French I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Nouns, Articles and Demonstratives 5.

Useful Words and General Vocabulary 6. Subject Pronouns 7. To Be and to Have 8. Question Words 9. Numbers / Ordinals 10. Days of the Week 11. Months of the Year 12. Seasons 13. Directions 14. Color and Shapes 15. Weather 16. Time 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make

22. Work and School 23. Prepositions and Contractions 24. Countries and Nationalities 25. Negative Sentences 26. To / In and From places 27. To Come and to Go 28. Conjugating Regular Verbs 29. Pronominal (Reflexive) Verbs 30. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 31. Past Indefinite Tense 32. Irregular Past Participles 33. Etre Verbs 34. Food and Meals 35. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 36. To Take, Eat or Drink 37. Quantities 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases French National Anthem Canadian National Anthem

French II 41. Imperfect Tense 42. Places 43. Transportation 44. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to

45. House 46. Furniture 47. Comparative and Superlative 48. Irregular Forms 49. Clothing 50. To Wear 51. Future Tenses 52. Preceding and Plural Adjectives 53. Adjectives: Feminine 54. Adjectives: Plurals 55. More Adjectives 56. Rendre plus Adjective 57. C'est vs. Il est 58. Sports and Hobbies 59. Nature 60. To Live 61. Object Pronouns 62. Parts of the Body 63. Asking Questions 64. Interrogative Pronouns 65. Forms of Lequel 66. Relative Pronouns 67. Demonstrative Pronouns 68. To Read, to Laugh, to Say 69. Disjunctive Pronouns 70. Y and En

71. To Write, to See, to Believe 72. Animals 73. Plaire and Manquer 74. Pluperfect 75. Indefinite Pronouns Déjeuner du matin Le corbeau et le renard

French III 76. Colloquial Expressions 77. False Cognates 78. More Useful Words 79. Adverbs 80. Forms of Tout 81. Passive Voice 82. Depuis, il y a, and pendant in past contexts 83. Shopping 84. Post Office and Bank 85. To Receive 86. Infinitives followed by Prepositions 87. To Follow 88. Faire Causative 89. Direct / Indirect Discourse 90. Office / School Supplies 91. Conditional Tenses 92. Parts of a Car / Gas Station 93. To Drive

Make-Believe Stuff 107. Past Infinitive 100. Present participle 98. Subjunctive Mood 104. Abbreviations / Slang 99. To Die 102. Special Uses of Devoir 96. Quebec French 1. Possessive Pronouns 105. Cosmetics / Toiletries 97. Some Basic Phrases Bonsoir / Bonne nuit (bohn-swahr/bun nwee) Good evening / Good night (only said when going to bed) Bonjour (bohn-zhoor) Hello / Good day Au revoir! (ohr-vwah) Goodbye! Merci beaucoup (mair-see boh-koo) S'il vous plaît (seel voo pleh) Please Je vous en prie / de rien (In Canada: Bienvenu) (zhuh voo zawn pree/duh ree-ahn/bee-awn-vuh- . Simple Past 106. In Space 103. In the Ocean 101.94. Travelling / Airport 95.

Tu as quel âge? (tew ah kell ahzh) How old are you? (informal) Oui / non (wee/nohn) Yes / no Comment allez-vous? (koh-mawn tahl-ay voo) How are you? (formal) Je vais bien (zhuh vay bee-ahn) I'm fine Je suis fatigué(e) (zhuh swee fah-tee-gay) I'm tired J'ai faim (zhay fawn) I'm hungry Comment vous appelez-vous? (koh-mawn voo zah-play voo) What's your name? (formal) Je m'appelle. (zhay ____ awn) I am ____ years old.. / Canada. mah-dahm.Thank you very much new) You're welcome. Madame. Vous avez quel âge? (voo za-vay kell ahzh) How old are you? (formal) J'ai ____ ans.. Misses.S. Tu es d'où? (tew ay doo) Where are you from? (informal) Où habites-tu? (ooh ah-beet tew) Where do you live? (informal) J'habite aux Etats-Unis / au Canada. Monsieur... Vous êtes d'où? (voo zet doo) Where are you from? (formal) Où habitez-vous? (ooh ah-bee-tay voo) Where do you live? (formal) Je suis des Etats-Unis / du Canada. Parlez-vous français? Parles-tu anglais? . (zhuh swee day zay-tahz-ew-nee/dew kah-nahdah) I am from the United States / Canada... Miss Ça va? (sah vah) How are you? (informal) Ça va bien / mal / pas mal (sah vah bee-ahn/mahl/pah mahl) I'm good / bad / not bad Je suis malade (zhuh swee mah-lahd) I'm sick J'ai soif (zhay swahf) I'm thirsty Comment t'appelles-tu? (koh-mawn tah-pell tew) What's your name? (informal) Mon nom est. (zhuh mah-pell) I am called. (zhah-beet oh zay-tahz-ew-nee/ oh kah-nah-dah) I live in the U. Mademoiselle (muh-syuh. (mohn nohm ay) My name is... mahd-mwah-zell) Mister.

