambered, so as to throw
lower
tiers

off

water quickly

;

those

of the

are
to

sometimes
weather

cambered
decks
is

and

sometimes

straight.

The
of

usual

camber given
or

\ inch per foot Lloyd's Rules allow the beams of weather decks to be
with
less

of

length

beam.

fitted

without camber
vessels (30,000 continuous deck

than

the
if

usual
at

amount,

in

the

case of

of

large

longitudinal
is

number)

least

half the

length

the
arch,

top
it

covered by erections.

On

the principle of the

might be thought

that

camber should give additional strength

to beams, but, as has

been pointed

BEAM
out,* the
sides

SECTIONS.

io 7

of a

ship are

not really abutments, so that this can scarcely
sections
in
fig.

be the
the

case.

BEAM SECTIONS.— Beams
strength
B,

are

fitted

of

different

according
99.

to

required;
in

most

of

these
section

being
E, are
for

included

Sections

A and
at

and

large

vessels,

adopted when the beams are

every frame.

G
for

is

not often used

ordinary
to

section,

however,

special

beams
to

built

H

are

used when
are

beams
fitted

are

be
the
the

fitted

common D and carry the ship's boats. Sections F frames. to alternate
beams
;

it

is

a

and J
very

only
the cut

where
to

extra

strength
sides

is

required.
vessel

In

way
is

of

the

machinery,

material

binding

of

the

together

usually
for

much

away owing

necessity

of
;

providing

ample

space

it is, therefore, of importand boilers ance to make any beams that may be got across the vessel in that locality as strong as possible; beams similar to those just mentioned are is a form of beam found suitable (? usually fitted, with satisfactory results. for the ends of hatchways, the angle bar being, of course, fitted away from

shipping and unshipping the engines

the

hatch

opening.

In

general,

where

heavy permanent

deck weights
adopted
will

are

carried,

specially

strong

beams

are

needed,

and the

section

be

that

dictated

by the experience of the designer.
99.

Fig.

In

order

to

obtain
the

special

strength,

and
the
as

to

allow

of

substantial

knee

connections

between
depth

beam ends and
their

frames,

reduced
great

in

towards

extremities,

beams are not might be done in the case
ship

of an ordinary loaded girder supported at the ends.
strength at
this

The

reasons for

having

part

of a
shall

ship

have already been explained.
describe a few methods of forming and

BEAM KNEES, — We
fitting

now

beam
seen to

knees.

Several examples taken from Lloyd's Rules, of a

common,
fig.

and very
It is

efficient

one when the workmanship
of a
triangular
plate,

is

good,
into

is

shown

at

100.

consist

fitted

the angle

between the
the

top

of

beam and
Sometimes

the ship's side, and
for

well
to

riveted

to the

beam end and
fitted

frame.

lightness,
is

and

minimise obstruction to stowage, the
This knee can be
to

inner

edge of the knee-plate

hollowed.

any

of the

beam

sections

given

above.

Another way of forming a beam knee is to cut away the lower bulb for a end of the beam, and weld in a piece of plate or bulb This plate, the knee being afterwards trimmed to the size and shape required.
short distance from the
is

called

a slabbed knee
*

(see

fig.

101).

Unless great care

is

exercised,

the

See Practical Shipbuilding, by A. Campbell Holms.

ioS
welds
of

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
these
the

AND CALCULATIONS.
;

knees
bracket

will

give

trouble

for

this

reason

this

style

is

not so

popular as

knee, nor as
Fig.

the

one we are about

to

describe.

In

100.

BEAMS AT

EVERY FRAME

BEAMS AT ALTERNATE FRAMES

C.

MUST NOT BE LESS THAN
OlAMETLR OF RIVETS

Six

TIMES

Fig.

101

Fig.

102.

this

last

case,

each end of the beam
indicated
in
fig.

is

split

horizontally at about the middle
is

of th^

depth, as

102,

and the lower part

turned down;

BEAM KNEES.
a piece
is

I09

of plate
to

cut

shape and
it

welds, but
it

is

welded into the space so formed, and, finally, the beam size. This knee also depends on the quality of the stronger than the previous one, and has a fine appearance
is

is

are mainly met by the shearing strength of the rivets, must be sufficient in number and diameter. Lloyd's Rules require that in knees under 17 inches deep there shall be not less than 4 rivets of finch diameter in each arm, while knees 40 inches deep require nine f-inch diameter rivets in each arm the number varies between these limits for
stresses

known As the

as

a turned knee.

these

;

knees of intermediate depths.
Obviously, only about half the
will

number

of rivets required in bracket knees

be needed

for

welded knees of the same depth.

The depth and thickness of a beam knee varies with the depth of the beam, and the position of the latter in the ship. Generally, beams which form the top of a hold space are required of maximum depth, the distorting
stresses

being greatest

at

these places.

Hence,

in steamers

where there

is

but

beam knees are of greater depth than if there were intermediate decks. The upper deck beam knees in vessels which have a range of wide-spaced beams below the upper deck, are to be of the scantlings of
a single tier of beams, the the knees of an upper

deck
of

tier

where
are

it

is

the

only one.

In sailing ships,
for

beam knees
beams *of mentioned
than
those

at

all

tiers

beams
in

to

be the same as
one
tier

upper deck
It

similar

scantling

steamers
require
in

having

only.

that

Lloyd's
the

Rules
necessary
at

beams

in

sailing

ships
tier

to

may be be heavier
These
bulktherefore,

of

same lengths
fitted

steamers
sailing

having

one

only.

requirements

are

very

as

vessels

have

no watertight
they
are,

heads

except

one
rigid

the

extreme

forward

end

;

without the

of her bulkheads,

transverse stiffening which every steamer possesses in virtue and need the bracing given by beams of special strength and

depth
depth

of

knees.

All

beam knees should measure
knee.

across the throats at least

^

of the

full

of the

beams at every frame are to have plate moulded depth. Thus, in vessels 23 feet and under 24 feet depth, the knees are to be 33 inches x 33 inches and in vessels 26 feet and under 27 feet, 42 inches x 42 inches; the knees Deepening the knees for vessels of intermediate depths varying between these. strengthens the frames by shortening the unsupported length ; it also stiffens the vessel at the deck corners and arrests any tendency to change of form that might develop when the vessel is labouring among waves at sea. BALLAST TANKS. Nearly all modern cargo steamers are constructed to
In large single-deck vessels the
varying in
size

bracket knees

with

the

load
in

water-ballast
in

when

necessary, the water being carried in double bottoms,
in

peak tanks,
purpose.

deep tanks, or
all

the

Frequent^,
it

these

methods

some other space specially devised for are employed together in a single

steamer,

when

is

desired to be able to proceed to sea without using suppleballast.

mentary stone or sand

no
Ballast

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
tanks
are

AND CALCULATIONS.
in
sailing

not

usually
to

fitted

ships,

as,

unlike

steamers,

they have

long

voyages

perform

In their case, therefore, Another important reason for omitting
seldom.
saving in
first

and load and discharge comparatively rapid means of ballasting are of little use.
ballast

tanks" in

sailing

ships

is

the

cost.

Still,

where there have been special reasons

for so doing,

double bottoms, and even deep tanks, have been installed in sailing ships.

When
devised

water began to be introduced as a means of ballasting, shipbuilders
or less successful plans, to
it,

many more

which we need not here

refer, for

economically carrying
adopted.
plating

before they arrived at the efficient system
it

now

generally
shell-

From
and
the

the

first

was seen that the broken space between the
floors

tops

of

the

in

the bottom of the

ship was admirably

suited for this purpose, since
available for profitable

use could thus be

made

of space not otherwise

employment.

In the

earliest vessels the tanks

were usually

only in one or two holds, and to obtain an adequate ballast capacity the tanks

Fig.

103.

even with careful workman- margin was difficult to secure. FRAME CUT top and the shell bar brought outside the tank. and to connect them to the longitudinal girders where practicable. and for the full length of a vessel. now. and fitting a continuous bar directly on to the shell-plating. the loss of transverse strength being made good by fitting substantial brackets from the frame bar on to the margin plate of the from the name at tank top. to scarph the of three latter for some distance (Lloyd's Rules require a minimum It scarph frame spaces). that the double skin afforded vessel's safety was seen. is to continue the keelsons of the part of the so as of the double bottom.ANGIE REV. moreover. 104. Neither of these methods was found be very satisfactory. known as the M'Intyre is. In constructing a ballast tank extending over a portion only of the length. by the tank top-plating would greatly increase a against foundering. is the maintenance of the longitudinal strength at the In such cases the usual plan structure clear To stop the tank structure abruptly at any point would accentuate the weakness of sections lying immediately beyond. other advantages besides the import- ant one of carrying water-ballast could be secured. the one now adopted margin in all vessels having a ballast tank extending over the greater part of the length. in the event of grounding on a rocky bottom also that the material required for the construction of the tank. very soon came to be recognised that by making a It ballast tank con- tinuous. reversed frames with plugs of wrought iron. In the earliest vessels built. FRAMED CONTINUOUS W. 104 shows the improved M'Intyre System.T. the latter being tightly place a-nd Ill wedged to into carefully caulked. the angle connecting the margin-plate to to the shell-plating was fitted inside the tank and the margin-plate connected margin-plate is the tank-top by an angle bar . System the introducer.BALLAST TANKS. on this system. of its This arrangement. the flanged at the Fig. for instance. as the abrupt termination of the tanks gave rise to decided weakness in the structure ship. improvements which have led to much better workmanship. watertightness at the at the bilges . Fig. Both of these objections were eventually overcome by severing the main and reversed frames at the tank margin. a point of importance breaks. being at a con- . in principle.

whose breadth of tank amidships is between 28 and 36 feet. to give ready access to all of the tank. parts but fit fewer to . Sometimes the parts are flanged in breadth. heavier scantlings. 105* and 106* respectively. the tank top-plating. to Avhich they act as stiffeners are dispensed with frequently. and floorplates fitted at alternate frames. but this made it impracticable to follow the usual plan in building of fitting longitudinal girders on top of ordinary floors. considerable saving in weight being also thus it effected. . p. a is . and came to be generally adopted.! Before and abaft the engine space. not re- duced by manholes except perhaps at the extreme ends. brackets. owing to the great vibration there due to the working of the machinery. bars. As a rule flanged work is not resorted to in this region. the * Figures taken from Lloyd's Rules. up by the action of the water ballast when the vessel is in motion among The reversed bars in way of these intermediate frames are riveted to . are fitted to the centre girder resist and margin plate. however. the vessel's length amidships. the floorplates are fitted at every frame and stiffened at their upper edges by double reversed bars floorplates must also occur at the boiler bearers. t See Remarks on Stiffening of Double Bottom at Fore End. 105). in vessels although the cost is thus somewhat reduced.112 siderable SHIP CONSTRUCTION distance AND CALCULATIONS. would be very efficient in resisting These considerations led to the adoption of a continuous ballast tank in many vessels. X When the longitudinal number is 20. The centre girder more important than the it others. therefore.000 and above. In way of the engine space. a fore-and-aft The fitting of a part full double bottom became the rule in cargo steamers. 116. length tank brought immediate changes in the internal of the hull. there being and less riveting. In the earliest vessels built on this plan. and a Cellular System of construction was introduced. the girders being connected to the inner and outer bottoms at least by angle By Lloyd's Rules 34 feet one longitudinal girder is required in vessels under whose breadth of tank amidships is under 28 feet. axis. for which reason flanged work here is not very common. There are two principal methods of constructing a double bottom on this The first consists of illustrated in figs. framing of the length this It was now found possible to reduce the depth of the tank as compared with that of one extending over a part only of . plating. forming as is does a kind of internal keel has. which in medium-sized! vessels should be wide enougn at the head to take three rivets in the vertical flange of the intermediate reversed angles for 4 lieu of angles. and is stiffened top and bottom by heavy double bars (see fig. system. binding these parts together and strengthening them to the stresses set waves. they in and the inner bottom slightly increased The side girders and floors are pierced with manholes parts thickness in lieu. the Board of Trade consented to measure the depth for tonnage in such cases to the inner bottom from the neutral longitudinal structural stresses. at those frames to which no floorplates are attached. and when later. girders longitudinal suitably spaced. and two between 34 feet and 50 feet in breadth. there is a loss in rigidity. the longitudinals were continuous and the floors intercostal.

Nowadays. vessels exceed 400 feet. obviously having greater strength and rigidity than long fore-and-aft Fig. the above plan of framing the not considered adequate. order that their efficiency as strength elements may not be impaired. When vessels which exceed 26 is inner bottom fig. 105. and in single-deck moulded depth. in to longitudinal which. and the second method. former. 113 axis.. EL BRACKET SIDE GIRDERS £=H*J. comparatively floorplates girders.BALLAST TANKS. modern the vessels. simplicity —a of most important point— and howe'ver. shown in lengths of feet 106. an arrangement leading to greater of construction strength. SECTION AT INTERMEDIATE FRAME PLAN £23" * -H-. should be adopted. and those the rule girders shifted well of each other transversely. latter calculations some reduction show is in to be still ample. /*— 1 1 ft 1 I or in CENTRE GWOtR LZ ti ^^TfF""^ When as longitudinals are continuous. In this case. in An important advantage of the the arrangement short a great increase the stiffness bottom. the floorplates are at every frame . is for be continuous and the girders intercostal. the manholes through in different them should be as few clear possible. it owing to the their distances from the neutral being usual considerable the floors elements in to longitudinal strength.-^^.

the number being girders with proportionately increased in closer floors gives the spacing of the the approxi- mately the in same extent of unsupported area of case. less than in the previous one. FLOOR AT EVERY -FRAME' PLAN inner and outer skins by riveted angle bars or flanges as being riveted to the frames . while the except the centre one. In the latest vessels of this size. are intercostal. particularly as the . and continuous from centre girder longitudinals. and one through every girder plate. ternal framing of the inner bottom. have angle connections to the centre girder and the margin-plate. it would appear that the continuous floor on every frame method of construction is the better one. single angle attachments between the floors and centre girder have sometimes been It is seen that as regards the inadopted. the previous The intercostals are and tank top-plating as attached to the floors and to the shell Fig. 106. only a single one being necessary on each side of centre if the ballast tank be under 36 feet in width and the breadth ship under 50 feet. and the floors. of the ship under 62 feet in breadth. and only two if the tank be under 48 feet and space. larger vessels . the longitudinal strength in this last plan is somewhat increase strength. one or two through the intercostal floors into each cellular Fewer side girders required by this plan. The floorplates and side are the girders have lightening holes. the centre girder attachments.ii 4 SHIP CONSTRUCTION to AND CALCULATIONS. but in view of the tendency towards in of breadth modern vessels. the flanges being double riveted. demanding considerable transverse and of the greatly enhanced stiffness of the bottom on account of the numerous deep floorplates. as well and to angle bars under the inner bottom plating. margin plate on each side. consisting of double angles for half length amidships when the transverse number reaches or exceeds 66.

Fig. it in much Rules smaller vessels than recognise the greater the tank.BALLAST TANKS. "5 absence of the bracket work required at the intermediate spaces in the previous plan renders the work of simpler construction. TANK. SIDE BRACKET . who have frequently adopted size. when the plating exceeds of an inch in thickness. 107. to be slightly reduced. no reduction is allowed. This arrangement is at anyrate a favourite with many builders. shell-plating requiring it owing to their strength of this plan over the previous one by allowing (except the flat keel and garboard strakes) in way of the those Lloyd's when -52 to '66 '66 of an inch in thickness.

very large vessels they should be quadruple riveted. It is especially important that the should not be weakened therefore. 105. and this is usually done. little comment. To save the fitting of at packing pieces. except in the case of small and side than treble riveted amidships. and those of . Detailed sketches of these arrangements gusset-plates are at shown every in figs. and also in those of the British Corporation. transverse strips have been fitted under the watertight bulkheads to allow the building of the latter to be proceeded with at an early stage of the The fitting of the inner bottom plating calls for it Rules recommend that work. being fixed the number and value i. in efficiency in double bottoms would not be obtained were care on the riveted connections. should be double riveted. angles have been substituted for the gusset-plates with In recent instances. where continuous. inner bottom plating objection has is sometimes joggled the seams. good 106. which provided by gusset-plates of wing brackets and to the sides of the tank top-plating. is Like other longitudinal material. These case by or angles to are fitted fifth. require special Experience has shown the fore end attention in respect. Lloyd's be arranged in longitudinal strakes and the butts shifted well clear of each other and of those of the longitndinal girders.e. the requirements as to and edge joints at any part of a ship are fixed by the thickness of the part. over some to portion at least of the vessel's length. In some districts. and the of the of butts line careful The in butts middle and seams calls strake. particularly where ceiling is laid. the limits of d.E. these at the less butts . and Lloyd's Rules vessel's demand double length angles from the collision bulkhead to one-fourth the in from the the stem of is vessels of moderate fitting size. is an important riveting element in both the longitudinal for and transverse consideration. plating and the position of the . The tank top-plating strength. coast. must be at least double riveted throughout in large vessels they should be treble and of inner the largest vessels quadruple riveted. at with growth vessels additional strength becomes to necessary the tops the the tank margin. it thickness of plating to reduced at is increased in way of the machinery to space give additional but more particularly allow for <the corrosion which takes place Structural not bestowed centre girder vessels. double-riveted flanges quickly become necessary this pur- pose. notably the N. according the transverse the vessel's the size. rapid corrosion resulting this in consequence.Il6 increase in breadth single bars with SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. results.* The butts of must not be girders. but been raised to the depression thus caused in the surface. when these are continuous. length unsupported frame. double bars or equivalent for this and depth. and in 107. second or single each of Irame. as forming lodgments for water. the margin plate. but the system cannot be otherwise commended. and in laro-e vessels treble riveted. fourth. The for re- maining * In riveting butts bottom plating are to be double riveted half of butts Lloyd's Rules.. particularly the latter. strength. the the ends. there. third. Besides the foregoing.

In both cases the rivets through the plating and frames to this region are in be of closer spacing than elsewhere. on the cellular system with comparafloors tively closely spaced longitudinals. such vessels are provided with extra strengthening forward in way of the inner bottom. continuous or otherwise. ballast tanks those constructed with longitudinal if on top of ordinary and in without inner bottoms. and this have great power in their respect. frames. the the collision bulkhead. this is done by thickening the lower plating if the tank is a deep one. for this reason the pitch not to exceed 5 diameters. doubled from a fifth margin plate to margin vessel's plate from the bulkhead the to of the length the aft. however. PEAK TANKS. and of considerable area. care has to be taken to prevent bulging . thus inducing severe stresses shell-plating to on the frame which bind the is the structure . measuring from the stem to also three for- strakes of plating next to keel are If maintain with their midship thickness floors ward frame. 1 17 and in large vessels treble riveted. but more . and the main frames collision . On fore-ends resist page 73 reference was made to special stresses which come upon the To of full vessels when sailing in light trim among waves at sea. vessels. as owing to the shape at this part these of such rivets are amply strong. adequate strengthening of a similar nature to the above necessary. we have load. to prevent the water from damaging the structure by requires special attention being flat dashing from side to side in the event of a free the effect surface. special and the increased. is forms. built continuous shell-plating at every as in the frames are to be . except this small should be double riveted. The boundary formed by . and making the stiffeners heavier and closer spaced than at A centre line bulkhead or washplate is required in all ordinary bulkheads. steamers.PEAK TANKS. stresses The edges are of the middle in line where the transverse bending greatest. the fore-peak is. and be extended as far ward in as practicable. their trimming effect they are weights situated at the extreme ends of a lever poised at the middle. . but should be securely attached to the bulkhead and underside of the deck. after-peaks are now usually adapted for water in some cases. medium-sized vessels have single riveted edges of middle line strake. It should be of mentioned that girders full vessels having floors. last case but in addition. to intercostal girders must be fitted of for- a depth equal half that of the centre girder. is also so constructed. and in the largest vessels the should apply to the clear remainder of the plating. — In ballast . the hold bulkhead. It is not usual to increase the shell-plating or framing in thickness. strake. If built these stresses. and the floors at alter- nate are to be fitted to every frame. vessel's and to minimise which such free surface would have on a stability. length. The like principal value of peak tanks of course. All the preceding connections are usually overlapped. for work. rarely. In strengthening these compartments of the stresses floors. doubled. such compartments. to bear in mind the special nature it set up by the rivets Unlike ordinary cargo does not lie on the but presses immediately on to the shell. Such washplates need not be of strong construction.

When Fig. bracketed at their ends. ordinary hold compartments specially strengthened to carry water one or two of them are freWhere one only is required. the one case the double bottom and . the stiffening has to be correspondingly The end bulkheads must have heavy vertical and horizontal of bulb angle. of the engines and boiler space. FRAMES CONTINUOUS ELEVATION SECTION of course. situated thus. the machinery being. ALTERNATIVE PLAN. The same system tanks. assumed amidships. of DEEP TANKS. the compartment immediately abaft the engines is usually adapted for the purpose where there are two. SECTION ELEVATION BRACKETS - us i c 5 ° ' -j Tj/ PECK (TVT 1 y PLAN. to fitted on opposite sides and deck.— These usually consist ballast. they are generally placed one at either end . but increased.n8 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. 108. the water ballast has its greatest power in sinking the vessel bodily. in or other section. without materially changing the trim. quently fitted in large modern cargo steamers. stiffeners of strengthening is followed here as in the peak deep tanks being larger.

of course. against vessel is the lifting forces in motion among wave^ a the frame row of strong plating is are required. the severing at of the reversed frames (see fig. being bracketed to the tank top (see fig. to the ship's sides. and have substantial. as well as acting as a wash plate. It should be connected by double angles to the deck and double bottom. which have. the frames being doubled in the vicinity and watertight collars fitted . A continuous bar is fitted and caulked to tank top plating and shell. At the watertightness secured in much same way as at the margin of a double bottom. close-pitched stiffeners bracketed at top and bottom. Cases have occurred in which the action of the water has swept this bulkhead entirely from its boundary connections. only the reversed frames are cut. showing the need of having the latter specially strong. and must be of strong construction.SPECIAL BALLAST TANKS. A centre line division is required. and shell- of close pitch way of deep ship's as the is load acts directly on the the shell-plating. The deck forming the top of the tank is required to have beams spaced on every frame. when the vessel has been in motion at sea. in The side riveting through tanks. where the side framing consists of frame and reversed frame. and there should be large beam knee connections to the sides. Midway between the centre line and the ship's side. the side frames. . is further compensated by fitting brackets alternate frames 109). II 9 and in the other. as it takes the place of pillars. to be severed. and. runners are required under the deck beams. sometimes. in order PLAN to tie the exerted top and bottom of the tank by the contained water when the pillars together. 108). as severe strains have been found developed at this part due to the action of the water in a partially-filled tank. in for this last case.

one of which. pillars augment the strength middle of a will beams they beam. e. steamers special in have been devised for carrying water Thus. intended for the Each compartment by a head of of a double bottom to water ballast is pressed water the in height actual of bear service. and thus cause the strength of the various structure act parts of the ones. ballast tanks are tested for by putting them under water pressure. the cargo is In the holds. but the head must in no case be load than to the height of the load waterline. Harroway and Dixon type of vessel. TESTING OF TANKS. was shown that as to struts and they communicate from one part to another. since they have only the weight of the deck structure and of comparatively small size . is Access to deep tanks purpose of shipping cargo obtained by means is of watertight hatchways. OTHER TANKS. The strength of pillars should also advance with the loads they have to bear. may be under second or third decks below the upper deck. thus The chief point for favour arrangements the high position secured the centre of gravity of the water ballast. which ship in consists are built up and utilised for water Ropner Trunk type. continuing the double bottom up the sides of the bilge corners latest the of height these of the deck. double ships the and greatly increase beams in have ends. been pointed stresses — The It importance in a ship structure ties has already out. therefore. of water less 8 feet waterline as being the greatest pressure it need Peak tanks and deep tanks are tested by a head above the top of tank. strain together. which may. liable Short pillars are more effective at than long less as the latter are to collapse by side bending a much than that represented by the compressive strength of the material.g. if just under 8 and supporting a beam of a third deck. increased in diameters with their lengths. intermediate lengths having diameters between these. Pillars are. required on each side of the centre line. owing to the centre division. the ballast In the space have been to specially in system.120 SHIP CONSTRUCTION for the AND CALCULATION^. but middle line pillars is except as modified by this circumstance. the cut 82). and if just under 22 feet a diameter of 5! inches. in many ballast. therefore. those fitted should be of considerable diameter. for instance. the side pressure of liable to bend the as pillars unless they be of substantial diameter. of pillars PILLARS. — As arrangements well as the foregoing. should have a diameter of 4 inches. greatly As of the well as acting struts and ends ties.— On watertightness completion. too. those in the upper erections. load to support. the latter. the strength value of equally great. If two pillars be fitted to a beam so as . are fig. and specially strengthened for this purpose (see In the Burrell (see fig. portions of the trunk The M'Glashan strengthened to the same end. at A its pillar placed but not its below the fixed rigidity . rect- angular strength fixed supported latter there. type 84). is is also worthy of mention. corner spaces under the deck off from the holds. have heavy loads of cargo to support. in a vessel feet long of 55 feet beam with two rows of pillars. leading to steadiness and general good behaviour when in a seaway.. of the support.

to divide its 121 is length equally. u 112. in one at the centre line. for and the strength of the beam correspondingly increased. HEADS AND HEELS OF PILLARS. when of the length beam exceeds 60 feet. two rows become necessary. Fig. an additional row is required.PILLARS. placed Fig. the various rows of pillars should be arranged as nearly as possible over one another. beams 43 feet and under in length require only a centre row of but when they exceed this length. 113. Use of this made in vessels as they increase in breadth instance. those At the ends of the the latter rows being hence called quarter pillars. in order to rigidly join the upper and lower parts of the ship's structure. 116. 1 Fig.— The heels forms part of the heads vessel and to of pillars are governed by the nature of the of the . is and so on any number of for pillars. as beam decreases in length. the number of rows of pillars may be correspondingly reduced. pillars. Fig. Where there are several decks. the vessel. 115. -^ Lln_ Fig. 111. the effective is span a third of its original value. 17 Fig. Fig. and another at each quarter breadth of the vessel. 110. 114.

be on reeled line shifting boards. the runners being at alternate frames. the relieves rivets when to the pillar is under tension. and is which connection but has the is made. the second not so common so the advantage of gripping the beam round Figs. where the beams are of channel section 116 is a suitable form where the pillars have to is beam runner means of a is will riveted angle unnecessary. as frequently the case with those at the middle pillars in cargo vessels. 114 and 1 15 show two styles of the be observed that the attachment to the beams is lug. 122. M by this be of other . ^^ U Fig. 117. 119. Figs. 112 on every frame. pillars it is necessary the have under them in way of the so as to support Fig. but may Figs. no first in illustrate two methods is of attachment to bulb-tee beams the the usual one. Fig. 121. 120. approved it These runners should consist of double angles. . for Fig. _V intermediate beams. The plan adopted is to fit consecutive . show the connection are to fitted H and channel beams pillars respectively. 123. Fig.^ 122 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. form. 118. ^^^p—^^vt— i ^tm Fig. and and 113 When beams bulb. Fig. Fig.

the vertical flanges of the made deep enough (see fig. plating. 126 and 127. or where pillars fitted widely figs. 118. The heads. Pillars 5 inches or above in diameter rivets. : o o : <&? s^&> ALTERNATIVE PLAN / / SHOE. as in the case of quarter pillars to deep tanks. thus forming two lines between which the shifting boards may be reeved. showing some of these with pillar head attachments.^ the heel to lug the comes on an inner bottom. and 119. 117. and connect the 122). 123 opposite flanges of the channel runner. The end attachments When require a four-rivet connection at the ends. figs. is to rivet a short bulb angle the vertical or tee figs. Where intercostals to the deck-plating are are also required.HEADS AND HEELS OF PILLARS. 123) the caulking of the latter of pillars should consist of at least two f-inch they reach a length of 18 feet or a diameter of 4 inches there should be three rivets in each end. spaced. A favourite method when Fig. strong girders stresses. . allow of the facilitate heel of the pillar being above the wood deck at this part. they are in various ways. as case may 124. consist of a to the deck- the beam. pillar to flange (see 121 steel and lags This plan latter is sometimes followed to to to decks when the being are for making attachments to be wood sheathed. be. heel attachments of pillars are not so varied in form as those of the A common or to one is shown the horizontal shoe forged plating on to and is seen to and through riveted the lower end 120.BEVELLED 72117/ /T7VSf?S7K ' : i EZZZZZ ZZSzdssfea Z&AVY SSaZSaSS ^-w-wwy. The intercostals transform the stiffen beam the runners from simple ties into eminently qualified to deck and to distribute the in fig.

Bolt and nut fastenings are often adopted occasionally. frequently required to in way of the hatches. (see alternative 124). For many spaced. pillars Tables are provided giving the girders at of wide- spaced and of the trades. deck. of cargo. found can. to. With almost pillars. WOOD DECK owners in have of sought a to dispense requiring with say. but particularly at are figs.124 Pillars SHIP CONSTRUCTION are AND CALCULATIONS. usually preferred. it vessels breadth complete rows of to is permitted. they must be removed the heels. and the probable scantlings In Lloyd's Rules. of the the breadth of deck to be supported. and although by splitting up the cargo they prevent damage through side pressure when the vessel is rolling. particularly those in the wings. the as mentioned in the previous chapter. many siderable Fig. 125. and the centre row dispensed with. them where three possible. beam runners. they the are obviously somewhat of a drawback. desirable. —While are several rows of close-ranged pillars valuable to a vessel as regards her strength. row. pillars. even when thus have been found to be too numerous. be portable . their heads. for example. must give rise to a conamount of broken stowage. and a very wide spacing aqlopted for the quarter has been pillars . For example. when these loading many kinds plan in fig. having intercostal fitted attachments the each must be in way of each pillars line of quarter scantlings latter. impracticable or un- and arrangements such as those of fitted 124 and 125 are resorted When strut. for the above reasons. the intercostals and being governed by the spacing load. of however. and. only act as a WIDE-SPACED PILLARS. this modified at arrangement. in either of these ways a pillar of course. from a point of view of all stowage cargoes. two rows in the wings at wider spacing. with substitute instead one complete middle line With pillars.

126 and 127 illustrate two Figs. /BEAMS HANMELS GIRDER IO*3V3V-60 DOUBLE CHANNELS PILLARS 12 DIA* PLATING 54" TANK TOP — FLOOR INTERCOSTAL GIRDER stepped on the tank-top at the junction of a floorplate and intercostal girder. to give the structure a capacity to disa garment over all place water.WIDE-SPACED PILLARS. Its most important part of any ship is is the outside leading function besides this. Fig. OUTER BOTTOM. pillars. 125 being fitted in some vessels not the more than two decks have been aside even in long and the loads communicated to the pillars. and the greater stresses brought upon the pillars have been met by making the latter of special size and construction. it will be noted. In such cases supported. but. These pillars. arrangements to Lloyd's requirements. This is necessary similarly for rigidity. and when pillars cannot be so placed they must be supported by means of brackets or have seatings built on the tank-top. being spread like the inner . 126.—The shell-plating. are holds. by means of runner girders of enhanced strength.

garboard. with the vessel upright. parts some seen that the Fig. strakes bottom. through the rolling of the of towards the top the girder increased stress. 127. while is the position the axis stressed It has also been pointed out that the above conditions become modivessel. and adjacent material least. and the fact that the longitudinal sheering stresses . and the least in the vicinity of the neutral axis. Every part of the shell-plating is of importance. so that. away from the neutral axis and has to sustain a much this. and the neutral keel. but owing to their positions must be of greater comparative strength than others.126 framing SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. We have greatest longitudinal bending stresses come upon the upper and lower works. at the the sheerstrake at the top. are most of severely at about mid-height — the stressed. in and securely riveted thereto parts every direction. resist it binds the the whole stresses together and enables the various to efficiently severe brought upon them when the vessel is in lively motion among waves at sea. the side-plating is raised fied when.

'64 to '54 . the corresponding would be keel-plate. to in Usually. ends '26. Towards the ends of the vessel the structural stresses less than amidships. Thus. Structurally. great. "6o to "46 from upper turn of bilge to strake below In *6o to '44. the keel- and those adjoining. Of course. say one 90 feet or 100 feet in length and under 10 depths to length. the next point of importance is to the end joints of the plates forming the various strakes. with a proportion of length to depth of between by the size governed of the latter. amidships '34. shell-plating. end the tear thicknesses in smaller vessel probably too but for as even of maximum prevents larger thicknesses are small. this applies to all in longitudinal materials in a ship. and in to some special ice vessels plating the vicinity of the stem thickened withstand pressure. is this is what Another point of interest be might the the small vessels. in certain places. where they occur in the length. that required for the called are increased beyond is same it strakes midships. with a longitudinal number under 3350. and a longitudinal number of 28. in a small vessel. where there is a bar keel. say about 360 feet long. ends "36 garboard strakes. from . In each sets case. to be specially heavy. flat keel-plate or garboard strake upper turn of sheerstrake. These should be disposed in such a way as to avoid having too many weak points . without doubling. the shell scantlings in fractions of an inch would be keel-plate. the in immediate thickness vicinity of the propeller shaft. the second if thickness keel that the ends. where severe local stresses may be anticipated. strake to with a bar keel. special strength is introduced. societies The Rules strake. strake . the necessity in of allowing the wear and the liberal reduction permissible heavier material the vessel. ends '30 . 72 the to '44. •62 bilge. and the thicknesses are reduced. arrange Having decided upon the scantlings. the afterhoods of the strakes which come on part the sternposts stresses in steamers are retained of midship in thickness to withstand the of the which the working of the propeller plates brings upon that structure. . the strakes from above the upper turn of the bilge to the sheerstrake being of smaller scantlings.OUTER BOTTOM. each of these there of scantlings. small amount of compared the towards those are the the ends in the scantlings of the with of other. ends '26. from flat keelplate or garboard strake. : — . the shell-plating of the thickened forward where the has take the chafe anchors is . sheerstrake '32 strake below '3. amidships '30. to strake below sheerstrake.400. and sheerstrake omitted. shell-plating The are actual thickness of the various parts of the of a vessel For example. of all classification require the sheerstrake. to '44. amidships '44. sheerstrake. strake is below at sheerstrake. In a cargo steamer of average size. must be borne the are mind when apportioning the scantlings to the various parts of shell-plating. is a comparative taper uniformity throughout have been expected from our considerations above. are a 1 27 maximum at the neutral axis. For the same reason the boss plates. 11 lings and 12. '94 to "66 garboard : scant- — .

Rules stipulate same strakes transverse section.. and those in that the end strakes at least one space clear. than is required to ensure the same strength . however. Fig. • i . I I L 1 . of joints of fig. be observed that there are here four passing strakes 129. occur in the Nowadays. nU«Uj 1 I I l! < Tfry^ ' I 1 ' 1 rt'^ I if 4--t. .. ++M4± rm between may be than that joints 4+r4 lj44JUj3r^hrnrrn same frame length. ji 1t i Hi^J #E Jh I :! ' ^-U-fr 1 : ! t 1 : 1 ..i -1 l I .1 128 In the SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. ! ii : : ii: I ' I i ^iirn strake strake on one side of the on the other side. of joints or It will butts embodying the minimum requirements of Lloyd's Rules. Lloyd's to that joints in ad- joining must not be nearer alternate joints each other than two spaces of frames. tt~i I 1 I ii I — " r 1 ' »' Tri ' 1 ~1 1 . 128 is easily obtainable. necessary to have more than a certain number of passing strakes between consecutive butts in a frame space. It iLUWJJiUiJULU'JiilL which to ^^tiUJr space.. indeed. • 1 1 1 * . 1 .-l i I ' ' . and the end joints of the garboard Fig.»4 ^^I't it » I I 1 ' I I 1 I l I ' 1 1 ! t • ihTTi 1 l < ^m .. I 4-fr. no more. 1 j Fig. \1 l ! i i i i • i ' Ui i iii i I ' . j ' » . They also demand or butts of the sheerstrake be shifted clear of those of the deck stringers by two frame spaces. 128. ! i * ' ' » r i I.. as plates disposition rolled almost any desired a is better not.. only separating them. a shift ship clear by a like distance of those of the is same 128 This latter precaution the keel of course because of the proximity of the garboard illustrates strakes.

. Lloyd's Rules in the maximum and at breadth inches of in strakes vessels 48 inches vessels depth. which. but this had slips several objections. builders.OUTER BOTTOM. be noted As very broad to in arranging lead shell-strakes is the question of in their plates to a saving in riveting and the work of erecting fewer plates being required for the ship than where the There are obstrakes are narrow they are naturally popular with builders. and that the edge laps being fewer than where the strakes are narrow. aban- doned in favour of the 132. jections to their use. it the principal one being the need at fig- of tapered at the frames . 66 28 feet in depth and above. in that the lines. of weakness which occur at Fig. however. In strength estimates. — — 130. as such calculations are in practice. there is some loss of longitudinal stiffness. allowance rendered frames. however. as there a will still be a of in sufficient number 20 feet of strakes fix in the former case to give good at shift butts. therefore. be arrived at. devise an altogether different disposition of joints. clinker fashion (as in 131). being parallel. is the latter being taken as the standard because the loss of sectional area there unavoidable. that only half the number slips are required. A breadth. of forming the joints of the plates at the edges and ends call The methods for careful attention. For these reasons excessively wide strakes are not adopted by the best shipObviously. is a good constructor from his experience satisfactory perfectly qualified Figs. of course. plates may be broader in large than in small vessels. at 129 rivet a line of end joints as at a line of frame holes. was. 129 and 130 illustrate arrangements carried out in cargo vessels recently point built. In early vessels the edges of the strakes were arranged in fig. now universal raised this and sunken style An obvious advantage of of frame shown over the preceding one is strake system. to the actual joints by the the edge rivets must be made for the assistance between the joints and the in By calculation best arrangement any given case could seldom called to for. the butts are increased thereby.

m the increased efficiency of construction consequent on having. and in the possibility Fig. the plates being . half the plating directly secured to the framing without packing. at least.i 3o SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. 132. the method or of plating on the clinker system. Other advantages consist are also less costly and more easily fitted. many modern vessels frame slips shell packing pieces have been dispensed with altogether. A of fitting all the inside strakes simultaneously instead In of one at a time.

133.OUTER BOTTOM. is has also little been said that there this. through the accidents of collision or grounding. 131 133). too. so as to bring their inner on to the flanges of the frames. there being two instead of thicknesses It to join. but there is very is in against the saving in weight of ship at each frame. Fig. the plating there the loss of displacement due to the depression of between the landings. as to joggling of the plates has be put against the fitting of the packing. it capacity for grain cargoes. the should be noted. cc*st greatest drawback. these become necessary. 134. Fig. however. is probably found in the increased to and culty of carrying out repairs the when. object to the system. dished or joggled at the edges (as shown in surfaces directly fig. many owners sherl-plating. . weight and cost in the materials of construction. a saving in displacement. ft This depression. causes a reduction in the internal Moreover. Its diffi- On the score of appearance alone. there is no saving in workmanship. The advantages claimed three are — more and as efficient less riveting.

packing being used in the plan has found favour with this many owners. represented by the weight of the packing pieces.132 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. if conveniences for joggling be not avail- ordinary way. In the case of repairs. there is a saving in displacement 134). able. in without joggling. also. 135. . there is no loss in in- The fitting of packing pieces may Fig. renewed frames may be put For these reasons. also be obviated by joggling the frames (fig. As the plates are not dished. ternal capacity.

in larger vessels. is depth in the vicinity of the neutral The seam to riveting at of vessels these of from 450 •84 feet to feet in length. in which the plating in the same is '46 of an inch. should always be at least double Until recently. a single is row of region sufficient. in vessels of 480 feet where the thickness of the sidenecessary to treble rivet less than '84 of an inch. by the size the thickness rivets is craft. in favour of the former are materials. double-riveted seams were considered sufficient even for the largest vessels. but the question . in which the shell-plating is less than -36 of an inch from the keel-plate to the strake below the sheerstrake. it is now the seams in the fore and 480 after bodies for one-fourth the length and one-third the axis.OUTER BOTTOM. With increase in size of vessels. and treble riveted joints. should the end joints of the shell-plating be less than double riveted. In very large vessels which have side-plating must be treble riveted for i the and treble riveting at seams. edges are butted. the nice appearance of the flush type with the strap inside . formed in both these ways. on account also that the overlapped joint has not of the dead water which they create of . vessels. By greater weight also entails a method double the number of rivets is required it than the common of material and is considerably more costly method. of rows of rivets required in the longitudinal seams of is governed by the thickness of In small in the plating. strips of overlapping. importance. also be increased parts. a double row of rivets required in its the seams. In comparing overlapped joints with those having buttstraps. or more. plating is built to Lloyd's requirements. The landing edge of the sheerstrake. the edges length midships. especially when the proportion of length to depth is double buttstraps treble riveted are required for the end joints of the sheerstrake and neighbourhood. saving in weight : — and reduced cost of construction. (see fig. therefore. notable points reduction in number of rivets. In making the sketches. 136 illustrates single. or page 69). The end joints of shell-plates may be formed either by butting or overlapping examples of single. the need of greater longitudinal strength has made it essential to resort to treble and quadruple riveting at the end joints. The flush joint has a decidedly good appearance. but for reasons already given {see and upwards. on account of riveted. are shown in fig. In 133 instead at some yachts and other special vessels. thus necessitating inside the seams . and. overlapped-edge seams on the raised and sunken-plate system have been assumed with the edge seams formed otherwise. however. 137. double. The question of the number of rivets is decided by the percentage of strength required in the joint compared with the solid plate. Fig. In the largest excessive. proportionately to their length. It has been objected that the projections due to overlaps cause a drag on a vessel's speed. . but obviously the this important considerations of cost ancf weight are sufficient to debar its use in any but the vessels above referred to. double . inches in thickness or above. The number vessel. the 135). In no vessel. there would be some differences in the details of the end joints.

Both lapped open when under through the joints.r 34 cost has. established the supremacy of former. straps. have a tendency to stress resultant not passing to middle of thus causing a bending action be Fig. for SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. and those having single due to the line of the the joint. . stress. quite of the cargo vessels at anyrate. 137.

Fig.OUTER BOTTOM. SECTION AT AB. i3S 138. Dooted part cut away for breadth of edge lap. Fig. Cat away where dotted in way of edge lap. 139. TZ3 SECTION AT AB. .

repeated treatment of this sort renders the material to brittle break away. 138 and In the edge the figure. and. overlapped the if same cannot be the said for those is of all butted type. the machinery may not be available. more the hull of a well vessel than The thicknesses shifted of the materials may be if distributed. In the case of a this scarphing of difficulty an inner strake a similar plan is followed (fig. In the case of plates forming insides strakes necessary to plane one end only. some difficulty is experienced in obtaining good work where crossed by the seams of adjoining strakes. With overlapped end joints. A better way to deal with first such a case is more unsightly and liable to fill the seam the rust with a suitable this cement.e. and the joints carefully from one another.. as may sometimes be the case. be weak. plates forming outside strakes are usually planed and is at one or both ends. unless care were taken in fitting the packing. RIVETS AND show itself RIVETING. latter is to to be the double. In to the latter it case. 136 generally SHIP CONSTRUCTION thus the effected with AND CALCULATIONS. the usual method of construction was to resort to packing pieces.— . the We should have already indicated generally joint be employed in a ship. riveted compared with the unpierced when and where each class of and we now propose to deal with the butt as details of these connections. where. at To edges it facilitate caulking. otherwise it will be difficult to close In working i. Until a few years ago. restores the flush appearance but great this caused unfairness in the landings at it each lap joint. taking care to thoroughly clean out and makes the joint watertight. the other end and the finally shaped and punched shelland nuts which should be sufficient in edges not requiring to be plates When plates are to secured in place by bolts number found quickly in thoroughly close the joined. will opening it at the seam at wide. the surfaces — the work. An objection the seams at the end joints is found in the increased of executing repairs. but vessel will soon slacken the connections The rivets strength of a riveted joint it. 139. which to refers is a joint in an outer strake. an attempt recaulk but make moreover.— Nowhere in will a lack at of the efficiency riveting. depends on the aggregate sectional area of the the riveting latter. is could not in be satisfactorily caulked. The number a single. otherwise difficulty will be obtaining satisfactory riveting. of rivets treble. joints. in on the spacing of the rivets heads and points of the used. allow the landing of the outer strake to evenly on joint to in inner one without the necessity of packing. the straining of the and render her leaky and unseaworthy. centre to centre. 139). the end bear of one in way of the so as joint seen to be tapered away for the breadth of the lap. caulked. shell-plates requisite surfaces left care must be taken to shear from the faying which come together to form a joint or the rag by shearing must be chipped off. or quadruple riveted one in — that according percentage of strength required plate. A plate method now first largely adopted to that shown figs. . on the style of the and on the material and workmanship. in a joint varies according as the is.

. prevent this happening. efficiency Obviously. For the plate. action the caulking tool. T These heavy plates ordinary are usually restricted machine riveting may be employed. a maximum diameter of rivet is fixed at about twice With the rivet at one diameter the thickness of either of the plates joined. but for watertight work the distance between the rivets next the caulking edge. there a limit to the size of rivet which can be in a riveted joint of rivets which worked by hand. If the provision of to be considered. the diameter become considerably reduced from is the maximum given above. sizes The of rivets may be said to plates especially in will thin plates. and consecutively. but in the big Cunarders Lusitania and Mauretania^ the riveting of a large part of the shell was done by special hydraulic machines with gaps the w here sufficient to take the full width at of a strake. and the connection would consequently To fail. a diameter much less as the punch liable crush up under the load. the thickness of which cannot punch holes the plates. wide-spaced rivets of large diameter might be fitted. same the line of the rivets next caulking edge should not be further from the edge the of strake than about twice the thickness of the If rivets were of large diameter compared with plates joined. and thus the joint in not more likely to one direction than another. rivets In the subin steel 1 joined table It we or the give Lloyd's rivets Rules for the diameter of 1^- ships. in A than lower limit to the any case to is fixed by the punching machine. when under stress. by the rivets tearing through the plate edges. 137 be governed by the thickness of the adequate shearing strength had alone they join. the strakes being fitted and riveted up complete. and when great strength is required and machine riveting is not available. will be seen that or inch diameter are required for plates inch to in thickness keel thereabouts. this is obtained by increasing the rivets in size number may be used of is rather than in diameter.RIVETS AND RIVETING.e. Thickness of Plates in Inches. their would greatly exceed the strength of the material between them and the edge of the pla'. a tendency to in is the also plate rivets a of comparatively the close pitch between consecutive necessary to resist the opening edges reason. one a time. shearing strength from the edge of the the plate. sheerstrake. must not be too flexibility great. size As of plates rivets increase in thickness with increase in of ships. otherwise the water pressure cause . it can be shown by a simple calculation that is shearing strength of the rivet approximately equalled is by the resistfail ance of the material to tearing.

this spacing becomes modified viz. is are diameters spacing in both directions. circumstances. the spacing is found close In the case of bulkhead frames. the need of providing sufficient strength entails the adoption of a closer spacing of in than required watertightness. and peak tanks. joints. A a similar reduction required its when the framing efficiency. to it would accentuate the section in this of weakness through through the frame frame rivet The . bulkhead stiffeners..— There of much few variety in the methods styles and points of rivets . flat The rivets in bar keels. is extended to five diameters centre to centre. and the strength of the framing connections. or other compensation is made. distance In the frames. Although the plate sufficiency failure pretty in severely there to is still a of strength the material between them prevent the of the connection in that direction. are of this spacing. where buttstraps are fitted. owing rivet the circumstance the is weight acts directly on the shell plating. to When up the frames are of widely spaced. rivets beams. and in way of the to oil compartments of that vessels. certain In the case of frames. riddled with holes. the rivets are large and the machines. due to the neutral latter of the frame girder being bar. and elsewhere. in of shell-plating where these are quadruple riveted double buttstraps. When unhampered by the necessity for caulking. the to resort holes. In a few places. 6 diameters. we find that the spacing etc. a of the commoner . because liable connecting the frame to plating are to relatively high the stress. n and above. floor-plates joints and fore-and-aft and tie-plates. where special reasons demand it. also the rivets connecting waterIn the case of bulkhead frames as to the shell plating. rivets is 26 inches and is upwards. channel a develop full When spacing each the axis frame consists to bar and inner reversed the rivets bar. the spacing of 5 frame bulk be 6 diameters. overlaps. In some posifor tions. diameters apart. have the rows parallel to the .. and end joints and-aft seams of shell-plating. to make inches of 5 the number to their spacing must be reduced deep. is widened.. in the athwartships of inner bottom plating. in end overlaps. the spacing for water-tight work tight keels. and of 3J a spacing of 3 diameters diameters in the rows at right except where they are quad- angles to the joints ruple riveted with the thus left overlapped end rivets joints. although to riveting is usually watertightness rivet pitch might be desirable. standard weakest section that ordinary rivet holes the to way of the closer pitched bulkhead frame rivet holes is made up by doubling the shell in way of the outside strakes in the vicinity of the bulkhead. rivets oil In is way to •Experiments carried out by Lloyd's Register have borne of deep ballast tanks. keelson angles.T38 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. viz. those in the angles of keels of plate type. drawn towards inner edge of the by the reversed this out. Thus 3 the rivets in the J- end joints shell-plating. the between may be in seven diameters. is brought into play entirely through the forming the heads RIVET HEADS AND POINTS. a closer line is done by hydraulic the surfaces. which effectually close enough obtain to obtain good caulking. butts of margin plates. the must be reduced shell diameters. the edge joints of deck-plating.