o.. ahll-uh-mawn.. Japonais.. y) ç (before a. shee-nwah) Russian. y) ge (before a. è. Je (ne) comprends (pas) (zhuh nuh com-prawn pah) I (don't) understand Excusez-moi / Pardonnez-moi (eg-scew-zay mwah/par-dohn-ay mwah) Excuse me / Pardon me A tout à l'heure / A bientôt (ah too tah luhr/ah bee-ahn-toh) See you later / See you soon Je t'aime (zhuh tem) I love you (singular) (parl tew on-glay) Do you speak English? (informal) Russe. Chinois (rooss. oi u u + vowel c (before e. ei. o. â e. i. Chinese Je ne parle pas. Spanish Je parle. zhah-po-neh. et. Espagnol (ee-tahl-ee-ahn.. Japanese. and final er and ez ay .. o) g (before a. (zhuh parl) I speak. Pronunciation French letter(s) a.. i. y o o ou oy. u) gn English Sound ah eh ee oh shorter and more open than aw in bought oo wah ew wee s s k zh zh g nyuh é. Je (ne) sais (pas) (zhuhn say pah) I (don't) know Je regrette / Je suis désolé(e) (zhuh re-gret/zhuh swee day-zoh-lay) I'm sorry Salut (sah-lew) Hi / Bye Je vous aime (zhuh voo zem) I love you! (plural) 2. Allemand. ai. o. à. (zhuh nuh parl pah) I don't speak. ê. ais i. u) c (before a... es-pahn-yol) Italian.(par-lay voo frahn-say) Do you speak French? (formal) Italien. German. u) g (before e.

but it is never made after et. c(e) que (shtuh. final q r s (between vowels) th x silent zh k rolled z t ekss. trop fort. It is always made: • • • • • • after a determiner (words like un. pas d(e). duhn. or plew duh) je n(e). des. petits enfants) after one syllable prepositions (en avion. de n(e) (zhuhn. plewd. The short e is more closed. but sometimes it is difficult to hear the difference. The short u does not exist in English though. not zhuh tuh or suh kuh . The long u is pronounced oooh. lent(e)ment. 4. . and then say eee. like z Note: French pronunciation is tricky because it uses nasal sounds which we do not have in English and there are a lot of silent letters.. and all other times. les. Two sounds that are tricky to an American English speaker are the differences between the long and short u and e. R. (eel yahd. as in hoot. not eel ah duh bohn ko-pahn) il y a d(e). like ay. slur the two together as if it were one word.. if a word ends in C. The long and short e are relatively easy to pronounce. and soixante in liaisons. More about Pronunciation 1. not ra-peed-uh-mawn) sous l(e) bureau. dix. The long e is pronounced openly. . shortening the syllables and slurring more words. except as s in six. 2. . plus.note the change of the pronunciation of the j as well) 3. not soo luh bewr-oh) il a d(e) bons copains (eel ahd bohn ko-pahn. dans un livre) after some one syllable adverbs (très. ces. not zhuh nuh or duh nuh) j(e) te... plus d(e). chez l(e) docteur (pronounced sool bewr-oh. pahd. Their vowels tend to be shorter as well. mon.. intonation only rises for yes/no questions. To pronounce is correctly. and pronounced like eh. sauv(e)tage (pronounced ra-peed-mawn. quels) before or after a pronoun (vous avez. not eel ee ah duh. bien) after est It is optional after pas. • • • • • • rapid(e)ment. as in play. je les ai) after a preceding adjective (bon ami. skuh. Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases. so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and the next word starts with a vowel or silent h. In general. it goes down at the end of the sentence. F or L (except verbs that end in -r) you usually pronounce the final consonant. as in bed. However. pah duh. and the forms of être. The "slurring" that I mentioned is called liaison.h j qu. round your lips as if to whistle.. The French slur most words together in a sentence.

éen en. as are nouns ending with a consonant. oing. ein. Nouns. -ance. yn. Otherwise. om In words beginning with in-. -tion. For the most part. either masculine or feminine. and you may have to repeat the article in some cases. and approximate pronunciations. ym. -ence. the nasals. im. Nasal means that you expel air through your nose while saying the words. an. yen. un. Articles and adjectives must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. but there are some endings of words that will help you decide which gender a noun is. Nouns ending in -age and -ment are usually masculine. so don't actually pronounce the n fully. and -ette are usually feminine. aen on. -té. -sion. My Representation ahn awn ohn Pronunciation an apple on the desk my own book Orthographical Representation in. Nouns ending in -ure. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i ah beh seh deh uh eff zheh ahsh ee j k l m n o p q r zhee kah ell em en oh peh koo air s t u v w x y z ess teh ooh veh doo-blah-veh eeks ee-grek zed 4. 3. oint. oin. Articles and Demonstrative Adjectives All nouns in French have a gender. These are what present the most problems for English speakers. And articles have to be expressed even though they aren't always in English.6. Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Before Vowel Plural . em. And of course. en. eng. a nasal is only used if the next letter is a consonant. the inprefix is pronounce een before a vowel. Here are the orthographical representations. you must memorize the gender. um. Demonstratives are like strong definite articles. ien. aim. aon. ain. eim. am.

6. too again almost friend (fem) woman man girl boy voici toujours souvent d'habitude aussi encore en retard presque une amie eel-ee-yah vwah-see too-zhoor soo-vawn dah-bee-tewd oh-see awn-kore awn-ruh-tar presk ew nah-mee ah-nah-mee ah-nohm feey gar-sohn There is/are voilà quelquefois kell-kuh-fwah comme ci. For example. it means ago. These. 5. you can add -ci to the end of the noun for this and these. Before Vowel cet oiseau this/that bird Fem. while ce lit-là is that bed. Useful Words and General Vocabulary It's / That's and but now especially except of course so so not bad book pencil pen paper dog cat c'est et mais maintenant surtout sauf bien sûr pas mal le livre le crayon le stylo le papier le chien le chat say vwah-lah ay may mahnt-nawn sir-too sohf bee-ahn sir pah mal leevr krah-yohn stee-loh pah-pyaya shee-ahn shah There is/are il y a Here is/are always often sometimes usually also. An. and -là to the end of the noun for that and those.le lit the bed la pomme the apple l'oiseau the bird les gants the gloves Indefinite Articles (A. ce lit-ci is this bed. Those) Masc. ce lit this/that bed Masc. Subject Pronouns Subject Pronouns . cette pomme this/that apple Plural ces gants these/those gloves If you need to distinguish between this or that and these or those. Some) Masculine un lit a bed Feminine une pomme an apple Plural des gants some gloves Demonstrative Adjectives (This. That. comme ça kohm see kohm sah late friend (masc) un ami un homme une fille un garçon une femme ewn fawn Note: When il y a is followed by a number. Il y a cinq minutes means five minutes ago.

Present tense of avoir . animals. Vous is used when speaking to more than one person. the people.Je Tu Il Elle On zhuh I tew eel ell ohn Nous noo We You (informal) Vous voo You (formal and plural) He She One Ils Elles eel They (masc. Notice there are two ways to say be I will be je serai suh-reh We will be You will be nous serons suh-rohn vous seriez suh-ree-ay You will be tu seras suh-rah He will be il sera suh-rah She will be elle sera suh-rah One will be on sera suh-rah They will be ils seront suh-rohn They will be elles seront suh-rohn Note: You must use the subject pronouns. or to someone you don't know or who is older. To Be and To Have Present tense of être . or you. we. and elle replaces feminine nouns) instead of a person's name.) ell They (fem. Tu is used when speaking to children. 7. On can be translated into English as be I was (being) j'étais zhay-teh ay-teh We were (being) You were (being) nous étions ay-tee-ohn vous étiez ay-tee-ay You were (being) tu étais He was (being) il était ay-teh She was (being) elle était ay-teh One was (being) on était ay-teh They were (being) ils étaient ay-teh They were (being) elles étaient ay-teh Note: Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h) combine together for ease of be (eh-truh) I am Je suis zhuh swee We are tew ay You are Nous sommes noo sohm Vous êtes voo zett eel sohn ell sohn You are Tu es He is She is One is Il est eel ay Elle est ell ay On est ohn ay They are Ils sont They are Elles sont Past tense of être . they. or close friends and relativs. Ils and elles can replace plural nouns as well in the same way.) Note: Il and elle can also mean it when they replace a noun (il replaces masculine nouns. Future Tense of être . but I will leave them out of future have (ah-vwahr) I have You have j'ai zhay We have as ah You have avons ah-vohn avez ah-vay . be back être en retard . They were about to leave. Il aura sommeil ce soir. You were right. You were be hot avoir froid .to be afraid avoir raison . seem avoir envie de . Elles étaient sur le point de be cold avoir peur .to be thirsty avoir sommeil . Elle a de la chance! She's lucky! Nous aurons faim plus be lucky J'ai froid. She will agree. Tu avais be right avoir tort . On est de retour. Vous étiez enrhumé.to be sleepy avoir honte . Nous sommes need avoir l'air de . Vouz aviez tort. It is Monday. Elle sera d'accord. They were afraid yesterday. Ils ont chaud. He will be tired tonight. You had a be (a day) Je suis en retard! I'm late! Tu étais en avance. We/you/they/the people are be in the act of être enrhumée . Ils seront en train d'étudier. They are have a cold nous + être (un jour) .to be wrong avoir faim .to be about to être en train de .to be hungry avoir soif . We will be hungry later. They will be (in the act of) look feel like avoir de la chance . You were be late être en avance . Elles avaient peur hier.He/she has a ah They have ont ohn Past tense of avoir .to have I will have You will have j'aurai zhoh-reh auras oh-rah oh-rah We will have You will have aurons oh-rohn aurez oh-ray He/she will have aura They will have auront oh-rohn Avoir and être are used in many common and idiomatic expressions that should be memorized: avoir chaud .to have I had You had j'avais zhah-veh avais ah-veh ah-veh We had You had avions ah-vee-ohn aviez ah-vee-ay He/she had avait They had avaient ah-veh Future tense of avoir . I'm be in agreement être sur le point de .to be early être d'accord . Question Words Who What Why When Where How How much / many Which / what Qui Quoi Pourquoi Quand Où Comment Combien Quel(le) kee kwah poor-kwah kawn ooh kohn-mawn kohn-bee-ahn kehl .to be ashamed avoir besoin de . être de retour .