The are sometimes the this adopted where plug. brings a strain on the rivet is head without times shank of the tops. tank but owing it lack of strength has of not found favour for shell work. In general. order to usually finished flush. the shoulder under the head giving it power when riveted up. top. of course. but it has fair holding power and makes efficient work. plating It is a somewhat expensive form to work. rivet. snap. indicated. and goes with a snap point flush (see heads G). into It is considered that the plug-shape secures watertightness when hammered of the the hole. in The first rivet marked A tank are is known and the pan type. and pan- rivets employed is the shell. the pan-head. the must be countersunk to receive it. as.. shown. Of It is rivet points it and most as efficient. under severe stress it At G a snap form of head be drawn through the rivet hole. It employed. The plug-head to its someit used for decks. which entails the flush ing each hole after punching. as. the commonest. with pan-heads. The rivet-head marked B is in favour with some good binding tightly shipbuilders. such as in casings. are 139 as in shown in fig. and independently frequently laying up process. is the flush one (see D). purpose is The widening point is of the hole drill- the plate of called countersinking. It is occasionally is employed in handwork at places in etc. slightly convex. in shell work. bulkheads. sight. Usually snap head it cannot be said that point. affecting the such hammering etc. for example. handwork thus: generally where strength the consideration. where flush a nice appearance is desired. in maintain the strength. Being point for the holding power of the rivet has to be obtained by giving in the the this shape of an inverted cone. 140. is j^.RIVET HEADS AND POINTS. decks. while . usually made — The fits head is an efficient form. is associated with a pan-head. The head is (see F) only used in special cases where a surface clear of projections required. to Clearly has not the binding power is liable and having little or no shoulder.

which causes the This type thoroughly the hole. When t removed. the place. work but The snap are style of head and point ably satisfactory. thus obviating the chief defect of the snap point. bars the holes are for made the in plates and and by punching. The hammered to indicated at shape. of reliable. is SHIP CONSTRUCTION always is AND CALCULATIONS. which has smallest are to diameter at the point at which the punch that enters. a punch its in penetrating a plate makes a so fitted cone-shaped hole. the holes are first threaded. does not impair the quality of the material. which frequently round the hole on the underside of . frequently snap result applied before the rivet thoroughly beaten into the hole. The manner off. the holes in place and upper deck by portable . Drilling. tap rivets. As and is well known. or marked from surfaces this templates. heating them to a cherry red and then allowing them to cool slowly. shall be clear of the jointed surfaces is another to take advantage of the shape of the punched hole to increase the efficiency of the riveting.. which come is together when fitted One for taking precaution to ensure that the rag. tool. Drilled holes are not largely employed in shipwork because of the greater countersunk this unsatisfactory material is largely strength may also be restored cost. t\e.14° looks well. the rivet thoroughly into point hole and at the same time closes the efficient. the is the rivet being then rivet. is faying surfaces. used in machine This is. fill Rivets are usually manufactured with cone-shaped necks to readily is found which is up the space under the head (see fig. is but the cone shape which got by punching as at drilled holes by specially countersinking them. the plate or bar after punching. and screwed up with a key rivet is fitted to square head on the When the sufficiently tight the head rivets chipped are off and the the rivet caulked. It frequently employed in connecting shell plates to stern frames at the boss and at the keel. is using the of snap this . finished rivet having thus much greater power if it were merely cylindrical. and is used inaccessible for holding up. the results then invari- of course. when considerations sheerstrakes drilled of cost are not allowed stringers intervene. with which the the the is point finished the is cause of much loose. At £ a tap where the point In inserted fitting rivet is is illustrated. with that many such is rivets afterwards riveting. lia- This deterioration takes the form of break away when through bility to rivet holes are brittleness. plates which holding be than joined together the are corresponding holes form two inverted cone frustrums. In shipwork generally. 140). is really is a bolt. unlike punching. it A and B necessary rivet is very as in order to obtain the conical is to subject to the material fill a severe beating-up process. the are of some large vessels. to could only be obtained in Sometimes.e. in the A tion disadvantage of punching holes in steel plates the material in deteriora- of the vicinity of the hole thereby caused. are punched The from in positions spaced reason left off i. which the squeezes joint. due to the great pressure available. stress the rivet steel having thus a the bears upon it. The by annealing the plates after punching.

causing contact press on one another. ships. Naval Architects for . however. rivets. f-inch. i. perfectly concentric holes are obtained. fair quality a When only slightly unfair. Of is course. It is probable that connections are seldom friction stressed this beyond what can be the rivets will resisted by the stress between the surfaces . in steel as they are more is easily worked than steel rivets. * — Next to decks are perhaps the most imTransactions of the Institution of See an interesting paper by Mr. 1885. due to the contraction which the surfaces in takes to the rivets cooling. 6 "4 tons. the holes may be This tool should not. 4*95 tons In hydraulic work 1 -inch tons. Steel Indeed. as that caused when punching the plates in the first instance. to obtain an exact correspondence of holes with so many separate processes is a most difficult matter. electric tools. found out in careless work. and by f-inch rivets. at all. in case not be under to be no movement in the joints and there will therefore disturb the caulking and cause leakage.. — the frictional strength is greater. is 9*04 tons per with snap heads and points. fruitful cause of are or partially blind As mentioned above. be by using a steel drift punch. unsatisfactory riveting When blind not done One holes. shown that the frictional resistance caused by and heads are countersunk. Iron rivets are found to have maximum shearing strength when to in iron plates . for instance. Wildish. rivet holes are usually marked from templates. in iron plates has a shearing strength of 13*6 tons. which n£ effect This appears to be due to the increased shearing Iron rivets are. however. holes which overlap to any great extent. viously. so that even in work of of line . may be low indeed. The best way use cure partially blind holes to rimer them out to a larger size and rivets of increased diameter. in steel plates their shearing strength is less —a f-inch falls rivet.e. tons in steel plates. as the tearing of the driven into steel by the punch has a very pernicious effect upon it. the excellent results when carefully worked. when the points . the shell-plating. the rivet. I4 1 By this means. is quality of workmanship This is in riveted connections is of first importance. Oband the plates and bars are punched before being erected into place. the in the DECKS.— Riveted been frequently experimented upon with a view to obtaining the conditions of maximum efficiency. and a connections have good quality of riveting thus assured. indeed. the becomes brittle and liable is to fracture under stress. 472 results were Careful i-inch experiments* have rivets. corrected the material to moderate number of holes are percentage may be very large. and their deficiency in strength rivets readily in steel plates give made up by increasing them in number. much the same. A while point worthy of note the friction which exists between parts riveted place in together.STRENGTH OF RIVETED CONNECTIONS. much used of the harder plates upon them. frictional resistance has its highest efficiency only this is when care taken in fitting the plates the efficiency of a joint and in riveting them. STRENGTH OF RIVETED CONNECTIONS.

and is pleasanter to walk upon. tramp however. according to her longitudinal course. the shell plating. are yet splendid stiffeners of the hull. A a finer wood deck has some advantages over one appearance. the off sleeping and other accommodation In cargo being vessels provided in the purposes thus cut below the upper deck. from which the crew in may perform this. These intermediate decks are a parts of the shell-plating the strength is therefore obvious. they are also necessary for large some kinds of although for general intermediate decks. steel are of the and because a than or iron deck for steel found to stand in much more small knocking about vessels one is of wood. fitted of steel. The top deck serves a ship's structure.142 portant features SHIP CONSTRUCTION of AND CALCULATIONS. for instance. the strength being sufficient without In such a case necessary watertightness of or the holds may be the secured by covering the with beams with a wood flat deck. freight. also available as a flat to walk upon. i. speaking. although they may not be disposed so suitably as the upper one to resist longitudinal bending. — The indeed. that the top and bottom members of a beam as are of great value in resisting longitudinal bending axis. tying the sides together and offering powerful resistance to racking tendencies. taking Lloyd's Rules. it the various operations required position working the ship. caulking seams oakum and paying them with pitch. impossible move about on them. and the attachment to the shell decks the stringers are slotted out to allow the frames to pass is obtained by means of short. all most important part of the deck stringer plates is the stringer. when dealing with strains. inter- . necessity in large passenger space vessels. But. for which is reason it is always turally.) The minimum number of plated decks structurally required by an ocean-going steamto ship. trading are holds without obstructions. in number.. as of the sun's rays on to unsheathed decks such as to make of almost steamers. DECK DETAILS. a ship. even when a steel in deck steel required are strucdesiris For vessels trading the effect it hot climates wood weather decks or iron able. of which or reason iron. faces. tiers of beams must have riveted to their upper sur- whether a complete deck be strake to the deck. such as now much favoured (see Chapter V. sailing vessels. through the medium of an angle bar. it is connected to fitted or not. We saw. Of the small steamers and no steel it. tendencies. the top member . besides occupies a commanding as a feature in the design. the purpose of making the holds watertight and It is suitable for the carriage of perishable cargoes. It has. seldom wood-sheathed is The decks on account ordinary cost. is formed by the upper deck and the topmost importance of this deck as an item in the 'Tween decks. At weather decks this bar is continuous. in passenger vessels. deck may be structurally necessary. at intermediate through. These plates form a margin by means of which. they occupy positions such as the hull most remote from the neutral of In a beam or girder. many cargo for the upper deck fitted although uncalled by considerations of strength.e. varies according her size.

methods of forming a stringer end arc shown Fig. in conjunction with the an intermediate deck are illustrated. however. Both 142. even in small while in the the latter essential.0 L^j . Ul . In fig. SECTION UPPER DECK SECTION DECK BELOW UPPER DECK PLAN PLAN S~7 _l_q1 ~_"b_ _0 _ <n „L°]J IS*. The end vessels. 141 the usual methods of fitting stringer plates at an upper and at As will be seen. forms a powerful T-shaped girder eminently adapted to resist The upper-deck stringer plate is specially important as affording considerable resistance to longitudinal bending. vessels. costal lugs 143 between the frames. being fitted by way of compensation. treble must be at least double and quadruple riveting is double straps joint riveted. in fig. l'_ . treble-riveted are required. largest joints of this strake in larger ones. along the stringer just inside the frames. 141. shell plating.DECK DETAILS. a continuous angle bar. it tendencies to deformation of transverse form.

144 SHIP CONSTRUCTION Fig. 142. p o|i o io o o o| O . AND CALCULATIONS.

DECK DETAILS.
the
are
other, or
is

*45

cut and a double-riveted lap or butt joint

made.

Tieplates

of

the

same

thickness

as

the

stringer

plates

of

the

deck

on

which

they are

fitted.

If a steel or iron deck is to be fitted, the tieplates are, of course, dispensed with, and the deck plating, which is usually considerably less in thickness than the stringer plates, is arranged in fore-and-aft strakes of considerable

breadth so as to minimise the number of

deck plates
the ends.

in ordinary
for

rivet seams. The end joints of merchant vessels are invariably overlapped, and should

be double riveted
unsheathed, the

half length amidships, single riveting being sufficient at

The seams

are

usually single-riveted

overlaps.

When

decks are
as

end overlaps should be arranged looking toward midships,

Fig.

144.

ELEVATION

SECTION

-4
° °_l1ii 2 J?
I

° —? _^_ ......
_?

I

o

o o

^COAMING
THICKENED PLATING.
O
o

L

^

o

o
.

jo
"
'o/[
i

O

^i

O

o

o

o

o

i

J

SjK

PLAN
^CASING STIFFENERS
t

«

O

O

Q

'f

o

* |

o

o~o

o

o il°Tl

l'o

o

o

o

o

o

Ho'o

o

o

o

o|o|

II

Tf

DECK BEAMS

t

For the same reason the fore-and-aft strakes this allows of better drainage. should be fitted clinker fashion, and the seams so placed as to impede drainage When decks are to be covered with to the scuppers as little as possible. wood, the clinker arrangement makes the fitting of the deck-planking more difficult; in such a case, the raised and sunken system of deck-plating allows
of better work.
steel

In

many

recent cargo vessels- the
obviates

edges of the unsheathed
the

decks

are joggled, which

the fitting of slips at

beams, but

has been objected that the depressions thus caused in the it deck form lodgments for drainage water.

surface of the

At

all

of the material, the extent

deck openings compensation has to be made for the cutting away of this compensation depending on the strength

146
required
in

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the

AND CALCULATIONS.
latter

purposes, and

been fitted for strength In some cases increase in thickness of the strake of plating alongside the openings is found sufficient; The strake in others, where the openings are very large, doublings are fitted. upper deck of large of plating alongside the machinery openings on the
deck,

and

whether
flat

the

has

not

merely as a

to

walk on.

vessels to

Frequently, it is strengthened sufficiently so as is an important one. make, when combined with a strong vertical coaming plate, a rigid girder

well

adapted to

resist

longitudinal

strains

(see

fig.

144).

The
cautions

corners

of large

deck openings are particular points of weakness on
etc.,

account of the sudden discontinuity of the deck-plating,
are

and unless

pre-

taken there
is

is

a probability of fracture occurring at these points
stress.
is

when the The
145, but

vessel

under severe
taken
at
this,

usual precaution
as well
as

to

fit

corner

doublings

as

the

upper deck

within the half length,
if

within

the

same range

at

shelter,

awning and bridge decks,

shown in fig. and also there be such,

the

being greatest at such places, girders should be fitted under the decks in line with the hatch coamings, to which they should be efficiently
stresses

joined,

or abreast

of them,

if

not

in

the

same

line,

in

the

vicinity

of

the

corners of the openings, so as to bridge over the

weak

ments have been found to
of straining at
the

effectively strengthen vessels
;

Such arrangewhich had shown signs
points.

hatch corners
usually fitted

Gutterways are
these are
to

be

laid

they are now required by Lloyd's Rules. round the margin of weather decks where with wood. They are formed simply by running an a
fixed

angle
it

bar fore-and-aft at
the
stringer
plate.

distance

from
are

the

ship's

side,

and
with

riveting

to

Steel

gutterways

frequently coated

cement

as

a preventative against undue corrosion.

WOOD
of steel
or

DECKS.
iron,

— In
fitted

laying

a

wood
tier

deck, whether

it

be on top of one
important
that
tfre

or

merely on
close

a

of

beams,
the

it

is

In way of the tieplates and stringers in a non-plated deck, and of the edge seams and end laps where a deck is plated throughout, the underside of the planking should be
metal
work.

planking should

down on

be scored out so as to obtain a solid bearing and an even upper surface. With a plated deck oh the raised and sunken system, the planking fitted over
the sunken strakes of the plating.
is

thicker than that over the raised strakes by the thickness
in

Sometimes the difference

thickness

is

made up by

slips of

WOOD
wood, but
this steel
is

DECKS.

x

47

wood and
deck
laying

causes

to

happens

pitting

most objectionable, as spaces are thus left between the decks which a slight defect in the caulking of the wood become receptacles for the lodgment of water; when this Before and general decay of the steel deck quickly follow.
steel

work should be coated with a suitable preservative composition, such as Stockholm tar powdered with Portland cement, and each This plank should be separately coated with tar before being bedded down. prevents the likelihood of lodgment spaces for water existing between the
planks
the

metal

and

wood
teak,

to

cause
it

decay.

The
oily

best

wood
and
is

for

weather
suited
is

decks
to

is

undoubtedly
used
less

as

is

of
it

an
is

nature

well

stand

changes of temperature, but
for

somewhat expensive.
vessels,
it

Pitch pine
are

frequently
It
is

weather

decks

of

cargo

where
required,

these
as

sheathed.

costly

than teak, but more of

is

a

pine
so

deck must be
but
it

thicker
is

than
a

one of
grain
therefore

teak.

Pitch
fairly

pine

does

not

wear
pine

uniformly,

of

hard
is

and

durable.

Yellow

makes
It is

deck, and

much used

in passenger steamers.

handsome very soft and
a

Fig,

146,

therefore
extra

requires
it

frequent

renewals.
in

On

this

account
decks
of

and
have

because of
the

its

cost,

is

seldom used
this

cargo

vessels.

Care should be taken when laying wood
of

to

hard

side

planks uppermost;

reduces the likelihood

the

deck wearing into

Three intermediate planks should separate butts in the in places. same frame space. The plank butts should be of vertical type {see fig. 146) and arranged to come between beams where a steel deck is fitted, and on They should be fastened with bolts the beams where there is no steel deck.
holes
at

each beam, or between the beams, where there
lie

is

a steel deck
it

;

and

to

ensure that the planking shall

perfectly

flat,

when
6

exceeds 6
inches

inches in

breadth
broad,

it

should have double fastenings.
a
screw-bolt
is

Between

and 8 inches
;

a bolt and nut and

considered

sufficient

planks are over 8 inches broad, two bolts and nuts are required.

when the Deck bolts

should be galvanised, and should have their heads well bedded in white lead, When screwed up from below, the heads should with grommets of oakum.

be

sufficiently

sunk in the deck to allow of a dowel being
be
laid

fitted

over the top.

Pine decks should not
If this precaution be not

until

the
is

wood

is

thoroughly seasoned.
at the

taken, the deck

likely to

open

seams and

148

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

become leaky as well as unsightly. six months to elapse, according to
time
six

Lloyd's Rules require a period of four to
thickness, from the time

of cutting

to

the

of using.

months.

be seasoned for required where a satisThe above periods of seasoning are not
Pitch pine

planks for weather decks

should

factory
It

artificial

method of seasoning

is

adopted.

should be mentioned that wood decks are
like

now being superseded
corticene, etc.

in

passenger and crew spaces by compositions
thus covered are
carefully laid,

litosilo,

Decks

comfortable to walk on, have a good appearance, and, when
well.

have generally been found to wear

CARGO HATCHWAYS.— There
each

must be
to

at least

one deck opening into
being
these

main compartment of a
it.

vessel

allow

of

cargo

shipped

into,

and discharged from
of considerable
size,

In
to

the

latest

cargo
for

steamers

hatchways are
measure-

so as

be suitable

special cargoes of large

ment,
of 16

such as pieces of machinery.
feet,

Lengths of 24 to 28 feet, and breadths are common, while these dimensions have frequently been exceeded.
in

We
large

have already indicated some of the means adopted to prevent these
the

gaps

deck from
the

becoming dangerous points of weakness, and
hatch

it

now remains to show how The main portion of
fitted

openings are framed.
consists

this

framing

of
to

vertical

coaming

plates

fore-and-aft

and athwartships and
in

carried

down

the lower edge of the

direction forming an abutment for the and those fitted athwartships stiffeners to the continuous hatch-end beams, to which they are securely riveted. The conneccoamings and the severed beams is effected by tion between the hatch means of angle lugs, fitted single where beams are at every frame, and double where they have a two frame spacing (see fig. 147). Lloyd's Rules require

deck beams,

those

a

fore-and-aft

beams

that

have been

cut,

that
to

there

shall
7
-J-

be three
9^-

rivets

in

each flange

of

these

lugs

when attached
to

beams

to

inches
is

deep, the
12

number being increased
to

four where

the

depth of beam

10 to
is

inches.
as

The

deck-plating

fitted

so

abut against the coamings, a riveted

by means of a strong angle bar. In non-plated decks broad tieplates are fitted on the beam ends and against the coamings, and in this way a strong T-shaped girder is obtained round the edge of It should be mentioned that when decks are laid with wood, the opening.
attachment being secured
the
vertical

project

flange of the hatch-coaming bar is fitted of sufficient depth to h inch above the wood, so as to facilitate the caulking of the latter. Weather deck hatch coamings (see fig. 147) should be of considerable

height above
seal

weak covers which heavy seas which in rough weather frequently fall upon the deck. On upper decks, coamings should have a minimum height of 2 feet except under awning or shelter decks. In
the

deck so as

to

protect the comparatively

the

openings from

receiving

the

full

force

of

the

certain classes of vessels, which have deep wells

deck and
height
liable

the

aft

end

of

the

forecastle
2

between the front of the bridge on the upper deck, the coaming

should not be
to

less

than

feet

6 inches, as these spaces are specially

flooding.

Obviously, on bridge, awning and shelter decks, which are

CARGO HATCHWAYS.
situated

149

high above the
not, in
fact,

water/line,

hatch coamings
inches.
in

may be
efficient
.the

of reduced height;

they need

exceed

18

Weather deck coaming
a substantial character.
in to

plates,

order to be
inroads

as girders
sea,

and

as

protecting walls to the hatchways

against

from

should be of
feet

For instance, the coamings of hatches, under 12
of an

length

should be

-36

inch thick, while those having lengths
'44

of

16

24 feet should have side coamings

of

an inch thick;

end coamings

Fig.

147.

ELEVATION

'5°
those

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

from
loss

18
of

feet

The
lower
of

strength
is

decks
inch,

24 feet, a depth of 20 inches is considered sufficient. due to reducing the depth of the hatch coamings at made up to some extent by increasing the thicknesses by '04
to

an

as

compared with
are

upper
for

deck

hatches

of

the

same
decks.

length.

Round
style
it

corners

usually
of

preferred the
for

hatches

on

weather
but
the

This
has
at

makes the
also
less

fitting

wood

covers at the corners somewhat difficult;
the
tarpaulins,
for

is

convenient

fastening

otherwise

it

obvious advantages.
the

To
is

begin with, the

tendency

deck

to

strain

hatch corners

less

where these are round than where square.

Round

Fig.

148.

ELEVATION

DETAIL ATA..
'

3Ji«3t»<46

DETAIL AT CO.
7-T.y-r--'

DETAIL AT HATCH CORNER

SECTION AT A.B.
KJl-j'iTTi.r'ir

SgSSSSSZZ: .^-"^^l^JJJv T-.--TT7^

j

l

fff—TT
to

ft"

L VERTICAL FIANCE CUT AWAY

corners are

less

likely

have also a nice appearance.
obviously,

damage cargo which may collide with them ; they The same advantages of having round corners,
'tween
148).

do not extend
type
to

to

deck hatches and, consequently, they are

usually

of square

(fig.

In

order

strengthen

hatch

coamings

against

inroads

from

the

sea

and to provide adequate support to the wood covers, portable athwartship In hatches 10 and under 16 feet long, one such beam, beams are fitted. of a plate with double angles at top and bottom, or other equivalent formed
section,
is

required;

in

those

of

16 to

20 feet in length, the

portable

beam

CARGO HATCHWAYS.
becomes a web-plate extending double angles top and bottom.
are
to

151
of
the
girders

the

bottom

coamings,
of
this

fitted

with

Two

web-plate

description

required in hatches from 20 to 24 feet in length. These portable beams are frequently bolted between double angles riveted to the coamings, when they .act as ties as well as struts, and to some extent compensate for the gaps in the deck made by the hatch openings occasionally, they
;

are

arranged to ship into special shoes.
Fig.

149.

SECTION AT

AB

WATCH COAMING
»N

STFTE.NqTHENE.0

LlLU OP

PILLARS

SECTIOM

THRO

C

MAI.' OlAMr

SECTION THffO*EP,

Web-plate
in

beams
the

thickness to

in hatchways below the upper deck should be equal coamings to which they are attached, and should extend

to the lower

edge of the coamings.

Where

the latter are shallow, as

in

the

case of 'tween deck hatches, the web-plates are to be a quarter deeper in the middle than at the ends, and stiffened top and bottom by double angles.

The

top angles

of the portable webs, as

already hinted,

form lodgments

to The afford fore-and-afters should fit into iron or steel shoes securely riveted the end coamings and to the inter- mediate webs. is hatchways are frequently built consist of deep angles but of sometimes substantial It is of plates and angles. as previously mentioned. 149 shows a hatch framed in in HATCHWAYS INTO DEEP TANKS. mouldings are frequently fitted the bottom on the inside to take the chafe of cargo. a effected To gain admission the tank without in by packing it removing the latter. simplify con- watertight hatchways are are made no feet than square absolutely as neces- Usually out. and through bolts. is athwartships. supports at the coamings for the wood covers in this case should have a this bearing surface inches broad. Lloyd's rules now provide for arrangements of wholly transverse webs 3 for hatches ranging in breadth from 12 to 20 feet. straining or showing a larger feet To and. the direction being that of the shorter dimension of the opening. of course. when it As well is. either all athwartships or all fore-and-aft. in larger hatches three more if in the breadth are required. ledge at least rest are is fitted. fitted two bulb The coamings (fig. At weather deck hatches.— These and have means of closing the testing pressure on the crown of the tank. which. than or 2 any. to ensure watertightness. and the shoes should a bearing surface not less inches broad. tank. secured in position at by nuts and the joint to is is bolts. they about are 6 to 8 already pointed owing to . round which they are spaced about 24 inches apart.1^2 for SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. instead of fitting mouldings. but. deep they tanks provided. The back cover at a -» plate feet thickness. The latter requirement is sometimes met by flanging the lower edge of the side coamings. a single bearer fitted at the centre or is sufficient.e. with angle or bulb angle stiffeners fall about or spacing. bulkhead with which of these 150). The way.— Many ports to vessels are fitted with small side useful in give the 'tween decks. strong tarpaulins are fitted over the wood covers. This ledge iron riveted hatch rest coamings between the webs. heavy seas frequently fall upon the deck. These are found load- . in ordinary cases. strong steel or wood fore-and-aft bearers. 147). with spun yarn or the hatch cover. an 8-feet manner as they must withstand head of water above the leak. except consist where the side moulding and ledge of a single special (see section. In many recently built cargo vessels hatch beams have been fitted all in one direction. In small hatches from 6 to 10 feet broad. Fig. watertight manhole door access to usually fitted CARGO PORTS AND DOORS. at as the top coamings. the wood covers. usually two or three to a hatch. one placed above another.the presence of are the middle-line abreast.. should be strongly framed a watertight viz. sary. nuts and watertightness rubber. without struction. giving to bearing surface if inches broad. The tarpaulins are secured in position by means of flat iron bars wedged into cleats riveted to the hatch coamings. bars To support the a the wood covers at the hatch sides. at continuous of for the length of the hatch fig. i. and the covers have to sustain a substantial share of the This is provided by fitting weight.. they therefore need additional support.

close The door .Cargo PORts and books. is and to obtain watertightness the joint spun yarn or rubber packing used. at sufficiently spacing to ensure a watertight joint with surfaces usually. is sometimes secured however. . opening in 3 feet the it the shell-plating provided. strong of by bolts are and nuts inside. filled through square. holds are being say. sufficient be stowed When for side do not exceed. ing certain classes while the ports 153 to of bale goods. is and allow the 'tween decks the main hatchways. for a short distance and fitting a stout compensation by doubling the strake above angle around the edge of the cutting Fig. 150. SECTIONAL ELEVATION DETAIL OF FASTENING ALTERNATIVE OF SECURING METHODS COVER RUBBER SPUN YARN BOLTS SPACED " 6" APART opening. canvas and red lead between fitted the backs one or two being used according to the at size the door.

— Large and numerous are of little value unless an efficient installation of appliances for working the cargo in and out of them be also provided. DERRICKS AND DERRICK POSTS. loss entailed gives fitted in the cutting of the cattle side frames in way of the opening. end of web frames also the 'tween decks at The shell doublings make good the longitudinal Fig. feet feet 151 as details of a door 12 6 inches deep. Usually the shell-plating doubled spaces. for instance large doors are fitted in way of in the bridge or shelter 'tween decks. some are distance. 151. This is specially the case with . each it.— 154 In very certain SHIP CONSTRUCTION vessels AND CALCULATIONS. ELEVATION SECTION THRO DOOR DOOR FRAME DOOR NAME 6*6x-60" strength. in — in those in engaged the ship's the side cattle trade. These doors make for big gaps the side-plating is and have to be carefully compensated above and below the opening and for. fitted say two in frame beyond each end of the doorway. in a large modern cargo hatchways and passenger steamer. and the web frames long and 5 restore the Fig.

say. a powerartificial pumping engine is required in order to maintain an head of water. and the cargo gear usually suspended from the lower yards or from convenient wire spans. although frequently proposed. The system vessels is of working cargo almost universally adopted in ordinary cargo that comprising steam winches and ordinary derricks. and are more expensive than steam winches and derricks. however. (2) hydraulics derricks. practic- . and thus minimise the time a vessel need remain in port important consideration where a vessel has to be loaded and discharged every day or two. Moreover. have not yet come much into use. ELEVATION 152. They are hinged. for which reasons they are seldom fitted in ordinary ocean-going cargo vessels. Electrical appliances. The if latter may be five tons. (3) steam cranes. *SS steamers whose economical working demands the utmost despatch in the loading and unloading of cargo. The cargo gear of modern steamers may consist of (i) ordinary derricks with steam winches. Hydraulic derricks are sometimes fitted on first-class passenger steamers.DERRICKS. afford to spend a longer time there than the less more is ubiquitous steamer. their working expenses are much For these reasons an expensive system of cargo sailing vessels. Steam cranes are frequently fitted in coasting vessels. constructed of wood or steel . therefore. steam cranes may be placed anywhere about the deck. Hand-power winches are considered is sufficient. (4) electric cranes. than those of the gear seldom fitted in Moreover. of course. Sailing ships usually make long voyages and are seldom in port. latter. ful They are costly to install. as they work —an smoothly and without noise. as they hoist Fig. from three to pitch-pine derricks are commonly fitted. they can. They take up a great deal of room. and slew quickly. if for small lifts. as. or even more frequently.

with a winches are necessary. where separate derricks are with their respective loads. on the masts. and where loading or discharging can be carried out on both sides of the vessel at once. hatches. which. in cargo steamers. are now little else than derrick One derrick and winch per hatch is sufficient where the holds are of moderate size where they are large. . OUTREACHlS FOR DERRICK. however. . for hoisting and for slewing. the former may have to support four large derricks mast between two In special cases. In fig. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. SPANS PLATING "50 EYEPLATES FOR SPANS l\ MOULDING DERRICK TABLES We thus see that in the usual arrangement. the number of derricks per mast may employed exceed four.156 able. Fig. 152 is shown the usual way of hinging derricks on masts. 153. two derricks and posts.

this cannot be obtained. Steam the 1 57 winches must in line be placed with careful regard to the derricks. is derrick forward there is a strong tendency for to lie . as the wear and tear is great at .. The advantage of plumb derricks is therefore obvious. and have a height of 24 to 28 little Large derrick posts are constructed of |-inch steel plates. may be placed between posts were at first hatch and the ship's These and with a comDerrick utility paratively short derrick a sufficient outreach may be they lifts easily obtained. Double winches should be placed on each side of the centre of the to pass.— As before mentioned. If winches are to be placed and by supporting the latter by special pillars.DERRICKS AND DERRICK POSTS. by extending the derricks out transversely on tables With 153). and no arrangement it made to bring the point of suspension over the heel of the derrick. otherwise in difficulty will slewing is the latter. a housing equal to the height of one 'tween decks desirable. where Fig. and swing side. This drawback is found. deep brackets must be fitted to the fitted. but their great are has in outweighed considerations and the now to be found will many up-to-date cargo steamers. it long plumb the to centre. 154 shows a derrick-post and appurtenances as ordinarily SEATS FOR STEAM WINCHES. winchmen to then better able to observe operations cases. objected to as being unsightly. Derrick posts to carry a 10-inch to 12-inch derrick. the (fig. and if aft on the mast. so as to come in line with the middle of the winches. When on it a mast is situated too to near a hatch to allow of a derrick hinged being sufficiently side. Single winches are. and ordinary cargo. and some vessels are built with vertical masts to this end. as is preferred are have the winches the . derrick posts should be made of considerable otherwise excessive stresses be brought upon them. or the wood deck increased in thickness locally. arrangement it is desirable to have the point of suspension in each case direct leads the barrels are obtained immediately over the heel of the derrick. on a wood deck. with a sufficient distance be- tween them to allow a are to man the To to obtain compactness. clear of the ship's becomes necessary the resort to the use of derrick posts. of course. particularly if loaded. barrels. against either of these biassed directions. to lie over the middle of the hatch considerable power being required to slew the derrick. are at all great. this by means of snatch blocks on decks. of this sort. the part under each winch should be of hardwood. line. Where height. a taper being allowed the thickness towards the top. for instance. it and of to ensure leads from the derricks the winding the axis the winches are inclined to the square to middle middle these in line. 24 in incises diameter at the deck. the inner drums direct frequently dispensed with. be experienced where a single If the derrick is worked from a mast having considerable fitted rake. as well as on the derricks and the spans. decks should be stiffened locally in way of steam winches. or. give rigidity. by fitting plating on the beams. overboard. is To deck. Frequently. Etc. readily demonstrated This can be by drawing a diagram of lift forces. situated at the middle line with the middle of winding drums with the derricks. ship. should be 20 inches to feet. better.

directly to the steel is or the iron better deck. In such a case. the wood deck being butted cement or left the spaces enclosed coated with bare. the Fig. to SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS.i58 these riveted places. winch raised sole plates are either bolted stools. and the deck-plating. bar is Sometimes a steel angle fitted round the winches and against this bar. or as on Z or channel the bar The latter plan the stools stiffen deck and take most of the vibration caused by the . 154. one.

155. except where they can be conveniently held by clips riveted to the casings or to the hatch coamings. and of intermediate plating -fa inch thick. supported on stools of cast or wrought (fig. sailing-ship MASTS. on which tb method is usually followed. less sail Mizen-masts of barques carry no cross-yards. are constructed mainly of steel. since her power of locomotion value. like the hull. their case. most objectionable. as the the bending moment the is obviously greatest there of . In a modern sailing-ship of average size. the hull — In probably as important as itself. Fig. the masts. feet long has a maximum feet diameter of of masts a diameter of 32 inches. diameter and thickness the plating are somewhat . which have. in compiling tables of with the latter. Taking Lloyd's Rules. lying 96 long the scantlings lengths between these. the deck to the it. masts are plate or sparred iron covers are over them. unsheathed decks. a lower mast 60 20 inches. and one a plating thickness of -|£ inch.SEATS FOR STEAM WINCHES. afterwards indicate modifications usual in case of a steamer. This latter plan has only cheapness to comas the cloud of escaping steam always present about the deck is during loading or discharging operations. some the classes first of steamers having masts the none of at all. "we shall consider the a sailing-ship. J 59 working of the winches. The steam supply and exhaust pipes to the winches (where the exhaust steam is returned to a tank in the machinery space) are usually led from the the line iron machinery-casing along the deck just outside are of the hatchways. is As the the mast bending moments basis this vary with fix of the masts. in a steamer they have a much reduced and are even not indispensable. mend Sometimes separate exhaust pipes are led from each winch across ship's side. towards end. as a rule. In ordinary cargo steamers. As seems and fitting. depends on them . solid To protect fitted the winch a pipes from the damage. area reduced diameters and scantlings are therefore allowed in The maximum diameter are at either of a mast and the greatest thickness of plating the deck. and. and 155). their diameters and scantlings being graduated in accordance with the strains they may be called upon to bear through the action of the the wind-pressures lengths on the sails. winch stools like the above are commonly fitted. therefore. and support a than mainmasts. length natural scantlings.

double- riveted seams are required as well as internal stiffening angles. and in all cases should is be treble-riveted above the deck. with . are built with two plates in the round a rule length of 72 feet and those above this length should usually overlapped at edge in not have less than three plates. 156 shows the modern method of ing them by means of steel wire ropes. length. Above 84 very great. as the bending moments on masts Rigidity is of this length may be given to masts by securely fixing them into the hull. provided the stiffening effect due to reducing the lap feet made good by angle bars. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. and stayFig. circumference of a mast is The number of plates in the governed by practical considerations. . made in the fitting of internal angles where these are 156. PLAN. sometimes outside. feet The seams should be single-edge riveting is double- under 84 of internal considered is sufficient. riveted way of the but in housing below the deck . These latter plates are and end should be is joints . Lower masts. Fig. As are the principal stresses on masts are cross-breaking ones. the end joints very in important. under. and better work can be necessary. which case the straps fitted opening at the joints due to bending of the masts thus prevented.i6o reduced. meant the part of the masts permitted. — double-riveting masts loss fitting —by is which long. as the are butted. ELEVATION.

in the beams. 2 feet up from the bottom. This overlapping on method strong is cheek-plates sometimes adopted topmast with the upper portions. The doubling to of for the mast at the deck is to give strength.MASTS. Where a mast is stepped on a centre keelson. At the heel the mast should be supported on a strong stool. usually double. or of the fid. which unite it to the side stringers and the stresses communicated from the mast the wedging. built as single tubes. is known as a lower mast. which passes riveted for through to the heel topmast and rests the lower the mast. is bound to the mast and over the ring to prevent leakage of water into the hold space. an angle or tee lug. is fitted through the bottom of the mast. and if due provision be not made to resist these the mast may be forced downwards. the plating at the heel crushing up or the stool collapsing if not efficient Such movement of the mast would cause the rigging to become slack and valueless as a support against bending. vary with . the topgallant and royal masts but where the topmast is of steel usually consisting of a single wood spar the upper spar is frequently housed into its upper end. and a canvas cover or coat. and a royal mast. the union between them in being effected by overlapping case the topmast. doubled. and is supported by a rectangular bar of iron. a stout plate is fitted on non-plated decks. like those of lower masts. but above this These upper spars there are a topmast. uniting . and to keep the mast from turning. is riveted to the beams and through (in non-plated decks) to diagonal tieplates distribute 143). is tightly wedged with hard wood. but particularly the vessel compensate the corrosion and pitting which may take place in way of the except wedging. A riveted greater in diameter than the mast is and when the mast is shipped the space between this ring and the mast. be observed. when 1 2 is under special survey. and supporting it by brackets connected to the keelson and floorplate on each side of the middle line. riveted The mast-heel plating to the plate. which is the manner indicated of wood. The scantlings of steel topmasts. bulb angle the ring about 4 inches to deck-plate.e. the plating of which should be doubled in this neighbourhood. but usually they are in separate. For wedging purposes a ring is fitted on the plate round the mast-heel. the wedges need not about every years. must have a breadth equal to three As will diameters of the mast. material being there inaccessible is i. a topgallant mast. as very great downward stresses are communicated to the mast through the rigging. a good stool may be contrived by fitting a strong plate immediately under the mast. This plate (fig. 161 framing a mast-hole and wedging the mast at the upper deck — the deck at which this is usually done. which. When the mast-plating be removed before the third special survey. passes fig. but in modern sailing vessels of fair Lower masts and topmasts are occasionally size steel topmasts are common. Above the deck the wedging is neatly rounded. and that upon which the principal diameters and scantlings are fixed. In this 157. is usually doubled for about The main portion of a mast. are sometimes constructed of wood. through a cap hoop at the lower masthead.

l62 the bars. PLAN OF TOP. and the by the means of the mast-top and topmast As well upper spaces are further held by backstays fastened to the gunwale and to In a fore-and-aft direction the masts are stayed to one another the mast. permits of large-sized staysails. SHIP CONSTRUCTION length. may be the but the end treble- of lower and for same reason. Topmasts 38 those feet long and above stiffening The edge seams like of topmast plating masts. These are not carried down lower the the ship's but are fastened the mast just mast-top topmast trestle-trees respectively. hounds and extend down plates to the gunwale. the stayed laterally by shrouds. which to sufficient spread in the stays. should have internal single-riveted. by powerful run wire to to ropes at various heights. necessary cross-trees. arrangement. must be strongly stayed in order to hold cross-yards that steel work of supporting the and wire sails and are resisting the wind pressure. as so tall and comparatively slim a it mast such to its we have described. should be a structure as riveted. round mast at 157. . which Fig. joints. spread being as obtained shrouds. AND CALCULATIONS. where they are size attached to chain are also to fitted riveted to the sheerstrake. The stays of the foremast at are their down the a forecastle deck. Shrouds of smaller below the to the topmast sides. Obviously. this We Lower the have masts mentioned are ropes used loop for purpose. this the upper ones being is attached allow of lower ends bowsprit also . and top-gallant to mast.

the bowsprit and bedded on the forecastle deck-plating. Sometimes. in large modern sailingthrough the. indeed. in the stiffening angles are fitted around the aperture to take the in the middle of each plate 28 inches in diameter. structed — In and of modern as it sailing-vessels of fair size this spar is con- of steel. To secure it in position.cap-band of the bowsprit. The greatest diameter of a yard its of course. the standing side rigging of vessels should of which the shrouds and backstays be provided with rigging screws of simple design. the bowsprit is wedged in way of the knighthead plate. The to and lower topgallant yards on each mast usually fixed but with attachments designed to allow of free movement to any angle the upper topsail and upper topgallant yards are attached to parrel hoops which . and taken at -^ lower topthe latter. by means may be readily tightened up at any time. In large ships having frequently built is. the is mast. to which it is securely connected by strong angle bars the forecastle deck being stiffened in this neighbourhood by fitting the beams The outer part of a bowsprit when fitted as a separate on every frame. or knighthead plate. way of the wedging and extended The end joints of the bowsprit plating . a vertical plate fitted at fore-end of the forecastle. bending of stresses. is known as a " spiked bowsprit.BOWSPRIT. when it sloped away on the lower side after-end . and strongly bracketed to the main deck-plating. Cases are stays all on record of masts respect. and abutting against extending between the upper and forecastle decks. The latter is usually built of wood and is fitted spar is called a. the lower yard as and the one above of it are of the same material the this. Obviously. it is is built substantial diameter and thickness of plating. through the an transverse bulkhead." The bowsprit is stayed laterally by means fitted bobstay bars are of the cap-bands at of wire shrouds. length . ships the bowsprit and jibboom are made of steel in one length. round. as in all 163 staying this rigging will have little value if it be the slack. the Usually aperture in a bowsprit is housed in the forecastle. and strong on the stem and the underside the fore-end of the bowsprit and jibboom. cross-yards of small sailing-vessels are constructed of wood. instead being at housed its in the forecastle. — The usually pitch pine. due for a to the pull the maststays attached the latter. Frequently. outside wedging should be treble-riveted of inside the forecastle. in middle. in addition. . to eye attachments YARDS. when fitted the spar exceeds in a vertical diaphragm either plate is some distance the way beyond. has to withstand to considerable it.jibboom. angle rings Internal being fitted to the latter wedging. yards sail have single-riveted seams and treble-riveted end are joints. at the ends is tapered to half of When built of steel. that case the mast which first receives the stresses due to wind the pressure might break before the strength of the wire could be called upon. it steel masts. and. BOWSPRIT. about the same as passing lower mast of equal diameter. collapsing through lack of efficiency in in this To obviate such disasters. they may is be double-riveted.

has been almost done away with in steamers. position A ings. The Owing steadying of sails when a a vessel is in ^a seaway are is well known. so topgallant into and masts are Frequently. on the MASTS OF STEAMSHIPS. but the end those of a sailing-ship's must be treble-riveted above the * See a paper by Mr. customary heel make a is steamer's masts sail of pole is type. Veysey Lang. the greater this bending Rules say. two small fore-and-aft on each mast are for all that are usually arranged for. in most modern cargo steamers they are derrick-posts in for ornament.— The much comment. very broad vessel. etc. may be single-riveted. on account of the increased stress which would thus be brought vessel others.. the the finishing pole the topmast. and the plating of a thickness is correspond with the working of reduction. effect able. Lloyd's Rules to permit the diameters to be this a fifth less. The main function of masts sailing-ships. under bridges like in reaching ports of the like Manchester. in one piece greater from topmast this head. and these are weather.e. stresses present no notice a taken of the for be the outreach of the on the masts. they can be usefully employed as and standards for signal lamps. royal no height than necessary. as the safety might be seriously threatened if even one stay attachment were give way. to their auxiliary character. main duty scantlings. and in the case of support four derricks. Where only are carried. appropriate gear being provided for the purSuch an arrangement is demanded to allow of the vessel passing pose. where frequently It is mast for has. omission sails been deplored in some neglecting to and there certainly seems a lack of economy use the power of the wind for propulsion when it is availquarters. the the in greater will and. on the mast. mast-plating masts. incidentally. It has been pointed* out that in the case of a steamer's to masts. As being the that fitted spread unimportant. and made to ship telescope fashion the upper ends of the lower masts. mainly fitted masts of a steamer do not call for As has been said. 1909. whose derricks. fitted not propulsion vessels but to give steadiness are in rough This In of many has modern cargo in even these omitted. sails No yards or square-sails are now carried . steamer's masts of smaller diameters and scantlings than those of same -length in fore-and-aft sails a sailing-ship. . W. i.164 fit SHIP CONSTRUCTION loosely AND CALCULATIONS. into dispensed with. derricks. topmasts are of wood. At masts. to they are none too strong to to their work. withstand the strains due to the breadth of the ship should be considered in fixing upon the diameters and The broader a therefore. special feature in the masts and yards of sailing ships are the mount- of a to These are very elaborate and are made of great strength. The edge seams joints. is vessel. which is to carry sails. thus admitting of each yard being hoisted into by means of appropriate running gear. read before the Institute of Marine Engineers in February.

the mast-heels has been of sailing and similar remarks apply to steamers. the working of the derricks give rise considerable downward steps. to as will permit the swing clear to of the side. whether compartments from one those are another. as well Fig. steamers should therefore be strengthened brackets to way of mast fitted If these girder. with two fore-and-aft This is not the best arrangement for the purpose intended. should be to the centre mast-heel centre happens girder. which. When of the masts fitting are considerable riveting length. the strength should be augmented each by and the securely internal angle bars up the middle plate in round. usually consists The stiffening way of the plating. The the say. vertical or athwartships. be immediately over the junction of a 158 of the riveted latter floor-plate is with Fig. shows the arrangement when a mast in stepped on a tunnel. at is step. in fact. thrusts. immediately abreast stays. For access masthead. as the bending to in stresses already referred to. come unless on the an the inner bottom. it Instead of the close-spaced shrouds. and double-riveted of in 165 the housing. steel The masts must be supported usual arrangement is. athwartships and fore-and-aft by strong wire standing rigging. or to two additional put in shrouds may be fitted at close-spacing at with ratlines the The need the case of strong work ships. which divide a steel vessel into watertight com- . only intended act screens and are therefore of lightest de- scription. three or four shrouds. pointed for the masthead an iron ladder may be riveted the mast. is BULKHEADS. however. masts on each to fit side. and all arrangement very described for a sailing-vessel. though of iron or the steel. which in of stout steamer's is angle-bars to the not shown the the sketch. as much. deck or partners. is better still two with as great a spacing as derricks to possible. Bulkheads.MASTS OF STEAMSHIPS. 158. —This name fore-and-aft given in to ship. as partitions are value built structurally. a separate of little partitions. as of wood between or those which. A masts similar are to usually that wedged the upper-deck. Many to "of these cabins.

braced the the bulkheads they the become hull to efficient girders. so that — Where also they occur prevent the hull is practo tically transversely. when are bracketed to but when transmit them. efficiently little that to direction. therefore. immense importance interest be of in to consider principal and otherwise. which is fitted as a safeguard number of bulkheads required. measuring at the height of the lower deck. the latter be large the loss of buoyancy may be of sufficient to sink a sufficient The importance of restricting number of watertight bulkheads of the the is lengths therefore compartments by fix obvious. has The collision vessels. are strongly so that in the event of a compartment being shall with water the pressure containing bulkheads joints tight be strong enough to support the into and for have the adjoining of value i. thus spreading strength the latter over the region the lying between them. compartments. ing of the if As Preventatives Against Foundering Consequent on the PiercHull by Striking a Rock or Otherwise.. contents isolating — Their they fire importance in this respect as with their from each other. there should be at least four tance abaft the stem. : in the event of collision. abled them. and With the machinery one placed at -a reasonable distance from the sternpost. main watertight transverse bulkheads : are following reasons As rigid Elements in of Strength. is probably of chief importance. and the stresses brought of upon the massive of bulkheads. loss It should not be the placed too far aft. watertight.— We are already the effect familiar with on the flotation of bilging a compartment. proved of It and has often enport in safety. or the of buoyancy due the vessel to to bilging peak the comhead. bulkhead. total Many do the various holds instances are on record of through the vessels having been bulkheads. and it functions and the will. the afteraft. structurally their partments. as it is immense service in saving called. lead- ing features their construction. the stringers and keelsons. of themselves have but as rigidity. which are usually placed transversely. the In the case of a steam-vessel. one at each end of the machinery compartment. enough to prevent the fluid escaping Generally. The to keelsons. there are certain conditions which lower limit With the machinery one at a short disamidships. structure 2. for instance. As Safeguards Against Spread of Fire. they effectually any the the tendency deformation framing. partment may be sufficient it to cause go down by Lloyd's Rules require to be fitted at a twentieth of the length from the stem. a minimum of three watertight bulkheads might be allowed. and have seen that the vessel.— 1 66 are SHIP CONSTRUCTION of AND CALCULATIONS. can hardly be over-esUmated. bulkhead forming one end of the machinery compartment. saved from destruction by medium of their 3. side they afford support to longitudinal latter />. These main built and made filled partitions. though seriously damaged by collision. usually to make a is may here be said that the collision bulkhead the only one . indeed. Of the above divisions the forward one.

and 610 feet respectively. and ten. that when steamare reach 285 in five bulkheads necessary. is . 470.BULKHEADS. Although no surveyor to the Board of Trade. was sufficient for her work. additional adequate sub-division of the holds. it is placed near enough of to prevent any loss of buoyancy consequent on the partment being sufficient to endanger the vessel. in which case the water would find its way into all the compartments should extend well line . no form of life-saving appliance being so efficient as a good system fore of watertight bulkheads. with any two compartments in open communication with the sea. boiler so as to isolate which may be the the stern after it caused by the breaking of the stern tube. 540. safely with. The chance tight of fire is and damage It there no the efficient divisions. nine. bulkheads very soon become desirable. the question of sub-division is of first importance in purely passenger vessels. between the collision and boiler > Obviously. but as this may be met otherwise. the highest class of sub-division given as that which would enable a vessel to float safely. even of a passenger fitted steam-vessel. above the loadwater otherwise bilging of * In the report of the Bulkhead Committee ot 1890. eight. the distance room bulkheads being sub-divided. say. or by general vibration due to the action Usually. taking feet Rules for example. also scarcely if needs were bilging emphasis. has put any idea of fitting numerous bulkheads. built but Few while first-class passenger steamers are in there- now can float sea. account. if with bulkheads equivalent the foregoing. mainly because safety in the event of fire or bilging demands an clearly size. Lloyd's length. forms consideration when the machinery placed aft. compartment should be compartments would leakage not mean the extinguishing of the The after-bulkhead is required of the propeller. splendid stiffener at this part. making six bulkheads. under the existing regulations. partly because of the need of providing greater transverse strength. whatever her to length. quite necessary that that machinery self-contained. latest Thus we vessels find. clearly apparent. in moderate weather. fitted 167 transverse in sailing ships. In vessels of 2>35 feet tne a fter hold is in turn sub-divided. side and the question of cost. could refuse to grant a declaration of survey that the hull. the number of watertight bulkheads becoming seven. when vessels reach lengths of 405. an important is bilging coma Incidentally. fitting A point of great importance in the bulkheads the is that one compartment may cause sufficient sinkage to submerge the tops of the bulkheads. such an arrangement can With increase in be considered satisfactory only in small steamers. so the of neighbouring fires. In this case the strength is made up to otherwise. The importance of the bulkheads which isolate the engines and the one boilers from other cargo to is spaces cargo. as a few these have of been subsidised by the they Government to act auxiliary cruisers time of war. to mention no other. any two* compartments even a open communication and partly on with this the some of in have better sub-division.