9. Numbers / Les numéros Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Twenty-one Twenty-two Twenty-three Thirty Thirty-one Thirty-two Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Seventy-one Seventy-two Eighty Eighty-one Eighty-two Ninety Zéro Un Deux Trois Quatre Cinq Six Sept Huit Neuf Dix Onze Douze Treize Quatorze Quinze Seize Dix-sept Dix-huit Dix-neuf Vingt Vingt et un Vingt-deux Vingt-trois Trente Trente et un Trente-deux Quarante Cinquante Soixante Soixante-diz Soixante et onze Soixante-douze Quatre-vingts Quatre-vingt-un Quatre-vingt-dix zay-roh ahn duh twah kat sahn seess set weet nuhf deess ohnz dooz trehz kah-tohrz kanz sez dee-set deez-weet deez-nuhf vahn vahn tay ahn vahn duh vahn twah trawnt trawnt ay uhn trawnt duh kuh-rawnt sank-awnt swah-ssawnt swah-ssawnt deez seh-tahnt swah-ssawnt ay ohnz swah-ssawnt dooz ka-truh vahn weet-ahnt ka-truh vahn tahn ka-truh vahn deez noh-nahnt (Belgium & Switzerland) Septante (Belgium & Switzerland) Huitante Quatre-vingt-deux ka-truh vahn duh (Belgium & Switzerland) Nonante .

you must drop it before adding the -ième.00 would be 1. 6. huitante and nonante in place of the standard French words for 70. Also. Days of the Week / Les jours de la semaine Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi lahn-dee mahr-dee mare-kruh-dee zhuh-dee vahn-druh-dee .00 in English. Ordinal Numbers first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth twentieth thirtieth premier. 8. After a q. And an f becomes a v before the -ième. But if a number ends in an e. their final consonants are not pronounced. 80.Ninety-one Ninety-two One Hundred Two Hundred Thousand Two Thousand Million Quatre-vingt-onze Cent Deux cents Mille Deux mille Un million ka-truh vahn ohnz sawnt sawnt ahn duh sawnt duh sawnt ahn meel duh meel ahn meel-ee-ohn Quatre-vingt-douze ka-truh vahn dooz One Hundred One Cent un Two Hundred One Deux cent un Note: French switches the use of commas and periods. when the numbers 5. première deuxième troisième quatrième cinquième sixième septième huitième neuvième dixième onzième douzième vingtième trentième twenty-first vingt et unième Note: The majority of numbers become ordinals by adding -ième. 10. 1. and 90. and 10 are used before a word beginning with a consonant. Belgian and Swiss French use septante. you must add a u before the -ième.

Months of the Year / Les mois de l'année January February March April May June July August September October November December Month Year janvier février mars avril mai juin juillet août septembre octobre novembre décembre le mois zhan-vee-ay fay-vree-ay marz ah-vril may-ee zhwahn zhwee-ay oot sep-tawm-bruh ahk-toh-bruh noh-vawm-bruh day-sawm-bruh luh mwah l'an / l'année lawn/law-nay Note: To express in a certain month. Seasons / Les saisons Summer l'été Fall Winter Spring l'automne l'hiver lay-tay loh-tohn lee-vair in the summer en été in the fall in the winter en automne en hiver awn ay-tay aw noh-tohn aw nee-vair le printemps luh prahn-tawn in the spring au printemps oh prahn-tawn 13. such as "on Monday. the ordinal numbers are not used." (you would use le before the day. such as "in May." use en before the month as in "en mai. as in "le lundi") 11. 12. Directions / Les directions . Also note that days of the weeks and months of the year are all masculine and not capitalized in French. except for the first of the month: le premier mai but le deux juin. except to express something that happens habitually on a certain day." With dates.Saturday Sunday day week today yesterday tomorrow samedi dimanche le jour la semaine aujourd'hui hier demain sahm-dee dee-mahnsh luh zhoor lah suh-men oh-zhoor-dwee ee-air duh-mahn Note: Articles are not used before days.

bad cool cold warm. as well as colors that are modified with the words clair-light and foncé-dark) and most are placed after the noun.North le nord luh nor South le sud luh sewd East l'est lest West l'ouest lwest 14. 15. Almost all adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun they modify (except marron and orange. verte is the feminine form. Ex: vert/e = vert is the masculine form of green. Un carré brun would be a brown square and une boîte noire would be a black box. hot cloudy beautiful mild stormy Il fait bon. Il fait mauvais Il fait frais Il fait froid Il fait chaud Il fait nuageux Il fait beau Il fait doux Il fait orageux eel fay bohn moh-vay fray fwah shoh noo-ah-zhuh boh dooh oh-rah-zhuh . nouns and adjectives have a gender. Colors and Shapes / Les couleurs et les formes Red rouge roozh oh-rahnzh zhohn vehr/t bluh poo-pruh vee-oh-leh/lett square circle triangle le carré le cercle le triangle kah-ray sair-kluh tree-awn-gluh Orange orange Yellow jaune Green Blue Purple White Brown Black Pink Gold Silver Gray vert/e bleu/e pourpre violet/te rectangle le rectangle ruhk-tawn-gluh oval cube sphere cylinder cone octagon box l'ovale le cube la sphère le cylindre le cône l'octogone une boîte loh-vahl kewb sfair see-lahn-druh kohn ok-toh-gohn bwaht blanc/he blawn/sh brun/e marron noir/e rose doré/e brahn/brewn mah-rohn nwahr roze doh-ray argenté/e ahr-zhawn-tay gris/e gree/z Note: In French. Weather / Le temps What's the weather like? Quel temps fait-il? kell tawn fay-teel It's nice.

. but in France it is common. In Canada. 16. one o'clock two o'clock noon midnight one o'clock sharp four o'clock sharp twelve thirty six thirty a quarter to seven five twenty ten fifty in the morning/AM in the evening/PM Quelle heure est-il? Il est.sunny windy foggy snowing raining freezing Il fait (du) soleil Il fait du vent Il neige Il pleut Il gèle eel fay (dew) so-lay vawn eel nezh pluh zhell Il fait du brouillard broo-ee-yar Note: The du in "il fait (du) soleil" is optional. papa fah-mee pahr-awn grawn-pahr-awn pahr-awn mehr.) 17. maman la belle-mère le père.. du is often not said. ma-ma bell-mehr pehr.. Time / Le temps What time is it? It is. pa-pa . une heure deux heures midi minuit une heure précise quatre heures précises midi (minuit) et demi six heures et demie cinq heures vingt onze heures moins dix du matin du soir kell urr ay-teel eel ay oon urr duh zurr mee-dee meen-wee twa zurr ay car oon urr pray-sees ka-truh urr pray-sees meee-dee (meen-wee) ay duh-mee see zurr ay duh-mee sank urr vahn ohnz urr mwan dees doo mah-tahn duh lah-pray mih-dee doo swahr a quarter after three trois heures et quart sept heures moins le quart set urr mwahn luh car in the afternoon/PM de l'après-midi Note: Official French time is expressed as military time (24 hour clock. Family and Animals / La famille et les animaux Family Relatives Grand-parents Parents Mom Stepmother/Mother-in-Law Dad la famille des parents les grands-parents les parents la mère..

Stepfather/Father-in-Law Daughter Son Sister Half/Step Sister Sister-in-Law Brother Half/Step Brother Brother-in-Law Stepson/Son-in-Law Twins (m) Twins (f) Uncle Aunt Grandmother Grandfather Cousin (f) Cousin (m) Wife Husband Woman Man Girl Boy Niece Nephew Grandchildren Granddaughter Grandson Distant Relatives Single Married Separated Divorced Widower / Widow Dog Cat Puppy Kitten Pig Rooster le beau-père la fille le fils la sœur la demi-sœur la belle-sœur le frère le demi-frère le beau-frère le beau-fils les jumeaux les jumelles l'oncle la tante la grand-mère le grand-père la cousine le cousin la femme le mari la femme l'homme la fille le garçon la nièce le neveu les petits-enfants la petite-fille le petit-fils célibataire marié(e) séparé(e) divorcé(e) veuf / veuve boh-pehr fee feess sir duh-mee-sir bell-sir bell-fee frehr duh-mee-frehr boh-frair boh-feess zhoo-moh zhoo-mell ohnk-luh tawnt grawn-mehr grawn-pehr koo-zeen koo-zahn fawn mah-ree fawn ohm fee gar-sohn nee-ess nuh-vuh puh-tee-zawn-fawn puh-teet fee puh-tee feez say-lee-bah-tair mah-ree-ay say-pah-ray dee-vor-say vuhf / vuhv Stepdaughter/Daughter-in-Law la belle-fille des parents éloignés pahr-awn zay-lwawn-yay le chien / la chienne shee-ahn / shee-enn le chat / la chatte le chiot le chaton le cochon le coq shah / shaht shee-oh shah-tohn koh-shohn kohk .

I know your brother. change it to -aux. of course. bus boat horse knee Sing. But there are some exceptions: If a noun already ends in an -s. le bus le bateau le cheval le genou Plural les bus les bateaux les chevaux les genoux There are. Je sais que ton frère s'appelle Jean. When savoir is followed by an infinitive it means to know how. you usually add an -s. add an x.des yeux (eyes). They know how to swim. Connaissez-vous Grenoble? Do you know (Are you familiar with) Grenoble? Oui. . we know (are familiar with) Grenoble. I know that your brother is named John. Some nouns ending in -ou add an -x instead of -s. add nothing. Ils savent nager. Yes. You know where Grenoble is located. 19. and un jeune homme (a young man) . le ciel (sky) .les cieux (skies). To Know People and Places connaître-to know people (koh-net-truh) connais koh-neh connaissons koh-nezz-ohn connais koh-neh connaissez koh-nezz-ay savoir-to know facts (sahv-wahr) sais sais sait say say say savons savez savent sah-vohn sav-ay sahv connaît koh-neh connaissent koh-nezz Note: Connaître is used when you know people or places. If a masculine noun ends in -al or -ail. Je connais ton frère. If a noun ends in -eu or -eau.Rabbit Cow Horse Duck Goat Goose Sheep Lamb Donkey Mouse le lapin la vache le cheval le canard la chèvre l'oie le mouton l'agneau l'âne la souris lah-pahn vahsh chuh-val kah-nahr shev-ruh lwah moo-tohn lon-yoh lon soo-ree 18. savoir is used when you know facts. Formation of Plural Nouns To make a noun plural. Tu sais où Grenoble se trouve. nous connaissons Grenoble. some weird exceptions: un œil (eye) .des jeunes gens (young men).