It should. therefore. substantial and be strongly i. also be horizontal consisting bulb angles on the opposite . too. of an inch in those which the same depth plates joints. are usually lapped at edges and at end tight and single-riveted. i. as the depth of a bulkhead than the width. from 44 to or 50 i. By the cross arrangement. the stiffeners being bulk- arranged generally in a vertical direction also stiffening of collision stiffeners were be arranged horizontally as well as vertically a cross-bracing arrangement which assured the strength of the bulkhead in a transverse as Lloyd's Register. CONSTRUCTION OF BULKHEADS. At the points where the end come on the edges.. making it efficient to resist pressures tending to stiffeners is force which a purely vertical arrangement of entirely vertical not adapted to do. and thus sink the vessel. The are fitted vertically horizontally. a deep web frame or partial bulkhead is to be fitted on each side immediately over the watertight bulkheads. in virtue of the greater freeboard and reserve buoyancy of this class. Rules of bulkhead required to — well as in a vertical the ship's direction. the unsupported area is less than by the of stiffeners less vertical. the pressure which a bulkhead greatest may be called withstand is the bottom.. The spacing of stiffeners in ordinary watertight bulkheads the should not exceed 30 inches. the rivets being spaced for waterjoints work. sides. this spacing of should not exceed 24 inches.. or other efficient strengthening must be provided. stiffeners are shorter and therefore more efficient arranged than vertically when arranged upon to horizontally — the at rigidity of girders varying in- versely as the cubes of their lengths. 4I diameters plates apart. and in stiffeners case there should side. In the case of a collision bulkhead. Lloyd's Rules require a '46 thickness of "26 of an inch in bulkheads having a depth from upper deck to floors of from 8 in to 12 feet. as a vessel's safety this may depend on vertical stiffeners bulkhead's to ability to withstand dashing about of the masses of water admitted the fore peak through of collision. in very large vessels. is and of feet. i. such as an awning or shelter deck. in the smallest vessels. and a range of closely-pitched vertical stiffeners bracketed to the tank top are effectively placed to resist this. it must be constructed strong enough of to meet such an eventuality. In vessels with continuous superstructures.— Although an ordinary watertight bulkhead may never be called upon to sustain the pressure due to a compartment on either side becoming filled. In general. Committee of 1S90 In the former is now usually (see followed. In the 'tween decks of these vessels.e. the plan recommended by the Bulkhead heads). In the stiffening of watertight bulkheads. Again.. the upper deck.e. thickness.1 63 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. be built of plates stiffened.e.e. the advantages of an arrangement is are considerable. the two of the former are thinned fitting down for the breadth of the edges laps so as to obviate the of slips. To begin with. which should extend to the awning or shelter deck) are usually stopped at the deck below. the bulkheads (with the exception of the collision bulkhead. Still. bulkheads should extend to the top deck of the main structure.

intercostals are to be fitted between to the and connected fig. in small vessels. governed by the distance from the top of the decks. must not be more than 30 inches.CONSTRUCTION OF BULKHEADS. the main function of must be able to resist the pressure of the mass of fluid which the compartment contains. in way of holds consideration that a uniformly loaded girder fixed at the ends stronger is 50 per cent. oil Bulkheads which form the ends of to carry oil in bulk. spaced 4 are short. this system is therefore rather popular. There is here a saving in riveting. At the edge every watertight bulkhead should have a strong connection . are shown into to vary with that depth bulkhead as governing the maximum pressure could come upon When the bulkhead is divided zones by the abutment of steel decks. as any compartment on occasion may not be quite full. about of large masses of in for a partly-filled tank would give oil vessels. or in single bottom vessels. the scantlings of the lower stiffeners. bulkhead to the lower Stiffeners part of the 'tween stiffener. trip bulkhead plating and to a bar on the These intercostals. and the length of the stiffener as fixing the load. except the upper This follows from the 'tween decks. which are generally built without inner bottoms in way of the oil holds. affording as well as ballast tanks. and as mild This entails a vertical arrangement since the distance between stiffeners steel may be are stiffeners readily flanged cold. which are to be spaced should greatly stiffen the bulkhead by preventthe part ing any tendency to on the of the stiffeners. Lloyd's Rules permit bulkhead stifTeners. its bulkheads should be strong enough to ordinary bulkheads in sufficient structural strength. In oil vessels. provided their scantlings be increased beyond the tabular requirements. add immensely in to the rigidity of the bulkhead. meet the very severe fluid stresses which the rise dashing to. and five times more rigid than one with free ends. to be fitted without end brackets. stiffeners are. the speed of the vessel being communicated to the fluid in a compartment through the bulkhead at its after-end also. or compartments fulfilling vessels designed which form the ends of deep-water because. are governed by the full depth as fixing the intensity of 'Tween deck the pressure. stifTeners In Lloyd's the full Tables the scantlings of the of the it. feet apart. the knee brackets at the lower ends of the bulkhead stiffeners should be fitted between the floors to the shell. and fewer parts require to be put together. and by the length of the and 'tween decks. Lloyd's Rules require that when flanged stiffeners 12 inches or more in depth. should be bracketed top and bottom. Lloyd's Rules provide scant- lings the bulkheads of Frequently. should be of extra strength. those between the tank top. the top of floors and lowest laid deck. in the same way. they . the stiffeners. As they the horizontal stiffeners the vessel being narrow at this part. not more than 10 feet apart. face of the stiffeners (see 159). especially as experiments have shown the arrangement to be as strong as the ordinary one. 1 69 bracketed to the ship's sides. that is. edges of plates forming bulkheads are flanged to act as of somewhat narrow plates.

170
to

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
shell-plating,

AND CALCULATIONS.
one
is

inner

bottom
is

(where
to the

fitted),

Double angles make a good
the
latter

are
job,

frequently fitted

shell-plating

and deck-plating. and inner bottom and
particularly
in

but

it

becoming
is

increasingly

common,
less

cargo vessels, to have instead large single bars double-riveted in both flanges

arrangement

is

cheaper and

probably not

strong.

Lloyd's

Rules make provision

for

both methods.

Reference has already been made

Fig.

159.

to

the shell liners required in
rivets

way
for

ot

outside

st rakes,

as

compensation

for the

closer spaced
tight

— necessary
the

caulking
liners

— through

the shell angles of water-

bulkheads.

When

shell

are not fitted, as with joggled plating

or

framing, bracket outside
less

of
or

strakes

knees between the shell-plating and the bulkhead in way are necessary, except where the hold stringers are 5 feet
joints

apart.

The

on

one

side

only of a

bulkhead

require

to

be

CONSTRUCTION OF BULKHEADS.
caulked.

I7 1

angle

and keelsons pass through bulkheads, caulked fitted on the watertight side, and to give a finished Frequently, hold appearance, plate collars, uncaulked, on the other side. stringers are stopped at the bulkheads, and the longitudinal strength is made good by fitting substantial bracket plates connected to the bulkhead by angles, and to the stringers by a riveted lap (see figs. 159 and 160). The subordinate bulkheads of a ship, such as screens and casings, do

Where hold

stringers

collars

should be

not

call

for

a lengthened

description.

They

are

constructed

of

light

plates

and

bars,

the

former

having

single-riveted

joints.

They
tightness

are
is

not

usually

watertight,
fitting

and

where

perforated

by beams,
take

dust

secured

by

plate

collars.

Where

screens

the place of pillars, as in the case
rigidity
is

of side
for,

bunker casings and centre-line bulkheads, additional
is

called

and
with

obtained by increasing the
size,

thickness

of

plating

and making the
have open
floors,

stiffeners

of substantial
the

the

latter

being

fitted

two frame spaces apart in
vessels

line

beams and attached
is

thereto.

Where

the centre-line bulkhead

attached to the vertical plate of the centre keelson.
usually stopped
in way of the hatches, so as not when required for grain cargoes, the Although made good by wood shifting-boards.
is

A
to

centre-line
interfere

bulkhead

is

unduly with
division

siowage, and,
is

continuity of the

interrupted in this way,
vertical

when

properly built, a centre-line bulkhead
resist

a splendid

web, excellently adapted to

longitudinal

deflecting
to

stresses.

When
quarter
riveted
to

machinery casings
they

in

'tween

decks
built,

have
the

take

the

place

of

pillars,

must

be

strongly

and

stiffeners

should

be

the

beams.
is,

DOORS IN WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS.— It
that watertight bulkheads

of

course,

desirable

should be
the

intact,

as their efficiency as subdivisions of
cases,

a hold
cut
in

is

then at

its

highest.

In some

however,

doorways
of

them.

For instance,
to

need

of

a
for

direct

means

access

must be from

the engine-room

the

shaft

tunnel, calls

a

door in the watertight bulk-

head
the
coal
fitted
it

at

the

after-end

of

the

engine-room,

Again, in

most cargo steamers,
reach
the

where the tunnel abuts upon it. a reserve coal bunker lies immediately before
doors

forward boiler-room bulkhead, in which

must be
cases

fitted

so that the

may
at

the

stokehold
level
in
all

floor.

In hold

special

doors
of

have

been

ceiling

the

watertight
to

bulkheads
hold
of

a vessel,

when
deck.

has

been
the
in

desired
foregoing,

to

pass

from
in

without

going
are decks,

on
so

Besides

particularly
at

passenger vessels,
height
to

doors

frequently
that to

made
their

watertight

bulkheads
get

the

the
in

'tween
the

passengers

may

readily

from

place

place

region

devoted

accommodation.
In designing doors
for watertight

bulkheads

it

is

necessary to

remember

one placed near the foot of a bulkhead would have to withstand considerable pressure, if from any cause a compartment on either side of it The framing of the doorway and the door itself are became flooded.
that

therefore
substantial

made

specially

strong.

Usually
is

these

parts

are

of

cast as

iron
also

of

thickness.

The

door

made

of

wedge

shape,

the

172

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
it

AND CALCULATIONS.
joint,

groove in which
metal
to

works,

any degree of tightness of the
thus
obtainable.

which
of

is

a a

metal

one,

being

As

in

the

case

bilging

door would quickly become inaccessible, arrangements must be provided for working them from a high level. Doors in engine and boiler-room bulkFig.

160.

SECTION
UrPERDECK.

rr

bulb angles so'apart

CONNECTION OF STRINGERS TO BULKHEAD

331

SECTION CF
SIDE STRINGEff

from an upper platform doors in other bulkheads Where doors open in a vertical direction (fig. worked from the deck. are 161) the apparatus for working them commonly consists of a vertical shaft with a screw at one end working in a fixed nut in the door. Where they
heads are usually wrought
;

DOORS IN WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS.
open
in

173
at
its

a horizontal

direction,

the vertical

shaft

is

fitted

lower end

with a small pinion wheel which works a fixed rack on the

door.

Doors in bulkheads which give access
designed to withstand
great water
pressure.

into

'tween

decks

need not be
of
plates
to

Usually, so

they

consist
as

hinged
operated

to

the

bulkhead and
either

secured
the

by snibs

fitted

be

readily

from

side

of

bulkhead.
is

The

joint

and the door frame on the bulkhead
yarn or rubber packing
(fig.

made

watertight

between the door by means of spun
vessels

162).

STEMS,

STERNPOSTS,

AND RUDDERS.— In
Fig.

merchant

the

161

SHAFT TOR OPERATING DOOR

BULKHEAD

DETAIL SECTION
OF

DOOR FRAME

l t4t j

I

-DOOR

COVER PLATE
FORMING GROOVE FOR DOOR

stem
.

consists

of

a

solid

forged

bar

of

iron

or

steel,

or

of

rolled
hull.

steel,

of

suitable

breadth and

thickness,

and forms the fore-end of the

Nowadays,

are usually straight above the load-waterline with a slight rake— say, two feet— forward, to minimise the effect of a collision, should this happen, and to overcome the impression of falling aft at the head which a quite The clipper stem, so common at one time, is now vertical stem gives.

stems

in sailing ships, as it is a suitable construction on steamers and also has a fine appearance, it is always found. When associated with a hanging or bar keel, the stem becomes a continuation of the same, being connected to it by a vertical scarph similar to that em-

seldom

built

;

with a bowsprit,

ployed for uniting the lengths of the

"keel

bar.

When

the

keel

is

of centre

T74

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS*

through plate or side bar type, a modification of the ordinary vertical scarph
is

adopted.
is

By

referring

to

fig.

163,

stem
bars,
this

slotted out to receive the

it will be seen that the after-end of the ends of the centre girder and the two side

The total length of which together make up the thickness of the keel* scarph should be about eighteen times the keel thickness, Or double the

Fig

162,
DETAIL

SHEWING FASTENING

-RUBBER PACKING

DOOR

35 PLATINC

BULKHEAD

35 PLATING WEDGE 5*I £*
J

J

£

TAPERINCTQ^'

DETAIL AT HINGE

OVAL PINHOLE

"

TO ALLOW DOOR TO CLOSE TIGHTLY

HORIZONTAL SECTION

ALTERNATIVE
BULKHEAD

PLAN

^^^^^^

/P; RUBBER DOOR

length

of

scarph

required
the

for

an

ordinary
points

bar
the

keel,
flat

to

allow a
bars.

reasonable

distance
several

between

terminating

of

side

There are

ways of making a connection between a stem bar and a flat plate 164 shows one adopted by many builders. The lower part of the stem is carried three or four feet on to the fore length
keel.

Fig.

of

the

keel,

STEMS.

175
in

and

is

securely riveted to intercostal plates, which

turn

are

riveted

to

the

floors.

The

lower ends of the frames in this vicinity extend below the top of
line

the stem the

shown dotted in the figure, and the fore end of as to come under the stem and yet fay against the ship's side. The keel-plate may be said to end where it rises on to the side of the stem (fig. 164), as in front of that point it becomes an ordinary strake of shell-plating. The preceding is an efficient plan, and obviates the necessity of tapering down and spreading out fanlike the afterend of the stem a more costly arrangement, but one which gives good work and formerly frequently adopted. It will be observed from fig. 165, which
bar to the
is

keel-plate

dished

so

illustrates

this

method,
the

that

the

keel-plate

is

dished round

the

after

part

of
it.

the

stem, and
in

continued for the distance of a frame space, or two under
previous
case,

Thence, as

the

keel-plate

is

lifted

on

to

the

side

of

Fig.

163.

END

OF

CONTINUOUS CENTRE
GIRDER

(NTERCOSTALS ALS

Vr^jsr-TT"

TACK. RIVETS

STEM
KEEL
t

SIDE

BARS

\
E-

SCARPH
to
it.

]

the

stem and through riveted
of

Through

riveting

is

also

adopted at the
is

after-end

the

stem,

if
is

practicable,

otherwise

tap
for

riveting

resorted

to.

The
stem,
to

centre

keelson-plate

carried

intercostally

a

few frame spaces

for-

ward of the after-end of the stem and attached
as
in

to to

a

tongue formed on the

the

sketch,

or

in

lieu

of a

tongue

bottom

bars

tap-riveted

the

stem.
well as

As
with

the

structure

by means of the keel connection, the stem is thoroughly bound by the main shell-plating. The strakes at their forward
rivets
(see

length
will

ends are arranged to lap on each side of the stem, and to pass through all three thicknesses are employed be noticed that the shell-plating
;

sufficient

in
It

fig.

166).

is

kept back

1-inch

the stem

this

is

to

protect the caulking.

At

least

from the front two rows of rivets are

of
re-

quired to connect the shell-plating to the stem, and these should have the same

176
spacing as the keel

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
rivets,
viz.,

AND CALCULATIONS.
Below the load
it

5

diameters, centre to centre.

waterline the stem should be maintained at full thickness, as
to

is
it

there liable
is

severe

strains

by grounding
In practice
its

or
it

collision
is

;

above

that

point

usually

reduced somewhat.
area

tapered to the top, where the sectional
value.

has

three-quarters
facilitate

maximum
latter
is

To
damage
at

construction and reduce the cost of repairs, in
stem, the
usually

the

event of

to

the

made

in

two parts with a scarph

about the

light waterline.

Mention may here be made of the practice of

Fig.
ELEVATION
collision

164.

8ULK

/LINE OF

FRAME HEELS

SECTION AT CD.
LOOKING

SECTION AT A. B.
LOOKING F0RW°

An
NTfR COSTAL

They are fitted to join the parts together and fairing, but they are a drawback when a portion of the stem has to be removed, as plates on both sides of the stem have to be taken off in order to punch them out, for which reason they
using tack
the
rivets

in

stem scarphs.
erection

for

purpose

of

are

frequently

omitted.
sternpost

STERNPOSTS.— The
In
it

forms

the
also

after-end
in

of the hull structure.

sailing-ships

and paddle steamers, and
rudder.

some twin-screw steamers,
however, this
to

consists, like the stem,

of a simple bar, with the addition of forged gudgeons

for

hinging the

In

single-screw
for

steamers,

part

of

the
for

ship

becomes

more

complicated,

in

addition

providing

facilities

the strain caused this by the continual working of the shaft has to be counteracted. Moreover. ELEVATION tNDOFKCEL PLATE Fig. of rivets The large shell-plating attached to frame by two rows of diameter. is represented by the increase of the thickness Fig. the propeller shaft. 166. upon the round the the stern propeller post. to withstand such severe stresses. to 9 is inches. the breadth remaining n the rudder post. 165. of this 167 shows the stern frame of an ordinary cargo steamer. and p can only be done by Fig.STEMS AND STERNPOSTS. which come plates. of the propeller post. is joined while to the shell-plating. Besides as previously mentioned. which leaves point. the after lengths of the shell-plating. which inches. are augmented while thickness above adjoining plates in being usually of midship thickness. and the increase in strength of sternpost necessary. may be 9^ in inches x 9 inches. which not called upon this. making the post and its connections to the hull of ample strength. increased below . for the reasons given. The stem vessel is 11 inches by 3 inches. shaft the way of the bossing is are still further thickened. must be supported by it. carrying the 176a the hull at this rudder.

. 167— to floorplates. importance to keep the propeller as low its down as possible so as to is ensure always being under water. improved by securely connecting the upper arms marked A and B* in fig. 167.i>]6b SHIP CONSTRUCTION boss in is AND CALCULATIONS. for It is of the efficient working of which ample clearance must be allowed. in For that this purpose the lower part in way of the aperture sectional as this reduced per with- depth and increased in width. and connecting it to the keel-plate and middle line keelson. The size of the aperture is fixed by the diameter of the propeller. vessels further — Fig. the efficiency is much 15 reduced. the tachment The hull atover 350 feet in length to three rows. over is area being part increased cent. partly immersed. as when the post. also by extending the arm G well forward.000 and above. of the propeller has frequently is to *Arm B required by Lloyd's Rules in vessels whose longitudinal number 16.

but a serious newal. therefore. and a breadth of the frames. of the These In be the spaced rudder to sufficiently close properly support Lloyd's of Rules tabulated stock . inherent weaknesses. and these. ue. distances in are provided of the on the diameter the Rules be spaced 4 feet apart in vessels of 10 feet depth. considering the advantages accruing said in thereto. stresses. not as as forgings. the width a length equal to three times. are sure to manifest themselves subsequently when the are place and doing effectively. They latter instance. rudders. steel etc. though not disclosed by the parts usual in tests. rudder. steel castings course. A bodies word may here be for regard to the relative merits of cast steel and forgings permit standing stern frames. only fair however. and as castings are cheaper owner's than forgings they there are are populaf with objections for some in builders. the spacing in. usually find that stern frames in large modern single-screw steamers are built up. gudgeons are required found by interpolation. It should be said that stern frames are built as just described. flaw a steel casting simply means cause loss which. subject their with- certain tests. stand for 176^ of severe grounding the rudder. These details of the sternpost with to to are j^ of the best conit the rudder. y . from for an standpoint reliable to castings. their work. that in recent large steel castings. to state. why. may to the owners in delaying the years there has ship. The main purpose the the or after-post is hanging the basis for which should necessary braces gudgeons to are provided. if this portion can be easily disconnected from the remainder.vessels between 10 feet and 40 feet depth being British Corporation. as shown in fig. large size becomes as impracticable make the stern one Moreover. in several pieces. . only when they are made of cast steel but there seems no good reason. 168. Again. diameter of the sidered in association Gudgeons should have a depth equal rudder stock. But. The such rules of the to classification the use of cast for items. to because are resorted forgings are quite impracticable. frequently exist in stern frames and rudder castings. acquired the processes of manufacture. forged stern frames should not be so made. addition to considerable It is expense. the part repairs with scarphs the as shown. of the lowermost strake of These scarphs should have equal to i| times. When frame vessels in are of piece. while the lower one only interferes with the aftershell-plating. outside the hull proper is most liable to damage. its and re- cheaply repaired. and be secured by four rows of rivets. and 5 feet 6 inches apart in vessels of 40 feet depth and upwards. it facilitates and makes them less costly. in ordinary simple cases. the case of some war vessels and large passenger liners. a defect in a forged frame may in frequently be quickly. The upper joint can be disconnected without dis- turbing length main structure. We. in while flaws the are rare. as shown.STERN P9STS. in . been improvement in the manufacture of Of as in where the forms of stern frames and rudder are complicated. except the extra expense and difficulty of forging the scarphs. are.

ij6d SHIP CONSTRUCTION far. So screw mention. case of small vessels. RUOOGR ARMS AT ** BETWEEN PINTLES I PLAN OF RUDDER ARM frame proper propeller is of the familiar L-shape fitted to saiiing-ships. the projecting shafts is being supported in figs. 168. This form illustrated 169. In figure will be . the stern Fig. but those of modern in twin-screw the vessels call for special In the simplest form. of a A the bracket first on each it side. by means 170. reference has been made as exclusively to the stern frames of single- steamers. AND CALCULATIONS.

DETAIL AT UPPER PALM ANCLE COLLAR \ . 169. observed shell.STERNPOSTS. 176*? that is the upper which doubled in the palm of the bracket is fitted directly on to the vicinity. 170. and the lower one is through-riveted Fig. SECTION LOOKING AFT DETAIL AT UPPER PALM STRONG BEAM AT PALM "CHECK FOR SHELL PLATING CHECK FOR PALM KEEL INCREASED IN IN DEPTH WAY OF PALM Fig.

designed in such a way being riveted is take palms of the easily A the whole together. way of the palms. AND CALCULATIONS. Experiments serious have shown tion the projecting for brackets cause a augmentaof of resistance. a well as protect the propellers. order to keep the as lines of shafts near the middle latter line. an angle collar being forged or cast round the is strut where passes through the shell-plating. not suitable that in where high speeds such cases It be attained. although that shown of each propeller is very neat. the upper point of the propeller path the being clear of the middle is In the special instance before as to the stern frame brackets. fitted plates. not. the upper palm riveted a plate inside the ship. and thus minimise vibration overlapped. The the different fore-and-aft positions arrived at by making shaft bossing longer on one side than on the have to other. Other arrangements might be devised. and the lower palm riveted to a projection on the lower part of the stern frame. The A is bracket system of supporting the propeller shafts. instance. be so high as for a single line. with The is usual arrangein fig. the are screw cases. to take both propellers. it need us. aperture thus becoming necessary. ment 171. however.i 7 6/ being fitted SHIP CONSTRUCTION across part. in such when associated of a brackets. in Very often. was found. in one case. the ship in to give is the necesto it sary rigidity at this In the second case. though simple. that a twin- . screw. in as shown The aperture must be sufficient width a fore-and-aft direction Fig. 171.

and by each total hull resistance. adds much to the strength also obviates the possibility of any lateral strain being as brought upon the " shafts. Various attempts have been made to overcome this objection by giving a suitable shape to the arms. might happen where they are exposed. particularly in well reducing resistance to speed. which from a more or less circular section. more resistance with propeller brackets than with shaft bossing. but the resistance was to still serious. 172. up Fig. A at Bremerhaven. when fitted Engineering. is although somewhat as has proved vessels unbroken run aft. 9th October. thus allowing the costly. The lines. when tried in the experimental tank was found to have 12 per cent. set of struts to about 10J per cent. The results obtained in this way were better. now As the frequently adopted. strut resistance being mainly due latterly the disturbance of the stream an attempt was made right to eliminate this by bossing the form of the vessel round the shafts. . in early vessels. streams otherwise fast an plan. 176^ screw vessel of fine form.* This most satisfactory. to 4J per -cent. model of the liner Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. that the resistance caused by the tubes amounted of the . the propeller shafts of which were encased in tubes supported by two sets of struts. to the stern frame. 1908.PROPELLER BRACKETS. became of a flattened oval shape in those more recently built. bossing it hull round twin- screw shafts has an at after obvious advantage in that It end. and of large the size.

As and it be seen. not as shown.176/1 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. is a special Fig. For the purpose to of forming steel bearings for the shafts and a termination as the bossing. this sometimes frame described a spectacle frame. PLAN S1DL ELEVATION STERNPOST frame-work bossing is strengthened by web-plates. the object being to obtain the required shape and strength as economically as possible. each side for main frame carried down is the ordinary to at shaped fitted and made overlap on the reverse the main frame leaves a bar suitably some distance above and below the points which the normal frame line. constructed 172 the in bossing becomes section structure. the distance will the side the of considerable. The Fig. it shows the method from constructing ship's the to is — as line is sometimes shafting in is called — where way. casting. an integral part of the of When hull fin properly Fig. All the frames in the For a considerable distance the eccentricity in form may be met by bossing out the main frame. need be built in this way. 173. fitted 173 shows associated with an ordinary .

taken by the bottom gudgeon detail. It 1 74 shows a stock is of rudder that frequently are fitted in modern fitted vessels. and. the latter being spaced close enough to afford sufficient support to a heavy plate which gives the contour of the rudder. which are forged or cast with the rudder frame. it. care being a true taken axis. for the purpose. at to each allow fitting pintle. 174). and the arms kept back a little from the outside edge of the plate to protect them from being torn off. It seen to consist of a vertical bored out in at the ship the as required. The rivets attaching the arms to the rudder-plate should be of large size. . is is hinged in about an axis at its 168. 'as owing steer- low speed. and are afterwards 168 shows is rudder size. is at either end The it after-end is is most convenient there. has a circular and arms spaced separate forgings one case. bottom pintle not continued through the gudgeon as . rudder vessels. propeller figure I 7 6/ frame having an aperture —a fairly common is arrangement. is The weight of the sternpost. to Usually fit cut in it the back of the stock for rudder-plate into. having the a*is so placed that about a third of latter before The it advantage of the star- type consists in the ease with which It can be put over to port or especially. The rudder is attached to the stern frame by means of bolts or pintles. the of the rudder. are arranged on alternate sides of the plate. As and it the as about rudder which takes of the a vessel in the vicinity amidships. the in ordinary cargo type vessels. however. area in war and some few merchant obvious ships. with a few exceptions.STERNPOSTS. on arms being thus communicated directly to the stock and the rivets to in the some extent Fig. in most cases. —The direction of her is that part of in a vessel which the movements when turns is -afloat and of motion. which complete without controls axis RUDDERS. but are now usually portable style bolts. This about wider double the spacing are of the previous for which the arms is made relatively heavier. a modern cargo steamer of large main frame or stock with arms at right angles to it. which are prevent the the shrunk groove stresses a key being to arms turning. -is relieved. as in the illustration given. the rudder pintles were forged on the rudder frame. to keep their centres line so that also rudder may have Formerly. the the * deflecting force. In a the the parts on. a distinct casting bolted to the propeller post. 175 shows this arrangement in The with socket for the others-. These gudgeons are forged or cast solid with the stern frame. obviously the best position for vessel. as shown in the sketch. board. what is termed a balanced rudder the lies fitted. in being somewhat costly. Fig. always placed the In most mercantile vessels forward end (figs. In the it the spectacle frame forms rudder part of the propeller post frequently is it. is together the post fitted turned in way of the arms. has a disadvantage. The arms. a sufficient its reason to debar to their adoption power. which ship into gudgeons on the after-part of the stern frame. a rudder of of moderate common frame of can be operated by a ing gear Fig.

The the weight of the rudder soon produces wearing. the bottom of the pintle is rounded. the depth of the socket is 4 inches. but sufficient SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. Rudder what shorter refer pintles alike except the pintle the bottom pintle. To In the present instance. minimise friction. which then becoming greater than to if is usually uneven. housing is allowed to prevent any danger of accidentally un- shipping. the friction no disc were used. fits one. The part of each which into the rudder frame . and a suitable bearing provided by fitting a hemispherical of steel disc into the it gudgeon to socket.176. to which which is someshall is than the others. 174. SINGLE PLATE RUDDER ARMS AT PINTLES ^^ satisfactory. Experience with this style bearing has not shown be completely Fig. the post is The enable hole from bottom of the socket are all the heel of to the disc to be easily removed. and "lock"' we presently.

a locking arrangement is must be devised. Stoppers must also be fitted on deck. so that each surface may bear solidly on the other at the required angle. Where a good brake is fitted to the tiller. For instance. which shows a of the rudder that the movement Fig. for the satisfactory working of the is to provide a means of limiting the turning angle. pin which is immediately over the shown. any slackenthrough ing tendency being guarded the pintle against nut. refinements are introduced. no deck stops are necessary. the control being sufficient without them. or the quadrant is geared on to the steam steering engine. and they should be fitted so as to distribute the pressure equally over the sternpost. 175. it On driven the head a large nut is fitted. which secures by a as steel in position. The for. to prevent of the pintle its 176/$ being knocked out. cargo vessel. which. A simple plan the top one with a bottom collar Another point of importance to make one 176). In a very large vessel two such stoppers would be needed. it is advantageous . it will be Referring to seeri fig. 177. the rudder movement being here controlled by stopping the quadrant or tiller arm. To prevent accidental unshipment of the rudder. should not exceed 35 to 40 degrees. in ordinary cases. beyond a certain inclination is checked by widening out one of the gudgeons on the sternpost and altering the shape of the rudder stock in the vicinity. is fitted in an ordinary be observed that only bare essentials are provided Where an owner does not object to extra expense in order to obtain is foregoing a description of a rudder such as will and it greater efficiency.RUDDERS. of the pintles — —preferably rudder (fig. common design of stopper. tapered from bottom to top.

a high standard of efficiency easily objection carrying the weight to. bush also gudgeons with the pintles with brass or or 178). although others of a vertical type are sometimes fitted (figs. The weight of the rudder is thus distributed over all the gudgeons. Fig. where there is one. cone-shaped at bottom. as illustrated by figs. 168. of it course. dealing with working greatly in size and weight.T76/ to to SHIP CONSTRUCTION the line is AND CALCULATIONS. The when fitting of an it internal bearing to a rudder of ordinary type adds to the cost. the bottom pintle. and as the to and more so By these means when worn. brass gun-metal (fig. 177. the rudder made The to work more smoothly. By both arrangements. serving merely as a guide. 176. 180. It is customary. no drawback where there is an efficient steam steering gear. to unship a rudder it is only 181 and 181a). little trouble or expense. it becomes necessary means of shipping and unshipping them without disturbing the steering gear and inboard stuffing boxes. circular discs or washers of white metal being inserted between the rudder lugs This has sometimes been and the gudgeons for this purpose. into each gudgeon. but this is Fig. the weight being taken floor. and there these can be little or no side movement of the rudder. by a thrust block inside the vessel. 179). but has the ad- vantage of accessibility. of a rudder on the bottom gudgeon has already been referred overcome by causing the rudder to bear on several or on all the gudgeons. an important consideration parts. With such an arrangement. and this is found to answer the purHorizontal couplings. Occasionally rudders are fitted which do not bear on the gudgeons. 174 ancj pose admirably. When rudders increase to devise a simple . are common. Another plan is to fit solid washers. lignum-vilae (fig. to fit a coupling just under the counter. with pintles having tapered points to suit. is rudder than when more power will be required to turn the supported on a footstep bearing only. usually fitted at the level of the transom With balanced rudders this is the invariable plan. in such cases. can is be renewed with maintained. parts.

necessary to unscrew the pintle nuts. and . another followed. By means of block and its tackle. Nowadays. Fig. and to disconnect the rudder coupling. 180. the rudder may then be easily Fig. moved out of usual position. 179. thus allowing the pintles to t 7 6m drop out. the rudder proper as is usually formed by a single still heavy plate previously is described design . to the sometimes frame to the desired contour. plan. i i Fig.RUDDERS. 178. as illustrated in fig. once universal.

-9 0IA' Fig. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. This style is Fig. the solid with space thus enclosed being in wood or cement. through-riveted. 181. it is also more liable to decay through corrosion. the inside surfaces of the rudder-plating are obviously . vertical M'LACHLAN'S coupling . Each side of this frame filled is covered by thin plating. 181a. 'WEDGEW0OD5 SCARPHED coyPLirsci v-H BOLTS g lDlA' not so strong as that as of the single plate.i76« 182.

This entails flanges of considerable thickness and a sufficient numaxis ber of coupling bolts. for navigate channels too confined to turn These rudders to are usually designed of the come inside the line of or the less stem. finer 182. therefore. being thus more . SECTION THROUGH A fitted B. vessels it These were in is the the reasons of type. are pro- dimensions of rudders tables. rudders instance. These are the course. the aggregate strength moment the of whose about torsional rudder of should be equal to the twisting moment. the as such calculations. The latter. and. is vided in carefully compiled the diameter of rudder stock In these given^ for vari- ous the in speeds under of numbers which represent product the total area of the rudder centre in line feet square feet abaft the of of the the pintles. The strength of the coupling joint must be equal to that of the stock. if principles which must be followed in making detailed calculations. its in ordinary favour of single-plate such as yachts. Of of a ship at is to be built to Lloyd's part Rules. still retained for Fig. to which the suffi- rudder in stormy weather may be subjected. the twisting moment can be determined and the requisite diameter for the head of the rudder stock calculated. appearance. all on are the builder detailed events. to the strength the rudder stock. unnecessary. but this should be increased beyond requirement to allow for shocks from the sea. its abandonIn special ment cases. previously remarked.RUDDERS. Knowing these particulars. shocks and provide wear and considerable at these parts. such. and follow the shape vessel. The aggregate sectional area of the^arms supporting the single plate depends to some extent to on the it bending moment be sustained. The cient for sizes of the pintles should also be to withstand these tear. inaccessible for- 1760 chief cleaning. as have to are sometimes to at the fore ends of vessels. sizes of the various parts of a rudder are governed by the area and shape of the and the speed of the vessel. and the distance centre of gravity of this area abaft the same line. As in.

As a bow rudder is mainly for when not bolt.176/ buoyant purposes. PLAN OF TOP OF RUDDER . AND CALCULATIONS. SHIP CONSTRUCTION 183). of a (fig. 183. use it locked in a fore-and-aft and emergency position by means weather-deck strong Fig. is The rudder in stock carried to is the worked by a simple hand-gear.

and the volume counterbalanced the are lifted on one . the centre of gravity G The two equal resultant forces act clown through is not altered in position. a turning moment would be force in operation to to Now. buoyancy. the centre and the resultant of the upward forces through B. Equilibrium of Floating: Bodies: Metacentric Stability. the centre of buoyancy no longer at B but takes up some new position B and as there has been no change in the disposition of the weights. if the lines of action did not disturb the equilibrium! vessel coincide. 184. No by LX have and cause her been added. of gravity of the weights. side is. already denned as the centre of buoyancy. thereout of the water fore unchanged. as shown in fig. *£ IL_ forces must act in the same vertical line. is x . mus equal the total weight That the resultant of the downward forces acts through <?. immersed on the other that wedges W\S W and SL As the immersed body is now altered in form. It is now necessary to note that these two equal and opposite resultant Fig. M 177 . our considerations in Chapters forces in I. for instance t That the i downward forces 2. must the be volume equal. We or know. we know something fig.. FROM the floating .CHAPTER VII. total upward forces. and II. a vessel freely and or rest in water. the displacement is to act upon the weights 185. of is operation at when. suppose an external heel over. still as depicted in 184. the centre of gravity of the displaced fluid. for.

As before. lines G. 186. suppose say. of gravity be raised from the 184 cargo by pumping out a ballast tank. other means. coincident with or by some fig. case there be no lever tending to . Next. 187. as drawn tends the figure. 185. 2 The line. The to moment on the obviously to restore her Fig. and by putting a quantity of Fig. and up through distance acting B l respectively. position in fig. the weight downwards through G s the Fig. G become act exactly M and (see 186). buoyancy upwards posite will in the line B M. their of in action having a the perpenturning original dicular GZ between vessel them. First. into the 'tween decks in order let to keep will the displacement the same. forces will therefore act in op- directions in the same In vertical this and being will equal in magnitude neutralise each other. and the she centre is therefore said to to be in stable equilibrium.i 78 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. position.

This is known as metacentric stability. vessel. G M being called the metacentric height It must be borne in mind that this method applies only up to the beyond these it is unreliable. as M changes rapidly in angles above given . It is an excellent guide. not a vessel A however. the displacement. x Sm I.DEFINITION OF TRANSVERSE METACENTRE. causing A glance 187 Now. is The for point changes with every inclination from the for upright. There to right however. assume as fixed inclinations up to the 10 or 11 distance degrees. or. condition said to be one at fig.. how the loading In conducting the first of these operaof cargo should be proceeded with. tions. the but her further position. heel the vessel. its M called the metacentre from being rise. we know G M. If a vessel be floating upright at rest and in equilibrium. we can Moment of Statical determine the vessel's righting power. neutral will above M.. x BZ - . For It it every draught there also ordinary vessels. there need be no inclination from the upright exceeding that for which the moment of stability may be written W so that in order to shift x GM x Sin ft it the vessel with confidence. This is important. to usual. Further on we shall see. even moderate angles. is. forces will be inclined as before. curves of at stability. let G be show what will happen if the equilibrium. a different position of metacentre. when in upright position. if . is and G M has no longer its initial value. or whether ballast may be run up. therefore. The raised vessel lines. since Stability in foot-l tons at any angle 6 \ - W . by using the above formula for calculating the moment of stability. the equilibrium. 1 79 which is will not tend of to depart from its inclined position. however. is to be may be follows Definition of Transverse Metacentre. useful for many for determining whether or tanks may be safely shifted in harbour. at a certaifi draughty and be then inclined through a very small angle\ the point in which the vertical line through the — new centre of buoyancy metacentre intersects the middle line of the ship} is called is. W. is With G unstable above M. between from the moment and not that when G was below M> to incline the tendency being the initial now. being given in tons. is only necessary to . in the case of a vessel carrying oil in bulk. knowledge of a vessel's metacentric height purposes. the in transverse at that draught. in We floating thus vessel see that the relation between or the points G and M is in a entirely determines the nature of her equilibrium. which is the only one that used by the metacentric method. and G Z or G M in feet. for instance. is. Hf x QM _ .. as within these limits. the meta limit of gravity It G must not defined as a condition of stability beyond which the centre maintained. and if sufficiently correct practical purposes. a very important existing vessel. position. a heeling The two moment to be difference resultant in act in different operation this on the heeling vessel. when considering actual that in many cases considerable error would be involved.

vessel. established formulas are then available. Besides the foregoing. however. 150 feet. will the vessel be of known type. tribution. and the sum of the products be taken. 30 feet. weights. sufficient. it of the figure boundary line of the may be circle. make sure that G M should be of G to M is In the two its last operations enough if allow for the reduction in value due to the presence of free liquid in the vessel. i2 0' D being the mean draught. and 8 the breadth. We have a case in point in a floating box-shaped is Here this the outline of the waterplane figure a rectangle. and the distances of the centres of these elements from the middle line ascertained. as follows — Imagine the area of the whole waterplane be divided into an infinite number of parts. if each of these small areas be multiplied by the square of its distance from the axis. for Applying the formula the centre of buoyancy the height of the transverse metacentre above we have L x B* V LxBxD 15 feet. a or a triangle. breadth. the result will be the moment the of inertia required. and V the volume of displacement.— — — l8o SHIP CONSTRUCTION the value great AND CALCULATIONS. We to shall return to this point again. of each of the influences controlling the position should be carefully noted. 12 x 15 . and the L inertia of about the major axis is — R3 moment length of of . owing to the varying nature waterplane. but only by the underwater volume of the to and by the shape written waterplane. and we shall show presently M. is G is fixed by the distribution how it may be determined in dis- any given of the The point not affected by the weight vessel. quickly obtained as any of simple form such as a square. Obviously. The great importance of the points to G and M or will now be of manifest. know for every sea. condition of lading vessel which she may have to put to what the GM metacentric height he has In considering these two centres. which "i the point may be Height of transverse metacentre R M ' I 1 above centre of buoyancy where as / I/ / is the moment of of inertia of the waterplane about its middle line axis. If the actual dimensions of the vessel be then — length. his and in a shipmaster ought available. the metacentric height furnish a good basis from which predict the probable nature of her stability at large angles of inclination. the The numerator to right-hand : member of this equation may be ex- plained in a popular way. Although inertia in it involves of an some calculation to obtain above moment for of the case ordinary-shaped vessel. relatively This appears from the formula that gives the height of the centre of buoyancy. then. draught. where L is the the vessel. case.

ordinates two-thirds of a of new the curve. so that the absois. the centre of buoyancy is at a the base line than in the other case. trans- a vessel cylindrical section. It is the transverse metacentre may be is important to note in the above formula that B M independent of the length. for Thus. lie Now. general of change of design upon the grasped. a normal any waterbuoyancy. must be To divided by the volume of the ship's displacement practical in cubic feet up to the waterplane or draught considered. measured the at the the points latter of in division. is usual to divide the waterplane into an even number suitable for the application of Simpson's First Rule. of constant triangular section with the apex down. in a vessel of greater height above lute height of the triangular extreme dimensions in each case being the same. As examples of the foregoing. but the displacement and we now have L x B* obviously only BM We therefore = ! B2 LxBxD 6D its note that a floating vessel of this form has transverse metacentre at twice the height above the centre of buoyancy of another having a rectangular section. the Moreover. there only one position the verse metacentre. In ordinary vessels the metacentre. a 131 is case occurs when the vessel is. the centre if we consider to of a circle. so / is unchanged. the and. as already stated. mainly consists in tion it obtaining the value of In actual calculaof equal parts. still further increased. effect neglecting for the moment influence position lines. to treat the cubes of the ordinates. The waterplane as before. section. line through intersect middle point line will pass through of and for the of middle of the vessel at the centre is of section. may In this case. metacentre on this account. shows the influence of breadth vessels on stability. find area of square quantity obtained being the moment of inertia of the waterplane about the middle obtain the value of the height of the transverse metacentre above the centre of buoyancy. is a rectangle. A axis unique occurs where the vessel is a floating as cylinder with its horizontal. while the This breadth appears in the second power. the vertical through the centre of buoyancy will intersect the middle line at the that. Almost as simple that the expression for half the previous value. In applying the formula BM = -rj to ship-shaped bodies. we have seen. however. since same point at all draughts. the immersed section is its This part will be apparent. /. and explains why broad shallow case have always high meta- centres.CALCULATION OF BM. as we have seen. this moment of inertia. the work. and so line. the the forms of the 'midship sections of ordinary ship-shaped bodies the between two extreme cases of tapered of just considered. as feet. be considered as a fixed point only for one draught. and .

and in the fourth and fifth. feet.— l82 in SHIP CONSTRUCTION order in to AND CALCULATIONS. 275 feet. Ordinates. and their breadths as measured at the points of division in the third column are tabulated the cubes of these half ordinates. feet. having the following dimensions: 6 inches. 39 load draught is 18 shall 9 inches. 20 feet. tons. full BM two cargo both of we shall modern inches. In the and second columns we numbers of the half ordinates of the load-waterplane. and the displacement this 4535 work have We in deal table with the vessel when first in condition. 3 co-efficient. is the extreme breadth. the value first is of The a small deadweight carrier of length. . The given the below. pliers with the cubes. calculate type. No. of J. reckoning from the after end. impress particular the method upon vessels. Simpson's Multipliers and the products of these multithe . moulded depth. us. respectively.

APPROXIMATE CALCULATION OF No.es. 1!M. 183 . of £ Ordinat.

a critical one. varying between ^ and line. the position of the centre of buoyancy. of the latter mean moulded figure draught. and therefore BM In the larger -0806 x the 39 5 Q X ^ ' 9 5 = 6-77 feet. the vessel. this value may be taken vessels. . in vessels of full form low as us *o8. is In order to for to fix the position of the metacentre in the vessel. This condition forms an excellent basis from which to calculate the value of vessel GM that for the when laden with any kind of cargo. necessary know 2°o the height of the centre of buoyancy. ensuring the good behaviour of the vessel at sea. displacement as the volume of a V = t x B x D x G 2 where C 2 these approximations. may always be written a co-efficient varying with the form. as vessels of ordinary form. must.— — — — — 1^4 treated. such as yachts. For some classes of vessels the launching condiand the amount of GM available then should be known. be employed. SHIP CONSTRUCTION ship's is AND CALCULATIONS. finer. As a for test. will and calculations should be made to find the disposition of ballast which give a value of GM. 18-58 vessel. including machinery. of vessels Cases are on record capsizing through deficient stability. is Still another condition calling for special consideration when in ballast. Using bM may become k may rise to it I/' C t LttD= even X 2 D~ H Dwhile in fine For many classes of merchant vessels k as '15. . we get . Another important condition for which the metacentric height should be is known is that called "light-ship. ends ot the load waterplane and the underwater body are both and making due allowance and BM = -0818 x ^ *LL = 27-25 of 9 40 - feet. let '09." which means that the vessel cargo or complete. In approximate calculations. Values of height of metacentre above therefore centre figures buoyancy thus obtained are it seen to approach the actual very closely. formula to the two examples which we have full made ~ ^2 detailed For the small vessel. or less ships. it is frequently necessary to know tion is it for other draughts. as obtained from correct drawings oi While metacentre it is most important to know the position of a floating at vessel's transverse when her load draught. measured for full the being used downwards from the waterFor detailed calculations. which has ends. of course. k = = = —^ = 7 87 ' *o8o6 . but is without bunker coal. Modern cargo vessels frequently perform voyages in ballast trim. while being launched. apply the approximate calculations.

line AA at 45° to the vertical where the load waterplane intersects A B. on a diagram. is and spotted on A Then each refers. plotted. referring to off fig. 188. It will be clear.DIAGRAM OF METACENTRES. a distance equal to that it between is the load draught and the draught to which and a curve y drawn through them. To obtain. on also drawn the distance between — B M at the corresponding is In plotting the curve of metacentres. it is only necessary to draw a horizontal line at that draught to intersect the line AA x aX some point Elt and to draw through the latter point a vertical line A B is drawn from the point to the after curves of little buoyancy and metacentres at B and BE. of these M }.. 188. the procedure curve of centres of buoyancy. now. that B M is the height of metacentre above the centre of buoyancy corresponding to the draught . (The centre of gravity must be dealt with specially. M . 188. a consideration. Thus we have. as The curve of metacentres is usually plotted which the curve of centres of buoyancy is the two curves at any point being the value of draught. To complete the diagram. the value of B M at any draught. a diagram constructed showing the change in the position of M with change in draught. from such a diagram. That is is to say. such as fig. B. translated out horizontally. BE say. including the loaded one. 185 is essential to gravity. four conditions for which it know the positions of the transverse metacentre and the centre of is To enable us to find the former quickly at any draught. the height of M for various points draughts calculated etc. the same as the which we may assume to be already Fig. a A. M^ M s. for we shall show afterwards).

a cir- straight M coin- with the centre of the section for all draughts. somewhat less or while a vessel from will load . entirely due the fact that. T 7". cular section. since B constant. 189. very instructive. . for in one curves of metacentres cross con- in way prismatic bodies having of sections of rectangular. to say. the is vessel lightens. 0. at infull first. B M= as — D -. vessel of box form resembles that that is for the ordinary ship in being convex to as the base." height deck above the waterplane. will the " freeboard. This peculiarity the metacentres if of vessels form should be carefully noted. is a horizontal ciding The locus line. the buoyancy in falls more quickly than the value of curves of BM of creases. to marked It is respectively R /?. as might be expected. The convex shape to curve of metacentres centre therefore. the of the initial stability be reduced. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. The curve for the Fig. floating 189 this are shown. the position of M 02 at first falls. For a box-shaped of vessel. diagram. the immersed for volume being then more or less triangular in form. be increased. the of value the B M of continually increases is. and circular form. triangular locus as of M a vessel of diminishes as section to a straight be noticed that line which in the of draught vessels —a characteristic be found the dia- grams fine they approach very light draughts. C The full curve marked This diagram for applys is a cargo vessel will ordinary form with the falls lines. diminishes. as we see that of gravity to the position rises of the centre the be draught although another assumed unchanged. triangular. so that.i86 In structed fig.

displacements. If some coal still remain in the bunkers. the height of G may then be determined. of her stowage. since on completion cannot. of explain. not aground at any point. as we have greatly influences the final position and its "light-ship" position therefore not of the same in G. it In carrying out an experiment that is important to see. ballast tanks. of its cargo. cannot. perfectly simple in principle. seen. is of itself of no value whatever in predicting a vessel's initial stability. is. and other for vessels. in which every item of a its weight. since is known. importance. details the calculation consistship's finding however. If she be "light. we may have two similar vessels with identical curves of metacentres. in of a huge moment is calculation. yachts. . consists The experimental method. as obviously. the method employed by the naval architect in the preliminary stages of a ment. without great expense. excessive it initial stability. For example. elaborate in all We method ing. is stability of gravity must be very carefully made. or by neighbouring vessels. including her cargo. the centre of gravity must to in that briefly plane. G may be found directly by calculation. the vessel floating quite freely.. and bunkers. the centre of gravity being fixed by the values obtained when the sum of each of these systems of moments is divided by the total weight of the vessel. 187 GRAVITY. determined very easily by means of an experiand being thus known for a given condition. As to. In warships. Indeed. The datum lines are taken in the middle-line plane. as provided by such diagrams as the above. which sail practically constant the estimate the centre any defect in the corrected. and yet load at the draught one may have already. lie since both sides in of the ship are alike. in the /. or too tightly moored to the quay. and the the other of be unstable. be vessels In freight-carrying the of stowage 6. METHODS OF FINDING THE POSITION OF THE CENTRE OF — A knowledge of the position of the transverse metacentre at any draught. From this. vessel by moving ship's the deck. the effect of a new As disposition of cargo on the initial stability may be closely estimated. it would be better if moorings could be unloosed altogether. stability similar just referred condition latter has stable been entirely influenced by the have position of In the vessel the heavy items been placed low down in the other. observing the consequent upon the the position M is and thence deducing the value of GM. it unduly hampered should be trimmed level so that its weight and . stated is is the relation between In the positions vessels M and G which the the of paramount as to point.TO FIND POSITION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY. work. This is well as by experiment.<?. This shows how much the behaviour of a vessel at sea depends on those who have charge Fortunately. this It importance. The condition of the vessel should next be noted. should be empty. multiplied by distance from two datum lines at right angles in the middle-line plane." the holds. ship's G may be design in arranging the positions of at the fixed weights. the opposite has been the case. first place. which heeling the effect we now proceed a weight centre across of gravity. of fact.

the ballast tanks these weights. A correction made in afterwards to allow for the effect on the final position of centre of If gravity by the removal or addition of loaded trim. and a straight edge on which to record the movements of the latter could be fitted in a suitable position near the deck. up of a heavy weight into a short distance. but they should carefully sounded. when the dis- Fig. edge. to of all items which may still go on board to complete the such as deck machinery. ensure a definite when been weight is moved with across lighter the deck. when the holds are empty. is etc. and the weight marked on a straight edge arranged for With a loaded vessel this will. the line being suspended at the upper-deck coaming. the heeling consists of the product of the weight into the distance moment. of course. ballast tanks holds particularly detrimental such Loose water in an experiment. may be made vessel. and weight should inclination ready.. is a place allowing an unobstructed passage across the ship. small boats. or and is any got loose water pumped to out. not be possible. Successful experi- ments have carried out a heeling weight. tance moved has been considerable. or vice versa. The method of conductceiling. This consists of the heeling weight.IO» position SHIP CONSTRUCTION of centre of gravity AND CALCULATIONS. of course. movements of the bob the purpose on top of the ing the actual experiment may now be on each described. will do quite well to suspend the bob weight from. 190. a straight For a vessel of so as to size. as. but a mast-stay. the vessel should be be will probably be empty. half at the heeling weight is arranged of the upper deck. if screwed up tightly. side In the first place. The weights and positions vessel. may be require determined. is at a hatchway. The plumb line is usually hung in the middle-line plane of the A convenient place. which moved. must also be noted. fair The apparatus may now be a plumb line and bob. The vessel in the upright . the not be less than about ten the tons.

to other shipbuilders "light-ship" for condition light the is only one dealt The the information shipmaster. tons. to centre or obtained the condition for frequently supplied be used as a basis making estimates of the position of the in of gravity when in ballast. are for afterwards made allow for the removal the if inclining and the addition and deduction of other weights. such be necessary to bring the vessel into the desired condition. The point G\ is the is centre of gravity of the in the inclined of the the condition. being intersection vertical with middle line.~N K* being very small. With with. with the positions of their centres above the base. when a put fully strict loaded. in upward of action buoyant of this must be line the the the vertical GJH and it M is. the NR may be taken as the length of the plumb We length therefore GM = This is of^umbline (uncorrected). causing the plumb line to move out of the centre and take up a position R K. such as when In these estimates it is. and to combine the whole in a moment For ballast conditions. by l definition. resultant Since there force equilibrium. and for loaded conditions with homofor loaded conditions with geneous cargoes. particularly where the ballast consists calculation. side is then moved through a distance a feet across shown. of the necessary to have account weights of the various items of on board. other in Now. position. in where W the weight in in tons. however. triangles N R K and G M G are similar. this method is quite 'reliable cargo or ballast . the viz. x0fly all the metacentric the height and of that remains the to be line. From inspection. It is the custom with certain shipbuilders to heel their vessels position of the centre of gravity for the when in the first two of the four conditions " light " previously mentioned. is 1 89 carefully and the point marked (fig. the ship. of water in fixed compartments. as it is to be of the care to ascertain the weight and the centre . the as height transverse metacentre of above the same centres.TO FIND POSITION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY. the metacentre. line. and W the the total displacement vessel line . miscellaneous feared that cargoes. The weight on one as N where the plumb bob crosses the straight edge 190). and GM The inclination JV_R distance get GG. any actual service condition. or any other datum line. moving the heeling weight from one side of the ship to the to causes the centre of gravity of the whole structure move the same direction is through a distance given by the equation heeling G G\= moved clearly —777-.. of course. done is to obtain position of the centre of gravity the above base to deduct this distance at this from draft. line measured from the to diagram metaof Corrections weights. therefore. required it is not so satisfactory. a the distance it is feet. the " launching " and is conditions.

The of the NK of the the plumb line caused to by moving one portion weight across deck from port transferred starboard. were placed one line. uncorrected of of the of centre the of gravity above the base the height the centre gravity inclining weights above . course. and without such care. therefore. the calculated position of the ship's of gravity of his might be very wide of vessel the mark. calculation. At the time of the experiment the a including the line heeling weights. at equal distances from the* centre deflection the distance between their centres being 33 feet. and In resulting deflection of the plumb the line noted it was taken. 6 inches.— 190 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. Calling inclin- the displacement ing of the vessel the including height of the inclining weights W. feet. arranged two lots tons. GM positions = 23*5 —— x '0363 =171 feet. as recorded particulars fully heeling experiment carried out on her when vessel. The port. we have the following — base line Height of nietacentre above centre of buoyancy Height of centre of buoyancy above Height of nietacentre above base line Distance of centre of gravity below nietacentre Height of centre of gravity above base line = 675 = 875 = 15-5 = 171 — 1379 this feet. two vessels (see let us take the at case the of the smaller of the page feet 182). was found to be 6\ inches. Now 1 4535 "* J and. stability. feet. Assuming the to of the : nietacentre and the centre of buoyancy be given.. tons. whose nietacentre load draught we have found to be 675 of a above the centre of buoyancy. effect These weights being situated above the their ship's gravity. feet. and was the only centre of necessary. other portion the the of the inclining weight was next shifted from starboard to . would not always be exercised centre • gravity of every individual item of the cargo. plumb line. returned the middle but scarcely did so. The correction inclining weights were removed from the was lower ship. the of removal to the latter point. lot The plumb The inclining on each side was hung from in a stay and of weights. W. was 23 five 6 inches long. across the the deck was replaced old of and have an observation to taken of line. 5! inches. feet. To make when a special sure of the condition with regard to initial fully loaded with a mixed cargo. the mean of observations was viz. experiment. As a practical example of such an experiment. loaded are available. the weights /. It should. in its As a check. the weight position. had displacement of 4535 feet. a shipmaster can always resort to heeling which we have seen to be simple in character and absolutely reliable. of the deck..

5134 tons. and heights in and taking moments about the base feet). From the curve of the feet.CALCULATION OF GM. holds. The corrected metacentric thus became the 15*5 1377 = 173 already feet. we have above base New To get is height of centre of gravity^ line )~ 4525 x 1377 45 25 — - 250 x 26*5 2 ^ 5° M altered plane. find to what extent the centre of gravity and metacentric height will be affected.680 tons in in of cargo and bunker coal 3320 tons in distributed shelter follows: — 6420 tons tons of cargo lower bunkers. further example. now a very simple matter.13-02 = 278 feet. and 940 of coal Tabulating our data. but also a slight increase in the value of B M. we must allow for the fact that the position of by the change in displacement and in the form of the waterAssuming no change of trim to take place the corrected Change in draught Weight of cargo removed Tons per inch of immersion = The new draught metacentres line is is. 1875 -0*95 = 17*8 feet. base /. the height of height M above the base remaining as before. This vessel's weight. or removing them from the : altogether. of gravity being 20 6 inches above the top of to keel. the 191 (the weights being in tons. corresponding height of transverse metacentre above the base 15*8 and thus we have GM = 15-8 . To raising vessel estimate or change in the position of the centre of gravity due to lowering weights is on board. . when in the "light" condition. 'tween decks. Light weight of ship Deadweight Total displacement = 5134 = 10680 — 15814 tons. at a certain port. As a i. Let us take a specific case Assuming 250 tons of cargo are to be discharged from the bridge 'tween decks of the above vessel. tons. or "95 feet. take the case of the large cargo steamer previously dealt with (see page 182). therefore. feet. A feet. we have tons. There was a the slight fall in the position of the centre of buoyancy due to reduction in draught. G M. -5- = 1 1 '36 inches. the centre Assuming the dislet placement scale and diagram of metacentres be available.. but with no coal or cargo aboard. Taking moments about the base line.e. we have Corrected height of centre) of gravity above base ) Wxh-Wx W-w H*2 = 4535 x 1 / ' 319 2-iZ 21 x 10 2 = 1377 . is ready for sea. us find the as GM when laden with 10.

follows . we must make a calculation. To moment obtain the position as of : the centre of gravity. The transverse metacentre above the base line at this draught (from diagram) is 23-5 feet.— 192 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. find Turning this to the displacement scale we the draught corresponding to displacement to be 27 feet 6 J inches to bottom of keel.

the the stability of raising or lowering. of the increase the effect running to in 183 will. height of metacentre above base under the assumed conditions at this draught is 23-25 so that GM The burning to = 23*25 . considerable data must on of its be available. it might be considered desirable run up some water ballast in order to bring G M to about its previous Let of to sufficient value. assuming centre gravity of the line. that viz. * See a paper by Sir Naval Architects.. . out of the coal would thus reduce the initial stability. -98 feet. of the Transactions of the Institution of N . representing the weight of the ballast by B be 2 above that — (14874 from which . the increase that difference before. of 6 degrees will be from affected the extent at it. As there would be draught to spare. adding or removing. the 193 feet. In many instances a rule* shipmaster may not still have find this informaeffect By an approximate initial he may. the the a its moderate centre weight. APPROXIMATE METHOD OF CALCULATING THE EFFECT IN THE DUE TO ADDING OR REMOVING WEIGHTS OF MODERATE AMOUNT.14874 x so that '69) Sin foot tons = 4492 Sin Q foot tons. be the supposed base. weight rule. stability Thus.22*56 = '69 feet. New value of GM = "69 + '25 4- = INITIAL STABILITY centric height. be to by the amount (26-04 - ^3 x Sin 6 foot tons = 4399 x Sin Q foot tons. and taking moments about we have. . w x h x Sin 6 foot the correction or being a decrease the waterplane. Wm. and from therefore- diagram we find that the metacentre would rise half-an-incb. by approximate 2) x method. like the foregoing. + B) 22'3i ' B x 2 = 14874 x 22*56 n B = ballast 14874 x 22-56. gravity provided he knows the its amount If to and be distance of from in the feet load-waterplane. water inches.14874 x 22-31 3 20*31 the —— =183 J - tons. admitted the to lower of the vessel's centre ballast gravity 3 feet Then. by to this the stability an inclination tons. between is stability adding the ballast and existing (15057 x -98 . removed the if w is added some point below some point above and an increase if of the conditions tons be opposite of these. Righting the Moment =W after GM x Sin 0. the approximation is a good one. Whyte in volume XIX. in tons.APPROXIMATE CALCULATION OF INITIAL STABILITY. and h at distance from load-waterplane. tion. of this ballast on the initial vessel it referred above. however. The added the would increase draught — '04 O = 3J inches. By is the the exact method. — In order to make estimates of a vessel's metaor initial stability.

SAFE MINIMUM 6 A/. This method only gives reliable results when the addition or removal of stability is 10 degrees the weights causes no appreciable change question of in the form of the load-line. the fact Those who that have favoured a large value have stiffness confronted sea. is on the side of For order safety. a very small value necessarily so. a crank and may mean. only as to the obtain a steady at gun is G M should be small. by the amount (200 x n) Sin If the cargo were re2200 x '1736 = 381-9 foot tons. to As a board the at at initial further example. In designing the various classes of warships.194 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. owing ficed are subject. Cases good as account vessel is themselves above. . This specially necessary. to bad behaviour as will appear when we come indicates to the of rolling. suppose 200 tons of deck cargo be taken on be to reduce n feet above the load-waterline. there seems of of be a consensus in opinion in favour of limiting to to the foot minimum when of filled value of GM steamers about medium size one the with a homogeneous cargo. to however. On the other hand. is have a margin given above. yet the proved to herself in every way a good sea-boat. moved instead. when initial action. If ma} the be expected 'since each vessel on active after service. should be carried. in that they give may 3 will not 3^- be unduly heeled when as canvas. the steady of and It is a sufficiently large value gun platform must be sacriG M provided to meet all eventualities. height minimum under of course. and to adopt values of metacentric heights thus suggested. G M cannot be consideration is readily altered the completion of platform. the value of the metacentric height must be from carefully considered from the point of is view of what vessel. —The been the subject of a minimum of value of G M has much debate and been at difference opinion. when loaded instance. however. which just brings them are on record of vessels which have given a with smaller metacentric heights. In one oft-quoted the GM was as low as '6 feet. and where homo- geneous cargo not admit of this. and considered has the to be provided in ocean-going value value of steamers when the metacentric sailing-ships. the initial stability would be increased by the same amount. warships. although not an altogether unsafe is to one. with great conduces subject vessel. load-waterline. to which some war vessels. The effect will which foot tons. the weights being then fixed and the displacement more or less constant. a minimum of to of rolling motion such sea thereby assured. The a best authorities to feet minimum ballast value. to but beyond our province to fully discuss the subject as affecting coming to the case of trading merchant vessels. as in a liability lose a portion load-waterplane design. a much a higher G M requisite. The this natural feeling. of the other inertia considerations the their intervene. The only secure manner of dealing with vessels in this respect compare them with others whose performances at sea are known. If.

A prism of circular section is floats in still water with all its axis horizontal. the 15 and 500 tons at 11 feet above the base. discuss the the character of the equilibrium 2. half ordinates introduced at the ends are 3 '8. float on even keel same breadth at the waterline. 6-8. feet. the breadth be 35 feet and the draught iS feet. What is metacentric stability? A vessel of foot height of 18 inches. and 7 '3 respectively. following weights are then added. 9. and numerical value the case of a rectangular vessel broad. 9*9. at the centre of of the section for draughts. inclination of the vessel. floating on even keel at a draught of 20 feet. — 16'39 feet above the base. deep. Each pontoon 4 feet and 2 waterline. the following weights 600 tons from 2 feet. feet deep. 1041*6 foot tons. two rectangular pontoons is placed wide and floats half immersed when the raft is laden. and what are in still uses ? Construct such to a diagram for a homogeneous rectangular prism afloat feet water. 195 VII. — 5-67 feet. what are the values in the two cases? prisms rectangular at the Two same draught. — 6*83 feet. A vessel as is floating at rest of in still is water. feet. —5 degrees. of ^ vessel the is The displacement moved 8 feet 400 tons find . 5. 9-6. the displacement being 530 Ans. they are also the Ans. 7. ship— (2). are 400 tons removed. — 4. . %•%.. By By calculation. Explain an approximate method of calculating the height of transverse metacentre in above the centre of buoyancy. the centre transverse gravity Define the metacentre centre feet . Ans. calculate the stability in 4000 tons displacement has a metacentric tons at an inclination of 10 degrees. the transverse metacentre feet the centre of buoyancy. Show that the height If of metacentre above the centre of buoyancy in the first case is half that in the second. changes in QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER 1. are — *2. Ans. If tons be across deck. and tons. Ans. respectively. 8. and work out the numerical value cargo steamer of 48 feet beam and 25 feet draught. and 100 tons from 14 feet above the base. and triangular section. raised. 600 tons 10 feet. assuming be 30 broad and 20 10. measured on one side of the middle-line at intervals of 16 feet. The centre of gravity of a certain the cargo vessel of 4500 tons displacement viz. Calculate the metacentric height. —6 'Oi feet.. n. Ans. The equidistant ordinates of a vessel's load-waterplane. the case of & full-formed Ans. 3. and 12 centre the of gravity 3 the is 5f feet above above the centre of buoyancy. — 3 '46 feet. assuming the centre of gravity of raft and lading to be 3 feet above the parallel each other and 6 feet apart from centre to centre. and - 1 8 feet. Ans. How is a. its — 7*36 it feet.QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER VII. 12. Show that the metacentre 6. metacentric diagram constructed. 11*34 feet - A to feet raft is supported by. ico. I0'2 io*o. the base. experiment. Calculate new height of centre of gravity. and rigidly attached to. write down the formula state its for the height of in the transverse metacentre above the 38 of buoyancy. Explain how you would find the position of the centre of gravity of a (1). Find the height of the transverse metacentre above the centre of buoyancy. is found at to be 16 feet above at viz.

and discharging 100 tons with being 22 foot feet. (2). the load draught Ans. in initial How would you estimate the change a stability of a vessel due to raising or lowering.19^ 13. due 150 tons feet to running in from of ballast at 2 feet above the to base. begin — Stability increased 660 tons approximately. Estimate approximately the change in stability at an inclination of 10 degrees. . of cargo 30 above the base. adding or removing. Approximately. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. weight of moderate amount? (1). Accurately. 14.

the VIII. stem. present with when heeled one we the subject propose to deal with longitudinal inclinations — that W The in vessel in fig. other not the known. 191 is supposed to be heeled to a very small angle tons from forward to aft respectively. point of intersection the S of the new and most cases. by transferring a weight feet.CHAPTER Trim. called the of change of trim. as shown. and the the finding of this for any enin proposed condition explain \ lading constitutes trim problem. vessels a transverse in the is. the old water- lines is at about the middle of of length. : . at the The draught is increased at the The sum of the distances L Z. IN through of trim. previous small chapter angles we examined in the condition of direction . through a distance a W^ and WL represent. Y actually coincides is with little the aft centre of gravity of the waterplane length . and W Wv books In fig. in it a to of the middle the however. is sufficiently correct assume . W L^ 197 which. that We shall deavour to text two methods so well of solution — one It ordinarily given the 191. flotation stern before and and decreased is after the transference. the lines of a fore-and-aft direction.

we have Change b of trim — 50 x So x 200 2000 x 190 therefore = ^'1 feet. act through the point Gv This is indicated in 191. ing 9 if it increased by the same amount.. The draught forward aft will be reduced. One Take a or two simple examples will illustrate the application of this feet vessel long of 2000 tons displacement. approximately. WxGm of trim {2h which weights is the ordinary formula for change due to any given shift of already on 200 board. 120 so as just screw. corresponding to the condition before of IV. obviously Change of trim = WW the x + L L x = (W. load line x tan Q centre Now the vessel the to movement of be weight a w causes the x of gravity of drawn aft through distance GG given by the equation of the GG x = — — r». The angle between two lines inclination between the water lines. and this simplifies work somewhat. condition. or Gm tan = = = ^w a so that tan W x Gm Change of trim Length of load-line Q. formula. -. and therefore GG = Gm X tan 0. From (1) tan Q /. ' say 2^ inches. when the ship once more in equifig.S + S = length of Q tan Q. Re- the figure. Their point of intersection distance m is called the longitudinal height. the see being considerable importance trim is problems. Calling the length of load-line ing and equating these two values of tan we obtain the relation Change I of trim = w a . as also the previous line of vertical forces the shifting through G. (i). the SLj and S ferring to W x to be equal. and feet. clearly we the presently. . the effect on the a little. latter and the of Gm the the longitudinal in metacentric as Q. and the is resultants vertical forces of weight and buoyancy. flotation due to shifting 50 tons through 80 Transposing and introducing the quantities given. in which the quantity find Gm aft is 190 feet. J D 12 Jinches. the to minimum immerse weight the w required be shifted. say. would be W = i'ij x 2000 x 190 200 x 120 = 23*715 ' J ° tons. the propeller in tips were found the to that in this vessel were show- inches above water when the original feet aft. shall metacentre.— — — — I9S SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS*. librium. and the draught Again. (W being the displacement in tons).

readily found. Avrite down equation giving the moment c L required. CALCULATION OF B m (fig 191). may be moved 120 feet obviously W = The moment in it 2849*4 1 20 = 2V7S is tons - to it alter trim one inch thus seen to be very values useful. Change b In the the of trim in inches . and indeed. fig. M the transverse metacentre. To do since this is only in necessary to feet) substitute (2) inch (or T\ the units the are for "change of trim. and as we aft. data. Moment to alter trim i-i 1 inch — w x a = —r— W x L x 12 Gm —~ foot tons. definition M given on be page apply points to m. for The difference between practical purposes the trim as we shall see presently. and order to have is ready to hand for all possible conditions as to draught. Thus. call- reader should draw one any case which he may have the only term in LONGITUDINAL METACENTRE. as longitudinal metacentric height m the being the longitudinal The 179 will point m is obviously analogous to familiar. know that «/. the exact position of the centre of gravity at is the various draughts unknown. In the preceding example W and using for x a = 2000 x 190 200 x 12 the = 158"? foot ° ° tons. . with The principal use of m found. and for as an exercise. frequently in {see found convenient to plot it a curve to of its with varia- tion draught. must be a trimming moment of the weight. foot. moments thus found are sufficiently acis curate. In the calculations as. effect of shifting 50 tons through 80 : more simply. is usual employ B m instead of Gm and the 191) of course. 199 In dealing with questions like the foregoing. however. to it frequently saves time to find at it outset moment in alter 1 trim one inch. dealing 1 . The M and m have similar functions in respect to stability but vessels have enormous righting power in a longitudinal direction^ and detailed calculations of longitudinal is stability are therefore in unnecessary. may be G m and B m... the there trim total necessary submerge propeller 18 inches. with which of we are already also In if fact. ' this figure we get same aft results as before feet the -. and B m..— As the case of the transverse . is usually small. for transverse the word longitudinal substituted. 18 x 158*3 = 2849*4 foot tons." and after transposing. The plotting of the diagram for a simple matter.TRIM. the in working out the any trim problem. we have 50 r— = - Thus. questions in of trim. is = Trimming moment tt Moment as —— —— change of x 80 s ~rf to alter trim 1 inch 158*3 to —= 2*:.— The ing for equation the (2) special explanation is G 17). as illustrated above. J second tips question. already described metacentre.

shows waterplane. 192. 6. changed. that for ordinary vessels . X Since the volume of displacement is Ibd 3 — _P_ i2d' feet.— — 200 metacentre. example. viz. the numerator the expression giving less. 192 at a box-shaped the to vessel of breadth course. The same formula used. the SHIP CONSTRUCTION height of the AND CALCULATIONS. Take. Bm = but here -n-i / is the moment its of inertia of the waterplane with shall respect to a transverse axis through the centre of gravity. calculation / is rather more laborious form. is of a rectangle. Bm If it = i b b 12 / d~ be given that / = 150 feet. of We see presently. in the previous case for box-shaped or other vessels of simple for however. we Bm have Bm Simplifying and substituting 12 values Bm . this length is. than is. drawn right angles the middle 12 the axis of the moment of inertia- l about x x = Pb Fig. /. were of constant circular section. metacentre is is longitudinal first : found above the centre of buoyancy. and d = 15 then If in this Bm vessel = -j2 ICO X 12 x —— of KO 15 7- = 125 J feet. but the volume of displacement would be should would be unIn such a case. not so. with its longitudinal axis the waterplane. which line. xx. and draught Fig. d.

a = 0. h. perhaps. be understood a by a a load simple graphic explanation. new curve. added together. of these ordinates about of a to some chosen the to treat these moments This the as ordinates area. and usually taken of the mid-length. and area of the latter. 201 nature of the outline Coming of the plexity into to ship forms. a 2 3 In the same way. this quantity is usual to divide the of waterplane by ordinates in number suitable for Rule. and the common a. No To simple find formula is available it for the moment of inertia of the waterplane. subject of a further correction be In is explained presently. enclose areas as drawn through the tops of these rectangles shown. the strips a.CALCULATION OF Bm. are numbered the from aft.. represent the moment of inertia curves of the plane about the chosen axis. 0. = gb 2 h 2 a. is xX is the about which the moment of inertia the vicinity to be calculated. the quantities 963 h% 4& 3 /? . . The foregoing may. to calculate the the application Simpson's moment calculate to of inertia of elementary strips of area at each axis. moments of inertia of of the of area on the other line side XX may moments 2 be found. the base in 0. Fig. etc. 193. of inertia At the points of division on the middle of AC. {hfa = 6 4 A 3 a. fig. are erected as rectangles. etc. gives better moment inertia required. 193. Calling breadth of each little strip we may write Moment of inertia of elementary strip at b\ about x X „ 62 b3 b4 „ „ „ » b5 „ strips = = = = x (4A) 2 a 62 x (3//)* 63 x 64 x b5 x — 0. the each case being the small Fair breadth and the ordinates. which. . axis ABO in represents half of waterplane of a vessel. The ordinates interval 6 b 62 63 between them is . we find that the varying waterplane and the of the form of the underwater body introduces com- calculation. (2hfa = 4b h a.

If XX not which generally would of the be a correction must be viz. the 470 feet vessel for which we have The table below exhibits the full work. and. the transverse for As a numerical example. = / + Ak2 of the where / is the moment of its inertia plane about area of an axis through axis the centre of gravity. No. This is done by means formula explained on page 63. of Ordinates.. . 193) that. gravity the axis of the moment area. the centre of of the the waterplane case. and It may be mentioned. /. No. of must so contain placed. to scarcely calls explanation. obtained We 7h have already seen how to find the latter point. having written value of the required quantity may be at once down. tance k t A it the waterplane. each ordinate of the the interval moment interval of inertia diagrams volves areas the square of the between the ordinates. is necessary to centre this find the of dis- which is obtained if the position of the ot gravity the plane is known. made. however. that columns 4 and 6 are its introduced centre of determine the the area of the axis waterplane. inertia is Now. the finding of the in introduces as cube of the the expression for the moment of inertia. and at the 5 in- position also of as gravity from assumed ordinate (fig.. take calculated B M. and Applying this formula to the above case. shown below. 202 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. I x moment of inertia about any parallel the XX y h the distance between these axes.

from then by the removal of a weight w/. a vessel obviously rise or through parallel fig. = 312890090. having the load-waterplane. 194.G.I. — Suppose of will 150 tons of cargo. Under a assumed distance. 6 = 559 feet. containing the or sinks into centre of gravity of the this of volume which condition. 5 ordinate = — — 2 — 312890090. about axis through No. in in on even keel at 27 feet 6 inches? and in those involving additions of cargo. has layer centre the vertical rises plane. 312680458.W. that the removed or added weight is this. for instance. are usually caldraughts and plotted in a diagram from which. G In the above case. it the first place. C. M. values of B m.CALCULATION OF Bin. trim For easy reference. of the vessel is 15814 tons. for accurate G m and not B m is required the distance between B and G should therefore be deducted from the calculated distance B m. about axis through of L. is its 80 feet before gravity above vessel what be discharged from the be the new draughts forward and aft. another moment due to removing w will also be in operation. Bm = I -77 V = ^126804^8 „Q 15814x35 = 565 3 * feet- culated for various draught. as assumed. gravity is 6 feet above the centre of buoyancy. in out will of the sink water. in this case tending of . consequently calculations. layer of the removal of of displacement being to cause : the and if.(22388 x (3'o6) 2 ) = The displacement so that. and a be the distance the vertical through fl. the buoyancy of the vessel to move aft centre weight before removal had its centre in the vertical containing 6. such as the above. A i=u_ r- The ing trim foregoing principles calculations 1. the original centre of buoyancy of the rises W the effect x a — Moment the tending to depress bow. the centre of being usually above B. Of course. For. 194. it being given to that the vessel to begin with In questions such as is usual its to assume.P.I. given a the corresponding B ffi may be read off. . will be more cases clearly : understood by the followcentre for a few actual Example the centre of . Gm = 565 Fig. 3 4S40'S X (46 "Q^) X 203 M. if b be the centre of gravity of the layer through which a vessel of b vessel. and.

the weight from true posi- tion. S (see trim to be divided equally at stem Allowance should be made for the fact 191). and thus the vessel W x moment due raise to the increased that will the of bow. 1 W men = — . if the vessel be weight w be added with its centre of gravity in the same vertical as 6. tend to depress the bow line so that the final effect be to sink the vessel to the It W L without change of trim. the addition of the same weight its 80 abaft By removing by stern . cides with the centre of gravity of the load-waterplane. these that. foot tons. forward and aft. 204 to SHIP CONSTRUCTION the AND CALCULATIONS. 6 of may be taken as the vertical containing the centre of gravity the Applying of the principles to the is working out of our question. 2f inches. the raise bow.-« 150 r t~Ions per inch of immersion — — = 150 53-3 = . and will tend to the added weight.000 foot tons. should be noted waterplane. = . but will opposite sense. The final be 27' Forward. Trim by draughts will stern = 12000 2000 ——— = i57o 7-f inches. to rise immediately over the centre of gravity the effect of its removal therefore being to cause the vessel through a parallel distance = . Aft. should be allotted according to the proportion LL WW X S± X 8W . the point in which the water-lines intersect. which coin- change not quite correct. 4 J per The reader already knows how to find the tons inch at a given water- plane.2f + of 3 J" =26' n-|" 7 . These two moments are equal and neutralise each other. 6" 27' 6" . being of equal amount . L x 12 i5 8l 4 x 559 470 x 12 so that. nearly. Gm .2|" . 1570 foot tons. where the weights to be added or removed are in moderate. W1L1 without changing trim. — 150 x 80 x = 12. rises to the waterplane floating at the waterplane L b and the On the other hand. we therefore get vessel Moment trimming Now. A 80 little consideration before effect will show of the removal of the water- 150 tons from a plane. This fig. Moment to alter trim u . We the next take account of the fact that the cargo is 80 that feet forward of assumed has feet position. is not usually at the mid-length. and the change of trim.— —— — — . nearly. it is assumed that the 150 tons of cargo waterplane. at point feet the as centre gravity of the same that trimming point. while due to buoyancy will be w x a. 3 f" = 27' f We and that have assumed the is stern. -.

In the two previous cases. of immersion is and the moment one inch. is customary to approximate the trim by using the for Gm given by the original waterplane and. centres in fig. trim the tons inch tons. that in dealing with changes the plane altered in of flotation. the position of b may be determined from the relation be Very in little A. 205 to however. The of centre gravity of gravity of the to of the water ballast 166 feet forward of the per foot centre 33. it and. of the height. as trim. as movement metacentric of the weights. therefore. assuming centre immediately over^ j J = of gravity ffravitv to of load-waternlane load-waterplane actual 77 = 33 700 160 4 84 ' ' ^ ^8 ° 5 inches. position obviously somewhere joining is the gravity If the of the areas two planes enclosing the layer. see the may. ballast we may write : Sinkage. the weights causing the change are it comparison with total displacements the . it trim in Taking an actual case. and drawing 26 a bar which will only admit of tank of a draught 25 feet. so done. the to with care. is it is not usual . loadalter waterplane. In actual calculations. Ah of the planes WL and W\L h be known. those corresponding to the approximate and the original waterlet 2. first . Example 2.TRIM EXAMPLES. and 20 of feet forward. may the have become to materially affect the value of moment of inertia. has has the to cross 48 feet broad. Trim by head due position oi\ 166x160 ballast }/ cross at = inches. and large most cases this Another point of trim. the vessel of Example tons of be required to find the draught and discharging ballast. be safely navigated across of the trim bar. do this line 194. Show by sufficiently calculation to whether filling of the this tank the vessel enable her is pass over bar. to employ a mean G m between planes. would have been incorrect vertical assume b of in parallel be of in Its the true containing the centre is of gravity of the the line original waterplane. taken as the error is involved is if 6 be mid-point of tfe. 700 From the the information given. had they layer been to large. after 1000 tons reduction of in coal and cargo and loading 300 water The displace- . proceed to case. Assuming waterplanes to mid-length o'' New New we thus small in draught forward draught vessel aft =20' — 26' o" + + 5" 5" + - 1' 7'' 1 7'' = — 22' o" > 24/ 10".— A feet aft vessel 360 feet long. In small changes of finement. to be borne shape in mind after is. A. a final result. She to a fore-peak 160 will tons trim capacity. it this is re- the difference inappreciable in the present less than a quarter-of-an-inch.

have their centres in the vertical containing the centre of buoyancy of the layer Thickness of parallel layer b is = 700 =21 inches. original b. to ment 700 plane tons. and. assuming the weights b.— • 206 SHIP CONSTRUCTION is AND CALCULATIONS. : found to be one foot forward of the centre of gravity of the waterplane. and the leverages of the weights are measured from The work of calculating the trimming moment may be tabulated as follows — .

lines In find this made what are called trim obtained as follows: the is or curves to the trim corresponding to any mean draught and is longitudinal position of the centre of gravity. Obviously. the vessel The also horizontal distance from B of is the centre of buoyancy. amidships. say. then calculated and marked are erected. for. 191 will show. off at B2 . 19c) should be the calculated travel of centre plus B G tan . the same scale being used throughout. if the distance the centre gravity the say. the distance plotted the from of B towards gravity W (fig. 195. distance abaft is B of the centre of . points 207 in of the advantage. trim line 195. Fig. position longitudinal centre of buoyancy at ing its and a datum 2 line drawn show- relation. For quite accurate work. On to this point level B keel. with trimming the feet by the stern. a level line drawn. and a trim vertical be raised to intercept the trim line at as D y GO must be the by the stern. B being below and therefore more remote from M. LONG'S METHOD. Through the points thus found and the point B a line is drawn this is the trim line required. moves a greater distance.MR. use is Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders. buoyancy. should be noted that the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy are here assumed to travel the same distance when a change of trim takes place. This G } is not quite true. to — First. weights be ascertained travels aft on account of the movement of and plotted from B along the level line to G. all the up to 4 due of to the movement information necessary to determine any of weights on board . Long a paper read recently before North-East Coast system. plotted as at £4 verticals . For forward trims the trim the line should be continued below of buoyancy in that its level line It to indicate movement of the centre direction. as a glance at fig. is described by of Mr. trim we have here feet. the centre of buoyancy and centre of gravity are again in the same vertical line. as line is WL in represent a mean draught taken as the for which the of the trim required. Z? 4 At B 2 and and the corresponding trims marked off. therefore. with the vessel trimming 4 feet aft. is A fig.

195 is the at draught of vessel referred Employing the figures given. of the will No of required except a simple one for the travel centre on the movement of the weights. the inches. to this not necessary to proceed is refinement in ordinary cases. 80x150 " 15814-150 = erecting ? distance at is from B to and a perpendicular as to meet the trim G. however. as to. only approximate results are obtainable by the ordinary method due to the fluctuating nature of the metacentric height. we get— Fig. fig. we are do this. and for such . SHIP CONSTRUCTION 191). required. as the error thus involved inappreciable. is One advantage calculations are gravity consequent of the trim line system the absence of formulae. or 7I the same result as before. method is as accurate as any. Travel of centre ot gravity "i on removal of weight Plotting this line / F. It is AND CALCULATIONS. In this respect the weight in foregoing cases The trimming the with displacement. 196.203 (see fig. This we obtain FG. the trim by stern example is small in comparison we know the ordinary metacentric Where the weights and moments are great. able the to This 1 be seen by the an example. It will be interesting to work out Example (page 203) by this trim line method load .

If. and would probably be of trim. it buoyancy become. ballast. hole into compartment trim in will assumed affected. easily By an dealt exercise of if imagination. and 8 head. The problem determine the line W LV the Now weight. a through these points being trim required. as The : process the of calculation tentative in be follows — character and may the First. now. W\L\ at rest X is . for necessary of this have been restored and purposes. and ing the heights of 2 feet. required.BILGING. not by an added it or but by a loss of buoyancy. the important trim problem of finding the floating condition of a vessel consequent on one or more of her compartments being bilged and in free communication with the sea. It is however perhaps scarcely its necessary to point out that a trim line is reliable at considerable. say of 26 is be at it only necessary feet.. sufficient most for cases. 4 parallel lines to cut the correspond- cross curves line at A. — Given a diagram like that just is described. the in ordinary cases in tendency of this trim lines is to become be light less steep for with usethis reduction ful draught. trim for any draught within the of the curves trim can once for 1. and 2 feet by the Curves through these points give the cross curves feet. any trim question drawn can be readily and quickly dealt with. the line of flotation after the accident. Such a Fig. in which a vessel is shown bilged in the after compartment of the relating to the ship for which the diagram hold. diagram represents are obviously the provides of information of 196 lines in case the steamer trim Example have The drawn. water in the the compartment thus. and loss is usual to treat the deducted problem as the the bilged one of buoyancy. weight of water the compartment up to original waterplane WL should be found. vessel. a trim line at an intermediate draught. etc. and the parallel sinkage determined to assuming compartment open the sea and the admitted water placed with . and conditions. Viewed of is only to obtain for weight and position the centre of gravity water is a complete in solution the problem. and where they indicate trims of 4 feet. for instance. and that where the change of displacement Experience goes to show that a new curve is required. change of trim of is here caused. desired. it is changes only is of trim and draught. as large. the practical a weight the of carried. BILGING. lines been The points which the corresponding level waterplanes. those the in load. are enclosed by small circles. to draw a line level line at this point. closed — the lost vessel being once will more have at rest — the place not but as an important change will taken her floating condition. the however. and 0. be a obtained. Consider. question may be more be be the with . By a at constructing line cross curves however. limits as is done cross full stability. 5. Such a case is depicted in fig. with is the to ship once more WL the original waterline. own draught. 197. horizontal the waterplanes for which latter intersect their 2 feet. feet by the stern. for. as For of reason they should drawn draughts. trim line 209 practically accurate for all method excels the other.

second approximation should much Fig 197. 30 broad. third. 198. drawing 10 feet forward and and suppose compartment at the extreme after-end. W^U and W L4 those when to feet and 4 in by the water. level stern. We begin by obtaining the trim line at 10 feet watertight an empty be in free Fig. respectively. shows the 4 vessel in side 2 elevation. assuming the weight to a of the first be translated to It its true position. assuming the surface to of new If draughts. WL to water-line W 2 L% the wedge of dis- . approximation. by finding the travel centre The aft trim of the of is. long. But the feet experi- As a feet numerical example. gram above the height of the original waterplane. in will next be the necessary to to calculate rise weight level water the compartment. assuming the 210 x 30 x 10 vessel be floating her displacement ^55 and in passing from the water-line = 1800 tons. can then be obtained. the and to use it in same way differ in another trim estimate. and 20 feet deep. 10 feet long. will give the point from the which the level' line and corresponding trim line should be drawn. w-- from the first. It will be necessary first to draw out the trim diagram. draught. 210 aft. take a box-shaped vessel. measured in the trim diaadded layer of displacement. is- Now. This of the the course. WL feet salt is the keel water-line. fig. 198. as already described. A B D. This is a simple matter owing to the regular nature of the vessel's shape. gravity. of gravity in the vertical plane containing the centre of gravity of This distance.2T0 its SHIP CONSTRUCTION centre AND CALCULATIONS. it may be necessary to proceed to a ence of the calculator must guide him here. to communication with the sea.

-. As S L is is half the vessel's and L L 2 foot. the volume of the wedge 1 105 x x 30 of = . 211 2- placement length. and shows cross curves in with a range position to from feet inches to 15 feet draught. initial • Beginning with the „. 199. We are now a deal with our bilging question. obviously BB 1575 x 140 2 = 3-5 feet. . condition. The stern. or 7 feet. and.BILGING. 199 is the complete 7 diagram 6 for this vessel. This is all the infortrim lines mation needed to construct the trim Fig. 1575 cubic travels' feet. its centre or. line at the initial draught. The B to Z?2> corresponding movement of the vessel's centre of buoyancy is from and from what we know of moments. horizontal travel of the centre of buoyancy. The corresponding to other displacements would be obtained in the same manner. in bilged compartment = = 85*71 tons. 1 we have 10 x 10 x -jo — Weight of water . . and in moving aft. with the vessel 4 feet by the is clearly just double this amount. LSL 2 moves i to the position WSW . 1800 x 35 fig. r 1 -. gravity 2 a horizontal distance g g l 2l 210 x = 140 feet.

and a small quantity of the water to move aft . . and the heeling moment due to not. at middle of the length to admission 01 water c = ioi"66 x 100 J iroT'66 —= 6| S'^S feet " aft. ^ assuming water situated amidships the sea also. this affects the position of the ship's centre of gravity. and by measuring from the trim vertical AB. Aft. Aft. inches nearly. J". and erecting a perpendicular. the same result could be by calculating the height of the longialter trim.I = — JO ^ = ° x 3° 6 inches. tudinal metacentre. . the moment to Of course.— —— — 2T2 Parallel SHIP CONSTRUCTION sinkage 1 AND CALCULATIONS.. * The trimming of the vessel causes die water in the compartment to change level. Horizontal travel* gravity. 210 x 30 and taking the centre of gravity of the water of the compartment. 10' 10' o" + + 6J 61 - (1' 7^") + 8' (i' 7f") = = 8' n§". 100+0— 15^=9 10' o" o£ + 6" + 1' si" = 11' "FThe In the second approximation. . and compartment open to. we can draw once the trim 4*76 line feet corresponding to along this level 2 feet 10 feet 6 inches. the draughts and become o'' aft. will the bilged compartment 1 1 now be 101*66 tons. except in the case of large compartments. . 10 J inches as the by the The draughts of the vessel will thus be . ~ and the fig. Aft. . aft of vessel's centre of j assuming the water at the inits 1 creased draught to position move into to true ~~ 90 x 100 1890 _ .o. equilibrium whether the after compart- 12' in which condition the vessel to will float in ment be now open obtained the sea or by the ordinary method. i.. diagram we find the corresponding trim by the stern to be equally Dividing parallel this forward sinkage. we get stern. . ship's bottom be intact at Referring to a level line at line 199. From 3 feet the 2 J trim inches. n" 2f. forward. and therefore the trim. 12' 2 By a third approximation we obtain the draughts Forward. "86 x 10 x ^o — — 35 The „ Parallel sinkage „ n . and adding inches as the Forward. we weight of water in start with the vessel in this trim.e. Ave get as before Travel of vessel's centre of gravity duel . but to no appreciable extent. = ior66 x 2C x 12 — = 64 the .

nearly. which roughly true in the case ot ordinary cargo vessels their load displacements. Moment For the the centre effect to alter trim inch — 15814 = 12 1318 foot ° a position tons. as the principles involved have already been an explained. the approximation either way. 2 Applying this simple formula to to alter the example on page 198. Also. of far An approximate formula. of discharging of the 150 tons from 80 feet before of gravity load waterplane. at least. G m which are and L are then the foregoing. The not ordinary for formula gives 7J inches . 12 x L we assume G m to be equal at to L.x L ~ b ~xT feet ' See a paper in the Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects for 18S2. for the height of the longibeen devised by M. Normand.* tudinal metacentre above the centre of buoyancy in ordinary cargo steamers. however. removal. should work out himself as exercise. the formula is inapplicable in draughts other than the vessels load draught.— 12 166*6 foot tons. in is thus near enough practical purposes. the trimming moment per inch becomes I foot tons. = . as from being even approximately equal. beyond her dimensions and displacement. = W is x Gm . roughly. the to 2* I $ admission alter of the water. The student. • In the formula Moment if to alter trim i inch . obtained by the exact method. APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS. or movement of weights. it unsuitable the case abnormally shallow draught in relation to length. we get Moment and trim 1 inch = 2000 - —. we have Bm * = -0735 A. c loot tons. and finally dividing deal the the latter by the in moment this trim. As is the value of for Bm of rises with reduction in draught. we thus have . giving closer results than has By this rule. We do not propose it to with fully problem way. inches 1.APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS. Change which compares with 25 of trim = So x 80 " rr . Trim by stern = 150 x 80 q ~ — = 9 inches.— Although know nothing he is still a commanding officer may regarding his able to estimate. . an inch or two ordinary cases. the trimming effect due to the vessel addition. In the case of Example page 1 203. rapidly being of great importance. 24 inches.

has been suggested. - = 30 'o x r 203. trim-line It — = 701 foot tons.x '0735 1 . and light conditions. in of similar are about the that in same as corresponding draughts. the formula takes the convenient 7~ 2 shape Moment trim 1 inch 1. is Normand's formula. If only one is trim it should be required and the angle of the corresponding trim line known. can be found quickly by means of the formula Change of trim where in inches = —^— x C x 12. and make certain definite angles with the vessels corresponding level type.foot tons. we get Moment the to alter trim 1 inch = = 30*9 ^—^ x SV3 x ^^ SVS ^-f 1567 foot tons. Substituting this value to of A 2 alter . 420 A = 420 T A 2 = 176400 P. 2 In the case of Example Moment Besides of the to alter trim 1 inch the = ^— exact in y value. W = d — weight shifted. A x L V —~n Moment to alter trim i inch = —. accuracy for preliminary calculations. Assuming Bm = G m. which compares with 700 tons. in square feet. . foot tons. trim. previous value being 1570 foot tons. foregoing. tangent of the trim line angle. type vessels a note should be made of the trim angles at useful draughts. L x 12 = This -000175 A2 t. new design could then be plotted at once the load. b = breadth of ship amidships in feet. such the those of The with trim line in sufficient case of any ballast.— — — — 214 where Srilt> CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. distance shifted. Applying the Rule to Example page . if T be the tons per inch of immersion. Now. A L = area of load waterplane = length on the load waterline in feet. V = volume of displacement in cubic feet. also that at these angles. therefore. we have the method a ready means lines making approximate estimates of lines. happens that the trim different It in ordinary cases are practically straight. W = Q = whole displacement.

Assuming this trim line angle in the case of Example 1. calculate the height of longitudinal metacentre above the centre buoyancy. Ans. and others who have deal with loading and With a good-sized diagram. measured on one side of the "2. Deduce the moment per to change trim of one inch in the case of the vessel of the last example. page 203 Change of trim = to which other is _. find height of the longitudinal metacentre feet. but an average value at the load draught of cargo steamers 300 to 500 feet in length. a level draught of 17 feet. and a scale. The line equidistant are middle at — ordinates I0'6. — 15814it 150 x 80 5 150 x •016-? x 12 J ° =8 '4 t inches. feet Define the longitudinal feet metacentre.APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS. apply the rule in own TRIM INFORMATION FOR COMMANDING OFFICERS. feet. i a . If builders would supply such trim diagrams to new vessels. showing the trim curves of his a master should be able to decide in a few minutes any question of trim. A of prism of rectangular section 200 feet long. 7"2. consequent on 300 moving a small in weight floats w at tons longitudinally through a A is vessel length feet. expression giving the a change distance of trim feet. an officer might try The on student his should ship.000 cubic and longitudinal between the ordinates 15 feet. provided the weights to be shipped and unshipped. 2t$ C varies considerably with type of vessel. lines Ships of very light draught relatively to their length. be known. we are confident they would come to be vessel. and 33 the broad.— An use to which the trim line important of inballast- method may be to applied. she has a longitudinal metacentric height of 400 . corresponding to a trim line angle of 42 J°. I2'0. above the centre of buoyancy. . Obtain the — 102-26 feet feet. We have already fully explained the procedure. QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER 1. 9/6. and the 1 9 feet. the volume of displacement interval being 20. have flatter trim than those of ordinary proportions. cases good approximation. is the supplying formation to masters ing operations. feet Ans. highly appreciated. 100 inches. and their movements. floats at a draught of 11 forward and aft. is "9163. 16 J? ^ ^^ 7 $ 4. 2. I2"0. Given that the tons and aft inch immersion have is 30. VIII. 12*0. with instructions as to their use. of 50 tons f moved aft through feet. and a displacement of 4500 tons find the new draught forward and a weight aft. -Draught ^ Forward. . Ans. of a vessel's waterplane 10*9. 3. and of the usual fullness. — 303 feet. calculate the in new draught forward the positions when the following weights been placed on board named. and half-oi'dinates the ends have values 3*8 and 77 respectively.