to do the cooking faire la lessive .to go shopping faire de l'exercice . isn't he? Leurs cousines sont hollandaises. 21. but our sister is single. Notre frère est marié.to do / study (subject) faire le ménage . ta sa votre leur Plural tes ses nos (noh) vos leurs (luhr) ma (mah) mes (may) His/Her/Its son votre leur (luhr) notre (noh-truh) notre Note: Possessive pronouns go before the noun. This is my mother and my do the housework faire la cuisine . When a feminine noun begins with a do laundry faire la vaisselle . you must use the masculine form of the pronoun for ease of pronunciation. make (fair) fais fay faisons fezz-ohn fais fay faites fait fay font fett fohnt Faire is used in expressions of weather (il fait beau) and many other idiomatic expressions: faire de (a sport) . Ma amie is incorrect and must be mon amie. mais notre sœur est cé do the dishes faire une promenade .20. Ton oncle est architecte. To Do or Make Faire-to do. My parents are divorced. Possessive Adjectives Masc. Our brother is pay attention faire la queue .to run errands faire des achats . C'est ma mère et mon père. Ce sont vos petits-enfants? These are your grandchildren? Mes parents sont divorcés. Sa grand-mère est veuve. Their cousins are take a walk faire une voyage . My Your Our Your Their mon (mohn) ton exercise faire attention .to act deaf / innocent faire le (subject in school) . n'est-ce pas? Your uncle is an stand in line . His grandmother is a play (a sport) faire le sourd / l'innocent . even though amie is take a trip faire les courses .

22. Work and School Masculine architect accountant judge business peron baker hair dresser computer programmer secretary electrician mechanic cook salesperson fire fighter plumber librarian police officer reporter factory worker banker lawyer postal worker carpenter engineer doctor nurse pharmacist psychologist dentist veterinarian taxi driver writer teacher l'architecte le comptable le juge l'homme d'affaires le boulanger le coiffeur le programmeur le secrétaire l'électricien le mécanicien le cuisinier le vendeur le pompier le plombier le bibliothécaire l'agent de police le journaliste l'ouvrier le banquier l'avocat le facteur le charpentier l'ingénieur le médecin l'infirmier le pharmacien le psychologue le dentiste le vétérinaire le chauffeur de taxi l'écrivain l'instituteur lar-shee-tekt kohn-tahbl zhoozh lohn dah-fehr boo-lawn-zhay kwah-fur proh-grah-mur suk-ray-tehr ay-lehk-tree-seeahn may-kah-neesyahn kwee-zee-nyay vawn-dur pohn-pyay plohn-byay bee-blee-oh-tehkehr lah-zhawnd pohleess zhoor-nah-leest loov-ree-ay bahn-kee-ay lah-voh-kah fah-tur shar-pawn-tyay lahn-zhay-nyur mayd-sawn lahn-feer-myay fahr-mah-see-ahn psee-koh-lohg dawn-teest vay-tay-ree-nehr shoh-furd tahksee lay-kree-vahn lahn-stee-tew-tur Feminine l'architecte la comptable la juge la femme d'affaires la boulangère la coiffeuse lar-shee-tekt kohn-tabl zhoozh fahn dah-fehr boo-lawn-zhay kwah-fur la programmeuse proh-grah-mur la secrétaire l'électricien la mécanicienne la cuisinière la vendeuse le pompier le plombier la bibliothécaire l'agent de police la journaliste l'ouvrière la banquière l'avocate la factrice le charpentier l'ingénieure la médecine l'infirmière le pharmacienne la psychologue la dentiste la vétérinaire le chauffeur de taxi l'écrivaine l'institutrice suk-ray-tehr ay-lehk-tree-seeahn may-kah-neesyenn kwee-zee-nyay vawn-dur pohn-pyay plohn-byay bee-blee-oh-tehkehr lah-zhawnd pohleess zhoor-nah-leest loov-ree-ay bahn-kee-ay lah-voh-kah fah-tur shar-pawn-tyay lahn-zhay-nyur mayd-sawn lahn-feer-myay fahr-mah-see-ahn psee-koh-lohg dawn-teest vay-tay-ree-nehr shoh-furd tahksee lay-kree-vahn lahn-stee-tew-tur .