If 100 tons be shipped aft. 3f inches. clearly. what the full be the new floating condition. where must 5. . floats an even draught of 20 aft. filling modify the draught in tons to begin with if it admit of the vessel cross- ing the bar. Describe in detail the calculations involved. inches. and with space Ans. order that approximate position of the the desired condition may be What is a trim line? vessel. in It is desired that in the draught of water aft a steamship shall be constant. The displacement to 78CK). . and the tons per inch of immersion 33. Referring is the previous question. Weights Tons). l^Aft. forward. 40) 50] 80 1 60 40 30 Ans. feet. breadth of the vessel. . 21 r feet. . and explain its uses. -Draught 9. half bilged compartment being occupied by cargo? long. 19 feet. J- abaft. by an approximate if method. It is — Draught fa (Forward. . find the new draught forward and f using the trim line. or out of the ship. 6 inches. drawing 24 feet aft. . feetj Draught | Aftj it Suppose a weight of moderate amount to be put on board a vessel. estimate correctly the effect on the draught of filling the fore-peak tank. — Draught & /'Forward. 2| . \ I^Aft. such a line is obtained. 23 feet. 8. and 20 over which there is a depth of water of 23 feet. this and 25 feet deep. -. the tank will Given that the centre of gravity of sufficiently to is tank space is 150 feet forward of the centre of gravity of the load-water plane. 6f inches.J 216 SHI** CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULaI'IONS. compartments in open communication with the 11. as well as change their draught of water. 500 foot tons. find. 4 inches. 10. Ans. whether the coals are centre of gravity of fulfilled. Show how in the the coals may be Describe found. 12. 7. with its 100 feet from amidships. how long. 10 — Moment to change trim one inch. Ans. sea. . _ 19 2[ feet. 17 I7 feet. ^ches. lQi inches< (Forward. be placed so that the ship shall be bodily deeper in the water without change of trim? Describe. . has vessel has a this The fore-peak tank with a capacity of 100 tons. 21 feet. | Aft ^ feet . why it is that vessels in passing from salt water to fresh water trim slightly usually change 6. feet A to cross a bar steamer 330 feet long. desired that a certain vessel shall float with any two 7i inches. . 20 45 15 lool 80 -before. 48 feet broad. Distance from Centre of Gravity of Waterplane. 2 inches. at A box-shaped centre 260 feet 40 line feet for broad.. be given that the longitudinal metacentric height 345 feet. ^ Referring at to the vessel of the previous in question free — if a watertight situated will the extreme after-end be bilged and the its communication with 10 the compartment sea. Forward. construct the trim draught.

we have. IN for centre Chapter VII. 200. (large vessel) = 4525 = 1359 = 15814 — 2 333 x 1-73 x '1736 foot tons. if M transverse inclinations. except in the instance of a single of vessel. Moment * vessels W x G M x Sin. moment cannot be is obso tained by this method.CHAPTER IX. a vessel we saw how when inclined to obtain the righting or upsetting moment upright through to initial angles about the position. For inclinations much exceeding type 10 to 12 degrees. and displacement. Fig. the meta- may be considered as fixed in position. do. however. the distance Fig. clined to 200 represents a vessel of constant circular section if some angle Q G M is the metacentric height. all The exception immersed cross line. x "85 x '1736 f° ot tons. GM t will remain unchanged as the vessel heels from in- angle to angle. so there is no disturbance in weights. and that inside these limits the Heeling Thus. the righting to. by applying the metacentric method— 217 W be the . taking the two cargo for which the values of G M were ob- we have Righting moment at 10 degrees (small vessel) Do. We learned that up angles of 10 or n Q. degrees. tained. Stability of Ships at Large Angles of Inclination. referred where a vessel is designed that the sections are circular segments with a common bodies of point the centre this for all in the middle the line form of We have already shown that for floating upward pressure passes through the same that.

and draw a curve through the points so found. degrees. these are as follows Inclination. once write the at down the value of the we assume we may. the the angle is . is The only variable in this expression for this it. obviously. the to We of feet shall deal only with is the levers or rightIf arms. construct a stability line. in Feet. 3°> 45) etc. arm increases from zero at o and thence gradually decreases Fig. righting arm any inclination. floating axis the waterplane. which purpose of constructing a curve. Q.. 20 feet in As a with ing the its specific in case take a cylindrical vessel. moment in foot tons = = W x 6M W xGZ. erect perpendiculars various the points of division. too. sine of case. diameter. using a table for sines. 5 to ' «o n « w3 t£5 GIQPK. in Degrees.«J OF INCLINATION zero again at 1S0 lever degrees at . only necessary to calculate values close from o degree 90 degrees. same is : the angle 180 to - It therefore.— !l8 SHIP CONSTRUCTION Righting AND CALCULATIONS. on these perpendiculars scale off fair values of righting moment as ob- tained above. J 5 •258S •5 3° 45 60 75 7071 •S66 "9 6 59 90 . to Obviously. GZ to being the arm of the righting couple. and at intervals of 15 degrees. of gravity of be at 2 below the centre of the figure. value righting degrees a maximum 90 degrees. at the righting arm Q. 201. is by the drawing a as diagram. Righting" Arms. curve set simple only necessary to the various angles draw a horizontal at z 5j off on the to a convenient at scale. therefore. enough for the Sine of Angie. centre so that length the vessel immaterial. or is. it x Sin. an angle say.

STABILITY OF SUBMARINES. WATER SURFACE. of gravity. A are examples in point. B. the tendency of the resultant forces of weight and buoyancy . G being below when the vessel heeled 203. 203. 202. stability curve of a submerged vessel may be by a method analogous to that employed in the previous 202 and 203 show a submarine floating upright and heeled.— The assumed to float vessel just referred to is with part of its bulk above the surface — the case of Fig. obtained Figs. now so much in stability evidence. the centre of buoyancy. Here. this curve will moments of all vessels of all circular section having metacentric height of 2 feet cylindrical SUBMARINE VESSELS. 219 by the displacement. WATER SURFACE. when properly designed. easily case. respectively. but even when totally submerged. is also B. a vessel may have The submarines. Fig. a if the also represent the righting scales be always altered to suit. the centre of bulk is . ordinary vessels . G is the as centre in fig.

— The case of an ordinary vessel. W L. also curve for a cylindrical vessel floating the surface may be taken to represent the curve of righting arms the sub- merged vessel. No the at have G been unchanged shifted in during heeling. Thus. B so and one. A vessels either noteworthy is point in curves the of righting arms from of totally submerged the line that they or represent stability when inclined in fact any direction. which follows the viz. BG on for 2 20 1. Applying the formula BM=-. and a maximum value the stability 90 degrees. fig. BG for at have functions M at and the GM has in the preceding Sin lever at . which have enormous righting power when inclined longitudinally. at zero values o degrees if and is 180 feet. any the angle 6 the righting or cylinder upsetting moment = B G surface.j. The movement supposed gravity line has caused resultant centre of buoyancy B out to weights centre Bh are of through which the to is buoyant position. in cross is an ordinary the vessel floating is upright a waterplane equilibrium.220 is SHIP CONSTRUCTION restore AND CALCULATIONS. M Fig. VESSELS OF NORMAL FORMS. owing to the increased section. BM is zero. difficulty of obtaining values of G Z. and the until vessel then inclined. Fig. 204. the of upward force does not intersect middle line the metacenire. admits of no such simple treatment as those just dealt Fig. with. at 204 shows.. as in floating the varies directly as the of the angles of inclination. so that the Unlike the case of cylinder. of buoyancy must always pass through the same point. 205. and therefore. above therefore condition to one of stable 205 shows the same vessel heeled the a large to travel inclination. that transverse longitudinal. to the vessel to the position 202. of course. the centre of bulk. it need hardly be said. that. This is. . Clearly. as since this /= o. B and M are much the same case of the sines coincident. special case. by no means the case in vessels floating at the surface. If G were above heel still B. Fig. pressure the now the passes. in fig. G. degrees. the tendency would be to further G became vertically below B — the in position of stable equilibrium.

while the correction due to the inequality of the wedges can and out wedges shall easily be made afterwards. is U x h\h^ the horizontal moment due to the transverse movement of the wedge of displacement. In this to is find the lever GZ to between the out. 206). the line in plane {see 0. BN = BG sin 0. the equation Righting is Moment = in W x GM obtain x Sin Q the values to no longer applicable. . Atwood's formula. and ^ ^ Volume 1 of wedge x g g2 1 Volume of displacement* B Now.2 drop perpendiculars g h b g 2 h 2 on W\ L 1% x Y x . it is found convenient to draw them so as to intersect in the middleplanes. but it allows all the inclined planes up to any maximum inclination to be drawn at once. -. GM then. to spaced as for a displacement calculation.BG y h. and from g and g. then clearly.BN = NR = GZ. "~ Volume Volume of wedge x h x /z 2 of displacement" Also. and be drawn to the top watertight With regard to the radial deck and to the outside of the shell-plating. 01 displacement lever n -f . it verticals through G and : B when Referring the to vessel fig.^r^ Volume r. through B draw a horizontal line to cut the verticals through G and in N and/?. furnish spots close radial To curve. sin.-> ~ . as. although this does not usually ensure that the be of equal volumes.— A body plan of the ship is the value of the stability required. 221 values. and we now propose to show how this is calculated. of course. this as and the equation is known expression which cannot be quite easily obtained. 0. fig. Volume GZ .VOLUMES AND MOMENTS OF WEDGES. V LSL compels these centre of buoyto B A line joining points parallel the joining $$<& the centres of gravity of the wedges. they must be. and the stability lever or moment arrived at. 205 having different Obviously. inclined as to any angle. and when inclined of required to give data the full construction stability curve. and so that. and order to of righting arms or righting moments case. inclinations and with radial planes drawn the represent the floating condition of the vessel at all the when for upright. at large inclinations we must resort another method. The sections should represent volume available for buoyancy. in fig.. we must proceed as follows pointed the transference the is — 205. Discontinuities should be carefully dealt with. previously of the wedge of displacement from ancy to travel from B line to WSW x . VOLUMES AND MOMENTS OF WEDGES. The . 204 and GA in fig. BR . of wedge x h ° . enough the to obtain the correct form of the stability at the planes should in be drawn vessel intervals of about i o to 15 degrees. The only portion of this is prepared with transverse sections.

is sections of the point proceeded with. this is done. the volume of an elementary wedge and a fore-and-aft horizontal axis through is next calculated. and measurement and tabulation of the various radial planes on each side those of the immersed side being kept the separate from the those Fig. and volume in be the thickness a will of a thin transverse slice. then the sectional area at this ordinate of a very small wedge of the immersed volume. of the various planes separate from 206. Q being the in feet circular measure the wedge angle. or particulars attended of to. treating it as a segment of a of circle. These ordinates. a radial plane should occur at this point. with a suitable number of radial planes on each change in the side of it. the at breadths 0. of the deck edge.b 2 1 .222 entrance into SHIP CONSTRUCTION the water AND CALCULATIONS. say. its cubic feet be . emerged. on the immersed side. let b be the length in feet of an ordinate of a radial plane. and to ensure accuracy in finding the volumes and moments of wedges by Simpson's Rules. for instance. its At each moment about To show how radial plane. causes a sudden form of the immersed wedge. each other. will be if b t 2 9 square feet.

For 0. The moment instance. the same plane and Fig. the various little sections the quantities base. and. the distance from of 207. taking of an elementary wedge radial may be similarly dealt with. ordinate. if a base line representing to scale at the length of be taken. an area will be all enclosed representing the sum of the volumes of the slices into which the wedge may be supposed divided. the volume of the whole elementary wedge.VOLUMES AND MOMENTS OF WEDGES. 223 of the Having obtained such values for slices at various sections in the length wedge. for. . to find the volume of the latter becomes simply a matter of the area of finding of a plane the vessel surface. therefore. - b 2 be set off as each on the quantity t as and a curve be drawn through the tops of the rectangles. and points corresponding t to the rect- positions angles.

respectively. the diagram takes grees. 209). and those say. 15 and 30 degrees. and. the on some off the circular measure angles at of maximum wedge the angle. 15 3o DECREES OF INCLINATION through for axis (the statical point of intersection of are the radial a in planes) the moments plane required stability fig. taken about longitudinal vertical through (see y y.224 SHIP CONSTRUCTION scale at AND CALCULATIONS. representing the sum of the volumes of all the elementary wedges. Thus the little rect- angle at at AC o is the sum of the moments of the in and out elementary the rectangle at wedges degrees multiplied by cosine 30 degrees. combining immersion cosine the elementary emersion. the volume of the whole wedge. by the Fig. A curve through the tops of these rectangles will enclose an area A C D B. A B representing 30 deSince the sum of the moments is required. representing the volumes of the corresponding elementary wedges. the limits To find volume to of any wedge within ordinate area at of A CD angle. that the is to say. B. EF . the abcissse being in circular measure. in the first instance. and plot rectangles. Mark points the various which volumes of the elementary wedges have been calculated. wedge Separate and by are Simpson's necessary Rules for calculate the thus diagrams Coming to the moments immersed and emerged wedges. each on a base 9 (9 = the circular measure of the elementary wedge angle). the therefore. the moment of the elementary wedges cosine of at o degrees about a longitudinal axis through at. account of the wedges on both sides of the axis y y. calculating the moment of wedges of 30 degrees. moments to obtain those of full wedges with the of and each of the the particular former has to be multiplied by the elementary wedge makes of the angle which in horizontal. has to be multiplied by the cosine of 30 degrees. of the full wedges. it must be noted that while the moments of the elementary wedges are. For instance. 208 is the complete diagram of 15 and o degrees. calculated about a longitudinal the Fig. 208. it is simply necessary plot an the cut correct off. moments.

It will be seen that. and the vertical distance between the true and the assumed wateris is in excess. found as above. no greater to difficulty than is involved in areas. as drawn in the body plan. at multiplied Fig. Area of inclined waterplane of the in — —— ~. the whole area A G D B represents the sum of the moments of the immersed and emerged wedges at 30 degrees about the axis y y. have : — wedge in the water than she should be. as the elementary wedge at the limiting inclination must always be multiplied by cosine o degrees. then the vessel shown deeper planes. and they are seen to present by cosine 30 15 degrees.VOLUMES AND MOMENTS OF WEDGES. as drawn. P . the application of Simpson's Rules the calculation of plane must not be forgotten that the moments to be corrected on account of the immersed and emerged wedges. Clearly. the 225 sum of the moments degrees of the in and out elementary wedges at 15 degrees multiplied quantity and the rectangle at DB the corresponding by cosine o degrees.— It various wedges. 209. or Thickness of layer J = -7 ?—. and the others by the cosine of the angle which each of them makes with the limiting radial plane. = where V and x V2 are the volumes and out wedges. in the case of the moments. Such are the principles to be followed in finding the volumes and moments of the various in and out wedges. a new diagram is required for each inclination at which the righting arm or moment is calculated. from our preceding remarks. being unThis may be done as follows equal in volume. Suppose the immersed of the CORRECTION OF WEDGES.

and t let od and od2 u be the distances of their centres of gravity is from axis y y then the correction x x xod -v xod 2 2 (1). and that of L calculated. we have W x W x x — t/ 2 Correction = x od2 -v x od { (2) and this is also equal to (u x + U 2) X. If the immersed wedge be in excess. the moment of the volume S 2 will be deducted from. positive. suppose the emerged wedge to be in excess (see fig. Now. and the centre of gravity of . with. the calculated moment of the wedges. and the correction an addition. 2 from the moments of wedges as x volume W 0SW Vh and volume S L2 u2 . and the correction an addition. equation (2) will be negative. the moment of the volume W\ Lx S W 2 to be added. (1) will be positive. and the correction a deduction if on the immersed side.L —— — 226 Let fig. If the centre of gravity of the whole layer W\ L L2 x W 2 be at a distance x on the immersed side of the ul axis 2 xodi-u xod2 ^ (Vi + u 2 ) x Fig. 210). A little consideration will make this quite clear. In this case. W\Lx> the uncorrected inclined plane. If x be on the emerged side. : 1. and the correction a deduction. t and equation (1) will be negative. where x is the distance of centre whole layer from the axis y y. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. let 209 represent Since the the case dealt WL be the the upright water- plane. plane. If x be on the emerged side. 210. and correct is W x 2 L2 corrected inclined wedges are WS W Call 2 and L 2 SL. and that of volume L S 2 added to. Using the same symbols. Rules for the correction of the moments of wedges may now be stated as follows of gravity of the . S L2 x deducted.

the distance between the centre of buoyancy and centre of gravity. feet vessel. so that B G. 29 degrees. is 22*65 -14*4. The centre of gravity 22*65 and the centre of buoyancy 14*4 feet above the same line.) with a suitable number of columns sheets as to take the calculations for the areas of the radial planes and the functions for the volumes and moments radial elementary wedges. inclined it obtained is the to requisite information the values for the the various righting elementary utilised determine of 14-J- arms when to angles deal increasing by increments of degrees. The deis elementary wedges required are those at o degrees. as entailed in in Table which areas seen to consist numerical work deducing the of the volume and moment diagrams previously described. the large cargo steamer whose dimensions and a other particulars are given on to page full 182. but of the axis if it moments. the method followed is amply illustrated in this table. cor- rection will addition. feet. but if it be on the immersed side. with trans- verse sections and radial planes. and the centre of gravity of the inIf the the layer clined plane may be used large. which becomes immersed at 29 degrees. with certain distribution is a metacentric height of '85 line. practical for example. the correction will be a deduction. say. Fig. Two give such sides. instance. This simplifies the work. sheets must be prepared (see ends.CORRECTION OF WEDGES. for its that of the layer. 206 shows the body plan drawn out as already directed. but if the layer be distance centre of gravity must be calculated. In most cases the layer is small. immersed and emerged In previously mentioned. the former showing the vessel's shape at each tenth part of the length. respectively. written Thus we the value of the quantity u x h\ h 2 at any inclination. The of the information combined. Having wedges. or ^' 2 5 feet Let this be the basis of above the base - our calculation. which is drawn up in accordance with explanations given for the general case. . Table of the I. to Let us with the vessel when is inclined. curve for As a vessel. being for kept Table I. are required for each plane. be on the emerged an emerged wedge be in excess. As the work is the same for each elementary wedge. arrive at and its correct from lever the axis employed. Before starting to measure the ordinates. 2. the side. and also at intermediate positions towards the and the latter being drawn at intervals of 14J degrees so as to ensure a radial plane striking the deck edge. laden her draught. grees. an addition. has. 14^- degrees and 29 II. we the calculations the elementary wedges on each side of the axis at 29 degrees inclination. the layer 227 of on the immersed side be a deduction. This of cargo. let us obtain an actual such.. the separate. and by Atwood's formula the length the stability of the stability may be as down. and the centre of gravity of on the emerged side.

. TABLE Elementary I.22> SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS.

II. 229 TABLE Immersed Wedge.SPECIMEN STABILITY CALCULATION. Calculation for Stability (Statical) at 29 Degrees Inclination. .

also included in Table III. AND CALCULATIONS. 211 is and this information must be multiplied by the displacement in tons. Arms and .230 ordinate SHIP CONSTRUCTION given by fig. TABLE Righting III.

and therefore the stability curve near the origin. moreover. GZ a° makes with the base or GM 57'3° which at is the value employed above in setting off the tangent to the curve the origin. ing diagrams are required. Q becoming a\ and that 7 '3 degrees the being substituted there is 1 . the small portion Z of the curve will lie a straight tangent to the curve at this place. deal- with metacentric height. degrees. referred when ballast.TANGENT TO STABILITY CURVE AT ORIGIN. the viz. to be available the for at least four conditions launching. being the measure number of degrees in equation may now be written angle whose circular GZ «° _ GM 57'3°' Referring to the origin fig. if the vessel happened to be loaded troublesome calculations.. CROSS CURVES. 212. Such curves should. It is involve considerable stability has also another drawback. or ballasted to draughts other than those originally allowed for. regards stability without fresh . The tangent of the angle which this line. the light-ship. By the above method we should thus have And. fr<f*i 573 line the base in up line. to this lever. — The seen to foregoing method of obtaining curves of stability calculation. it would not be possible to ascertain her condition as calculations. if G Z be a° the stability lever at a point close to of the curve. 23I By the metacentric method and GZ = GZ the Gt Gi measure Now for denominators of these fractions are in in 5 circular . let them be expressed i. and the distance in degrees measured along Fig. and four fully-loaded conditions. For most vessels several indeed. 212.

of the stability diagram in instead of Fig. with change displacement. it fig.. and Here as the cross-curve method. 4000 tons . and every inclination from the upright within the limits of the calculation. a good many years ago. Too > egrees there is of inclination. 30. 45. 45 degrees. etc. it is only necessary to draw a line at this point in the scale of tons perpendicular to the base of the diagram. 30. each exhibiting In the complete diagram one inclination variations in in the the righting arms or righting moments. etc. an ordinary curve of stability such as The result. as that by means of the wedges is called. AC. was quickly seen when. For example.232 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. scientific attention was turned Many ingenious schemes were proin earnest to this important subject. In 15. 213 a cross-curve stability diagram is depicted. the abscissae that known is which the best and simplest.. is might be obtained by Barnes' method . and draw a so curve through the points obtained. to measure the distances A B. and so on. as in the ordinary case. AD. This defect in Barnes' method. with curves at 60 degrees. subject to a correction. to set off these distances as in a diagram having degrees of inclination as abscissae. pounded for arriving quickly at the knowledge of a vessel's stability under all conditions of draught and is lading. 213. for a series of curves. cut off ordinates by the curves at 15. The great value of this diagram is that us at supplies once with the stability at every displacement or draught. suppose we require to know the vessel's stability when floating at a draught corresponding to a displacement of. terms of displacement. of most generally employed. say. as the case may be.

fig. 214). of curves may be simply illustrated 214. parallel and assume to it be cut by planes perpendicular to the base will and the longitu- dinal axis. We of thus see that curves is lie in planes perpendicular to those stance the the their ordinary curves. suppose to the curved surface of the model in straight be cut by planes perpendicular to the base and Fig. lines. DEGREES OF INCLINATION as to follows :— Take these a model representing half a solid cylinder. sets The relation between these two Fig. intersect it Next. (see 233 the cross it curve A.CROSS CURVES. and from this circum- former derive name. w/ . 215.

234 SHIP CONSTRUCTION Fig. 216. . AND CALCULATIONS.

It centre of gravity from the a plane its which does area and not cut the middle line has to should be noted be specially laid and centre of gravity determined. drawn inclined as required to middle line of the vessel.CORRECTION FOR CENTRE OF GRAVITY. 215). be a deduction. 216). This. with that used in constructing the case. the stability curve would take the arms. put the ordinates and the ordinates in squared separately through case. righting moments. is coincident of course. side. Next. the body plan at is prepared intervals. sin. If the £?! already true position of the centre of gravity G be below as if the assumed one (see fig. and add the products Deal in the same way with the ordinates on the other side. a base line the body (see fig. and a drawn through to form the axis of the stability moments. as described above. it calculate the is transverse position which is not symmetrical about gravity at middle a line for as in the present trans29). all This position of the centre cross-curve stability of gravity remains constant throughout the calculations. of the centre of gravity of a the water- To plane. at the particular displacement. the and. Q foot tons. but this shown in 216. CALCULATIONS FOR CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY. As line the deck edge a point of discontinuity.— These and may be sections briefly described : are — First. and true by W x G G\ sin. convenient to follow the of method of described finding (see the verse that position is. transverse showing the form of the vessel calculations. if truly represent the stability condition only the centre of gravity. waterplanes are introduced at sufficiently close intervals to take account of the vessel's form. must be in- creased throughout by the amount G G x the curve shows righting Should the assumed one. divide by 2. although a separate drawing frequently used each is tangent to the midship section. the process of correction would be the same. case. cross-curve as would not usually be indicated. a position of the centre of gravity it assumed. ft if transferred. a correction must be made. the centre of half waterplane page taking one side of the plane a time. these waterplanes intersecting the middle-line plane in parallel lines . 214). 235 is CORRECTION FOR POSITION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY. each Simpson's Rule. Subtract one total of functions of squares from the other. 215. the ordinary curve of stability. is The position that off next step of its to find the area of each waterplane and the transverse chosen axis. and . for illustration. and to suit Simpson's Rule. except that it would now.-It to be noted that an ordinary curve of stability obtained by simply will trans- ferring distances from the cross-curve diagram. a waterplane should is occur there. position of the centre of gravity be above the amended form B very simple with as in (fig. vertical Lastly. and above the base. Assuming. It is regular to ordinary displacement an advantage have the fore-and-after bodies drawn on each is and for this is sometimes done. 6\ to be 6 inches above G. in each case. diagram. in the case represented by fig. the base line and the is waterplane. usually an intermediate waterplane first is is introduced benot tween fig.

and positions in centres to of gravity : thus and transobtained. are combined as the areas shown (i) (2) the subjoined table obtain The displacement below each of the waterplanes. and M the sum of these products multiplied in each case by the distance of the centre Areas of Waterplanes. line The result the of gravity in from verse the of intersection of the middle-line plane with the waterplane in this question. The horizontal distance of the vertical through the the vertical through the centre of gravity.— 236 again by respective SHIP CONSTRUCTION the AND CALCULATIONS. . All the of planes the are treated way. products distance sum of the totals of is the the of of the ordinates centre by their multipliers. if H is the sum of the products of the water- plane areas with their respective multipliers up to any waterplane. centre of buoy- ancy corresponding to the displacement below each waterplane from Referring to the table.

the displacement and the moment of the displacement about a chosen axis may be derived. O*0*«XS Q9 INCLINATION 6t *0 from which height. It the in is.THE MECHANICAL INTEGRATOR. from which. and to these the student is referred for further infor- CAUSES WHICH INFLUENCE THE FORMS OF STABILITY CURVESBEAM. broad vessel with a high metacentre and a large curve for initially value GM the will have a effect stability steeper than a narrow one. we show to in 217 the actual is on at the whole curve of at adding the beam. and Attwood's Theoretical Naval mation. the height clear similar vessels varies the square affect of the the beams. although these advanwith a shortening of as are associated range. Fig. the latter curve is seen to be as before. a and of that. curve instance. clear height important element affecting between load-waterplane and top-deck. This in shortening of range G. corresponds a vessel of 35 cases. for becomes more pronounced to the vessel feet increases beam . particularly angles. This may be shown very simply. ancy from the axis it To find the distance divide of the the centre of buoythe dis- is only necessary to moment by placement. when affected by certain multipliers. with vessel Curve A centre for a vessel 9 100' x 20' x 20'. Using the box form purposes stability of illustration.— Another freeboard. — We saw in a previous chapter that beam is the element in design most powerfully centre affecting that. therefore. 217. it is seen that the lever of stability varies directly as the metacentric therefore. in reference 237 to the drawing in such a way that the movement of the pointer round the various sections of the body plan causes readings to be indicated on dials associated with the little wheels. Architecture. and fig. of gravity above as the base. height fact. with other particulars the same as the preceding stability is INFLUENCE OF FREEBOARD.e. have enhanced values of righting arms. i. By the metacentric method we have Righting arm at inclination Q = GM x Sin. . as follows. Full descriptions of the work of calculating the stability in this way are provided in Reed's Stability of Ships. Curve B is for a 100' x 30' x 20'. feet floating 15 feet draught. that at beam initial will also intimately forms of stability curves. of the transverse in metacentre above the as of buoyancy. beam. vice versa. the particulars to draught and position of centre of gravity remaining steeper tages and to As expected. 9..

The it stability curves for these vessels are depicted at and D in in fig. but at 219 has greater freeboard. however. explanation simple. is seen that. and draughts. quite obvious. 220. high freeboard vessel's the other one of course. Fig.238 SHIP CONSTRUCTION vessels depicted in fig. and which the deck edge the one with up to the angle low freeboard becomes immersed. to the angle which of brings the is. 218. considerably under The deck edge The points g^ g. just In the figures the vessels are shown inclined deck awash. At the this point the curve for the shallow vessel receives a check. water. The Fig. quickly reaches a curve of maximum and to rise if The the other vessel. begins rapidly to and fall. AND CALCULATIONS. indeed not 219.2 in mark the centres of buoyancy of the wedges of immersion and emersion . they are identical. as deck enters the water. 218 and 219 are of the same breadth The box-shaped figs. is continues with further inclination.

as volumes of the wedges are greater fig. 220. and. 220. the relation between is apparent. but much more slowly than the centres gig 2 the actual differences in It the values of the righting arms of the two vessels are shown in fig. the distance in g gi 1 is than g 3 g 4 fig. in each case also the breadth is 35 feet. where the v1 and at u 2 are this the volumes of the wedges in each case. and draught 15 feet. Oi g g2 1 <u 2 x g 3 g. Clearly. should be stated that the centre of gravity is assumed at the same height in each case. Beyond this angle both deck and the centres g 3 g 4 begin to approach each other. the other. As the quantities in this equation are measures of the inclination stability. while one has 5 feet freeboard (curve C)* and the other 10 feet curves edges are under the surface .INFLUENCE OF FREEBOARD. 219 than in x 218. . (curve D) Fig. and the points ga g4 less the corresponding . the 239 centres the in shallow vessel.

Fig. but the hold. A considerable reduction levers. A shipmaster If may therefore often is make the in the stability in stability. IN great HEIGHT OF THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY. the beam or low down the freeboard. stow up. the corresponding stability is curve marked in E still (fig. the lower centre of gravity. 220). 221. however. except at initial angles. — *x 1 *— ^ 1 ._ . of his vessel what he pleases.— The the extent centre powerful illustra- of a raising of gravity position is manifest point is from the last To the of this dependent upon the nature of the stowage. may ones be. gravity to we assume to the centre of be raised 2 feet will by the be that feet addition the depth. seen to have taken place the lengths of the righting These is are. The CHANGE influence tion. of and higher by lowering centre gravity. he finds that she weights thus deficient he cannot correct the he the can. light it defect by increasing the heavy and.240 extent. attain the same end. considerably greater than those of the low freeboard vessel with range also greater. * . 5 SHIP CONSTRUCTION If AND CALCULATIONS.

density cargo being kept See Reed's "Stability of Ships. 104. moulded.CURVES FOR VESSELS OF NORMAL FORM. have cited cases of box-shaped In vessels fig. sumed geneous to cargo have 300 tons of coal in bunkers. and to be laden with a homowhich completely filled the holds and 'tween decks and brought her down to her load-waterline. by as the conditions being as before. example." p. Fig. — length. The righting Fig.* This A represents the feet curve 32*1 of cargo steamer whose dimensions are feet. vessel 289*5 as- breadth. due a . for vessels of ordinary form effect however. 7 inches. to beam and shown. 23*1 was 222. is seen to be much reduced by the this altera- tion. OEUl«££» OF INCLINATION ~5o So Co in the case of the box vessel. we are. position 241 of centre of gravity. feet depth. Q . affected freeboard is similarly. She had a regulation freeboard of effect 4 2 feet feet. Curve of B shows lading the of reducing the breadth power. Curve crease of G 6 illustrates the the stability curve the of same of the vessel after an in- inches in freeboard. the stability . only. 222. 223.

for example. Compare. for except small forecastle Quarter-deck vessel Quarter-deck type. vessels were on service. 242 as before. erections § length Shelter-deck vessel modern type Shelter. deck vessel. vessel. modern type . to and the surplus space assumed be at the ends of the 'tween decks. curves excessive stability and the The of first may be in considered this an example This of other deficiency respect. fig. vessel met severe weather and Description. During table. the particulars of the vessels variation 4.* the voyages 1 was borne out when made by each when in the the conditions stated in the No. Further illustrations of stability curves of actual ships are depicted in 223. to Three-deck vessel Raised quarter-deck vessel Spar-deck vessel Three-deck flush. Consider1 able in stability is here shown.. being given in the table below. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS.

6 is not so bad as that of No. In the case of vessel centric height No. But the vessel was always considered very tender and had to be the engine-room through the casing door. and 8 exhibit two stability conditions is of a large as it modern shows cargo vessel of good with so freeboard. Beyond 13 degrees the curve would rise above the base line. but may be pointed out that the a compartment of would not be proper condition. the meta- would be of 13 '3 feet." read before the North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders. 5. The latter. if the vessel were in water. in 1903. not depend on there being a positive metacentric height however. 8 to particularly interesting. to by the action of external forces. centre of gravity it might cases be lowered by filling it the to double bottom. fig.EXAMPLES OF STABILITY CURVES. then returned to the upright. of stability In some indeed. her stability would be unstable from the curve lying below the base She would thus loll over to this angle for her position of equilibrium. She first 243 for listed to one side. angle 8. remained in that position to some the time. and the range 81 degrees. degrees. further until for some time heel from could one not side to other in this eventually she was struck by a sea which caused her to heel she right herself. Pescod on "Stability of Small Steamers. which considerable reserve of safety obviously does (see p. care. In such a case as shows the vessel to have this. She continued manner. handled with Curves that. . The maximum lever is '51 feet. over. from which into position The water then poured and the vessel went down by the stern. the maximum lever reaching 1*95 feet at an angle of 53 degrees. vessels having curves heights. and the upright to an line. large area and range have had negative metacentric Fig.* The curve of No. Such vessels are unstable 224. It do such a thing * in all of instability in upright See an interesting paper by Mr. 224. ntr 20 30 40 50 60 ro £0 DEGREE* in OF to INCLINATION the upright position and loll over one vessel side or the other. a vessel's ultimate 194). No. is necessary in order that she shall float easily inclined upright the and not be too instance. In quiet present the gain a positive G M. The curve -is depicted in stability. and the range is seen to be 78 degrees. range and lengths of righting arms. there may be of associated a stability curve quite instances. 7 Nos. '2 small a metacentric height as satisfactory as feet. but almost immediately lolled over to the other side. if the centre of gravity were raised 6 inches.

stability. when in would have been improper the case of vessel No.244 SHIP CONSTRUCTION in AND CALCULATIONS. 225. which show unsafe conditions of arise. (. two things are to be chiefly borne in mind — the size of the vessel and the nature of her Fig. 6. 4. cargo.0 . 5 for instance. and would probably have hastened the disaster which eventually came upon her (see also chapter on Loading and Ballasting).— The curves of vessels Nos. SAFE CURVE OF STABILITY. also cause the question naturally to "What does constitute a safe minimum curve of stability ? " In attempting an answer for any given case. 5 and the condition described above. u b.

(1) In heeling a vessel. (2) (3) (4) In depressing the centre of buoyancy. truly area of diagram from in the origin any angle to represents the work course. from the dynamical stability as usually calculated the nature of the case. curves. the done effect on the vessel inclining her that angle. consider the — If a force F lbs. The quickest way of obtaining the dynamical stability is by means of respectively. in fig. items (3) and (4) cannot. is on the safe side. 227 and 228. and. wave and eddy-making following : resistances. for. Fig. of of surface friction. a curve of the moments such a of statical stability . be correctly estimated. To the in obtain a centre minimum foot. of gravity in No. 227. Fig. 228. exhibited by them are a 179 feet arm at 45 degrees. the former point being obviously nearer the load-waterplane. 225 as a basis.DYNAMICAL STABILITY. which show a vessel upright and inclined. . we note the movement of the centres of gravity and buoyancy. however. for reasons already given. 225). 228 than in fig. -5 re- quire to be lowered heights and No. making the metacentric and 1*42 feet. supporting the vessel at the given inclination the original position. 6. It will be noticed that the righting and the range in each case. which is the moment and tending to return her to work is done as follows : In raising the centre of gravity. and the latter Items (1) and (2) constitute further from it. These curves are for small vessels.— The angle It dynamical her of a vessel to that at any the work done in inclining from the upright angle. arm of would *8 30 degrees in these cases. should be carefully distinguished from statical stability. we do not say that even the modified curves leave nothing to be desired the stability conditions. exceed those of the standard curve (see fig. and in practice are therefore The result. however. ignored. respectively. as to shall be shown presently. . 227. feet at 245 righting 5 using fig. As a preliminary. stability DYNAMICAL STABILITY. 1*04 feet. Comparing figs. great improvement on those of the is original curves. acting on . In surface friction. omitting. In creating waves and eddies.

F be 10 lbs. B = A we may x Q. (P x A B) + (P x = P{AB + CD) foot x Q. represent curve moments. move if with the body. Work done = P(A0 + = P x A that is.— — — 246 a body causes it SHIP CONSTRUCTION to AND CALCULATIONS. let Applying these principles to the case of a ship. 0) 6 x foot lbs.. curve A shows an ordinary say. and. the (see latter will fig. then let an external couple upright. Consider now a case of two forces acting on a body free to turn. feet. turning the through any angle feet. be supposed to act upon her. of upsetting curve moments 214. and in in lbs. Consider an ordinate at 30 degrees. 229. if Work done on the body — F x h foot lbs. the length of the path traversed calculating the work done. generally. works on mechanics us that For example. and h 5 feet Work done = 10 x 5 — 50 foot lbs. move tell in any direction through a distance h the then. floating at rest in stable equilibrium. Reverting to fig. curve the of righting moments. If the points of ap- of the it forces be fixed. If. The body will revolve its about an axis passing through plication centre of gravity. On above assump- . and C D = being the circular measure of the write Fig. If the force is employed parallel in equal moves along a curved path. this heeling couple be assumed righting starting at zero with the to to grow so couple also at as at always be will equal to the represent the couple. the work done up to any angle is given by the product of the turna vessel be assumed heeling vessel ing couple and the circular measure of the angle. 229) the forces be and distances in Work done = Since A angle. D) lbs. the righting moment diagram will any point value the of the of heeling righting or upsetting the same the point.

the base line. angle the therefore. Let now by it the vessel be further inclined through one degree. 9500. besides showing the variation in the origin thus assumes statical righting moment from also point to point. 4900. the tops black). and small. ultimately that on inclining stability. tion. the difference between the area OHK. since. vessel truly through represented OH. at intervals of 15 degrees. the righting is vessel by the line little and to remain constant while heeled through one degree. it 247 at gives the value of the upsetting couple that If angle. If the base line of the righting moment diagram be in parallel terms of circular measure. so as to At 31 equal the degrees. is respectively. this the upsetting couple be will assumed constant through small inclination. little rectangles (those indicated 214 are shown is in But by making the intervals infinitely small. the work little done by the upsetting couple will be represented by the area of the if rectangle thus enclosed. at and origin 8000 to foot tons. An ordinary curve of stability new importance. the work done will be represented rectangle between 31 and 32 degrees. couple. Practical Example. Proceeding thus by intervals of one degree. 214. as the vessel is inclined from the upright. fig. the upsetting at moment be assumed augmented that angle. the work done of be equal to the ordinate at 30 degrees multiplied by the circular measure one degree.DYNAMICAL STABILITY. Assuming the values of the righting moments in — curve A. . and a the moment parallel to base through the ordinate at 31 the origin degrees. the work done the by the upsetting say. area work done. is to be o. and a line the to the base be drawn through top of the ordinate at 30 degrees. 1200. : It is convenient to arrange the figures as follows Degrees of Inclination. made the is infinitely We the may. of or dynamical stability by of the curve statical from the a up to that angle. what the dynamical stability 60 degrees? This merely a case of obtaining the area of curve A from the at an ordinate 60 degrees by means of Simpson's Rules. setting moment from the to any angle little H in the area OHK of the less the sum of the triangles work done by the upwill be represented by between the curve and fig. it measures the amount of energy that must be expended to incline her.

and = BG cos d. Reverting and 22S. Thus. stability may also be obtained by an equation known as Moseley's Simply stated. -B RZ Substituting in first equation. are assumed heeled a fore-and-aft plane and the pressure to dead upon them. Pxh = P WxGM xSin Fig. Work done foot tons = W\^y{g l hl + g2 h2 ) + BG cos 6 - B g) *)) = ^(yteA + MJ. ft 0. g l h l + g 2 h 2 and divide by the volume of displacement (V).— — 248 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. the distance when she is inclined. 227 buoyancy and centre of gravity during the inclination by the weight of the vessel. Therefore in inclining"! Work done Now. Q. moments are obviously equal.A 6(i -cos. and held steadily at. this consists in multiplying the vertical movement between the centre of to figs. being the total wind pressure in tons at the angle h the vertical distance 229. in B R = y(g h + g z h 2 we get 1 1 l ). *The dynamical formula. Here the upsetting and righting to. . B G is the distance between the centres when the vessel is upright B Z .. . sailing-vessel Let fig. stability* is A case sails.e. R + RZ. To find B 1 R we must multiply the volume X of the -wedge of displacement transferred across the ship by the vertical travel of its centre of gravity i. 229 represent a an angle That is. B V Z (f) vessel to given angle/ = ^^ ~BG)W foot tons. knowledge In of as the dynamical guide the act in sails particularly useful in the the of sailing-ships a fixing the area and braced distribution to of such estimates.

which taken to be the force of the wind in a fresh breeze. Q x p full is = A Hp In calculating is the of i heel lb. Upsetting Moment = A steady angle x cos. however. Employing symbols. it usual to assume a wind-pressure of per square foot. the vessel sail inclined the upright obtained. Q. this being equal in tons multiplied by the to vertical distance in wind pressure on the feet between the centre of effort and centre of lateral resistance. the point through which fluid pressure is taken to act.DYNAMICAL STABILITY OF SAILING in feet at the SHIPS. GM the metacentric height in is It may be mentioned be area at that the centre of lateral resistance usually assumed given as it to mid draught. is Then is the upsetting moment this acting when duced. cos. with vessel inclined Effective Effective sail some angle 0. total In case. moment upright calculated. a much the larger wind-pressure is In estimating the effect of a assumed. 6. are being equal the the values the corresponding angle in to upright also position effective multiplied leverage is by the cosine to of of inclination. and to therefore. or centre of gravity and the centre of lateral resistance. the effective wind the pressure. and desirable have the deck as class as the importance of a large it GM in of vessel 3 to is apparent. and a "wind drawn. is the to best way of showing the as First. A = Total sail area H — Distance in feet resistance /) square between centre of upright). OBD is and A BG F a curve of upsetting moments due curve constructed in the an to ordinary stability the wind pressure or wind way described. area = A cos. The upsetting moment = { let U ^> in « at feet. 2 H Q. effort and centre of lateral (vessel = Wind pressure per square foot in lbs. at lever = H cos. 230. squall. for a vessel under sail. curve. effect of the 3J feet.— In fig. the under a as magnitude of the angle to which a sail is will heel and wind to this pressure is seen level to vary inversely possible. EFFECT OF A SQUALL. Thus. this Values of upsetting moments obtained in way are set off at corres- ponding curve " points on base line of the stability diagram. Then. previous case multiplied any angle Q in — by the x cos. Referring to this diagram . cos. W the displacement in tons^ and feet. sail- From ing-ship the above formula. In medium-sized sailing-ships should not be less than any special case. resultant same inclination between the centre of effort. In wind pressure to on the pressure stability draw a curve of upsetting moments due diagram follows : the wind same This may be done as the position sails is on the the to corresponding upsetting the total curve in of the stability. 249 of the the sail area. the re- effective area. 6 foot tons. the equal the leverage the cosine of angle of inclination. GM.

it is is. BOD. when the energy of motion H is approximately twice overcome by the stability reserve thus a sudden squall striking the Fig. she passes beyond P some angle OH. moment area B A. will be observed that equal. FT . in at an inclination P for the the upsetting and righting moments held at are This tells us that but energy which the vessel has stored up the virtue of the unresisted P.25° it SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. vessel 230. she would be to inclination As P.

the centre of buoyancy and metacentre coincide with the centre of bulk. Show that in a submarine vessel floating below the surface. Her energy of motion being now expended.— R. the vessel coming finally to rest at some angle the excess //. curve above the the line line to inclinations on one side of the upright that below on the other side. represented by The inclination to windward is A. causing the vessel to return rapidly to the upright. when it is a maximum. when of upsetting moment. and the returning moment becomes suddenly increased from A B to B C." . the righting moment. gradually bring her to rest. R. 4. 3. A vessel has a displacement of 4000 tons and a metacentric height of 2 feet righting what are the values of the ? arm and righting moment when the vessel heeled to an inclination of 10 degrees Arts. floating with axis in the waterplane. the vessel begins to return by virtue of her excess of righting moment and. correct values at moment cannot be obtained why. righting In the case of vessels of ordinary form.= 1392 foot tons. large inclinations is For what Construct special form of vessel <x of righting arm and by using the metacentric height the metacentric height method correct ? for . is absorbed by the excess of dynamical stability EKME. IX. <% What is a curve of statical stability? How is such curve usually drawn? 2. At this instant the squall is supposed to strike the vessel. Beyond this. These convessel. her kinetic energy and angular velocity gradually decrease. 5. this special case are the con- . if the wind curve be assumed to remain as before. with the sistance on the sails. she will oscillate for a in excess of the upsetting little moment about the angle corresponding to the point angle. 15 feet in diameter. . = -348 foot. the of the re- QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER 1. AC D EG F is the wind to those curve. the centre of gravity being iS inches below the middle of the section. show how you would that construct is the tangent correct 6. and as the energy which heeled her thus has been expended. and explain what in ditions of equilibrium. explain curve its of righting arms a vessel of cylindrical section.DYNAMICAL STABILITY OF SAILING Fig. the curve of righting arms at the and prove your method principle. effect of the as friction of the water and and of such head the inclinations to resistances bilge keels. her angular velocity continuing to increase until the angle corresponding to the point of the E on the other side upright is is reached. the influence of the righting moment is about to be felt. would. The stability .M.A. 251 illustrates this condition. and as the vessel becomes further inclined to leeward. At this point there is a righting lever A B tending to return the vessel to the upright position. E and finally come to rest at that We the hull have neglected the retarding surface. refers 23 1 SHIPS. Distinguish between the terms "righting arm" and is "righting moment. A in vessel's to metacentric height is 2 feet 6 inches origin. represented by the area B £. siderably reduce which the wind heels the assistance and air if wind were suddenly to fall.

and M' (3). stability. the is statical stability of a vessel its at uses. floats a level draught the 6 inches. The metacentric height of the vessel being 2 construct curve arms. show how the necessary correction would be at the various inclinations. to obtain the statical stability at large A vessel having a deep forward well ships a heavy sea. has a righting-arm of 1 foot at an inCargo weighing 300 tons. below the axis construct to scale cross curves of stability for trans- verse inclinations of 30 16. and the vertical of is through centre buoyancy of the layer through which side the vessel rises when at an of inclination of 30 6 inches on the immersed of the vertical through the centre buoyancy of the vessel corresponding with the load draught at that inclination. line plane is in excess . vessel. Find the value of the righting arm (1) assuming the immersed wedge and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the immersed side. (2) assuming the immersed wedge in excess and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the emerged side (3) assuming the emerged wedge in excess and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the immersed side (4) assuming the emerged wedge in excess and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the emerged side. . deduce an ordinary curve of stability for the vessel If when made floating with its axis in the waterline. Prove Atwood's formula a. — The centre of gravity of the layer may be assumed to be in the same vertical with the centre of gravity of the radial plane.f^ 13. has its centre of gravity '5 feet . 14. . the curve of stability will be the same whatever be the direction of the for axis. whose centre of gravity is in the middle line at foot below the common centre of gravity.. if If. Arms *\(2) and = = 1*24 feet. Note. ." as applied at feet. 1-27 . 60% and 90 . Referring to the previous question. A vessel ." the value of the "maximum righting lever. how you would proceed known form. indicating the "angle of maximum stability." 10. any angle of heel. 8. A vessel of constant circular 1 section. and the vessel's dis- 12. of 17 feet of righting A box-shaped vessel 35 broad. Find the — fths of a foot. 120 feet long and 14 feet in diameter. The volume an inclination of 30 degrees is of the layer is 600 cubic feet. is discharged. and plot the new curve. " and "range. length of the righting arm after the removal of the cargo. and state whether her In Barnes' the effect of the of the well on the likely to be thus endangered. clination of 30 1 a depth of the whose displacement is 3000 tons.00x3. the vessel be turned about a horizontal axis passing through the centre of bulk.252 7. discuss safety is Assuming the water ports filling to be set vessel's up with rust and inoperative. for The uncorrected sum of the immersion and of emersion placement 2000 tons. Ans. Arts. Ri S htin S . show that of gravity be below the centre of bulk. Method is of calculating the statical stability of a the "wedge is correction" made. and explain Explain the terms "angle of maximum feet stability. the centre AND CALCULATIONS. and B 6 = 5 feet. and the horizontal distance of the centre of gravity of the radial plane at 30 degrees from the intersection with the middle1*5 feet. SHIP CONSTRUCTION in the previous case." and the " range.. show clearly how moments of the wedges of 263. statical stability diagram constructed. to curves of stability. What are cross curves of stability? How are these related to the ordinary stability curves ? 15. the centre of gravity be 9 inches below the position assumed in making the cross curves. Show how 9. and 35 feet deep. Describe in detail angles of inclination of a vessel of 11.

Discuss the comparative effect on curves of stability of increase of breadth and in- crease of freeboard. starting from the upright. and *l. 17. the draught and position of centre of gravity remaining the same in each case. -9. 25 feet broad and 25 feet deep. a rectangular vessel 100 ft. '4. is Prove that the work done in inclining a vessel from the upright to any angle. 30°» 590) 880. omitting the tangent plane. and the horizontal distances in feet of their respective centres of gravity from the vertical through the vessel's centre of gravity. 253 how you would prepare the body plan The plans of a vessel being given. 20 ft. 21. show the on the stability curve of (1) (2) an increase of 4 an increase of 4 ft. and i*o feet. the intersection of the middle-line plane being parallel to the top of keel. broad. are 1 "4. What are the causes which influence the forms of curves of stability? Give an example of such curves for (1) a flush-deck vessel of low freeboard. are — o. done. Construct the cross curve of stability. at a level Taking ft. 18. Find the dynamical Ans. floating effect draught of 12 with the centre of gravity at 7 above the base. salt- water half depth with one of its sides horizontal . Calculate the dynamical stability at an angle of 45 Ans. in freeboard. 20. ft. the metacentric height foot. The ordinates of n curve of righting arms measured at equal angular intervals of io°. equal to the area of the curve of righting 24. in beam. deep. . 7. — 1 102 foot tons. 15 ft. moments up to that angle. the displacement being 2500 tons. . —487 foot tons. on the immersed side. A vessel inclined transversely is cut by a series of horizontal equidistant planes at intervals of 3 feet. The o. ft. What is meant by the dynamical stability of a vessel? is In inclining a vessel from the upright position explain the several ways in which work 22. *4. 19.QUESTIONS. long. *9. stability at 40 inclination. state hilly for the calculation of a cross curve of stability.. floats in is I A at rectangular pontoon 100 feet long. first plane touches the vessel's bottom tangentially. The areas of the successive planes are and 1 150 square feet. 23. (2) the same vessel fitted with a continuous watertight shelter deck.

Now. or vice versa. find. the rolling lengthen with increase in case. the period in seconds of a single swing of a simple pendulum. with whole weight concentrated of oscillation centre clearly of gravity. fixed axis the point M. g the acceleration due to If the above analogy between the pendulum and the ship were for / correct.CHAPTER Rolling. from left to right. investigations is called her period of a single Theoretical in this subject are based on the assumption that the rolling so that in medium of roll. and where gravity. Early investigators stability. gravity itself. We is. a ship has vessels As a matter of stantaneous centre axis is no not fixed at it axis of in oscillation. vessel ignored. the distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity. rolling freely in undisturbed water. all G M. Thus. as it but the vicinity the of gravity. however. ship's G to M might be substituted period would in this formula. consequently. and an oscillating pendulum. and. were wont to think that if a vessel had great initial and was. X. and with a fact. to resistance. the assumption at the at a ship a simple pendulum. or vice versa. and thought that a ship might be looked upon as a simple pendulum suspended at the metacentre of length equal to G M. actual The result thus obtained fluid little found to since. appears have influence on the period. that make fewer rolls per minute. and this usual to assume fair passing through that point. while limiting the of oscillation. is T = 3-1416 J L. time plete that a vessel. therefore. a perfect or frictionless fact is calculating to the period the that water offers substantial resistance is the movement be nearly greatly of the true. takes to comis an oscillation from port roll. difficult to move. The of in- for it most is M. than that having large metacentric its heights. such be by no means the those is experience going to show that vessels of small metacentric heights are of longer periods. be forgotten that the centre of must not at the same time though fixed relatively to the 254 . from arc rolling experi- ments. / is the length of the pendulum. THE fluid. While accepting as a approximation. is an erroneous one. she would also be steady in a They were struck with the apparent analogy between a rolling ship seaway. to starboard.

is The most cases that near axis so that very little introduced by the ship assumption rolling the passes through G. AXIS. has freely gravity. and G the centre Now. i. we may proceed fig. floating roll Suppose a vessel force is freely and at rest is acted upon by an external to port. vessel rolls. a purely hypothetical one. in returning her towards . is motion only. the centre the lines about which G turns is is in the line 0. The work done the angle at which represented by the dynamical rest.. are purely vertical . on removal the upright. at any instant. and the former to roll off or slip without friction along the latter as of the surfaces the vessel oscillates. follows to 232. to FF curve of a section of the surface tangent the various waterplanes which cut flotation of gravity. but a convenient starting-point. of the FO error and GO. external force. is F. therefore. let WL be the waterplane. and will move. since the forces acting when the vessel rolling Fig. the vessel to she comes to of the She has then energy due takes effect position. a point in the oscillating vessel. 232. a constant displacement as the vessel rolls. neglecting the presence of the ship. which. stability of say. about a centre somewhere Another determinable point in the vessel is the centre of vertical in the line It F 0. assume the surface of and the level water surface to become solid. Let resistedly offers us in consider still what actually takes This case is place when a is unit water. G 0.INSTANTANEOUS ROLLING ship. 255 really describes a path in space as as the : To the obtain the instantaneous axis Referring flotation. the point of contact FF and W L. The is axis of the vessel at instant considered obviously at point in the point of intersection G.e. at causing her to through some angle.

of position When into reached the the vessel carries energy becomes to transformed velocity. As a gyration practical example. 3000 tons displacement. energy of of motion. than those /??. the same so reached on the port sends side.e. since. . motion in now turn.— — — 256 SHIP CONSTRUCTION the vertical is AND CALCULATIONS. the period of gyration. the transverse radius if What of quantity oscillating is may be vessel explained by stating that whole weight be concentrated at a point distant k from the axis of oscillation. for The formula by our assumption.. the effect would be the same as with the vessel as she To find the same. that is. which decreased with corresponding changes in the value of the radius varies according to the distribution of the weights on board the gravity. there is no external resistance. with smaller vice values. Also. the period of oscillation would be the value of k in any case. and radius of By substitution T = '554 J = 17-16 2-5 we get = 6 seconds. The numerator vessel of this for k2 this is the moment of inertia of the about the chosen axis calling / Using the value given for g. attaining a maximum to angular The energy angle as of that position. T is becomes reduced with increase of increased or and versa. being increased by spreading them out from the centre of and decreased by crowding them about that point. the rolling axis . the vessel starboard. is. then. of the gyration. k '554 r: see why vessels having large metacentric heights are for of quicker evidently shorter period. ship. and g the acceleration due to The symbol k is known this (= 32*2 per second per second). whose metacentric height 17*16 feet. let us obtain the rolling is period for a vessel of 2*5 feet. where she once more regains energy which. a single roll in the above hypothetical circumstances is— k vg where T is m m the metacentric height in feet feet. say. total if r be taken of the represent any of these and the W be the weight vessel h = Sum of all products w x r2 ' W expression . i. and to obtain the distance between the centre to of each of these elements and distances. her back to the upright. the time m seconds of a single gravity as roll. And the rolling goes on. the formula for the period may be written r= We now motion. it is necessary to assume the vessel's weight the could divided into very small elements w.

slipping along a horizontal line and let the latter be the path described by the point a trochoid. unless precautions have periods. — Before it dealing with the rolling of a vessel among waves. crest. been taken will provide them suitable still-water SEA WAVES. originally The reader should try this for himself. of advance. is only necessary to set the vessel rolling by she some in and to note the number of complete a single roll makes a certain time. that only the form of the travels. the particles water affected move in small circular about That some such action does take place will be obvious to anyone who observes the movements of a piece of driftwood afloat among waves. It will be noted that the wood does not travel with the wave. but simple way of drawthe a trochoid. a section of a wave in the plane of the line horizontal axes.STILL Vertical WATER ROLLING PERIOD. time by the per roll. 257 movements of weights have i. 120 tons were 14 above well as below the centre of gravity to one 7 the period would be increased to 6*8 seconds. There have been various theories as the action of wave water. greater influence on the period than if horizontal raised feet this movements. principal to by the action of wind on the sea. ing A rough.. being that known wave orbits as the trochoidal theory. it.. According to this theory. horizontal layers below the surface become. as Vessels seldom dangerous angles in we shall see to presently. into trochoidal forms face. i. a it characteristic known It as Isochronism. haviour at sea. in order vessel when the surface of are to obtain a clear idea of the action is the former undulated into wave shape. may do with so among waves. in the above 7 vessel. the most satisfactory of which.e. a line described by a point having uniform circular and linear motion. The theory also states that when under wave motion. For instance.e. showing clearly that the water particles supporting it move only a short distance as the wave passes. The groundwork and that of this theory of is. any point between centre rolled is and the without circumference in a circular paper disc. and are the roll. while winging out from a position feet still-water weight 14 feet from the centre would only lengthen the period to 6'i seconds. As by calculation. as distorted of the same general character that of the upper sur- and that columns of water originally vertical curve towards the wave The hollows and crests of the various trochoids are immediately under . up 12 to which the curves of 15 stability are straight lines — that about to degrees— is the same. the this it rolling period may be found rolls experi- mentally. but merely moves backwards and forwards. in of be necessary to give some attention to the structure of the latter the light of water on a modern theory. artificial To do means. has for its outline a trochoid. The period of number of rollsall may then be got by dividing the fact This follows from the that the time taken statical for inclinations is. well to state may be here that in to is important to to know her still the value bebut. and the one now generated agents Waves causing ships to generally accepted as representing the case best. is as follows : —Take . feet. of a vessel's still-water rolling period roll order predict probable water.

the of Fig. the in smaller and smaller in to. = / / length -° . we have the following t. acts normally to the particular surface slope varies at which the pardirections lies so that. the same surfaces when these wave form are by also full) curved seen The lines at orbits of surface and subsurface of particles orbits indicated. orbits. All this has to be act considering the resultant of the wave forces which remembered on a vessel crest when afloat among waves. which exhibits section part of a trochoidal wave. form disappears. v 5-124 -. • r Period of wave in seconds . the trochoids are of the same length. the normals also continually vary. illustrates some of the points referred in in still In this figure the original surfaces and subsurfaces water are shown full by dotted horizontal lines. lines. Another particle fundamental point affected in this theory the pressure of a its in the wave and as is by the centrifugal force generated in by orbital ticle motion. as well as kinetic energy. for . the height period length. The to in containing levels the centres (shown are be higher than the corresponding energy of position. . the particles have also potential energy or is. j = 2 x / V1416 ^ 9 x lensrth 5 v Speed of wave second in feet per) — . the each subsurface. 233. until finally the wave. and. all each other. its of a wave the time takes move a distance equal to own From calculations based on the trochoidal theory. : the it distance to from hollow to crest. or hollow to hollow. that still-water lines. The length the of a wave is is the is horizontal distance from vertical to crest. showing that the wave. therefore. /length x a x 3-1416 — of observations of actual waves.— — 258 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. Results obtained from these formulae are found to agree closely with those Atlantic storm waves 600 feet in length. 233. flatter as the depth below the upper surface increases. But they particles become moving Fig. or energy of motion.

be looked upon as a surface particle. and the resultant pressure. On parallel this assumption. and cannot. 234. and to treat practical purposes as a surface the resultant lines of pressure and of weight the being assumed to act normally to the slope of the upper surface wave. angle between the is line assumed to be proportional masts and the wave normal at of that instant. subsurfaces. is shown inclined tending with to to the wave normal.— We internal have seen that the effect of the wave forces is to cause the resultant buoyant pressure it water particle to act normally to the wave slope. and from the formulas. the steepness length. a vessel among waves illustrated will tend to place her masts to the normal to the wave slope. and cause the that the upon the weight of any small force also to act or resultant normally to the wave slope. when it pended a simple pendulum. this 259 have observed periods of 11 of wave. of waves decreasing with increase in ROLLING AMONG WAVES. instance. the pressures on the particles of which act normally to the curves of these subsurfaces. / 5*124 x 600 = 55*4 feet per second. respectively. truth : but in a line opposite to that of buoyancy. long and in short waves. is normal to a mean subsurface the vessel as . . the wave. which virtually becomes her upright position of equilibrium. was observed that the pendulum did not hang vertically but took up a position perpendicular to the wave slope. our intention to not attempt a description these calculations. Now. a ship displaces a considerable amount of wave water. It intersects many properly speaking. where the centre line. this to modified moment. is largely The heights of well-defined ocean waves are usually found to vary from in to tV °f tne ^ngths. which of the ship's the . of The of this was proved Froude in the following manner — Taking a small float cork he fitted it with an inclined mast. using length we get Period = v Speed — / 5* I2 4 = io'8 seconds. and will be found that the extent of the arc governed by the value of this slope through which a vessel angle. This is in fig. that is. with into parallel a moment of W x GZ operation parallel bring them lines and thus place the deck angle inclination the wave is slope. It is employed. on the whole body. The magniratio of the height maximum to angle of slope it of a wave depends upon the of the length. experimentally by Dr. at In calculating the of the vessel righting the vertical any instant when among waves. seconds. "sir oscillates. The tude the heights of waves have an important influence on rolling.SEA WAVES. to the line of the in masts. but in actual to calculations it is usual it to for consider all very small relatively particle. from the top of which he susHe then placed the float on waves. and act on a surface must now be added floating particle same forces body.

its maximum passes. A circumstanced be an easy plained. during rough weather. she will down in tend keep decks her depicted in she will fig. or having a cargo of great density placed low her holds. but her period being wave. Her rapid motions will are likely to strain the hull. considered especially satisfactory. boat in which to traveL results still Different i. by the following wave. and she obviously be an uncomfortable reversed. bringing under the vessel.e. And This the the next hollow in will find her a little the other side. and return her inclined to to the upright. period. she cannot otherwise be the Fig. general terms. vessel easy. 234. turn.260 as SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. a vessel will be . be arrested of such deck. for example. to predict the behaviour of a among waves when the periods of ship and waves are known.. and for obvious merchant vessels. and thus departure from the upright level maintain desirable a in it comparatively warships also to ensure reasons is sought after in small. angle to the vertical. at about a the crest mid-height of the will have returned to the the arrest upright. Her motions her will generally keep clear wave normal. as be quick and jerky. she not have gone far when forces. approaches her. inclination will. she will immedicompared with that of the the wave normal. and she will Such a state. As the will crest tendency of the wave pressures in the back slope be to so the inclination of the vessel. having passed long Fig. 235. and although of water. caused by her being masts close to specially broad and shallow. they are It is difficult and would be quite out of place in in a work of this kind. Where the still water period of a vessel is very short in comparison the with period of the waves she to is among. 235. to Under the influence of the wave to will may be readily exbe upright when a wave as begin heel. are obtained when period will is the ratio of the periods is when vessel the so water very long compared with the wave roller. through wave. ately Assume such a vessel. of things is highly a steady gun platform. however.

for instance. she had the tion oscillated under her statical will will moment alone. and no guide careful would recklessly do that. the radius of must be increased. i. A the vessel is in the hollow. and which inclination side of the vertical. degrees. the internal wave forces cause her to heel from the upright. or raising the position of the gyration. and her period agreeing with the half period of the wave. As she rises on the latter. must be the of great here. she On the back slope the reaches the end of a roll at the first wave crest. The wave direction roll.. This would mean concentrating the weights away from the middle line. the stability. inclina- be further increased. cargoes although while to with general something may be done by judicious stowage. depicted. of In fig. and to a will maximum at which she reach the on the hollow.ROLLING AMONG WAVES. or about if times the maximum wave slope.e. Experience speaking. if be greater than of motion. two periods on a without resistance. in may be carried out. must be reduced. 261 From the formula— v m rolling it is seen that in order to obtain a long period. a state of things known synchronism. and is supposed to be upright when the wave reaches her. More important considerations than those of rolling limit the extent to which the foregoing modifications able. and aw. inclination Thus at she will continue reaching a greater maximum each crest and hollow. the half is A when as period of the waves is the same as the ship's still-water period. narrowing the beam. the metacentric height. /f. at wave forces will assist the ordinary statical moment other will to return her to the upright. and she this rolling broadside on to the former. vessel's is behaviour when rolling in a frictionless Referring to this figure. It is impracticmerchant vessels to bank the weights against the sides. fluid. 236 the effect coincidence of the effective time of the Fig. centre of gravity. moment where she again change the and at complete another her maximum to roll. it being remembered smaller case critical generally of vessels displacements may have values arises m than those of small displacement. the maximum inclination would be increased each . f. of until she finally upsets. 236. forces in concert with her statical next will crest. of bring down the value m by reducing the beam or stowing the affect weights designer high in the vessel might seriously that. as much as possible. Theoretical investigations show that the increment roll due to the wave impulse if is equal to this were 6 Thus.

excessive may thus be developed. would greatly increase the amplitude of the bring the structure vibrations. able. (single roll). incline through moderate angles from the upright sirable state that this a most de- of things in both mercantile and war time . That vessels of long periods less. has is not dangerously. were the quicker to were but affected. Another illustration is given by a body of soldiers period. when broadside on a series of synchronising waves. in receiving crossing a bridge. That as vessels having if periods which keep with those the waves are badly. foregoing Summarising there the : remarks are and very deducing short in from. resembles an oscillating pendulum which has additional force applied to it periodically at the end of an oscillation in one direction.. if among waves and is with half to periods considerably are likely to be slow rollers. transverse tend angular to place their masts parallel to the wave normals the velocity of such vessels rolling may. Dr. should be aimed at in new designs. Froude proved the truth of the foregoing theory by experimenting little with that models after in a tank. situated that such synchronism. when the period of march keeps of the bridge. . maximum which the of oscillation of reaching 32 while other vessels. so that the of a few such waves would be to put the vessel on her beam ends. 262 Lime SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS.S. time with the period of vibration a state of things which. at the to time. a large warship which from her design was exbe very • steady among waves occasion. been borne out in actual cases of which records are availlikely to conduce to heavy rolling and severe transverse straining. A pected herself vessels. and of after sufficiently (3) allowing for stability. a vessel We on to thus that most is seriously situated when broadside still-water waves whose period of advance double that of her own the wave impulse as above described. continued long enough. In some respects the ship. with a particular tendency to throw out (2) the masts. slightly there being on the sea periods. and might eventually obvious inferences down. Observation showed waves have a period roll which synchronised seconds. in still of the models the see water. (1) we note That vessels whose periods waves. and in in general of proved other be so her but on one a slight arc when sailing company she degrees. Waves were generated having a period double and the latter when placed in the tank is were upset passage of a few waves.— . swell at sea. in that become very straining great and the heavy. the effect of which is to increase the angle of swing each time. to to example of the effect of synchronism is afforded in the case Royal Sovereign. effect by 9 degrees. rolled conthe siderably. practical of H. . will that comparison with the stormy weather. vessels. and her arc of oscillation by 18 degrees. and just when it is about to return.M. ap- proximately with Royal Sovereign's single to period of 8 On she another occasion.

ROLLING AMONG WAVES.
rolled

263
Excessive rolling
is

through

maximum

arcs

of

50 to 60 degrees.
class,

also

reported of another vessel of this

H.M.S. Resolution, the circumstances pointing to sychronism between the ship and apparent wave periods. These examples show how difficult it is to altogether avoid the effects
of

synchronism.

Actual
feet

observation
in

has

shown
of

ordinary
10
to

storm

waves

to

average
in

500 to 600
cases
still-water

length, with

periods

n

seconds,

only

exceptional

longer

waves
escape

being

met

with.

Consequently,
class

vessels

having

periods

of 8

seconds like the
synchronism.

Royal Sovereign
Experience,

should
has
to
is

be

expected
that

to

practically

however,

shown
happen.
better

circumstances

may
there of

arise
is

which

shall

cause

the of

unexpected
long
case,

But
situated

even where
than
are

synchronism, a vessel
period.

period
the

one
latter.

short
less

In

the

former
smaller

waves
sloperoll

keeping
angles
at

time

longer

and
is

steep

and have
vessel

maximum

than in

the

Thus, the increment added to the angle of
less

each hollow and

crest

in

the

of

long period

than in the

other.

Of
matters

course, a master with his vessel well

in

hand

is

usually able

to

help
of

considerably

when
he

his

vessel

is

rolling

excessively

on
is

account
lying

synchronism.
side

Should the
the

rolling

become
disturb

heaviest

when she
of
the

broad-

on

to to

waves,

may

the

coincidence
lengthen

the

periods

by

changing
the

an

oblique

course,

which would
a
cure
in

effective

time of

wave.

Should,
course,
into

however, the

synchronism be developed when
'

sailing

on
turn

an
his

oblique
vessel

he

may

affect

various

ways.

He may

wave trough, or direct her head to the line of crests, keep the original course, he may change the effective Thus, time of the waves by increasing or reducing the speed of the vessel. by skilful navigation, much can be done even with a vessel of bad design. RESISTANCE TO ROLLING.— Although synchronism will always tend to make rolling heavy, as in the case of the Royal Sovereign, the resistance due to the friction of the water with the surface of an oscillating vessel,
the
or
if

he wishes

to

with
all

that

spent

in

the
for

creation

of waves,

etc.,
is

will

minimise
in

the
still

rolling

at

times.
at

Suppose,

instance,

a vessel
force

set

rolling

water,
is

that,

a given

instant,

the

external

causing

her

motion
of

and removed,
will

thus

allowing

her

to
to

roll

freely.

Her maximum range
In
to

oscillations

immediately

begin

diminish.
angle,

any

single

oscillation,

the

difference

between
port,
will

the

maximum
a

say

starboard,

from

the

following

one

to

be

measure

of

the

resistance

overcome.

But when

among

waves whose period keeps time with that of her own motion, the periodical impulse given by the wave will cause the maximum inclination to be increased with

each oscillation, so long as the resistance of the water
of
force

is

less

than
angle,

the

increment
the
in

due

to

the

wave
as

impulse.

With
And,

increase

of

however,
arcs

speed
nearly

of
the

oscillation

will

increase,

since

vessels

describe
since

the

largest

same time
which

the

smallest.

the

resistance
tions
is

of

the

water increases rapidly with the speed,
to

a range

of oscillato

soon

reached,

sustain

the

repeated

impulse

due

syn-

264
chronism
oscillation
is

Ship construction
necessary.
large

and calculations.
the

Moreover,
only
disturb
critical

are
is

are
to

slightly

difference

sufficient

not

occur

at

the

same
thus

when the arcs of when they are small, the The wave impulse does the synchronism. time, and a fraction of the moment each
although
period
greater

than

resistance
velocity,

being
the

unbalanced,
less

it

takes

effect

in

reducing

the

angular
the

rolling

becoming

heavy.

This reduction

may

increase

and again cause synchronism, with consequent increase in the rolling, which, as before, will in turn be arrested. We thus see that oscillations sufficient to place a vessel on her be:im ends, or to overturn her, are
period,

unlikely

to

occur in a resisting

medium such

as

water.

ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE.— Many
out experiments on
parts,
viz.,

years ago, Dr.

Froude
it

m

carrying
three

the
(1)

resistance
to

of vessels to rolling,

divided

into

that

due

the

hull

surface;

(2)
;

to

keel,

bilge-keels,

dead-

wood, and the

flat

parts of the vessel at either
results

He

obtained
of the

quantitative
vessels,

plans

and

end (3) to surface disturbance. by calculating items (1) and (2) from the placing the difference between the sum of these
obtained from
hull

items and

the actual

resistance

experiments

to

the

credit

of
2

item

(3).

The
of

results

showed the
leaving

surface
flat

resistance to be less than
resistance

per cent., and the keel, bilge-keel,

and

surface

from
to

18

to

20
dis-

per

cent,

the

total,

about

80 per cent,
ot

as

due
small

surface

turbance and the creation of waves.

While
sufficient

it

is

known
for

that
this

the

creation

a

very

to

account

residual

resistance,
(2)

subsequent
of

experiments

wave would be and
under-estimated.
Dr.

investigations

have

shown

that
for

item
the

has

probably been
flat

In
took

making
i*6

his

calculations

resistance

surfaces,

Froude
of
flat

lbs.

as

a

co-efficient

of resistance per

square foot at a velocity of

one foot per second, and assumed the resistance to vary as the square This co-efficient he had obtained previously by oscillating a the velocity.
board
lished
in

deep water.
this
figure,

In the case of bilge-keels,
taken with the
value
ot

it

is

now

pretty well estabbilge
keels,

that

surface

area

of the

does

not
that

represent
the

the

extinctive

these
to

appendages.
the
fitting

On
of

the assumption
keels,

whole work of extinction,
to

due
the

bilge

might
square

be
foot
Sir

credited

a virtual increase in

co-efficient

of

resistance

per

of bilge area,
Philip

and
of

that the

resistance varied as the square of the velocity,
in

Watts pointed out
instead
i'6

that,

the

case

of
at

the

warships

Volage

and

Inconstant^
foot

lbs.,

the

co-efficients
7*2
lbs.,

a

mean

velocity

of one

per

second should be 87 and
rolling

respectively.

In
ship

experiments
displacement,
11
lbs.

carried
similar

out

of

large

1895 on H.M.S. Revenge^ a warresults were obtained, the corresponding
in

co-efficient
for

being

for

a swing of 10
Sir

degrees,

rising to

about 16

lbs.

a swing of 4 degrees.

Commenting on
*

these

results,

Wm. Whyte*

pointed out

that,

as well

See a paper by Sir
1895.

Wm. Whyte

in the

Transactions of the Institution of Naval Archi-

tects for

RESISTANCE TO ROLLING.
as offering direct
resistance,

265
resistance
oscillating

bilge keels

create

further

by

indirectly

influencing

the

stream-line motions that exist about
fully

an

ship.

Investigation* has

borne

this

out.
if

Professor

Bryan has shown that

the

motion of a
gives
rise

rolling

vessel,

particularly
in

bilge,

to

counter

currents

be of sharp form at the the water which strike the surface
she
;

of the bilge-keels and increase their extinctive value
of
the
bilge-keels

also,

that the presence

cause

discontinuous
is

motions

in

the

surrounding

stream

lines,

the result of which

a gradual reduction in the speed of the streams
tending
to to

as

they approach the keels and an increase of pressure on the hull surface,
rise

giving

to

turning

moments
the

arrest

the

angular

motion

of

the ship.
estimates

Crediting these
the
effect
*

resistances

the

bilge-keel area,

Professor
to

Bryan
Dr.

of

counter

currents

as

equivalent

doubling

Froude's co-efficient, and the effect of the discontinuous
ling
it.

motion to quadrup-

It

should be stated that the foregoing analysis
has no forward

is

based on the assumption that

the vessel

motion,

but rolling motion only.
it

From

the results

of rolling experiments! with a destroyer,

is

shown

that the effect of discon-

tinuous motion
increasing

is

much
the
create

reduced,

when a
for

ship has motion ahead, the diminution

with

the

speed

ahead

the

same angle of
the water
at

roll

;

the apparent

reason

being

that

keel

surfaces

strike

an oblique angle,

and thus do not
forward

such masses of dead water as when rolling without

motion.

But however the work done by bilge-keels be analysed, the point of most concerning them is that they are invaluable as a means of Experience has amply shown this in a general way, but reducing rolling. deduced from actual experiments are perhaps more convincing. figures H.M.S. Repulse, a large battleship, was, as an experiment, fitted with bilgekeels 200 feet long and 3 feet deep, and when amongst synchronous waves at sea, was found to reach only half the maximum angles of oscillation atIn tained by her accompanying sister vessels, which were without bilge-keels. the years 1894-5, rolling experiments, with and without bilge-keels, were conducted on the Revenge, a vessel of the same class as the Repulse. In still water it was found that, starting with an inclination of 6 degrees, without
importance
bilge-keels
it

took 45
that,

to

50 swings to
those
6
at

reduce

the angle
8

to

2

degrees,

and
it

with

bilge-keels,

similar
starting

to

on the Repulse, only

swings.

Again,

was noticed

degrees inclination, after

18

swings the vessel

without bilge-keels reached an angle of 3! degrees, and with bilge-keels, In the case of the destroyer above referred to, an angle of 1 degree. the decrement of roll for 4 degrees mean angle of roll was, without bilge Most important of all keels, '24 degrees, and with bilge-keels, '5 degrees. perhaps the effect of bilge-keels on rolling when vessels have motion is *See a paper
in

the

Transactions of the

Institution

of Naval Architects for

1900.

fSee an
of Naval

interesting

paper by Mr. A.

W. Johns

in the

Transactions of the Institution

Architects for

1905.

266
ahead.
the

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
5

In the case of the Revenge^ starting at an angle of
in

degrees from

vertical

each

case,

after

ahead was
swings
the

2-95

degrees,

and

at

4 a speed of 12 were
resistance

swings

the

inclination

with

no motion
after

knots, 2*2

degrees;

16

corresponding
the
17

inclinations

1*15
to

degrees

and

'25

degrees.

In the case of
angle of
roll,

destroyer
knots, was

the

at

3 J times greater
extinctive

rolling for 4 degrees mean than when not under weigh.

The reason
under weigh
set in
is

of

the
to

greater

value

of

bilge-keels

in

vessels to

due motion, and
lost

their

having at each instant
so

new masses
continually

of water
left

the

energy

imparted

being

behind
that

and thus

to

the

ship.

The experiments
keels.

with

the

destroyer brought

out another point,

viz.,

forward motion tends to reduce the rolling period both with and without bilge

no motion ahead was found to be At about 17 knots speed the corresponding figures were 5*4 and 5*46 respectively. At higher speeds the reduction was still more marked. Another point to be noted in respect to bilge-keels is that they are more effective in small quick-rolling vessels than in large vessels of slow angular motions. This follows because the resistance bilge-keels meet with from the water increases with their speed of motion through it, and because the power of this resistance in arresting angular motion is greatest when the oscillating body to which the bilge-keels are attached is of relatively small weight and inertia. The importance of having these appendages
in seconds with
5 '61.

The double period

with keels, 5 '5 9; without keels,

on small vessels of quick-rolling period
bilge-keels

is

thus apparent.

The advantages
to

of

are

now

generally recognised,
vessels.

and they
they
are

are regularly fitted

both

war and merchant depth;
in

In warships

frequently

of

considerable

and

merchant vessels they are seldom more than 12 to 15 inches deep, are often less but even when so limited in size, their effect on the
;

behaviour of vessels at sea has been most beneficial.

WATER CHAMBERS.— Besides
successful

bilge-keels,
for

various

other

more

or

less

methods have been advanced

minimising the rolling of
filled

ships.

The

best

known

of these the

consists

in

having a chamber partially

with

water fitted

across

ship,

so

that

when
to

the vessel

rolls,

say,

from port to
acts
position.

starboard, the water, having a free surface, rushes in the

same direction and
upright

against

the

righting

moment
This was

operating

return

her to the

The
in

efficiency of the

method has been found
borne
out

the
of

chamber.

sea

H.M.S.
reduced
the
in best

Inflexible^

to depend on the depth of water by observations of the behaviour at which had such a chamber, her mean angle of roll

being being
tested

20

to

25

per

cent,

with

the

result

obtained.
still

The
the

value

of a water

chamber about half full, this chamber was further
with
the
in

a

series

of

water
as

rolling

experiments

Edinburgh^ a
this

warship of the
16
feet

same
7

class

Inflexible.
full

The chamber
width
at

long,

feet

deep,

and had a
also

of

67

feet;

bulkheads
51 \
feet,

the

chamber

could

be

tried

breadths

case was by means of of 43 feet and

respectively.

Increasing
at

effect,

the extinctive value

67

breadth was found to have a powerful feet being three times that at 43 feet. It
the

THE GYROSCOPE.
was also found that the most
the natural
effective

267

depth of water was that which made
the

period

of

the of the

wave
ship.

traversing

chamber, the same
chamber,
ship,
fitted on showed the

as

the

natural

rolling

period
with

Experiments
of the

a
at

model
the

of

the

water
as

a

frame

designed to oscillate

same period

the

efficiency

system to be greatest at small angles of inclination. For various reasons the water chamber method has not become popular.

In the case of warships, changes in design have led to longer natural rolling

and a reduced necessity for special means of extinguishing rolling. for instance, had a G M of 8 feet, while modern battleships have seldom greater metacentric heights than about 3 feet. In the case of merchant vessels, the expense of fitting up a water chamber, and the loss of valuable space which would be entailed by its presence in the hold, has stood in the way of its general adoption, particularly as the inexpensive method of fitting bilge-keels has produced satisfactory results. THE GYROSCOPE. A proposal for extinguishing rolling motion, which some authorities think is likely to be widely adopted in the future, has been brought forward in recent years by Dr. Otto Schlick. In Dr. Schlick's words, "the method depends in principle on the gyroscopic action of a flywheel, which is set up in a particular manner on board a steamer, and made to rotate rapidly. " The principle of the apparatus, and the method of
periods,

The

Inflexible^

application,

is

fully

explained
of

by

Dr.

Schlick
in

in

an

interesting

paper
the

read

before
is

the

Institution
for
details.

Naval Architects
has,

1904,

and

to

this

reader

referred

So
the
case

far

the

apparatus
vessels,

we
from

believe,

only

been
results
first

practically

applied
trials,

in

of two

but

the

reported
one.

of

these

the
is

system appears to be a highly

efficient

The
of

of these vessels
tons

a

German
In
of
this

torpedo-boat,

116

feet

long,

and

about

56

displacement.

case* the gyroscope, which was fitted for purely experimental purposes,

has a flywheel one
ship
of
1

metre in diameter, with a proportionate weight to weight
114.
It
is

to

steam

driven,

the

periphery

of
in

the

wheel
steam-

being
tight

provided with
casing,

rings

of as

blades,

and
is

the

wheel

enclosed

a

and worked

a turbine.

The
the
at

casing containing

the

wheel

carried

on two horizontal trunnions
the
vessel
latter
is is

having their axis athwartships, the steam supply and exhaust passing through
trunnions
rest

as

in

an

oscillating

engine.
is
;

When
the

upright
in
to

and

the

spindle
in

of the flywheel
horizontal

vertical,

and the

when
free

motion

thus

rotates in

a

plane

also

apparatus

become
effect

inclined

a fore-and-aft direction.

With the gyroscope
is

in

action,

the

of the

transverse

heeling of the vessel

to

cause

the

apparatus to become
of the
vessel's

inclined,

oscillations

and moments to be produced reducing the To control and also their magnitude.

velocity

the

fore-and-aft

move-

*See a paper by Sir

Wm. Whyte

in the

T.I.N.A.

for

1907.

268

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of the

AND CALCULATIONS.
movement
of

ments

gyroscope
is

and

the

rotary

the

flywheel,

an

arrangement of brakes
water.

provided.

At the commencement of the experiments the torpedo boat was rolled in With the gyroscope at rest, a double-roll period of 4*136 seconds was obtained ; with the apparatus in action, and the flywheel running at 1600 revolutions a minute, the period was found to be 6 seconds, an instill

crease

of 45
roll

per

cent.
effect

The
an angle

extinguishing

was

found to be
at

enormous.
rest,
it
;

Starting

from
single

of
to

10

degrees,

with

the

gyroscope
to

took

twenty

oscillations

reduce

the

inclination

half
little

a degree

with the

gyroscope
oscilla-

in action, the
tions.

same angle was reached
trials

in

more than two

single

The
sea,

sea

were quite as remarkable
roll

;

when through
the effect
practically to

the state of the

the

vessel

was caused to

considerably,
play,

of the

action

of

the

apparatus,

when

brought

into

was

extinguish

the

rolling
fixed,

motion.

On

two occasions,

for instance,

the vessel, with the gyroscope

reached arcs of rolling of 30 degrees,
to
act,

which,
to
1

on the apparatus being
degree
or

allowed

became

immediately reduced
being
LochieL
it

ij

degrees.

The
is

results

of other

observations were
as

equally convincing.
fitted

The
the

other vessel referred to

with

Dr.

Schlick's

apparatus
gyro-

coasting

passenger

steamer
the

Very
stated

few

details

of the
is

scope in this case are available, but
electrically.

is

that

the

flywheel

driven
to

From
as

the
in

reports,

roll-extinguishing

effect

appears
vessel

be

quite
to

as

great

the

torpedo-boat.

On
to
to

occasions

the

was found
rest,

be

rolling

through arcs of
bringing
it

32

degrees, the

gyroscope being at
the
arc
to

and
2

the

effect

of

into

action

was

reduce
those

from

to

4

degrees,
It

oscillations

scarcely

perceptible
far this

on board.

remains to be seen
at

how may
and

motions
vessels

sea will be adopted in the future,
trial

unique system of extinguishing rolling but it is not unlikely that the
steamers

success of the Lochiel
of the

lead to the installation of gyroscopes in other
also
in

same

class,

engaged

in

cross-channel

passenger

traffic.

PITCHING AND HEAVING.— A
in If

many

directions,

broadside

on,

vessel among waves will have motions depending on her position with regard to the crest lines. the principal motions will be those of transverse rolling,

be also more or less vertical dipping oscillations due to the wedges of immersion and emersion being instantaneously dissimilar in volume. If head on to the waves, while there will be some transverse rolling, the
but there will
chief motions will consist of pitching,
axis
i.e.,

longitudinal rolling about a transverse

in part to the dipping motions above mentioned, and in part to the excesses of weight and buoyancy which occur as the vessel rides over the waves. If, however, the vessel
lie

through the centre of gravity,

and heaving, due

in

an

oblique

direction

relatively
will

to
set

the
up,

wave
as
will

crests,

simultaneous
heaving.

skew

rolling

and pitching motions
conditions
in

be

well

as

The

each of these cases

be modified to a greater or

PITCHING AND HEAVING.
less

269

extent by the forward
oscillations

motion due to the propeller.
thus
affected,

We

have seen how

transverse

are

and we
still

shall

consider presently the

influence of speed

on pitching and heaving.
water

The
the

period of unresisted pitching in

may be determined by
through
the
centre

formula which gives the period of similar transverse oscillations, provided

K

be the radius of gyration about a transverse

axis

of

gravity,
7",

and
as

M

the longitudinal metacentric

height.

before,

being the period in seconds,

the

formula

is

T

= 6 ri4io

J 9 M' a
I

/—

of gyration

As an example, take a vessel of 4000 tons displacement, with a radius of no feet, and a longitudinal metacentric height of 285 feet.
T /
, = V1416 // IIO J 32-2
•*

In this case

X IIO
x 285
7T—

=

3'6i seconds.
"*

,

j

The corresponding
seconds,
i.e.,

transverse

rolling

period
;

for
this,

this

vessel

is

about 8
is

more than double the other
a
vessel

and
place

in

most

cases,

the

proportion between the two periods.

In
effective

pitching,

always

tends
is

to

her

masts

normal to

the

wave
will

slope.

When

a vessel

long in

comparison with the waves,

wave slope will depart very little from the horizontal, and the be slight; when the opposite is the case, i.e., when the vessel the waves, the extent of the pitching will be governed is short relatively to by the natural pitching period, the period of the waves, and the course and If the wave period be long, speed of the vessel relatively to the waves. and that of the vessel very short, she will follow the slope of the wave but if the wave period be naturally short, or, if it be made so by the speed
the
effective

pitching

t

of the
to
rise

vessel,

pitching

is

likely

to

become
crest
;

excessive,

as

the vessel

will

fail

on each successive wave

her

ends

will

thus

become

buried,

longitudinal

and the periodical impulses received from the waves will conduce to larger oscillations. Pitching, then, which is in the first instance caused by the passage of waves, will, like rolling, become excessive if the wave period
Every seaman
likes
his

keeps time with her natural pitching period.
vessel
to

be

lively

fore
will

and

aft,

i.e.,

to

have a
will

short pitching period.

In such a case a vessel

follow approximately the

wave

slope,

especially if she

be short relatively to the wave length, and

This vessel will rise on the waves instead of burying her ends into them. than a slower moving boat, and will not be subjected to the same be drier hammering stress which continual plunging into waves is bound to set up.

In order to obtain a short
increased.

pitching

period,

thus

seen to be desirable,

the radius of gyration must be reduced or the longitudinal metacentric height

This follows from the formula

for

the period given above.

The

. To what how will inclinations are vessels of ordinary form isochronous? the period be affected? Explain Calculate briefly the modern theory concerning in the form and action of sea waves? second of a wave 500 50-6. What is Isochronism? In rolling through large angles 6.\ Write down the formula supposition ? the period in seconds of a single oscillation of a ship the there is no resistance. 7. Given that the metacentric height 18. if What difference in the behaviour of a vessel would you expect her single roll period were (1) (2) longer than the half period of the waves. — 3"i4 feet. the apparent wave period. if is clear that is motions of in this to be of excessive. What waves tends to Explain why a meant by the term "effective wave slope"? place her masts parallel to the normal to the wave slope as vessel among her virtually upright position of equilibrium. although. without changing his course. is 9S8. What a certain use is made of this formula by the naval architect 3. in vessel is 2 feet and the radius of gyration 4. Of sea. all are provided with a sufficient margin of strength meet such demands. metacentric height cannot be affected to any appreciable extent. . X. Ans. are fixed by more important considerations than those of pitching . 9. 6 o6 seconds. j. the radius of gyration. vessel's safety. what would be the periodic time? 5. — - 7 seconds. period of the waves she may encounter. It may be said that. the period seconds and the speed in feet per feet long. may obviously be reduced by concentrating the heavy weights amidships. much shorter than the half period of the waves? . just as in the case of transverse rolling. a master may sailing frequently help matters. he may reduce speed and attain the due to synchronism. On much. How would you that set about obtaining the instantaneous axis of an oscillating ship? for 2. as considerably affected vessels thereby. roll period 5 seconds find the metacentric height. and the single Ans. may be with that the waves. calculate the period of a single is roll. as usually to constructed. unison kind are the subject of vertical heaving and dipping it it is unnecessary to say From what we know likely of synchronism. course. and give his vessel time to rise on the waves same end. however. 8. the longitudinal bending moments. The radius of gyration of a vessel If 16.— 270 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. as the length and displacement. the period of dipping approximate Pronounced heaving will not endanger a was noticed in a previous chapter. the metacentric height be reduced one foot. Should pitching become excessive when he is head to he may change to an oblique course and thus lengthen or. and in a merchant ship this should be done as far as possible in stowing the cargo. Ans. Show that the behaviour the of a vessel at sea depends largely on the relation between her still-water period and 10. and therefore the stresses brought upon the hull. QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER 1. on which its value depends.

11. to If a shipmaster finds the rolling justly attribute it? of his vessel to become what cause may he the rolling motion ? 15. and her feet. tain who has his vessel well Explain how a under control. effective in reducing rolling in small vessels Bilge-keels are more of short period than in large slow-rolling vessels. What steps should he take with a view to reducing Give an analysis of the resistance encountered by a vessel when rolling freely. Referring to the previous question. A n s. 271 Explain the terms "steady." " crank. Explain why. Under what circumstances single roll the is rolling of a ship . radius of gyration. What are water chambers? Show how they tend to diminish the rolling of ships in which they are 19. longitudinal The pitching period the of a being 4 seconds.QUESTIONS." and "stiff. no resistance? exceptionally severe." as applied to a vessel's condition at sea.— 144*4 20. metacentric height 400 feet. if the maximum slope angle of the waves be 5 expect degrees and the vessel upright when a wave reaches her. ? What are bilge-keels of motion ? In what way do they affect the rolling motions of vessels Discuss the effect 17. . is when among waves 12. ahead on the action of bilge-keels. assuming the water 14. installed. 16. 18. likely to be most severe? expect her to behave The if period of a vessel 6 seconds how would you broadside on to a regular series of waves of 12 seconds period? 13. might help matters in such a case and oba vessel likely to excessively? easier fore-and-aft motions. Explain the terms " pitching " and "heaving. Is a short or long pitching period preferable? is Give a reason pitch for your answer? Under what circumstances master. 21. in what position would you to offer her to be after the passage of six waves." calculate Give the formula vessel for the pitching period of a vessel in seconds.

already seen that the characteristics controlling it a vessel's sea in have a conflicting to interdependence. are longitudinally sufficient such a VIIL. therefore. skilful including the cargo. Besides the this. stevedoring is almost as important as designing. he way as will see to secure a a suitable Thus.. CHAPTER XL Loading and Ballasting. IT a should simply now be to fill clear that to efficiently load a vessel possible does time. We qualities have. efficient are distributed. the metacentre be relatively high. with vessel. be and owners who take no enpreto cautions of this all may find the subsequent behaviour of officer their vessels be scarcely that might be desired. and to obviate a too great value of a in GM he will aim at higher the position of centre of gravity. usually if do much bring about a satisfactory all condition his of his Even safer he does not gain he may than if vessel should still be and more com- fortable loaded in any haphazard way. which makes the values difficult any great that given case that arrange for necessary to is the best all-round results with great stability heavy rolling frequently associated. can. necessary of this on type. care. The superintendence sort trusted only to thoroughly-experienced persons. may be further improved. An to intelligent and experienced strive for. an officer his vessel. — In his who knows business will be guided by the characteristics of narrow and deep. account If metacentre being low in vessels will the vessel be broad and placing shallow. following distributed the principles of Chapter in weights trim. with steadiness stability. 272 the . lighter he will place the If she be heavy weights low in the holds and the weights of in higher up. of stability. the heavy that weights higher vessel. work should. steadiness among waves and without affecting satisfactory fore-and-aft flotation The vessel's may be secured. not mean the her with cargo in the shortest to In previous vessel's chapters qualities we have endeavoured sea depends upon so the that show that the nature of manner in which the weights. GENERAL CARGOES. thus ensuring a comparatively low position of the of the centre position gravity. loading general cargoes. and with thus clear steadiness a dangerously care small margin is It is considerable into and experience necessary in order to put cargo properly of this a vessel.

GENERAL CARGOES. that is. Suitable in may not be the at available shipment rather the con- sequence. Owners make much of the such experiments is not fully appreciated. the the heavy items cargo thus to can be banked against the roll as radius of gyration increased indicate vessel's and the that. she will to be unstable from the upright the angle which to she has a come list account as attempt cure such he might matters S quite correctly do if if must on no moving weights to the high side. In worse. the by transposing some of the weights. hardly necessary of loading. heavy items may occupy positions either too high or too low. checked by means of an inclining experiment. time. and do not give the encouragement they previously if suggested. officer however. them. trouble and loss of time involved. unstable equilibrium. if. is he of of may small. and. of. and. effect can thus be done to improve a the it condition. In such a case an condition should be quick to notice changes in the vessel's of loading. her the position least. to It point also always that determining factor of the style admitted and. caused the by the will raising of into the a gravity above and vessel being put fig. The officer by uneven loading. reserve of stability were . period lengthened. the list had been a gradual one due to rest. corrected might to their commanding of a care at officers. would might make and. these may readily be allowed as On completion of the stowage. roll period may be ascertained by forcibly heeling the vessel and counting It is to be feared the value of the number of rolls as already described. of the vessel and of the centre than at the sides . very little Actual experience appears in ordinary cases. and other good plan is of the officer charge make a rough estimate of the position the centre of gravity. although in the this process loading for." particular results It kinds sea. her in to suddenly upright to starboard. circumstances cargo may not always for be favourable at good correct stowage. departures may require to be made. dangerously centre state the sudden the movement being metacentre. The a nature a cargo. is but the of "winging" of weights is should not be to is lost sight out. and hence we find well-proportioned rolling. the metacentric height may. Also. Her stability curve to resemble at 224. but such a state a things may be of considered various exceptional. In may be determined of way the best places for individual items of cargo before commencing operations. It cannot be doubted of the carrying out to of the experiments above officer described would afford invaluable experience a commanding ship to as to how best ship. cargo should be stowed in his officer - to obtain his the at Such an might that be a said is "know upon own take sometimes happens. designed vessels developing tendencies to excessive little and which the exercise the time of loading would have done that much to obviate. 273 of is without raising ship's sides. man called is to charge of the loading of a ship of whose qualities he in total ignorance. If during list the port at process or he take should it observe stability. for When are the weights particulars for the in items to shipment available. the present the case the raising of the weights small. stability. be necessary.

is care is necessary in dealing with .— In sumed certain a the foregoing remarks we have asmore or less general cargo. A be good way seen to run this up a compartment of a be dangerous if tank. to which no longer popular is . The late the Institution by the results of at Dr. SPECIAL HOMOGENEOUS CARGOES— OIL. under such circumstances of loading and position of centre of at gravity. modern cargoes. and special as a freight." read analysis that before British of Naval Architects period. be. and this in the as right direction. indeed. Suppose. as will later on. dition since which the vessel should is have sufficient stability and trim the only one over which stowage has no control. however. in such a case. a vessel has her to whole cargo space filled with a homogeneous line. design. oil. few The it only plan open to discharge of it. to diminish or increase the value of G M. heavy dry ballast by running in water ballast may be put in the bottom of the holds before the cargo is loaded. is deep the class of vessels. With those of as . make the one conproperly. and owners would contemplate with any satisfaction. as an unfavourable position of gravity the of cannot is now be corrected part by shifting this about the cargo. and so the position of the centre of gravity can be affected by leaving an empty space in the holds. vessels intended frequent] y to load homogeneous cargoes full of critical density can always be designed to carry a cargo with perfect this The in it naval architect would. be at unavoidable all. cargo. for instance. 1886. if the safety the ship sea were to be con- sidered Of this safety. The case. Such a of resort. for instance. course. is different with homogeneous cargoes. Elgar. design has been demonstrated actual The importance of good experience. as we shall now proceed to show. already on shipping weights low down ballast stability the but. tendency is towards greater breadth. of such is density as just bring her to the load water- This centre a trying condition of loading. made an of shipwrecks over a certain and showed conclusively many with of the disasters were due to of such a bad as Few of the vessels lost were. is the or centre of gravity by lowering additional the position of weights holds. With homogeneous cargoes of other due to cargo faulty densities. stability proportions as to admit of sufficient when fully laden homogeneous cargo such It above described. and many of them were so laden. in a paper on in "Losses Sea. lighter space may be filled before. HOMOGENEOUS CARGOES. with general something may be done to correct a high position of the centre of gravity density. the whole and the margin of draught taken up if the vessel has no tanks. the whole internal space will not be required. cure is culminate in The in only to bring down board. should be mentioned that the proportionately narrow and these mainly belonged. unpleasant though would.2 74 actual SHIP CONSTRUCTION disaster. or in the 'tween decks. might the reserve were small. AND CALCULATIONS. according as it is desired design.— Bulk becoming increasingly important. however. With cargoes of greater density.

m =—j. so far as the initial stability is concerned. feet.e. call the point in which it intersects the GG^Gmd. Volume of wedge 8 % 0$ a or S z 0S t = ^b 2 fd cubic foot. to raised to m. it.08.. i. the line.x — liquid 3 But §6 middle 3 the moment of inertia of the /'. lbs. Gm= v x--. which becomes when. $6 / w. . therefore. If we assume in that liquid the hold is same in density as the water in which the vessel floating. is floating in lbs. 232 illustrates by some external means. Weight of wedge SJS. G / is GG. Assuming the at be heeled as in fig. the inclination being small. . across to the ship into the position S2 $& causing G. and compartment to be rectangular the level of the free liquid surface. since weight of vessel = Vxw % lbs. in which the vessel is floating are of same . and the the is metacentric in height reduced of the from GM mM. form being It through G and x the right deflected centre of buoyancy. about"* „ „ x \=\b*iew±b foot j ft f In fore-and-aft axis k through U ) . 275 vessel. of the couple m Zv is thus seen that is the effective centre of gravity. It will the case and is a section through a partially filled compartment. m.OIL CARGOES IN BULK.0S. suppose an oil-carrying in the process of loading. and V the volume of displacement of the ship * This formula is This formula is obtained as follows: — Referring to fig. or S. or S 2 08 4 = $b*f6 wjbs. In explanation of to this. 232. 232. surface about the axis through 0. Moment of wedge 8. and. And. as a couple tending to the vessel. line be drawn through G lt and Then. Let a vertical middle line.. = length of free surface in w = weight lf„ per cubic foot of liquid cargo in lbs.. as assumed above. . Fig. the reduction Gm feet may be obtained any actual case from the formula Gm where 1 = y. = weight V = volume vessel per cubic foot of water in which vessel of displacement in cubic to feet. in cubic feet. /* is the moment of inertia of the free surface of the fluid in foot units. liquid cargo and water density.= -y. the centre of be drawn out in the same direction to act Gv the The arm forces of weight and buoyancy drawn. Let / l 6=hatf breadth of free surface in feet. be noted that the act of heeling has transferred the small wedge of oil be slightly heeled SiOSs gravity. Calling this we get by substitution.

of the transverse metacentre above takes be similar to that of for the height centre buoyancy. 232. if the in the compartment were the the vessel.— — 276 seen to the SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. and the vessel height afloat in salt water. and rectangular in shape. estimate the reduction in metacentric height.. distance larger must be measured.500 tons displacement partly is liquid of the same density that as the water in which the vessel floating. the free Clearly. feet long. . resulting that is. the value the surface of It the greater will be be specially noted that the reduction does not depend on the quantity of oil in the compartment. being given the free surface is 30 Fig. Thus. liquid water supporting ratio by the cargo oil different in density from the above value would require to be multiplied of the density of the oil to that of the water. the reduction in metacentric would be G the ratio m = '87 x -8 = -69 feet. except that G the place of B as the the point greater from the which of the /'. were petroleum. as a small quantity having a large free surface will have more effect than a reduction in the metacentric height. Example. oil. should large quantity with Practical a small free surface. we get Gm = ^ 12 If the * * X4500X35 ^-=-87 ' feet. Applying the formula. of the density of petroleum to that of salt water being '8. is —A filled midship compartment of a vessel with It of 4. 38 feet broad.

since it varies directly as the moment. in fig. so that the total moment is one-fourth of what it was in the previous case. The continuous lines line. The reduction in metacentric height due to the restricted oil surface. however. The wedge from one side to the other of each portion of the divided half and one-fourth the volume of that of the wedge of fluid is a half. is is assumed in to never omitted be no middle line bulkhead.OIL CAkGOES IN BULK. 277 In the above case there bulkhead. the compartment previous breadth case. modern oil-carrying vessels. 3 St 5 S^ } indicates the oil surface with the vessel upright. and the moment an eighth. movement as shown. w / . and the two here is S S^ S Sq the surface the presence of the bulkhead restricting the transferred when the vessel is heeled. is shown 233. as This Such a it is of great value in minimising the detrimental effect of a free surface. But two wedges of fluid move instead of one. 233. also the travel of the centre of gravity of the Fig. is thus also a fourth.

and the oil becomes virtually a solid homogeneous cargo. . the level These trunkways.— Dr. and rapidly increased as the inclination rose in the that hold. dangerous angles when there are cases precaution as to loading has been neglected and when an on record even of actual capsizing from this cause. its upper vessel broadens rapidly. every compartment oil is has one or more open fill trunkways rising above the and fill sufficient holds and partially these as passages. and m quickly overtakes and passes M.278 SHIP CONSTRUCTION being AND CALCULATIONS. . of the depth of hold. A scarcely point of special importance in loading vessels. Elgar. After she began slowly turning to the upright the liquid when m had passed below M. also and contract in GRAIN analysis. pointed out that between the years 1881 and 1883. it. consistent volume of fully oil them above the to level loss of the tops of the compartments being without bringing to suffi- cient allow for due to evaporation too. have frequently been inclined . be of considerable magnitude. the period covered by his vessels had a greater number of striking. it After such settlement. is the loss due to evaporation. the liquid rises. pumped into the vessel to The horizontal areas of with the the oil trunkways are kept as small in possible. It Investigation has proved these surmises to be correct. which took place when the top of the tank. as the losses than all other cargoes is except This is number of of vessels carrying grain a small proportion of those engaged in the coal trade. in the paper previously referred to. but as admitted liquid surface low in the vessel. no movement is possible. which. serve the purpose of allowing the oil volume with change of temperature. Accordingly. and * is here that the danger lies. need be pointed is that if adjacent compartments dealt should be with the filled or emptied effect simultaneously naturally for one side only were Vessels inclining to would be this great. oil came within a few inches of out. and unless oil — specially in provided against. the Yft becoming unstable. CARGOES. and points to the of special characteristics existence in the nature grain cargoes and their stowage. the vessel reaching a to right herself. perhaps. therefore. A point which must not be overlooked in connection with bulk oil cargoes. In a case* investigated by the late Professor Jenkins. below the trunkways. 5 care. being freely to open expand the holds. found that bulk cargoes. the grain has vessel is a free surface. and in fairly large vessels may. 15 inches. maximum finally re- of 19!°. even when loaded with is have a tendency to settle down during a voyage and to leave empty These spaces have been estimated at spaces immediately under each deck. Expansion Trunkways. the reduction oil in bulk may lead to free surfaces the holds. carrying grain coal. such as grain. compartment is quite full. for when the See a paper in the Transactions of the Institution of Shipbuilders and Engineers in Scotland for 1889. coincided with M when the liquid reached a depth of oil Heeling then began. to 8 per cent. Of course.

shifting free inevitable The sliding angle which the ensue. state when the vessel became inclined to the of the vertical. in a certain vessel of which the parand radius of gyration were assumed.. the angle of the cone will be increased. but between the reached. when she . becomes manifest. as low as i6| found that heaving motions.* drew attention some the at points of importance with regard to the sliding angle. * See a paper on the Shifting of Cargoes in the Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects for 1887. 26^ degrees and degrees respectively. the wave slope. for two kinds of Indian corn. if 2?rJ> the grain tends is to put its is surface the parallel with result. being angle of repose of the grain. to the effect of rolling appears increase considerably tendency shifting. . waves. who investigated this subject. for 28-J is 23^ degrees. namely. where that free surface. of 25 degrees. On the the slightest inclination of the vessel.GRAIN CARGOES. the angle of shifting would be greater.<?. As It frequently by vessels is rolling among in the probability shifting. for example. at degrees one the point only during roll tion. and. sliding has is stopped. with grain the tendency until the same. called the angle the which of pyramid this makes with the for. wheat. in At any excess /. if a certain inclina- tion is this inclination. point during the this each oscillation. and the particles will run down the side of the cone until the same angle as before is attained. will be found take form of a cone-shaped the of this pyramid. other part. forces. on the other side about to ascend. had arrived end of a slide and was about angle. he as to In the case of grain with an angle of repose ticulars stability degrees. When grain . of kind of grain cargo. side Of this course. found at certain angle. will. This is one of the principal differences between a liquid and a friction or repose. the vessel be heeled in quiet water. which to act on a at vessel and her when than rolling qause shifting take place a much smaller the still-water angle of repose. He showed cargo angle that accelerative sea. The to late Professor Jenkins. the particles prevents in any movement fact. it proved exceeded there shifting to be a rather than 14^ degrees. of The wheat value it of this angle has been obtained peas for various kinds grain. of things would to be reversed. when accompanied by rolling. reaching a value of the still-water angle of repose at the other extreme of the free surface. liquid is puts itself parallel friction with water surface . He a this also it to be. 27 J degrees. rolling at sea. cause still further diminuless tion of In example angle of is above. floor. surface easily is of grain must be inclined before If it motion will may be until obtained. but to return that it the a portion of at whole surface would not the upper part of the side at this only about to descend. the On the whole. the should 14 J be mentioned at at would take the place oscilla- above vessel also. the to rolling heavy. if angle more wheat be poured on to the heap. to be poured the on side to a floor there a heap. for mixed and beans.