I am a professor. I am a student (masc. I study at the University of Toronto. Qu'est-ce que vous faites dans la vie? What do you do for a living? Je suis avocate.professor student le professeur l'étudiant proh-fuh-sur lay-tew-dee-awn le professeur l'étudiante proh-fuh-sur lay-tew-dee-awnt Note: Notice that some professions are always masculine. There are also words that are always feminine (such as la victime) even if the person is a man. I am a lawyer. Je fais mes études à l'université de Toronto.) Où est-ce que vous faites les études? Where do you study? Je vais à l'université de Michigan. Math Algebra Calculus Geometry Economics les mathématiques l'algèbre le calcul la géométrie maht-ee-mah-teek lal-zheb kahl-kool zhay-oh-may-tree les sciences économiques see-awns ay-kon-oh-meek lawn zay-trawn-zhair lahn-gee-steek lee-tay-rah-tur fee-loh-soh-fee p-see-kol-oh-zhee see-awns poh-lee-teek ees-twahr zhay-oh-grahf-ee fees-eek bee-ol-oh-zhee shee-mee zoh-ol-oh-zhee boh-tah-neek zahr mew-zeek dahns duh-sahn pahn-tur ahn-for-mah-teek teck-no-loh-zhee lay-dew-kah-see-ohn fee-zeek Foreign Languages les langues étrangères Linguistics Literature Philosophy Psychology Political Science History Geography Physics Biology Chemistry Zoology Botany Art Music Dance Drawing Painting la linguistique la littérature la philosophie la psychologie les sciences politiques l'histoire (f) la géographie la physique la biologie la chimie la zoologie la botanique les arts la musique la danse le dessin la peinture Computer Science l'informatique Technology la technologie Physical Education l'éducation physique (f) Notice that you do not use an indefinite article before professions. (fem. I go to the university of Michigan. Je suis étudiant. even if the person is a woman. Qu'est-ce que vous étudiez? What do you study? .) Je suis professeur. unless they are preceded by an adjective.

Il peut lire ce livre en une demi-heure. De vs. tout est simple. Je vais en France avec ma sœur. He can read this book in a half hour." To describe the way a person carries him/herself. I study foreign languages and linguistics. Chez cet enfant. With this child. A vs.) In: Dans vs. Je fais des mathématiques. My major is biology.Quelles matières étudiez-vous? What subjects do you study? J'étudie les langues étrangères et la linguistique. He walks with his hands in his pockets. I'm leaving in 15 minutes. no extra word is used. 24. The man with the red hair is very tall. She thanks me with a smile. L'homme aux cheveux roux est très grand. Il marche. everything is simple. Chez Avec implies doing something or going along with someone. I'm going to France with my sister. En Dans is used to show the time when an action will begin. 23. With: Avec vs. and chez is used to mean "as far as (person) is concerned. les mains dans les poches. while en shows the length of time an action takes. I study/do math. Elle me remercie d'un sourire. de is used in phrases of manner and in many idiomatic expressions. Prepositions and Contractions among at / to / in at the house of between for parmi par-mee à chez ah shay entre on-truh pour poohr duh dawn sir ah-veck sawn from / of / about de in on with without à + le = au de + le = du oh dans sur avec sans Prepositional Contractions at / to / in the at / to / in the (pl. Je pars dans quinze minutes.) à + les = aux oh dew of / from / about the de + les = des day of / from / about the (pl. à is used when referring to someone's attributes. Countries and Nationalities / Les pays and les nationalités . Ma spécialization est la biologie.

I am French (feminine. (masculine or feminine) . Je suis française. Negative Sentences To make sentences negative. however. Je ne suis pas du Mexique. I am from Canada. then add nothing.) The masculine forms of the nationalities are also used to signify the language. Je suis du Canada. the ne is frequently omitted. but it cannot be omitted in written French.) Je ne suis pas suisse. feminine. you use si and not oui. I am not from Mexico. plural.) 25. just add an -s (unless it already ends in an -s. In spoken French. they must agree with the subject of the verb (masculine vs. and singular vs.) The extra ending shown above is added to signify a feminine subject. And the definite article is not used before a language when it follows the verb parler (to speak. simply put ne and pas around the verb. And when you are replying "yes" to a negative question. To make them plural. I am not Swiss.France Switzerland Italy Germany Spain Belgium Netherlands China England Russia Poland Canada Mexico Japan Portugal Brazil Sweden Norway Finland Denmark Greece Austria Australia Africa India Ireland la France la Suisse l'Italie l'Allemagne l'Espagne la Belgique les Pays-Bas la Chine l'Angleterre la Russie la Pologne le Canada le Mexique le Japon le Portugal le Brésil la Suède la Norvège la Finlande le Danemark la Grèce l'Autriche l'Australie l'Afrique l'Inde l'Irlande frahns sweess lee-tah-lee lahl-mawn-yuh leh-spawn-yuh bell-zheek pay-ee-bah sheen lawn-gluh-tair roo-see poh-lohn-yuh kah-nah-dah meks-eek zhap-ohn pore-tew-gahl bray-zeel ay-tah-zew-nee soo-ed nor-vehzh feen-lahnd dahn-mark grehs loh-treesh loh-strah-lee lah-freek lahnd leer-lawnd français/e suisse italien/ne allemand/e espagnol/e belge chinois/e anglais/e russe polonais/e mexicain/e japonais/e portugais/e brésilien/ne américain/e suèdois/e finlandais/e danois/e frawn-say/sez sweess ee-tahl-ee-awn/enn ahl-mawn/d es-pan-yohl belzh sheen-wah/wez bree-tahn-eek an-glay/ez rewss poh-lon-ay/ez mek-see-kahn/enn zhah-poh-nay/nez por-tew-gay/gez bray-zeel-ee-awn/enn ah-may-ree-kahn/kenn soo-ed-wah/wez feen-lan-day/dez dahn-wah/wez hollandais/e oh-lawn-day/dehz Great Britain la Grande-Bretagne grahnd bruh-tawn-yuh britannique canadien/ne kah-nah-dee-awn/enn United States les États-Unis norvègien/ne nor-vehzh-ee-awn/enn grec/grecque grek autrichien/ne oh-trees-ee-awn/enn australien/ne oh-strahl-ee-awn/enn africain/e indien/ne irlandais/e ah-free-kahn/kenn ahn-dee-ahn/enn eer-lahn-day/dez Note: When the nationalities are used as adjectives.