2S0 Piofessor sliding SHIP CONSTRUCTION Jenkins is AND CALCULATIONS. be such a rate as to ensure a certain amount of empty space in the decks. not See a paper by the late Mr. and covered with is boards. trimming hatches through the lower and these to some extent allow the settlement in the holds to be made up from the cargo in the 'tween decks. greater shift the stability. He showed the the part of the cargo centre of gravity. is but at same in pointed of a that the of a of cargo more serious the vessel that of small stability than in that of one of great stability. the effects of in possible shifting in of cargo. in Government Regulations prohibit decks except is of grain in bulk cargo it 'tween the such as may be shifting necessary feeding . and shifting once begun cannot be corrected. grainto whether the grain be bags or bulk. deck. and for filling up the empty spaces is with this bags carried the purpose. the grain in way of the trimming hatches being in bulk but empty spaces under the beams are still likely to exist between these hatches. Martell in the Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects for 1SS0. COAL CARGOES. the exigencies of stowage demanding portable boards at these places. portable wood boards fitted edge on edge and reeved between the centre but in some modern line of pillars. this rule. 'tween decks requires care. in general. the grain must be trimmed above. which. level In such cases. the Government Regulations require onefourth the grain to be carried in bags in all spaces which have no efficient . in most subject to movement is that above double-decked vessels. no apparent reason why coal-laden vessels should is. . the centre division consists ot movement of a cargo of liquid. this is largely bags dangerous of of the cargo of at part is thus obviated. in properly constructed feeders generally. feeding arrangements. are to fit Where a 'tween cannot be done. which the restricts extent of the movement of a grain cargo much as it restricts the Generally. The stowage special grain in the holds of vessels having a vessels. which calculated to prevent shifting should obviously apply specially to compartments constituting the lower holds of vessels having one or more 'tween decks. as It the is holds usual inaccessible. against As a safeguard carrying vessels. which are reeled for the purpose • vessels it consists of a permanent steel bulkhead (see page 161) except in way of the main hatchways. coal can.. the in holds and carried in carried . — Owing stowed 'tween at There * to its density. are required have a centre division in the holds and in the 'tween decks. therefore. the vessel at the same time being down to her load mark. For serious the reasons of given cargo. would apply to the the carriage for 'tween decks.* In the case single-decked rectified when ing shifting of cargo has the taken place the effect may be there by opendecks the hatches when of grain weather permits. Allowing for certain exceptions. that showed the effect further the decrease of angle the at which time case also begins out greater. before stowing the bags.

TIMBER CARGOES. this We 223). From the great to number a been the some of them known it possess amount that of stability of at start of their fatal voyages. Colliers not usually with boards. there is usually a considerable deck load carried. In the case of cargoes of the lightest timbers.— In the full the case of cargoes of the heaviest woods. diminishing process less undergoes the during range rolling motions appear sea may doubtin often bring it within of it a vessel's oscillations stormy near weather. has marked effect on the form of the stability curve. under the decks. the problem of stowage becomes more difficult. indeed. and no seaman would care to face a sea voyage in a ship having a pronounced list to port or hold capacity is not required. however. fig. could not. and quite suitable for general trades. It and a margin of stability. as well as full holds. the high position of the centre of gravity. and as ensures roller. Many vessels that are good deadweight carriers. to aim at so loading his ensure easy motion when among waves left sea. have sufficient lost. giving it increased area and range. mark. there might be actual instability in the upright position. In some cases. starboard. without having to resort to cargo of should. With cargoes of mixed timbers. be safely employed to carry a cargo of timber of the last description. 3. vessels should be specially broad of in relation to draught. of course. owing to a high position of the centre of gravity. making the stability quite inadequate. the righting arms may be small. there as no restriction . although the of repose of coal it considerably greater than that at of grain. so circumstanced should prove an easy value of and thus a comfortable be limited boat in a seaway The G M in a case like this. inevitably to see to that no vacant spaces are of the cargo. the has been conjectured of shifting the cargo are may have been fitted cause shifting not a few of the is disasters. perfect vessel have already referred to curves of that in type (see curve No. The at lessons to be deduced here by the vessel as to ship's officer first. sufficient this ensures a a relatively high position metacentre. without a considerable amount of ballast. such cases the value of this GM may. From which considerations would that the suggested quite reason of shifting for the loss of the many coal-laden vessels may be are. with a be quite small. a long rolling period. as and second. and loading should simply follow the lines already indicated for ordinary heavy deadweight cargoes. 28 of such vessels which have fair stability. In as this trade. and decks. satisfactory conditions of stability and trim can always be attained by a proper distribution of the light and heavy woods. affords valuable surplus buoyancy. placed on the stowage of coal the angle in the is 'tween with grain and. although at initial angles. be noted in that deck wood. when well packed which and a securely lashed place. because. and have pointed out safety. should by the con- . due to the presence of the deck cargo. ballast. these lead shifting TIMBER CARGOES.

to the of might be considered as actually detrimental to EFFECT ON STABILITY OF A SHIFT OF CARGO. as accurately deter- mined. and may be taken to to the horizontal at of repose of the grain. and of drawn hold. correspond- to the the anticipated maximum the settlement b bx is about of the lie 5 of depth the the ultimate line grain surface when cargo angle has shifted. a distance below the deck. grain. height of greater value unnecessary.282 sicleration SHIP CONSTRUCTION of the vessel AND CALCULATIONS. in such of as the burning of bunker and the increase water. of are available. where there a free surface. should be the provided. in the upright position throughout the voyage. being stable. to That over and above a sufficient margin cover diminutions out of the from causes coal that may be anticipated. such previous experience with the vessel is may suggest. the Fig. between the parts. cargo always horizontal. since the owing to quickly Still. 234 a the midship section of a grain-laden the is The horizontal to dotted line Ct r shows grain at level.e. weight the deck value cargo through becoming saturated with sea as a certain minimum G M. dry homogeneous cargoes do not move so definitely as oil.— To the calculate quantity involved in any of particular oil shift of cargo is is not always an easy matter. A the metacentric excess. and. assuming of the the the settlement have per taken place ing cent. and is. not too tender. The wedge of grain a x (Ibx . In the case cargoes. i. vessel. friction nor so we have seen.. when plans Fig. an of the is approximation is may be to made to the in heeling effect of the worst shift the cargo that vessel likely take place a given case. quantity shifted through oil the heeling is of the vessel may be but. with grain. evenly. and the same rules cannot be applied. extent vessel. 234.

place. In this case GG . r feet. . Practical Example. fitted. provided it does not exceed io to 15 degrees. W 9i3% ~ = displacement of vessel in tons. relatively to the keel as well as moved laterally. then the angle between this and the middle line is the angle of heel required. would be reduced. the point G will thus be raised however. Calculate the angle of heel. 5^H7 9000 d GM x Q « = KO X -^— 27 « — 9000 x '5 1 — -io 6° nearly. well as the transverse might be necessary in to allow for the vertical as movement determining the angle of heel. travel of centre of gravity of shifted cargo in feet.r • the horizontal distance between r g x and g g x and g 2 2i .*. From which equation Q be obtained. to from G Gv w = weight of cargo shifted in tons. of arms. displacement.EFFECT OF A SHIFT OF CARGO. This reduction lateral } the angle at which the vessel comes to rest. such were the angle of heel. Vertical movement of centre 01 gravity r — — IV X H 7^ — r feet. For small angles. 283 now </ 2) occupies the position ctcbd. the centre of gravity obviously means a and in a vessel originally tender might enIn the case assumed there is no middle line bulkhead. TT • Horizontal movement of centre 01 gravity r r . == w a — — x rr. may movement righting of the danger her if safety. it If the shift of cargo were considerable. — In a grain-laden vessel of 48 feet is beam. as in the case of a liquid cargo. Let h — the vertical distance between d = . the metacentre. . then. line This determines the position of the centre of gravity after shifting has taken Join this point with M. 9000 tons transversely and 18 inches G M. GG = GM X x e (nearly). GG x will be parallel to the line joining g x and g 2 . 50 tons of cargo shifted through a distance of 27 feet. of its centre of of gravity and to If the common centre gravity vessel and cargo moving from moving #.

GM .

and a consequent abnormal crease in the metacentric height. deadweight. with the 4 to 5 by the to pellers about two-thirds of loose of immersed. as possible. from •51 to and show the ballast draught to vary 72 of the load draught. if the voyage. he cannot get cargo. ballast combination of water and one the this other forms of used. 285 small. the effective wave-slope angle. part in of ballast. with a probability of serious damage before the end of Accordingly. as when among waves. principles that is. sand. A stability curve of suitable area and range. even assuming sufficient stability. he takes ballast aboard. directly affects magnitude of the arcs through which a vessel It would appear that a great variety of opinion exists as to the ratio which should hold between the amount of ballast and the full deadweight. either . Steamers for Atlantic for Voyages'' 1903. if of sand or should be placed there single-decked the vessels some by special fitting arrangement should be made to raise centre of gravity. and small vessels with erections decks for or with the smallest in Mr.. will roll. inevitably leading to excessive rolling and great straining of the the In rubbish. In a paper in by Mr. Thearle points steamers less out. and the amount of ballast from '24 to 41 cases full of the deadweight. . rubbish. the ends in is is likely where a proportion A point ballasting that fact. bunker coal should is useful way. water. Frequently. as we have hull. would cause them to be the sport and waves. it be sufficient to secure the following An adequate of the immersion engines of the propeller in steamers to prevent (2) and breaking of the tail shaft.BALLASTING. the the of Naval Architects actual figures "5. at experience having shown result less that damage is the less form a rivets ballast. that the stability would be dangerously and. Thearle Transactions of in on "Ballasting of the are Institution given. of wind and their greatly exposed surfaces. and to reduce. vessels having 'tween decks. not important than having stowed. all the case of many steamers. that good the results. should. or stability may be endangered. a state of things. or of in water. shelter-deck vessels with high sides having flush the greatest proportion very short the of ballast and draught. seen. sufficiency of deadweight. a is i. we have seen. in owing to a relatively high position of the centre of gravity such cases. in the ballast the latter should be carefully be followed here as in ordinary loading the should low. amount of ballast ordinary tramp when making and the there proin voyages full across the Atlantic in winter vessels should not feet be than one-third of stern. sails . The same operations . and undue strains being brought upon the stern frame. with considerable racing righting moments floating at large to angles give of inclination grip in all vessels. In steamers. to As (1) the total : amount of ballast required. the which.e. nor the ship's too may be an undue in- depression of centre of gravity. that their slight grip of the in . gravel. not or be there placed too high. (3) A as good far depth of the water.

while peak tanks. It is to be feared that many officers do not fully appreciate the danger of this practice. the reader is referred to chapter on practical A double bottom. aft In steamers. as already noted. and the strength of vessels should be to meet all such demands. extremities we know. the presence of the free surface during the stability. and deck. Moat modern cargo steamers have double bottoms and peak tanks some large vessels have also one or more deep tanks extending from the bottom of the vessel to the first or second deck.286 SHIP CONSTRUCTION to AND CALCULATIONS. disposed obtain suitable period. however. and thus particularly in may suggest. in ballast are largely such precautions stiff. The amount carried in a double bottom. of side. while in a few instances ballast tanks have been built into the corners under the deck. and in other places. advantage over sand or rubbish of being more quickly. or by carrying on deck. the but. The ballast is loaded in order to increase the metacentric height and. Where the ballast supplementary stones or that in the so as double to consists suitable of rubbish. also on top of the deck between the hatches. where such are required. to concentrating the ballast amidships in lead to the development of considerable bending this way is moments. many vessels ballast Unfortunately. whether water in deep tanks. if the remainder of is loaded in deep tanks. or by any plan which experience and the special circumstances not always taken. To quick fore-and-aft therefore. process to may deprive a vessel of her effective metacentric height and cause her . water is used. but likely these cannot well be avoided. there should be a preponderance for. to and avoid the constant in tendency which a slow-moving vessel has bury her extremities the waves.— Mention made of this point. supplementary ballast. easily. . has which should be abundantly clear from the remarks on the loading of liquid cargoes. it should than be the disposed obtain position of the centre of gravity. not of itself sufficient for a sea voyage. vertical Scarcely less important distribution of ballast. of ballast tanks. is except the is in the special for case in which it extends up the ship's not best place ballast. should be placed towards amidships. course. already been made sufficient DANGER OF FILLING BALLAST TANKS AT SEA. towards the obtain. Unfortunately. should be kept within moderate limits. For the details of the construction details. the steamers. a satisfactory motion. is the placing of it longitudinally. has obvious and cheaply loaded and discharged. as we have seen. therefore. to But a this allowed pitching the remainder should be This period is. immersion and sea a metacentric height as to ensure good behaviour bottom a may be attained. to properly immerse so the as propeller. or in corner tanks under the a satisfactory at which the capacity has been such to carefully considered. are unduly It Nowadays. lengthened by winging out the weights and shortened by concentrating them amidships. temporary bulkheads part of it properly secured bank up the ballast in the holds. or stones and rubbish.

however. -98 feet. and has a capacity for 320 tons of salt water. the whole breadth the shifting tank will be available in estimating the moment due wedges of water. the fall in the of due of to admission to the water. It is important to remember the Gm = L as i previously remarked. We thus get. which influences the metacentric height. viz. Taking the centre of of the admitted water to be at half depth. and. Reduction of metacentric height = = 1*15 '17. 35 feet broad. metacentre being assumed centre in remain the same height above the base throughout. In that case. 80 x -ik x I2 ?. 287 a dangerous angle. mately rectangular in shape. Given that the distance between the ship's centre of gravity and the top tank in is of the the 12 feet. we suppose the to fore-and-aft girders. we have Fall m centre effect of gravity of vessel of the free = if 80 x 15*5 « —— = "17 feet. to be pierced with holes. particularly in the case of midship compartments which are of considerable breadth. or *2Q feet. showing bottom. shows that the it is the extent of the area of the free magnitude of the quantity of liquid in the tank. to the in centre the line ot without perforations.DANGER OF FILLING BALLAST TANKS AT heel that to SEA.< x -ik n n = 285833 (fo0t units) ' and . This reduction instability in is serious. calculate is 1 the reduction the in metacentric height when to water at the tank foot deep. In finding the of the surface. the tanks are quite empty. and in It the is case of many vessels would cause fit the upright division gravity position. the virtual of the rise centre would be ot a fourth above amount. and the reduction the •29 metacentric height would only be - "17 = "12 feet. here the to We gravity have consider two of free things. it is is intended to run up a 'midship compartment of the 4 feet deep. take tons :— In a certain vessel of 7000 displacement. Virtual rise in centre of gravity & J . - 2^5833 = —5 x 7080 = - 35 i*i«j J feet. approxi- double bottom. and its the virtual rise the centre gravity gravity due the liquid surface. therefore ' = . which 80 feet long. And commanding officers should see that surface. the general practice. not when the ballast is out. including the middle one. the powerful effect of a watertight centre division in a double . the following As a concrete example. formula if not to capsize..

Vessel ready for sea. will be the observed that the stability it 3rd convery (curve 235) in is a critical one. for mean and water load-draught 23 feet forecastle. 5 th condition the condition coal. and accommodation bottom and in the after peak. a smaller is Fig. water in boilers. interests of safety. closing present chapter. and but but all ballast tanks • filled. it the case <?. bunker B). but with bunker coal. but with to bunker the coal.. from the bridge 'tween decks. — Vessel water ready for aboard. bunker C). stores. bridge. G). 3 is a similar diagram are cargo feet steamer o inches. water in boilers.—— 25S SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. as yth. and 7th fresh consumed. Curves A 1st a double to H in each diagram refer />. stores and In dition small. bunker stores stores and water fresh F). 4th condition (curve D). fresh water consumed. and shall vessels. of the larger fig. 6th condition (curve — Same — Same — Same vessel. sea. 236 design. water in boilers. 3 inches. ballast in 6| inches. and coal. under such certain conditions loading the and give along of with the of remarks In may be the necessary proper shall interpretation curves. breadth 51 feet 6 inches. there is main 'tween decks. vessel's would probably be considered of the desirable. Sth condition (curve H). 2nd 3rd condition (curve — Same as 1st. stores or fresh water and all ballast tanks empty. a The of poop. condition part (curve as 3rd. mean load-draught forecastle. vessel complete. filled fresh water aboard. in adapted to carry water ballast ' a double for : she and a main 'tween decks bottom and in both peaks. but no cargo. — Same 3rd. and the holds and 'tween decks with a homogeneous cargo of such density as just to bring to — the vessel her legal summer as load-line. aboard. of the bridge 'tween decks being empty. to the following conditions : condition (curve A). stores at and fresh water consumed. moulded depth 29 feet The vessel has a short . — Light ship. laden a coal cargo. also of modern 49 also feet The dimensions moulded depth 28 erections consist — Length 5 351 breadth inches. but with bunker coal. as 5th. briefly how 395 they may be employed 6 the actual working of 235 Length is a diagram for a modern cargo steamer of the following dimensions: feet inches. bridge. reserve being When cargo loading a cargo the of the given the density. discuss Fig. 23 feet n£ inches. poop. (curve E). common plan with many shipbuilders in supplying stability information new vessels for —A to the guidance of the officers. (curve condition stores. we two examples such in stability diagrams. and fresh water aboard. and disconnected. STABILITY INFORMATION FOR COMMANDING OFFICERS. with bunker with coal. and run to remove some up a compartment of . feet inches. coal. the stability is to provide diagrams anticipated as of curves of for depicting the nature of ballasting. approximating end of a voyage.

.

d - p o CO Cvj z o < _j c ^ *£ ? .

. however. If. as in the examples be then. [ inclination 01 30 degrees ) . a to conditions of the were stated. in centre of gravity x sin. would only remain. but is may be pointed fully regard so to draughts. same draught. he must be careful to note that he for which he has curves also. those of new curve adding at from appropriate deduce the righting levers of the standard curve. that respect curves should be found generally applicable. _ = Fall . utility of the curves. •54 = Fall ~ '5 x *5. a full The it tables of conditions supplied with the diagrams of stability curves are very useful in working out problems like the foregoing. that in this a ship the usually either light. it This would appear to limit the out. the position of the centre of gravity above the base corresponding to the various given. can only deal with draughts in In making deductions. with the information usually given. been derived. however. has like fig. The curve of stability the ordinates under the increasing of curve new conditions may now be obtained by G throughout by the amount 1 '08 x sine of angle of inclination. . for instance. Let us find what fall in the centre of gravity would be necessary to secure this in the present case. Assuming the draught to remain unchangedarms at inclinations of 30 degrees . . to change by a in the position centre It of gravity might the approximated simple moment calculation. . that differences . the were intended to load smaller of the two given vessels with . by deducting or each inclination the amount fall Rise or of centre of gravity x sine of angle of inclination. With a officer diagram 236 ready to hand. so as to bring down the centre of gravity and improve the righting In vessels of this size and description. At 30 degrees the righting lever is '26 feet it has thus to be increased by ('8 . loaded. 236. the the 2C)t double bottom stability. Increase of righting arm at» ° °. In this way curve stability /C. . safety demands that and 45 degrees should not be less than about *8 of a foot. or ballast. and. in stowage give of a general special or of rise to more trouble.. Differences cargo. an should be able in most cases to satisfy himself as to the state of his vessel. Fall in centre of gravity —= 1*08 feet. in centre of gravity r . The stowage homogeneous cargoes other than those for which curves are provided. 235 or fig.."26) = '54 feet. 30 degrees. the amount of the To rise or fall of the centre of gravity from the position of a standard case must be known. stowage with in may quite alter the nature of the stability. . Suppose. fig.STABILITY INFORMATION. lead to variations in the positions of the at centre •of gravity from those of the standard conditions stability the obtain a curve for any such new condition. the only way of obtaining this would be by means of a special heeling experiment.

Angles of Inclination. marked K.. by all of to the capacity plan.— 292 general cargo. Such a case is worked out in detail on page 192. is plotted 236. The levers of the required the curve are equal to those of curve decreased throughout by amount of angle of inclination. G. which part of the equipment of modern approximate to the positions culation. tabulated. means vessels. of the to then. is SHIP CONSTRUCTION It AND CALCULATIONS. are and the stability curve. x sine In the subjoined table the righting levers at 15 degrees. Suppose this done in the present case.* and the centre of gravity found be '5 feet above the position corresponding to a full coal cargo (curve 236). 5 as already described. fig. .uTee^ x 5 3° 45 60 75 90 . would be first necessary. Ordinate* of De. 30 degrees. G. in fig etc. by a moment calvarious weights forming the cargo combine these weights and heights with those of the light ship to (taken from the table) obtain the height of the common centre of gravity of vessel to and cargo.

= 2559 1954 tons. As excessive. . say case. is Including bunker coal. the supple(see mentary ballast should be stowed high. stability curve 235) is of great to area and range. fig. particularly as the E. bunker coal and water ballast. 600 if tons. suit in round the figures. and the remainder ballast passed the main the 'tween the decks. Referring to the table to 293 of conditions. it would be an If only advantage to put the whole amount into the half bridge is 'tween decks. this having to be a good average. the deadweight 7677 tons.STABILITY INFORMATION. In present such would also the trim. full let it be sufficient make the been shown to total equal to about a third of the deadweight.1954 = 605 tons. Items. the height of the centre of gravity will be as obtained below. the metacentric height in the given this is standard case is found be 7*57 feet. stores and fresh the total water. tons is already loaded (see therefore Supplementary or. ballast = 2559 . into of it can of be the so placed. taken centres supplementary being assumed from capacity plan as before. With regard the amount of the additional ballast. ballast should therefore be— 7677 " Including Table).

calculation the height of the centre as follows Items. the should be In order to keep the taken out forward. be discharged be 2000 to rise From in the deadweight assuming the vessel coal is evenly. so as to The question is.— 294 discharge part SHIP CONSTRUCTION of her AND CALCULATIONS. for figures for the loaded condition from is the : table. feet the 9 reduction inches. Taking of gravity the centres capacity plan. the unloading be done leave her in a favourable to condition prosecuting the voyage? Let the amount scale. and the from remainder the the main and and the bridge 'tween decks. draught due to unloading the draught the fore aft found to be 4 coal right. how should tons. . say 1000 tons from from the main-hold. cargo at a certain and afterwards proceed for to sea under the reduced load. port.

what will be the angle A If grain-laden vessel of 7000 tons displacement has a metacentric height of 2 feet 6 inches. decks as well as lower bunkers. drawing 27 feet 6 inches forward and the latter has a reserve bunker containing 500 tons of coal. The tons per inch is 60. Write down the formula for the reduction in the metacentric height due to the presence of a free liquid suiiace in the hold. and approximately rectangular in shape and that the total displacement is 6500 tons. the feet draught forward 8 and is 10 feet 9 inches. general or a homogeneous cargo afford greater facilities for loading so as to produce a comfortable vessel at sea? 5. been loaded to her maximum draught. to Assuming the transverse metacentre coal in the reserve to remain at the same point while the vessel rises the lighter draught. feet. a vessel is suddenly list to port or starboard. Explain how he may If the metacentric height were found to be deficient. feet in length. oil. — 6°. and water in boilers.- DraUghtS { I \Aft. at Show that the presence of a middle-line bulkhead greatly modifies the effect of a tree in liquid surface question. Calculate is the reduction in the metacentric height due to the free surface. Am. 295 observed to in the process of loading. assuming the vessel to have been upright before the shifting took place? Ans. Explain n why it is that grain cargoes loaded in bulk are frequently found to shift during voyage when bad weather has been encountered.QUESTIONS. feet. what steps should the master take to correct it? 6. If the coal in h particular vessel. Give reasons for your answer. 15. and the transverse metacentric height at the start of the voyage 1 5 feet. estimate approximately the draught and transverse metacentric height when the ( bunker is consumed. readily obtain this knowledge. the vessel 11. and how should the subsequent loading be conducted so as to bring the vessel back to Ihe upright? 4.. and 35 feet before the centre of gravity of the load-waterplane. A vessel b33 entirely fills her. nearly. 26 27 feet. 4 f inches. 3. One of the compartments of an oil steamer is partially filled with petroleum. With bunker 3350 stores and fresh water feet aboard. 42 feet broad. Show that the burning out of bunker coal may have an is important influence on a vessel's condition. Whether does a. transversely through a distance of 18 feet. Enumerate the precautions which should be taken are trunkways fitted in oil vessels ? loading a vessel with oil in bulk. 10. shift 100 tons of cargo of heel. is compartment the level of the 7. Assuming a middle-line bulkhead what would be the reduction in metacentric height? in the vessel of the previous Why 9. If. is ballasted for an Atlantic voyage. Metacentric height.600 tons displacement. and the centre of gravity follows: 195 above the base. A cargo steamer of 7000 tons deadweight coal. with a homogeneous cargo which and the master desires to ascertain the metacentric height before sailing. is contained in 'tween in the interest of the safety of A is steamer 470 aft. [ Forward. what may be inferred as the probable cause. ? how whose margin of stability should it be worked out small. the aft displacement is tons. 2| inches.— '65 feet. given that the situated amidships. What is a sea voyage? What should be aimed at in ballasting a steamer for meant by ballasting? How would you expect a vessel to behave if laden with heavy ballast placed to be low down in the holds? 13. 117 12. 8. Water ballast then loaded as — 1000 tons in double . the longitudinal metacentric height is equal to the is - length of the vessel. The centre of gravity of 10 feet below that of the vessel. 30 feet long. Ans. in the holds.

the it approximately rectangular in has a perforated is 60 feet long. be 3 feet forward of 'midships. Ans. to what extent may the of the disc — that is. ij inches. estimate approximately the full.000 square Ans. <£ 37 feet. A If vessel whose load displacement water in the dock voyage. and 163 feet before 'midships. and 4 to feet deep. Metacentric height. and 54 feet abaft 'midships. it is proposed to purpose fill a compartment of the double bottom. 140 Lons in the fore-peak. 4^ inches. 14. 15. centre 2 centre 16 feet feet SHIP CONSTRUCTION above base and 2 feet AND CALCULATIONS. f Am. Give reasons. Assuming the centre of gravity of above base.. 01 What stability information should be supplied with a new vessel for the guidance the officers? . a vessel should exhibit signs of to tenderness. with shape. . how should the heavy items be disposed longitudinally to ensure a vessel behaving well at sea? 17. II feet. feet and has capacity for 300 tons of salt water. (Aft.-) I Drau g hts C Forward. per cubic foot. . the average height of the transverse metacentre moment to alter trim 1 inch 670 foot tons. 44 feet broad. while on her voyage. and the estimate above the base with the ballast aboard 19 feet approximately the draught and metacentric height when in ballast trim." show that it would be unsafe bottom. In loading a general cargo. —4 inches. attempt to remedy matters by running up a compartment of the double Referring to example 11. metacentric height when ( [ . in salt water — be immersed? The area of the load waterplane 12. and a view to making good the reduction in coal. the is legal summer load-line feet. — \i '58 feet. summer weighs 63 lbs. of in- creased immersion to be 34. half and also when it is full. 16 feet. 2g6 bottom. metacentric height due to the consumption of the is The tank chosen centre division for . centre 14 the parallel layer to feet before 'midships 650 tons in a deep tank abaft above base. centre the is 7500 tons is being loaded in dock for a. the average tons per inch in way . centre is Assuming the top of the tank be 18 below the the tank of gravity of the vessel. 16. engine-room. If. H~ c *p feet.

to a cubic foot. feet.APPENDIX A.35 W = '84 W cubic square feet. now W = a vessel's displacement in tons. CHANGE OF DRAUGHT IN PASSING FROM FRESH TO SALT WATER. -p— - 35. _ Let . W cubic out water. Fresh water. A be the area of the waterplane through which the vessel rises in inches in and d the distance . —Taking salt water to weigh 64 lbs. salt then immersed volume in water water = = and immersed volume In passing from fresh to to salt in fresh 35 x 35*84 x thus W cubic feet. feet. 1 of cubic feet to a ton in each case is 2240 2240 Salt water. j— = 35*84.. the vessel rises of the water the If extent 35-84 W . the number r. and fresh water 62*5 lbs.

is the usual custom to employ the read off mean draught. At amidships draw Q R normal to the keel to line.Z L 2 be drawn parallel to the Fig. at load into 3$. the 2.L2 off on the displacement would obviously give reading than the actual displacement . we should . out of the point normal in be drawn parallel to the base through which the actual waterline intersects the locus of the centres a line should of gravity Fig. — In scale. S T be locus of the centres of gravity of the waterplanes.. 237 at shows it a is vessel trimming to by the the stern . approximating to that of the vessel when To the cut off a displacement closely trim. let W. RS the distance /?. get the draught use displacement scale. sum of the actual draughts at the stem and stern divided by to This assumes the waterplane drawn at of equal volumes forward this mean draught cut off wedges and aft.e. which in ordinary cases would not happen.. and W»L>. Let S. W Wi to is half the trim. if RS were 4 feet. MEAN DRAUGHT. amidships of the centre of gravity of waterplane to Thus to the with amount the be added actual 6 to is the mean draught obtained. less marked W. W L . by the amount of the layer between therefore W l L l and The draught the QR should be employed. The displacement original to the waterplane W 2 L 2 will be very nearly equal to that to the waterplane W L. but this mean a draught. I— base. WL is the line of the which required know displacement. 237. per cubic foot water. flotation of waterplanes. and the trim feet by the stern. W l Q half the vessel's length. line Through the point of intersection of this locus and the W L. were to pass from river water 6$ lbs. it reading a displacement vessel's from a displacement i.— — 298 SHIP CONSTRUCTION draught sea is AND CALCULATIONS. she would rise 9500 63 x 35 4*3 inches. Q is the mean draught corresponding scale. 0R = TO" But abaft RS. readily In an case. are Since triangles WW X Q and qj? SRO similar— _ wj/i RS w 1 o' WW. the get length of vessel 360 feet.

which expresses the the metacentre above the centre of of buoyancy. In the act of heeling the wedge of displacement WSW 1 passes across to g. Fig. V = Volume of displacement. which by definition is the transverse metacentre. from view of a vessel inclined through a small angle Before the inclination took place. and gravity of the watera transverse axis through the centre of plane in the case of the longitudinal metacentre. PROOF OF FORMULA height of BM = p. buoyancy— BM = Height of metacentre (transverse or longitudinal) above centre /= Moment of inertia of the waterplane about the middle line about as axis in the case of the transverse metacentre.APPENDIX A. Fig. BB = X u x g y g2 . the centre of buoyancy was B • it is now of the line resultant and has thus travelled the distance B B v The line at B upward pressure passes through B x and intersects the middle lt in M. corresponding to an increase of displacement over that given by the mean draught of about 30 tons. which as- very . ux g g* x (1) is Where 9 sumed to be is the circular measure the angle of inclination. Consider case. or l/xBI\/lx0 = of small. 238.— In this formula. 299 OR 180 4 5 x 4 x 12 of an inch. which illustrates the a transverse the at upright. the in ship into the position LSU V x its centre of gravity moving from g x ship's If V be the volume of the a line parallel to B B v and u the volume of either wedge— displacement. is first the transverse metacentre. 238..

B is the centre of buoyancy when . the intersection .dX. BB.BM. of the waterplane about the middle line as Calling to we get Moment due of movements wedge J in (1) Substituting this for u x g g2 } 1. the projection in the of the is paper of of intersection of the waterplanes WL and WiLu called the centre of flotation and occurs at the same point case. The inclination here is is a fore- and-aft one. for the moment this /. 8X being the thickness of the slice. but except as modified by this circumstance.6 or.. . — — — 300 1/ SHIP CONSTRUCTION is AND CALCULATIONS. 6.. movement line. of inertia . assumed of the to be to calculate the value of the known.— — . The inclination being very u x BB = Bm x So that hih % = V x B m x 9 (2). the moment due to the ship./??. verticals through plane B and B being the longitudinal metacentre the line 0. that U being the volume of either and V x of the ft displacement. W X L^ in the middle Calling the half breadth waterplane amidships. . small. That . = V..5x. Moment due to movement of Also thisl ) b 2 4 u 3 volume across the ship = Now all * b\0.= V wedge.0. used here instead of ll/l to distinguish the longitudinal metacentre from the transverse.* floating at the waterplane of the W\L U Bi its position when ls at the line W L. the moment into of the whole wedge is equal to the sum of the is moments of the slices which it may be supposed to 1 divided. i. t J . in the length as the centre of gravity of the waterplane WL the x h ly h 2 are the centres of the immersed and emerged wedges.h.O - BM= T the Take now Fig. .e. Moment due But movement of 1 . is S. x 2 = ^-b .. so that to find B M it is only necessary quantity u x g Y g. longitudinal metacentre.ft 2 and Volume of a thin slice of either wedge 2 = ~*ft 5 -*. inclina- 239 shows a fore-and-aft view of the vessel with a slight tion aft. the proof the same. the point of intersection of wedge of displacement across the the water lines W L and of the being small. 1 As in previous we have ix h. Sectional area of wedge WS W l or LS L = x 6 —. u a whole wedge f 3 S-6°5x 2 is the expression axis.

sx. or ^xly. and the moment of both wedges.dx. through for its centre gravity Calling this I.Bm.0. 3 OI To volume element 5 calculate the quantity u x h h^ x consider a small element thickness at of of the this of is emerged wedge distant x from 0. or 2'2x\y. double this quantity. x.$x.0. substituting the value the moment wedges thus obtained in we get LB = V. wedge is the sum of the moments of the Fig. X x 0.Q or.y.y. and (2). But axis 2^x iy. and its X the dimension of the element volume will be the direction of the vessel's length.sx and its moment about of the a transverse axis through The moment whole x 2 . and if y be the breadth of the the in The vessel the place.— These with another.APPENDIX A.0. 1 239.Q. TO elements.dx i is the moment of of the of inertia of the watcrplane about a transverse 0. comparing one vessel : The following are the usual co-efficients employed . Bm = V are useful in J_ CO-EFFICIENTS OF FORM.

in the case of a vessel of 28 feet breadth and 8 breadth of the vessel. of flotation to be and the vessel to rise to a parallel waterplane. 1. 3. assuming the co-efficient of the plane "83. 3.W. —A vessel long. is is useful designing. Example. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. — = 20^. Co-efficient of important to Area of Load-Waterplane. Co-efficient of of ratio of the area square feet. 4. and it is intended to give the new vessel the same co-efficient of load-waterplane. Area of L. 360 feet compares with the corresponding broad. ratio —This is it. = 330 x 45 x '8$ = i2325"5 square feet. this co-efficient is 210 The immersed midship in section co-efficient. feet mean draught. Block between Co-efficient. which has an area of immersed midship section of 210 2.water plane. immersed midship section. Prismatic co-efficient. the ratio of the area of the load-waterplane to that of a rectangle enclosing In a new design it is ratio of a vessel of know how this known performance. area in the standard case is The load-waterplane 13. 48 feet is used as a basis in designing another vessel 340 feet long and 46 feet broad. —This is the immersed midship section to that of a rectangle having a depth equal to the vessel's moulded depth. Co-efficient of area of 2. and a breadth equal to the Thus.— — 302 i. ships. is a volume of relation immersed volume a vessel's and expresses the body and that of a rectangular figure surrounding . The in the standard co-efficient vessel will thus be is — 1 : 3000 7: 360 x 48 = '7 ^2: /J the area of the load-waterplane v new : 340 x 45 x '752 = 11505 square useful in feet. 150 tons of cargo be discharged from a compartment amid- calculate the decrease in draught. Calculate the area of load- waterplane in the latter case. Immersed Area of Midship Section.P.'. The load-waterplane : co-efficient is also approximate calculations like the following —A If vessel of 330 feet length and 45 feet breadth floats at her load draught. Tons per inch immersion = ^ . the — This it. Co-efficient of area of load. and should be carefully considered where speed ratio an important condition. 420 y ° Decrease in draught =— —= S'12 inches. like the previous one.000 square feet. Block co-efficient.

which has an immersed midship feet. the in that midship cargo is section may be large fine and for the ends ends. co-efficient rr • = volume of displacement n n x x -. 303 L = length of vessel. co-efficient of a given — Length the following in salt par- 185 breadth tons. the ratio of the volume volume of a prism. . assuming of 76. block co-efficient. Inen. It is easy to show that two vessels of displacement.i draught of vessel. vessels 4. displacement. Displacement = 500 x 57 x 28 x cubic vessel. then 3t 4i . co-efficient = -5 1000 x 35 =='727. show the It 4. A the area of immersed midship G% G C the co-efficients 2. and different in shape. hard to drive and difficult to steer have resulted. draught efficient —A 28 vessel feet. be readily seen that this co-efficient affords a closer in means of case of comparing immersed the two vessels above section forms than the to. ? ' ' 185 x 26 x 10 co-efficient is of great value in comparing the forms of vessels. and one be the fine referred would vessel. of vessel.„ A 76. 3. 57 feet broad. and a displacement of 640 tons.APPENDIX If A. Generally fining speaking. B = breadth D = rr. in the case of a vessel 140 feet in length. Thus. 2. may be very the same dimensions. the — This expresses of displacement to prismatic co-efficient is 640 x 35 140 x 210 It will = . between co-efficients and y be the volume of displacement. 26 feet. should "Where be reserved the midship section being kept this has not been done. and length the length of the vessel. has a a moulded block co- of Calculate the displacement. whose section is the vessel's immersed midship section. any the of body done full. In one case the midship section may be full and the but ends full. the boats having block co-efficients. . 500 feet long. mean draught water 10 feet. and 4 above described. in the other. than in prismatic co-efficient relatively higher exists the other should observed a relation If section. the section area of 210 square Prismatic Co-efficient. 1000 Block This it „. 76 = 606480 Again. ticulars: feet. L B D Example. the of midship being that and full ends to be of poor design. must be used with care. block co-efficient. 3. fine. ™ Block . find the block feet.

.304 SHIP CONSTRUCTION A o. AND CALCULATIONS.

and Cosines.APPENDIX Angle B. Table of Natural Tangents. Sines. .

306 Angle in SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. .

307 .APPENDIX Angle B.

. Rates of Stowage." Cargoes.3 o8 SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS.

and the feet. is inches in diameter. 1 — ^'75 3I of square feet. 4. 6'^. 8*5. if the plate be steel $ of an thick. of the 12 feet. — 220*4. Calculate the area in square feet. 5. Find weight. 8-25 feet height. Calculate the area in square First employing a combination Ans. Define the term area as applied to a plane surface. common distance between them. 8. Additional Questions. the common interval being 8 feet is ordinates. The a ordinates in feet of a plane respectively. 26-81. — 937 4^ A solid wrought its iron pillar. and 9 Between the first and second introduced. plate Calculate the area of the shown in the following sketch : Ans. upon what assumption is based ? Show how the Five-Eight Rule and Simpson's First Rule may be combined. between the fourth and fifth ordinates.APPENDIX I. The half ordinates in feet of a portion of the load waterplane of a vessel are 3j !•> 8. it State the Five-Eight Rule . — 822. half ordinate 4*6 are 3. Ans. * in — 851 lbs.— (1) 3. what is its weight in lbs. Triangle 6-5 feet base. inch lbs. i. 5-5. 7-5. A 12-25 diameter. 18 feet in length. 132*25. C. 2. Five-Eight Rule and Simpson's No. and another of 8*6 feet curve feet. Ans. the (2) area in square feet of the following: — (i) (4) A ^eet square of (3) 1 *5 feet A rectangle of 15 feet (4) length. Ans. Many of these examples are based on questions set at the Board of Education Examinations Naval Architecture. circle (3) feet breadth. 6. 309 . (2) 56*25. Rule. 117-85.? Ans. and 5 respectively. Calculate side. Referring to question 1.

900. of the vertical feet transverse are sections 25.920 of lbs. 12 feet and one opening 24 (1) (2) feet There are two openings 16 feet x x 12 feet. the 1 The feet tons per inch are at the successive waterplanes of a vessel. Define displacement.310 7. and the length the tons per inch immersion in salt water. cubic — 30. and its external diameter is 16 inches. floats — 5 '42. respectively 6 - 2. excluding fastenings. to the load waterplane square respectively interval 105. 12. in salt at draught of construct for Calculate displacement in tons water. 5 "6. the this curve of displacement and the vessel. 8-3. curve of tons 1 per inch on a scale of inch to of and is it inch to 14. 8. draught in tons before foremost section in Find the load displacement Ans. feet Calculate The number of running The weight of the wood of deck planking. —4646 with A deck 9000 square feet in area is to be laid pitch-pine planks 4 inches thick and 5 inches wide. deck. — 1402 lbs. a formula ascertained. 1 and foot o. 1 are rj apart. \\ inches its A portion of a cyclindrical steel shaft tube. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. The 145. of a ship 180. thick. How is a "deadweight scale" constructed? Of what use that is to the commanding officer? What is meant by "mean draught"? 15. 9. 295. 13*4. and 6. Ans. 235. ton. 5. — Deduce may be -2. lbs. is Ans. of the plane 130 feet. incorrect to use the scale. which 6'5. measured parallel top . floating in Show it in the case of a vessel considerably out of her normal trim. calculate and 2*2. curve of tons per inch of immersion Ans. vessel If 300 a in length floats in salt intersects feet water and trims 8 feet by the of the centres of gravity to the waterplane point 3 locus of of waterplanes at abaft amidships. plates. by which the feet 13*4. Construct draught. Ans. A a also prism of rectangular 15 feet. of a vessel respectively 4. Estimate the weight of a length of 15 neglecting straps and Ans. — 1543. which are not to be covered. A derrick post 18 inches external diameter feet. 13. built J-inch steel rivets. areas in 30. is 20 feet long. mean draught reading feet the displacement from the the displacement A stern. 19. load waterplane 7*2. n. tons per inch immersion at any Given that the half ordinates in are of the 10-4. — (1) (2) 124. 4*5. section 120 the feet long and 30 feet broad. Calculate weight.987. 11*3. up 250. 290. 882 '8. and abaft the aftermost section is feet and in tons (salt water). and the common the between is The displacement them is 20 feet. 10.

and what would then be the draught of water. half-ordinates aft. Find . com16-4. in 17. what will be the feet. — 68 tons. of a vessel i6'8. and also over the ends and sides to a height of 12 feet above the bottom. taking teak at 50 lbs. a load-waterplane 5. and floating in sea water at a draught of 10 will What if tion take is place in floating compartment (a) breached and in free of the pontoon communication with the into five the if centre sea. altera- empty. The the pontoons were divided equal watertight com- partments by transverse ? bulkheads. 16. deep. 16-9. 1 '18. is A rectangular pontoon the 100 feet long. 10 feet z\ inches. stopped at a deck which from the bottom of the pontoon ? Vessel will founder. 311 the actual and the tons per inch immersion be 23. side A vessel carries in her hold a cube. each of which is 10 If the cube be put overboard effect of a chain. area of the vessel's waterrises 4000 square — Vessel feet 3 inches. salt. given that the tons per inch Ans. 18. A vessel of box form feet is 210 feet long. 20 feet. 50 condition broad. mencing I are. the cube being supposed of greater density than plane is salt water. feet 19. If leaves a harbour inches in which which is the water o15 ozs. and has an If a sheathing even draught of water of 10 of teak 3 inches thick were when floating in sea water. of gravity of a plane area such as of vessel's waterplane. tons. what would be the additional weight.APPENDIX C keel. the water in harbour weighs per cubic calculate the number of through the vessel will rise on reaching salt water.1(b) II. tne ri'6. extending the full depth of not water- pontoon 12 (b) The watertight feet bulkheads tight. feet. estimate the difference between displacement of the vessel and that obtained from the displacescale. Ans. and attached to the ship by means upon the vessel's draught. and proceeds foot. 4'5) 'h anc* common interval n feet. worked over the bottom. Obtain an expression giving the extent to which fresh a vessel rises in passing from to salt water. Ans. is 15-4. — 30. 30 feet broad. The Ans. Ans. ment using the mean draught. Show how The from an(* 9"4» the principle of moments a is applied in obtaining the centre 2. is A 1 vessel is whose partly displacement 4000 to sea. feet. 17. 1. per cubic foot. — 22 tons. is ((a) Vessel will sink bodily 2 feet 6 inches. respectively— -i.

draw the curves weight and buoyancy. and the centre of In the light condition the the is displacement the 2000 the and lines. Distinguish clearly between hogging strains.. in condition. Ans. — 16 feet. What they causes likely these to and at what parts of a loaded cargo steamer are be a 2. light 5000 tons. scribe maximum ? What is a u curve of how these curves are weight. 7. A vessel to is 180 keel feet long. that stating whether the before 2'83 or abaft ordinate. Construct of locus section. centre 13. constructed afloat What conditions must these curves comply with in relation to each other? What are the usual assumptions made in constructing curves of weight and buoyancy for a vessel afloat among waves? 3. 3. of 14. Write down the formula employed in calculating the longitudinal on the material at any point of a section of a beam under a longitudinal bending moment. The is load ro of displacement of a ship is buoyancy layer feet below the ship is load-waterline. (2) feet forward. feet from the 10-feet ordinate. 8 40 at feet broad. 4.312 (i) (2) SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. Given as a diagram showing in the locus of centre of buoyancy. tons. load-waterplane 1." and a for "curve of a vessel buoyancy"? in still Dewater. and 10 respectively. 1. 12. its distance centre centre of of gravity from gravity is the 17-feet ordinate. and floats also a whose faces section an equilateral example the arrangement of the numerical 6. 15. — (1) 2732*4. and sagging strains. the 20 feet deep. Illustrate work usually followed in an ordinary displacement paper for obtaining the displacement and position of the centre of buoyancy of a ship. of the constructed centre 5. centre feet of gravity of the between light the load and of 6 below the loadline. of buoyancy prism its an upright is prism rectangular triangle. Find the the vertical position the centre of buoyancy below the loadline Ans. buoyancy. and the transverse sections from being the load-waterline the are semicircles. The The area of the of plane in square feet. the half-ordinates feet. 4. also evenly distributed. Find the longitudinal position of of the the 5. — 73*76 II. described Chapter of the explain how the height of buoyancy corresponding with the any waterplane centre for may be for ascertained. and which by a simple with one of horizontal. and she 70 feet loaded each end for of with 600 tons. A in vessel of box form a level 240 feet long. If vessel's weight length of 1000 tons evenly distributed. Ans. IV. stress . is floats salt water at draught of is feet.

system.APPENDIX 5. How scarph is scarph of of a bar keel formed? the keel? What is the the length rivets of a in terms is the thickness of How to are arranged. Sketch In and describe the three-deck. calculate inch. with a view to securing the best results. Give reason light for any difference in the values. steel In the case of some large of build. State produce structure in their transverse what parts assist the change of form. 8. 2. 2. designing a cargo vessel of full form. 1. the in trend section development vessel in the construction of cargo also Sketch a on the web frame steamer. spar-deck. What the reason stresses for this? Enumerate the changes to resist to which ships are subjected which tend forms. Sketch and describe an ordinary bar the keel. one with deep frames. 1. Ans. — 254 is inch units. Sketch in outline midship section of a turret-deck 5. in a cargo steamer. the of a is A steel beam of X section inches deep. as ordinarily calculated. and a sliding to made. 10. in a large and 9. and loaded in the middle with a weight of 6 tons. inch thick. state generally how you of vessel. when poised on waves of their own length.—S'S. would proceed to shape the body 3. the is passenger vessels cut having long super- structures joint latter are about mid length. State the maximum small steel longitudinal stress. Referring to the previous question. their spacing? it is Before proceeding with the framing necessary set the keel . and what 3. and has 6-inch flanges top and bottom. problem. V. the maximum tensile and compressive stresses The weight of the beam itself may be neglected in in tons working out the S-$. What chief features types? VI. if the beam 20 feet long and per square supported at each end. Ans. and awning-deck type of vessels. these and Isherwood Patent Ship. essential briefly features type? Describe steamers. Calculate the moment of inertia of the section. Sketch are the in profile a well-deck of each of and a quarter-deck type What 4. 313 referred to What assumptions question to are made case in applying the formula ship 12 ? -| in the previous 6. 6. C. What the are the advantages claimed for this type over cargo vessels of ordinary form? Describe with the sketches are the the Ropner Trunk of Steamer. 7.

314 straight SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. bracket knee showing detail the connections to the frame and beam. the keel on so the that is blocks. and state what on the constructing of a means are taken to over- come 6. may be correctly Is ? done? it What to a side-bar keel? previous a better or worse form than that referred 5. plates to What advantage the fitting intercostal the shell between bars? keelson 11. and state where each section should be employed. Sketch and What are the advantages and disadvantages of projecting keels ? and describe a form of keel which entails no outside projection. 7. 16. vessel. are Show by a sketch fitted? reverse and floorplate are 13. o. What are at frame the heel pieces? Where far they They are not usually 14. be employed to most advantage. Describe the methods of state forming in in "bracket. 12. system. ordinarily 9. Why are is ? hold keelsons gained by Sketch a side and a bilge-keelson. this How are lengths temporarily joined together 4." and "turned" 20. Describe. Why ? does it Sketch an ordinary How extend a up the at ship's joint. of the girder they usual might be. bars is How What frame. frames? connected. Show in section the common forms of ship beams. 1 indicating connections fitted ? the hull. of the vertical keel good shift of butts of the flat keel with reference to those and angles connecting them also with reference to the . in the questions Give reasons. garboard strakes of plating. beams cambered ? Is their strength increased thereby ? camber of upper-deck beams? Deck beams are sometimes fitted at every frame. the usual spacing of transverse frame. fitted ends of a floor. side? Where are floorplates usually joined? Make sketch a showing the 15. transversely are framed vessel with a flat plate fitted ? What bilge-keels ? Why the are they to Sketch an efficient form of bilge-keel. etc. Why are deck beams not reduced towards their ends. a and are which. as on the 18. Why are What is the usual principle 19. show that the arrangement is satisfactory from a point of view of Show a strength. beam Sketch knees. the strength maintained at the joints of hold keelson details Make how a a sketch showing is of riveting. and sometimes 17. rivets. in What Lloyd's requirements as to the number of rivets beam knees? . 8. your most efficient. attendant Mention any the side-bar practical difficulty keel on it." opinion. and show by sketches keelson (or in section is an intercostal plate vertical keel) and side elevation. how worked and secured in an keel. State the circumstances in which each arrangement may at alternate frames. is "slabbed.

where should they be placed in order limit to develop their greatest 34. Name been of these parts. com- pare it with the system referred the 27. 22. C. it by rule a tier of lower-deck beams at with this usual spacing. Give details of the tank top and deck. is proposed for to modify or dispense the latter in order to improve the facilities might be done without reducing the strength. At certain parts the plating is increased in thickness. What considerations determine the diameters of pillars in a ship? pillars In fitting to beams. and intercostal floors. and state why the increase 29. two rows of sketches pillars. efficiently In the case of a deck having beams at every frame. show by bottom for a length of one through the longitudinals and tank and showing details of the connections of the longitudinals to the floors. What is meant by "deep framing"? What are the advantages of this system of construction over that consisting of combined ordinary fram- ing and web frames. 36. 28. Show by a sketch how a deep tank is made watertight at the deck. and Show in detail connec- of a 24. giving details of the butt and edge connections. 33. ? ballast tank. Discuss making the web frames versa. the at upper are of Show by a such straining. show how supported by a tier of pillars at alternate frames. double sketch bottom. taken in modern vessels prevent What in the advantages ? and disadvantages flanging the of plates 31. pillars. lieu of fitting angles Why are wash-plates fitted in deep ballast tanks and in peak tanks? 32. . top. 315 requiring In the design the of a certain vessel. Show how What all are web frames? relative Why of vice are they fitted? Sketch a web frame continuous. respectively? Show by the methods of attaching at their heads and heels. tank top and shell. Sketch and describe a M'lntyre 25. of straining Signs the the have to frequently observed the in the riveting par- connecting ticularly tank knees part the the to margin-plate knees. previous question. the showing 23. Describe in details the cellular system of constructing to in double bottoms. and hold tion stringers intercostal. Assuming the continuous of the longitudinals sketches construction indicating a cellular man-holes double compartment. connections in a vessel having ordinary the merits floors. of means edges usually 30. What are its essential features 26. Show by a sketch how the plating of the tank top or inner bottom is usually arranged.APPENDIX 21. stowage. web frame to the margin-plate of an inner bottom. it Sketch an arrangement of wide-spaced pillars is showing how the deck attachments to between the supported. efficiency? is What for the of breadth usual of ship allowed by Lloyd's pillars Rules for one and 35. may be 37. is made.

of strength caused made good? Why way pitch in 52.— . rivets. and where each of £". in — respectively. What should What is the in spacing of rivets frames and beams? in Why is the spacing closer bulkhead frames than thus frames elsewhere. ratio of the of to the in thickness thickness. by Lloyd's 1". the general which govern edge rivets the diameter and pitch why. width of laps. Sketch indicating is and describe the plans adopted fitting of of fitting shell- specially a system by which the to frame packing of rivets pieces 41. 47. are the rivets connecting the framing to the shell-plating of closer of deep water ballast tanks and peak ballast tanks than elsewhere. of the shell-plating for Name 39. where they are crossed by the landings so as to avoid the use of packing pieces. What are Lloyd's requirements as the number single. heads and points common for in ship work. in a strake of bottom plating? the What advantages as It is the practice in many shipyards to scarph overlapped joints 45. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of (a) (&) Punching the Drilling rivet rivet holes holes. Rivets are usually manufactured of cone shape under the the heads. What are requirements regarding length of shell-plates and the position of end joints? or joints. 316 38. plating. considerations In a riveted joint. in obviated. Rules plates of the following thicknesses rivets be the pitch of 50. Two plates have to be joined by rivets. How would you proceed to stop a leaky end joint of butted type 44. of rows shell landings? Show by rough lap. Sketch a good arrangement of shell butts various 40. and diameter and spacing of 42. and a treble-riveted edge are indicating the of the plates. rivet is in and watertight work? V. plates of and the their distance from size the of the joint. AND CALCULATIONS. of a ship are thicker than others. joints and disadvantages of overlapped end compared with butted joints ? Lapped joints and butted joints having single straps. What is the reason of this ? tendency to open when under stress. Why ? 53. they connect becomes reduced as to this plates increase Show Sketch that a limit ratio is fixed by practical considerations. 49. and give reasons Lloyd's the increased the thickness. discuss rivets. State the diameters rivets required f". the . sketches (b) how the this is done (a) in the case of a joint in an outside strake 46. show a 43. in case of a joint in an inside strake. and state describe the is various used. and how the loss 51. Explain of the as a rule. SHIP CONSTRUCTION Certain parts these parts. 48. sketches thickness a a double. Show by .

. and show how the former the deck. efficient rivets are found to have a higher strength efficiency in iron Give a reason in for this. two arrangements by which direct leads to the winch barrels may be obtained. What a drift punch? Explain Show to that in certain circumstances 56. Why rivets ? are iron rivets employed 55. What are deck tieplates? sailing-ship. tieplates on the main deck of a arranged 60. Sketch a derrick. shipbuilding preference to its steel uses. 66. and fitting the plates should be con- ducted to secure 54. sketches the connections at a butt joint the deck planking in What is the Rule height for hatch coamings at upper and at Show by detail sketches how the end and side coamings of an deck hatchway are bound to the deck structure. How would you attempt Sketch as with the least additional weight of material? 59. bridge upper- How are hatch openings protected against inroads from the sea ? 64. stringer ? sketches ing. 58. Describe the mechanical appliances usually installed in cargo steamers 65. In what posts circumstances instead of may the is it be desirable to hinge the derricks on special on masts? connected Sketch to a derrick-post and derrick. in detail (a) (b) Describe how you would proceed to Where no steel deck is fitted Where there is a steel deck. as materials 62. case. What are the principal how you would connect plating functions deck Show by and^ fasten a stringer to the beams. plates than in steel in steel is plates. in Explain why they are diagonally as require to Decks a be strengthened at way sides of large openings. 63. and lay yellow pine.APPENDIX Describe Iron C. framin and 57. of a ship. for loading and discharging cargo. sketch roughly 67. detail the arrangements for topping Assuming two winches to be fitted to one hatch. of a wood deck Show by each decks. 317 of how the punching work. Sketch an arrangement of beams for supporting the covers of a main cargo hatch in a modern vessel. deck planking. and and slewing it. A steel ship is found on her first voyage at sea to be structurally to effectually strengthen the ship weak longitudinally. showing how they are well fore-and-aft. arrange- sketch the beam and at a butt. an arrangement of fitted. how it is supported at the heel. Show by large sketch the usual compensation values of the and corners of a upper-deck 61 cargo hatch. . the use of a drift punch might lead of a bad workmanship. showing 68. How the would in you proceed in arranging the fastenings a stringer plate at butts? riveting A a stringer plate is 50 inches wide and that -|-inch thick. the relative Discuss for teak. and show the ment is a good one. pitch pine.

Show how is is connected to the What and a "spiked in bowsprit"? diameter Show how a allowed in bowsprit sup- ported 74. for What a requirements feet bulkheads ? steamer of 300 and one of 400 feet respectively 76. heads tight in a steamer. way of the aperture? Sketch a a bracket shaft arrangement as in fitted for supporting the end of each propeller a small twin screw steamer. where there iron a a flat plate Sketch it roughly an is or steel sternpost to of a showing how sole piece of connected with of a and fastened the keel. in Show by and details of a main transverse watertight bulkhead of a usually built and stiffened? stiffeners. show by a the junction. 77.318 69. stiffeners In many modern cargo steamers the only. Why the the sternpost single-screw ship frequently made broad and after- shallow in 84. how would you least arrange the stiffeners get greatest efficiency 80. maintain the strength at 82. 73. weight of material? through hold stringer consisting of a bulb plate and double angles passes a watertight bulkhead. Sketch and describe a vessel. around the Referring of to girder. stayed. . What heel reduction is a steamer's masts as compared with those of a at sailing-ship? How is a steamer's mast supported ? the 75. if the stringer were stopped on each to side the bulkhead. fitted vertically What ? are the advantages of the below the deck are arrangement ? Are which to is there any disadvantages 79. Explain fitted why. is modern cargo 83. Show by rough is sketches how in a mast is wedged for ship. only one transverse watertight bulk- head a is in a sailing-ship. laid? What arrangement of made ? to minimise a are large vibration deck due to the working of the winches in Show section the is construction the a lower mast in sailing-ship. the previous question. sketch how you would endeavour of fitting a keel. At what fitted? parts mast-plating doubled? Why at the doublings 71. in ordinary cases. on an unsheathed is How are steam winches supported (a) is steel deck? Where a wood deck of the 70. spacing of steamer. Sketch an appliance modern vessels tightening up the is standing rigging. a deck. plating. How the are watertight bulkheads sketch arrangement of the of the latter the large attachments cargo 78. common method is stem bar in a cargo steamer. Taking with the the case of a fore-peak bulkhead. and how it supported at the heel fitted it 72. Show how you would make the bulkhead A watertight 81. where the it is stopped at a lower deck of are State advantages having Lloyd's a good system in of watertight respect to bulkwaterlength. (b) SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. so as deep the and narrow.

height of the vessel Estimate from the information given the metacentric in when the above condition. Define stable. arranged in two lots of 3 tons. is 15 feet deep.APPENDIX C. 5. as before. Construct to scale the metacentric diagram. number. Explain briefly what are the elements importance. in the of a vessel which control the position of the transverse metacentre.S'6 4. position. sketches the usual method of preventing the the cidental of a rudder and of the limiting angle through which the rudder 88. Show State that the position metacentre is only of relative Describe in detail an "inclining experiment. A vessel 30 feet wide. with which Sketch the metacentric diagrams of any two vessels of different types you are acquainted. 6. bottom sternpost. diameter of rudder stock bolts. feet. a rudder supported by the the friction. equilibrium Illustrate as applied to the case of a vessel sketches. should be taken in order to ensure a reliable An The side inclining experiment is to be conducted on a certain her displacement at the time being 2600 tons. and the weight. unstable. one on each in length. : The pendulum lot is 29*5 ing done — First. what precautions vessel. and diameter of the VII. Sketch of the and objection to a brackets? Describe a plan many modern high speed vessels. returned. showing details is arms and of the pintles. and mean draught 8 feet 6 inches. being 9 inches . 319 by the What which spacing 86. an observation taken. inclining weight is 6 tons. A/is. freely and in neutral water. weight returned original The followmoved from port to the pendulum is observed and Then the second lot is moved feet is from starboard to port through the same distance. of the is upper deck. The mean deflection of the pendulum is found to be 1*9 inches. Give reasons for any differences * in the form of the curves. Commonly. its The deflection of position. and the centre of the gravity vessel of for the all vessel and its lading at the middle of depth of the variations in the draught of water. . one to of the inclining weights starboard the through 40 feet. Obtain and is prove the expression for the height of the transverse metacentre above the centre of buoyancy. rudder shall work without undue Show by rough unshipping turns. Sketch indicate a the rudder coupling. 1. describe a modern single plate rudder. this is the principal in is overcome 85. of the 3. floating still your definitions design by suitable 2. Sketch the arrangement and indicate gudgeon of the means taken to ensure ac- that the 87." result.

Ans. {a) feet feet. 295 foot lbs. {See note to question No. of buoyancy. 6*4. of each below the original waterplane. — 2172 over the feet. Am. A with vessel its 140 feet long. Two rectangular watertight compartments. A cargo vessel of the to tons alter per inch trim 1 is 48 feet broad on the load waterline. floats sides upright. Explain aft. — 31*33 a feet. 3. calculate approximately the moment inch. 80 feet long and 20 diameter.— 320 7. find side the metacentric height When intact When r66 -07 the compartments (assumed empty) are open communication with the sea. side. respectively. the sections Calculate the distance between the centre of buoyancy 8*o. 3-0.-{ VIII. Ans. and is inches thick. — 4*51 of what class for feet. The '8. SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS. and whose body plan half sections are squares. below the centre of buoyancy. 7*0.~ 788 6. Calculate the longitudinal metacentric height for a log feet long and of square section. 8. extend each 60 feet. are 3*6. lengths of the sections. being equally spaced. foot tons. and 7 feet. 6 on opposite page). Ans. In the case of vessel must the centre of gravity be feet long. the side being 2 feet 6 inches. equilibrium? A vessel of constant rectangular section. 9. . 200 40 feet feet broad. r of wood 20 when floating freely and at rest at a draught of foot 6 inches. the Ans. A raft 15 feet long is constructed of two logs of timber 18 inches in 3 4 feet between centres. feet A vessel of circular section. A and small weight is placed on board vessel in any longitudinal position. how you would proceed to find the changes in the draughts forward 5. measuring in from the ship's being 6 a feet and 10 in depth. 1. with wood is All wood of same density. Find the longitudinal metacentric height and the moment to alter trim 1 inch. 10 feet in the bottom side width. and the raft floats in sea water with the logs half immersed. forming a platform 12 feet by 5 diameter and planked feet. including the end ordinates. 4. draws 20 feet of water when intact. of amidships If for length of of the centre of gravity (a) the the in vessel vessel is is 15 feet above (b) the keel. and the metacentre. and the centres of all the sections lie in the of the sides plane of flotation. \{b) Obtain the expression centre which gives the height of the longitudinal metacentre above the 2. Given that immersion is 35.

feet. The trim line of a certain vessel corresponding to the load draught makes an angle of 42 degrees with the horizontal. floats in sea 2 feet. What range. Assuming a metacentric water at a level draught of 15 feet. Draw one which exist figure the are curves of stability two the dissimilar types of vessels with you in acquainted. concerning their own as will commanding officers with enable them to deal and correctly with trim problems. 321 the with the axis in the waterplane. 1. A sailing-ship heeled a the Assuming forces her to be at the to acting. The metacentric height 2*62 feet. 7. The centre centre of gravity 2 feet below the waterplane. assuming 45° and 90 below the centre of the section. which the nature curves you show. A vessel 7. 50 tons through 100 feet aft. of box form 200 feet long. the position of the centre of v . are the features in a vessel affecting the of the curve with of stability? Show in that a great metacentric height may be of associated a short 3. 2. IX. — i2>\ inches by the stern. 30°. upright position stability Some merchant Explain in vessels will not remain in an this. the centre of gravity to be inclination Having given the value of the righting arm of a vessel at a certain when at her load displacement. 40 feet broad. feet. . 2*18. '9 con- the curve of and indicate the maximum is righting lever and the angle which occurs. — 2*22 range 55°. 6o °j struct 75°> 9°° respectively. verse —The of buoyancy may be fixed Ans. and from it obtain the change of trim due The displacement is 8000 tons. height of Draw cross curves of stability for a vessel of square section at 6. vessel 5. and state of the moments of these forces each other. Given that the righting an d at levers of a vessel at angle of 15 1*53. 45 . Plot the trim line. of the and give reasons for any differences 4. Ans. relation to the trans- metacentre. respectively. Ans. 20 feet deep. to shifting — 6| inches by stern. angles 1 of foot 8. by the pressure of the wind on the steady angle of heel. in Note. it are ^74. 2*1.APPENDIX floats C. show in a sketch relation sails. Describe any simple method of providing vessels such information quickly 8. when of unloaded. construct the curve of statical stability. the reason of Draw the curve of a when the condition is named. 1*65. Calculate to trimming 10 feet effect of shifting after a weight of 15 tons from mid length is a point from the end. stability.

A vessel is to and other particulars be loaded with a general cargo of which the weights are known. . considerable area 3. at AND CALCULATIONS. What of is the if chief well objection to deck cargoes? cargo timber. Describe a simple to experimental of method waves slope. ? to be feet and the same Explain why waves that are relatively high in relation to their lengths powerful in are more causing vessels to roll heavily than waves that to that are relatively low. height proposed system the The stability curve draught a certain vessel is of and range.322 gravity SHIP CONSTRUCTION being known. actually observed period Atlantic. find it show how you would at the same inclination when a reduced displacement. in assuming the transverse radius of gyration both cases 4. the the should the to natural in roll approximate in to in case best 7. 2. that has been recently employed the to minimise in the rolling motions of vessels at actual what success Show by quoting has attended the new system. of large Atlantic storm waves ordinarily met What. what considerations would influence you in fixing upon a value of metacentric height with which to start a voyage. of a vessel intended trade the order to obtain results. X. 5. a series regular always place her parallel to the normal to the wave as State the length and period with. but shows upsetting levers at angles near the origin. What What rolling transverse gyration ? How obtained ? effect has the variation of the metacentric height upon the value rolling of the period? vessel In a given to what is the difference between feet the periods corresponding a metacentric height of 2 and 18 4 feet. How do you account for this? In the case of such a vessel. i. load Assuming the displacement scale how would you determine of loading? in metacentric 2. stowed and secured. vessel's qualities. sea. How would you proceed to find the centre of gravity to ? vertical position of the and the diagram of the metacentres with the at be available. by inference. How is could the be ascertained experimentally radius of 3. Mention an appliance case. results any XL 1. respectively. of proving tends a vessel when broadside on masts 6. What to is meant the by the of phrase roll "Period a of a single roll"? in It is desired obtain period this of cargo vessel ? when is it a given condition. Show may improve a that a deck sea. due to the consumption of the bunker coal.

circumstances. and rough weather has been encountered ? proportion What deadweight should carry in . a modern steamer To what extent should the making an Atlantic voyage in ballast? What has frequently happened when a voyage has propeller be immersed? been made in too light a trim. and explain the causes to which they give rise 5.APPENDIX C 4. at carried the hold its of a steamer angle is to slide a much to smaller inclination than normal of Describe these circumstances. which lead the of reduction the full in the sliding angle. 323 What certain is the angle of repose grain for wheat? in In found repose.

. . 56 Bilge Keels Bilge Keels... .... .. 169 Depth and Thickness of 109 Bulkhead 324 Stiffeners.... Importance in Minimising „ Pounding Strains of Efficient 73 Purpose of 284 285 .. Bar Keel. Restriction Draught in Balanced Rudder Ballast. 109 Forming Considerations influencing Bulkhead Liners. Spiked Bow Rudder. . Function of Deck Number of Tiers required in a .. Arrangement and Spacing of . .. Comparison of Methods of 10S... Bracket . PAGE Area..165 . 171 Spacing of Rivets in Watertight.... IO9 109 Two >>37 2 2 1 „ .... . . Beam. Effect of Orbital Motion of Water Particles on 54 . 52.. . 170 Bulkhead Stiffeners. 266 Prof. Atwood's Formula for Statical Stability Awning Deck Vessels.. structing . Chief Objection to 96 .. Description of with Intercostal Centre Keelson with Single Plate Centre Keelson . 76 1761 2S6 2S5 280 2S5 1 Bending Moments and Shearing Forces of Simple Beams 45-50 Bending Moments. I37-I3S> 168 ... Lloyd's Rules for Spacing of I06 Method of fitting Wide-Spaced . 94 io5 105 107 .. ... . Beams.. 106 Reason for Giving Camber to .. .. . . of of of of of of Rectangle Rhomboid Square Trapezoid Triangle 3 . . 96. .. Forms of 51... .. 97 H. Sailing Ships Ballasting.. 2S 1 Beam Knees.. 241 IOO Beams. . . . . Advantage of flanging plates in lieu of- .. .. . .. 2S6 2S7 . 1-13 Beam Sections. Method . . Compensation for Omit- 117 168 166 170 .... . 302 163 163 176/ 1760 Why Seldom „ 10 . I06 Decks Lloyd's Rules of Rivets in Size of in Single-Deck Vessels Number Slabbed .. .. Ballast Tanks. . How Secured and Stayed Bowsprit. . Bilge Keelson 104 Methods of Making Water margin of M'Intyre System of Contight joint at . Repulse and Revenue 265 structing ... . . .. Function of 109 no III 10 Extinctive Value of 264.. Bryan's Investigations 265 .. . 6 10 6 9 I log 107 108. Reason for fitting 138.. .. . Bulkhead ting Stiffening of Peak Tank Thickness of Plating of Value of Collision Liners. . . Width across Throats for . . 169 of Fitting 16S... . .. Under Unsheathed Steel or Iron . design of Bow Rudder. . 93 95 Stiffeners of 16S Centre Line 171 Connection of to Ship's Side 169-170 Construction of 168-171 Function of Lower Limit to Number of in Steamers 166 Lloyd's Rules for Number of Transverse Watertight 167 Screen. Stowage of ..... Effect of on Curve of Stability 237.S. Consecutive Ordinates . 2 fo: VVaterplane Areas... 55 I07 4 221 of Bending Moments and Shearing Forces of Floating Vessels . 265.. Function of Bulkheads.. Advantages of Water over Dry Conditions Fixing Amount Re quired Longitudinal Disposition of . Simpson's First Rule for Simpson's Second Rule for Tchebycheft's Rule for Trapezoidal Rule for ... Experiments with .. of Special Type Testing of 120 120 Fitted in I Block Co-efficient Bowsprit. of Portion of Curve between .. Early Methods of Con .. .. ... Combination of Simpson's Rules . . Danger of Filling Tanks at Sea Effect on Stability of Filling Tanks . . Centre of Gravity of Metrical Units of. NDEX.... .. . . 109 Turned .. . .M. Vessel Beam Knees..

. . . Deck Beams. . 240 Influence of FreeOfficers . Arrangementsforsecurto . Oil Vessels Height of Transverse Water. . 49. . 281 Openings. Objection of to . . 213 Tons per Inch Immersion 22 .. . .. . tion of . . 169 Co-efficient of Load Waterplane to . Origin . 52 Loads of Vessel Among Waves 55.Island Type of. ... n 51 . Arrangements for taking Chafe of Cargo 152 Function of 148 Height of Coamings of 148-149 Method of Framing 148 . .. . Midship Section Resistance Froude's ... Method of Fitting 104-105 Cargo Steamers. . 52 ing Water-tightness of . Type of Strength Types of Three. 54 Deadweight Scale 21 Use of to Ship's Officers 21 . Approximate Posi. 290 Vessels of Circular Section 218 for Vessels of Box Form 237. of Prismatic Vessels of Vessels of Ordinary Form . . . . . Explanation of Locus of . .. . 213 Change of Trim Coal Cargoes. board on 34-40 249 . Advantage of Gear in Sailing-Ships Gear in Steam-Ships Hatchways.. . Compensation for Omission of Hold Pillars in Erections on Freak Designs of . 56 . Vessels 148 and Cargo Ports and Doors 152-154 Cellular System of constructing Double 112-115 Bottoms Centre of Buoyancy. Edge Seams . . . Type . Joggling . . ... Beams. . 168. .. . 289. . .. Construction of 249 Centre of Lateral Resistance Change of Draught in Passing from Fresh 297 to Salt Water 198. . . . .... .Deck . .INDEX. . . 239..281 „ Plating. Trunk Type of.. 139 176/... . . Influence tion of of 238. Connection to Flat-Plate Keel 9 6 97 .. .. . . Modern .. Reason for giving Cranes. . Effect of Beam on 237. for for Commanding . I'AQB 325 I'AGIi Bulkheads of Deep Tanks . Plates and Fore Afters in 151-152 of Her Own Length 55. Size in of ... 241 Posi- . 77 106 155 155 155 152 . . Openings in . Bending Moments and Shearing Forces Still for . Comparative Values of Wood and Steel 142 Function of .. j . „ ... on . ... Centre of Effort Centre of Gravity. . 255 Loads for Simple Beams . . .. 79 78 83 75 77 87 85 Vessel Cross Curves of Trim. Web . . ... . . Turret-Deck Type of Well-Deck Type of . .. . Moment to Alter Trim One .. 29-32 Waterplane Centre Girder. .. Tangent at the . .169 „ . ..184 Term 33 36.. 211 209 46-50 Forces . Water Bending Moments and Shearing Forces for Vessel Loaded with Homogeneous Cargo Bending Moments and Shearing Forces for Vessel on a Wave . . Isherwood Type of Partial .. . Thin 66 225... . 302 302 264 166 Roll ng. Method of „ Finding Position of 187-191 of the Area of a Half. . .. . .. Deck-Plating . how Constructed 20 Flotation .. .. . 231 Curves of Weight and Buoyancy .... 145 145 . 230.. Centre of Gravity on . . 241 „ . .. Precautions Necessary in . 56 Centres of Buoyancy 36.. Inch 199. ... . . . . . . ners of 146 Plating. . .. . . . Deck Loads . Stiffening of Value of . . Water 51.. Collision Bulkhead. . 186 . 40 33 . Quarter-Deck Type Single. . 50 Loads of Vessel Afloat in Still . 226 .. Compressive Stresses. Awning or ShelterDeck Type of 76.. Strengthening at Cor. .. ..-.. .. . 78 ... Camber Cargo Cargo Cargo Cargo . Effect of.176'/* Coupling for Rudder Cross Curves of Stability 231-236 Cross Curves of Trim for Box-Shaped . .. . .. . Compensation for Cutting „ . 239. . . 169 . ...... tight 167 Bntlslraps of Keelson and Hold Stringer Angles. for Simple Beams Vessel Afloat i .. . how Obtained Curve of Bending Moments and Shearing . Function of 105 Decks. ... ..... Loading .. . .. . . . y . . Transverse Metacentres 185.. . . 185 Displacement.. .. . Curves of Stability.. .... ..... . 28 Influence on Curve of Stability of Position of 240 28-32 of an Area „ of a Ship. .142 . 40. .. . > Centre Keelson 44> 93"97 171 Centre-Line Bulkhead. .. ... 240 of Actual Ships 241 . Awning-Deck of of. 84 77 77 89-92 Correction of Wedges Countersinking of Rivet Holes . Definition of . . .

95 Solid Bar ... . Penalty exacted for Unobstructed Hold Pillars. . . Compensation for Omission of .. 104. 115 structing Connection of Side Fram115. Value of Hydraulic . . To Obtain . Cellular System of Con112.. .. . Frame „ „ . . .. Bulkheads Hatchways. Advantages of Round Corners at Upper Deck 15° Hatch Coamings. 151 101 53 105 84 . . . . _ Curve .... . Comparison of 163 128 . 1 15 16 of 2/3 Inclining Experiment 1S7 -190 Integrator. Influence . Joints of Shell Plating. for . 100 .. Riveting in Way Function of Centre Line in . Decks. Breadth. with Centre through Plate Keelson96 Floors. Holds. Loading of 274 60. 100. 79 8 Five-Fight Rule for Areas Flanging of Plates in Lieu of Fitting 112 Ang!e Bars 96 Flat-plate Keel. . 145 44. - 157 154-157 156 155 157 157 19 Stowage of Gudgeons... Transverse . of . .. cargo Hatch Coamings.. . Frame Hogging and Sagging Strains. 116 ing to margin of Gusset Plates and Angles 1 16 at margin of ill Partial . of Upper Deep Tanks. . .. . Causes of Shifting of Government Regulations ... 20 29s 7° 171 . Scarphing of End Keel.. Connection to Centre Keelson 103 Floors. Number of 151 . Condition of 177 Erections on Steamers. . . . Method of fitting . . .. INDEXNecessary in Freeboard. . and Depth. . Rudder Gusset Plates and Angles Double Bottoms . Use of Dynamical Stability. Advantages of Plumb Function of Cargo . Reversed . 98 129 106 137 . .. Wide Spaced . . . . 130 Lloyd's Rules. . . . . . .. .. out of Normal Rolling 267... 117 120 Isherwood Type of Steamer Isochronous Rolling 89-92 2 57 Drift Punch. .123 in . Advantages of a Contin. 274 27S 97-100 . 93 Scarpb.. 1 Riveted Connections of Strengthening Forward in Full Vessels in way of Testing of Objections to Excessive .. Use of 129. . .. . on . . . . Methods of forming [oints of Shell Plating. uous Butts of Centre and Side Girders in .1 76/ at . Specimen . . Description of Flat-plate Keel. 84. . Lloyd's Rules for Joints of Shell Plating. Ordinary 103 Form of Modern Cargo Steamers. tightness at margin of Usual Positions of Derricks.... Method of Fitting . .. 237-241 Arrang128 279 280 284 Methods of obtaining water- . 132 42. 326 Deck Plates. _ . Volume of . 67 Horizontal Shearing Stress Inclining and Rolling Experiments.. of Vessel Trim.. 120 119 152 119 Il8 ing End [oints of Girders Under Deck Grain Cargoes. Comparison of 95 .. Precaution Fitting Stringer Plates . spacing of 14S-152 Hatchways.. .. .. . as given in Lloyd's Rules for Breadth of Shell Plates Lloyd's Rules for Camber of Deck Beams Lloyd's Rules for Diameters of Rivets . 93 .. Definitions of Length.. . . 93 94 Keelson and Hold Stringer butt straps. 105 .. Development of 76 . [ibboom 96 245 24S 14 . . . Structural Value of 77.. . .. 268 152 Hatch Cleats. Definition of Moseley's Formula „ Ellipsoid. Frames. Derrick Posts Tables Displacement Calculation. how Derived . Value ... .. Number of in Steamers . with Intercostal Centre Keelson 96 Flat-plate Keel. Joints of Shell Plating. Plating of . Advantages and Disadvantages of joggled Knighthead Plate Law of Archimedes Liquid Cargoes Lloyd's Numerals. Docking Stresses Doors in Watertight Bulkheads Double Bottom. . .. 278. Scantlings of 149 120-152 Hatchways into Deep Tanks Hatch Webs.. 163 iS ..308 176/. . 101 42.. Margin of Minimising . . Flat Plate Scarpb of Solid Bar . Heel Pieces. for Overlapped and Butted Equilibrium of Floating Bodies. 101 Frame Slips. . . Regarding Margin of Stability Required with . .. . Strength Value of . . Arrangement of 127 Joints of Shell Plating.. . . . Joints of Shell Plating.116 in Reduction Thickness of Shell Plating in .. 125 Homogeneous Cargoes. . in 116 . Method of curing 133 12S Leaky 134 136 129 136 .116 Gyroscopic Apparatus ... . Mechanical 236 Intercostal and Single Plate Centre Keelsons. . way of . Use of Tack Rivets in 93 Side Bar . . Frame Heel Pieces . 142 142 of 119 Stability Garboard Strakes Precaution .

. Compensation at Break of Main Deck in 78 Radius of Gyration. Definition of .. 181. 126 Normand's Approximate Trim Formula 213 Oil Vessels.119 123. Proof of Formula for Posi. 200.. Pitch of Shell Rivets thro' Frames in way of Testing of . . . 121 .. . 67 Machinery Casings Masts of Steamships. . Use of Rivet Holes. Frictional Strength of . ..122 ... . Neutral Axis of a Beam 58 . .. . Joints. . Metacentric Height in Sailing-ships Height.. Arrangement of. Quarter Portable Rivets in . . . .. in Vessels of Ordinary Forms Metacentric Stability Moment of a Force of Inertia. 1S4 182 179 194 Steamers 176^. . 202 . 199 . 166 . . Stiffening of Peak Tanks. Area of Resistance of Beams to Change of Reversed Frames Righting . . Function of Partial . Pillars. in Vessels of . Bulkheads.M. Strength of . . .. of Sailing-ships. Experiments . 26 Term 180 Method 1S0. .. Transverse. Function of 125 Plating.. 164 .. . .. .. . . . . . . Metacentre. Longitudinal. 176/.... . Explanation of .. Value of Wash Plates in . Safe Minimum Value .. . 159. Spacing of Transverse Frames in Peak Tank.. Advantages and Disadvan. 268-270 J^ 285 303 y Twin Screw .. Prismatic Co-efficient Propeller Brackets for . . . . to Construction of 91 Loading of 277. . . 278 . 141 141 . . . .. . . 293 Loading of General Cargoes 272. . .124 Number of Rows Required 121 . Comparison of Short and Long 120 Heads and Heels of 121. 141 of Stern Post to . . Transverse 256 Rates of Stowage 308 . 293 . Joints. ... . to . Method of Fitting .INDEX. . 176/* . PAGE . . Riveting of End .. tages of Drilling of Correcting Blind and Partially Blind . „ . . .. . Outer Bottom. Function of in Sailing-ships . Relative Value of . Pitching and Heaving Pounding Strains . .. 161 79 66 Mauretania. . 213 . . . 299.... Mountings.. . 125 . . Importance of Strong Mast 164 Mast Steps. .. Awning Deck Type of Cargo Steamer Peaks. 201 of Inertia of a Section of a Beam 59 of Inertia of a Section of a Ship 65 of Stresses resisting bending of . . 300 Transverse. . ...... 292. of Masts of Steamships Loading and Ballasting 272-2S7.. ... Bulkheads of 169 Isher wood's System Applied . 141 Objections to Punching . .. Deep Tanks .. for Shifting . . .. . . Strength of Shallow Vessels Stresses . 123 122 124.. Local Stresses 73 Locus of Centres of Buoyancy 36... Longitudinal.117 . Metacentre. Detail of Bottom Function of Lock . Lloyd's Rules for Riveting of Edge Seams of Shell Plating in Large Vessels Lloyd's Rules for Seasoning of Pine Deck 133 148 106 Planking Lloyd's Rules for Spacing of Beams Lloyd's Rules Regarding Diameter ... . Lloyd's Rules for Position of Collision ..... 273 HLmogeneous Cargoes 274 . Different Parts of 126 Outlines of Construction 42 Panting Strains 73 Neutral Axis of a Ship Stress on Shell Plating at ... Masts. .. . . PAGR 32 7 Lloyd's Rules for Joints of Shell Plating .. 164 165 . find . 65 to Alter Trim One Inch 199. ... 159 Function of in Steamers 156. . . Approximate Methods of finding Position of 183. Period of Roll Effect of Motion Ahead on Period of Wave Pillars.. 198. . .164 62-64 69. Longitudinal Stress on R. . . of Inertia of a Waterplane . Rigging Screws. . 164 .. . . . . . Number of Plates in Round 160 . 51-53 100 66. Volume of a 14 Quarter-deck Type of Steamer 78 Quarter-deck Type of Steamer. Lloyd's Rules for Number of Transverse Watertight Bulkheads . . . Pintle.. 22. 176^ Pyramid. Transverse. 100 2 217 233 163 25. Area of 200 ... . End Attachments of Runners under Beams for Wide Spaced .179 . Beams and Ships 59. 128 167 Bulkhead .. 40 Longitudinal Metacentre 19S. . 79 100 117 Strains ..... . Calculation for Position of 181. . Modern System of Distributing . . Transverse . 117 120 117 . . and Edge Joints in 160 Stresses on 161.. Wedging.. 56 42. Simp'e Forms . . . . Materials of Construction. 176^ . . 2 Form . . . .. 1767' .20..Ill . . 14O Riveted Connections. . .S M'Intyre System of Constructing Ballast Tanks . Construction of 161. Mean Draught tion of . 199. 256 266 258 Boards ... Staying of 146. .. . 194 179 Rectangle.. . in . Rhomboid. . Diameters Masts of Steamships.. 165 . Strength of . of Height. 140 . Shell Plating 176a.. Moments by Metacentre Method Curve of . 171 of.. . 124 ..

. .. 104 17.. . 129 Lloyd's Rules for Breadths of 129 Shelter Deck Type of Steamer 76. 69 Mean 67 . . . 176 Rivets. Joints of Shell Plating 133 Edge and End of i6o.. Watertight Bulkheads in 167 Sails in Steamships.. . Mast 162 Side Bar Keel ge 96 Side Keelsons 103 Side Stringers.. 202.. . . working . . Shearing Stresses... Waves on 261. Lusj'tam'a and Mauretania 137 Stem to Shell Plating 175. . . 35i 40.... Spacing of 138 in Seams of Shell Plating. Influence of Metacentric Height on . . Connections to Bulk. 267 Extinctive Value of Bilge Keels 264-266 .. . . .138 in Bulkhead Frames. Considerations Governing Sizes of 137 Forms of Heads and Points of 13S. . ening Shearing Forces ..126 133 127 127 Shell Plates. Comparative Uniformity in Thickness of 127 . .. Precaution Necessary in 140 264 Marking and Punching Rolling of Ships. 3 23 Riveting of in INDEX. . Effect of 2S2. 255 Isochronous . . .. 139 for Watertight Wo-k. 16. 136 . 32.. . . 30.. . . Maximum. .. 77 Shift of Cargo. . »> »» •>* ^ 172 104 104 . . . Periods of Ship and . 257 Resistance to . Scarph. . ages of butted End Joints 133 Arrangement of End Joints . .. . .. Rudder. 283 Shrouds. 68. Spacing of 138 in End Attachments of Pillars 123 in Flat Plate Keels.. 1S2. . ofWide. Reason of .. . . 176/ . 263 Use of Gyroscope for . 136 Sea Waves. 127. . . . . 176c 176/ 176/-176/ 176. .. Application of 6-10. Coupling. . Bar Keel 93 Scarphing of End Joints of Shell-plating in Way of Seams . use of 164 . 176/ 176/& Stops ... Relative Meritsjof Cast Steel and Forgings for Single Plate Rudder . . Advantages and Disadvantages of Joggled . .. 19. . Provision for Strength. . 171. Shear Stress.. . . How Constructed Number »* >< Required by Lloyd's Rules Simpson's Rules... advantage of a 176/ Bow 176/ .1760 iy6r 176^/. . . Instantaneous Axis of Rotation 254..... . . 176^ 176/. . . Frame and jbm. 164 of . . 49. Top Masts Edges of Sheer Strakes 162 Joints of Bowsprit Plating 163 Frames to Shell Plating in way of Deep Tanks 119.... ... . of. .. 133 168 21 Scale of Deadweight 97-100 Scantling Numbers.S. 51. .. . Minimising 267 Rudder. Through Frames and Shell Plating in Oil Compartments of Bulk Oil Vessels 138 Rivet Holes.. Relative Importance of Different Paris of Riveting of Edge Seams in Large Vessels Scantlings of in Two Cases Thickness at Sternpost of . 138 Joints of Watertight Bulk- End heads Shell Plating of R.. . Single in Deck Large 247 I0g Vessels. Spacing of I3S in Joints of Shell Plating. 263 . 176/. Size of Beam Knees . . Course and Speed on .... 176. . Single Plate 1762.. T .. Edge and End Joints Masts . 263 Experiments with Water Chambers 266.. Alternative Plans for Carrying Weight of 176/ Balanced. . . . Taper of . 45-56 Graphical Method of Finding .... . Sailing-ships. ... . Advantages and Disadvant.. I3S Iron Plates of Iron Strength in 141 Steel Plates of Iron 141 . 131 Advantages and Disadvant. . . 127 Shell Plating... . 128 Methods of Forming Joints of 129 of Small Vessels at Ends.. .. Function of 82. Countersinking of 139 . Position of Maximum Longitudinal 69. . .M.. . 56 Sheerstrakes. . 176^ Shallow Vessels.. . . Precaution in Arranging End Joints of 128 Riveting of Edge Seams of 133 . 22S. Analysis of Resistance to Effect of Synchronism of . .100 ... 176/ Bearing or Thrust Block . 256 . Theory of 257 Sections of Beams 107 86-89 Cargo Steamers Self-trimming Types of Shaft Bossing in Twin Screw Steamers 176^.... . Spacing of 137 . . 127 Precautions necessary in . Influence of Change of . .. . . . .. 135. number of Rows of 133 Spacing of in Bar Keels 94./ 1 Consisting of Forged Side Plates Gudgeons lings of Considerations Governing Scant- of Large Steamer Pintles . .. . .- heads . PAGE Edge Seams Large Vessels of Riveting . Lloyd's .

Area of a 2 Trim. ..159 173.. 222. . Spacing of .179 288 187 .. 214 Change of 19S. 173 Scarphs. 42-44 Trapezoid. Advantage bf High . 175 Stem. .2:. 272 Sup157 157 15S Steam Winches.. 205. . Connection to Bar Keel . Long's Method .. . . 211 Effect of Filling Fore-peak Tank on 205 In formation for Commanding . Bending . C Sphere. 174 174. Sines and Surface Units of Ballast. Stability of Tables of Natural Tangents.. . Maximum LongiSheering 67. Tons per Inch Immersion 1. Scarphs of 176c. .. 25S . . . . Adding or Removing Weights 193. Longi66.. . Stability.176 176 140 11. . .. . M eta ccn tre. . 77 87.. . 176^ Sternposts of Sailing Ships 176 Stowage Rates 308 Strength of Beams. 1S1. 25S Tunnel Door 171 173 . Approximate .. at Loading Origin Standing Rigging Steadiness . .. 194 Statical. Statical. Cosines 3°5-3°7 . Water .. 206 209 Normand's Approximate Formula Worked-out Examples 203. Wedge bounded by Curved 221.. Flat Plate Keel Side Bar Keel . . .. 70 69 126 Pyramid Ship Sphere ' . . . ' Due to Docking on Shell Plating Position tudinal Position tudinal 66. 15. 76. Due Due to to Incorrect 71 Tangent Curve .. Dynamical Effect of a Squall on 245 249-251 ' Timber Cargoes. Tranaverse Frames. Solid . 184 185. . Posi183.. tion of . . 284 Statical. Deck . . Compressive. Curve of Metacentric Height. . Methods of Finding .. 88 Partial Awning Deck Deck 89-92 79 7* 87 S3 . . Arrangement of Seats for Pipe Stools . . 213 Cross Curves of 209. Effect of Consumption of Bunker Coal 192. ... for Commanding Initial . Metacentric Statical.. 16 14 . 126 . . Trochoidal Theory of Waves 257... . 175 174. ^5 207. . Topmasts. . 93. 267 . . . . Influence of Form of Section on Strength Types of Cargo Steamers 75 64 Stress at any Point of a Section of a Ship Stresses. Stringer Plates on Deck Beams 143 219. 1S6 Safe 194 194 . .176 Lines Mr. . for . Safe Statical. . Minimum Value . Area of a 3 Trapezoidal Rule for Curvilinear Areas 4 Triangle.164 .. . Curve of Specimen Calculation to 244 Metacentric Height ships Stresses Stresses 228-230 .. . Awning 01 Shelter Deck . .. 208 .. . 28 161. 173 Watertight Bulkheads 165-171 .. Position of Sternpost. . Approximate Calculation of 213. 164 Information Officers . Method of Fitting . Transverse Metacentre .. . . 220 Submarine Vessels.. Effect of . 174 Decks Bulkhead Doors. Period of . Arrangement porting . . 165 . Well Deck Twin Screw Steamer Volume . . . 12 Watertight Bulkhead Doors into 'Tween 171. Statical. . . . . . Due to Rolling .120 266. 176^ Sternposts of Single Screw Steamers Ij6a-ij6d Siernposts of Twin Screw Steamers 176/ Sternposts.. 224 13 Posi- 72 . . Causes Influencing Forms of Curves 237 Statical.. M3 281 for . of in Sailing- . Metacentres. Function of (J Objection to use of Tap Rivets TchebychefTs Rules for Areas Telescopic Topmasts . . . Effect of on thin 66 Deck-plating Due to Action of Propeller 73 Ordinary Form of . . . Propeller Bracket 170? of of of of of of Ellipsoid . Relative Merits of Steel Castings and Forgings for 176^ Sternposts. . 231 162. Quarter-deck . Dixon <N: Harroway Isherwood . . Area of 1 3-9 'AGP.. Chambers Tack Rivets. Rolling 72 System of Construction . Officers . tion of 162 22 100 100 179... Three Island Turret S5 . Stowage of Type of Vessel Suitable . Steam Winch . Cross Curves ot 231-236 . 230. 1^2 . Types of. Arrangements for Operating 172. Rectangular. . Transverse. 77 86 77 . ... Connection to Shell Plating 176. Riveting of Joints of plating of . Type of Steamer.r Volume of Square. . .. .. PAG "' 14 I Tieplates..61 Ropner Trunk Single .. 14 14 14 14.INDEX. Three Island Type of Cargo Steamer 77 Wave... Atwood's Formula for 221 Statical. .. of of Maximum . .

.. 33° INDEX. .. Definition of 102 . . Weights of Materials Weight of Salt Water 249. . Web Frames and Side Stringers.. 250 Decks. . 259 Web Frame. Speed of 258 Waves. ative Strength of .. . Wave. .. .. ]'AGB l'AGB Wind Curve Wood . . ...146 163 Yards . . Lengths and Periods of Atlantic Storm 258. Connections Lo Beams and Inner Bottom 103 . . 147 Objections to Use of Slips in Laying . 148 Precautions necessary in laying . . Weight of Fresh Water Compar103 297 307 18 . Comparative Values of Different Timbers for 147 Fastenings for. Seasoning of Planking intended for 147 .

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