I don't speak Swedish. and Virginie are the feminine states. obtenir .to get. revenir . He is Australian. the gender is feminine. 27. au du Fem. She is not Danish.Il est australien. Ils ne sont pas du Portugal. Louisiane. Pennsylvanie. nous sommes du Brésil. Caroline du Nord / Sud. They are from the United States. Some cities have an article as well. Yes. The exceptions are le Cambodge. To Come and to Go Venir-to come (vuh-neer) viens vee-ahn venons viens vee-ahn venez vuh-nohn vuh-nay Aller-to go (ah-lay) vais vay allons ah-lohn vas va vah allez vah vont ah-lay vohn vient vee-ahn viennent vee-enn Other verbs that are conjugated like venir: tenir . we are from Brazil. To / In and From places. Floride. à la de la Vowel à l' de l' Plural aux des Cities à à à de de d' Countries au en en du de d' aux des aux des If the name of a country. such as La Nouvelle-Orléans (New Orleans). le Mexique. w/ Consonant en à dans le From de de / d' du en / dans l' d' / de l' Californie. state or province ends with an e. become. le Maine. w/ Vowel Masc. The exception to the masculine beginning with a consonant rule is Texas: in / to Texas is au Texas. If it ends in anything else. Elle n'est pas danoise. Géorgie. cities. Je parle chinois et japonais. le Zaïre and le Mozambique. I speak Chinese and Japanese. Vous n'êtes pas du Brésil? You aren't from Brazil? hold. and countries Places Masc. continent. Je ne parle pas suèdois. devenir . 26. Prepositions with American States To / In Feminine Islands Masc. .to come back. Elles sont des Etats-Unis. They are not from Portugal. it is masculine.

He just went to Finland. Aller + an infinitive means "going to do something. To conjugate verbs in the present tense. -re. She's going to speak Russian. I'm fine. Il tient un crayon. -er -e -ons -re -s -ons -s -ez -ent 1st -ir -is -issons -is -issez -it -issent 2nd -ir* -s -ons -s -ez -t -ent -es -ez -e -ent Sample Regular Verbs aimer -to like. Tu ne vas pas au Brésil cet été.to sell vends vawn vendons vawn-dohn vends vawn vendez vend vawn-day vawn vendent vawn finir . general state. these three English present tenses are all translated by the present indicative tense in French. You're not going to Brazil this finish finis finis finit fee-nee finissons fee-nee-sohn fee-nee finissez fee-nee-say pars pars part partir . Elle va parler russe. He's holding a pencil. Aller is also used idiomatically when talking about health. You just ate an apple. aim." Ils vont aller en Angleterre.) However.) The present indicative tense indicates an ongoing action. etc. Venir de + an infinitive means "to have just done something. Je vais devenir professeur. love j'aime zhem aimes em aime em aimons aimez aiment em-ohn em-ay em vendre . Conjugating Regular Verbs in the Present Indicative Tense Verbs in French end in -er. Nous allons en Espagne.Je viens des Etats-Unis. etc. there are two other forms of the present tense in English: the progressive (I am writing. I the stem.) and the emphatic (I do write. Comment vas-tu? How are you? Je vais bien." Il vient d'aller à la Finlande. or -ir. Besides the simple present tense (I write. They are going to go to England. Vous venez de manger une pomme. We're going to Spain. Removing the last two letters leaves you with the stem (aimer is the infinitive. I do run. I am running. or habitual activity. The verb before it is conjugated is called the leave pahr partons pahr partez pahr partent pahr-tohn pahr-tay pahrt fee-nee finissent fee-neess Regular verbs -er -re . I'm going to become a professor. 28. use the stem and add the following endings. I come from the United States. I see).

heal to go down ay-too-dee-ay to study fehr-may ah-bee-tay zhoo-ay mawn-zhay mohn-tray par-lay pawn-say trah-vy-yay troo-vay to close to live to play to eat to show to speak to think to work to find Note: If a verb is followed by à (like répondre) you have to use the à and any contractions after the conjugated verb. sentir (to smell. The pronouns are: me nous te vous se se Some Pronominal Verbs s'amuser se lever se laver se peigner s'habiller se marier to have fun to get up se reposer to rest se souvenir de to remember se coucher se brosser se maquiller se casser to go to bed to brush to put on makeup to break (arm. . mentir (to lie). dormir (to sleep).) 29. etc. Ex: Je réponds au téléphone. * The 2nd -ir verbs are considered irregular sometimes because there are only a few verbs which follow that pattern. leg. love to sing to look for vendre attendre entendre perdre vawn-druh ah-tawn-druh awn-tawn-druh pair-druh to sell to wait for to listen to lose commencer koh-mawn-say to begin donner étudier fermer habiter jouer manger montrer parler penser travailler trouver dohn-nay to give répondre (à) ray-pohn-druh (ah) to answer descendre deh-sawn-druh 1st -ir bâtir finir choisir punir remplir obéir (à) réussir guérir bah-teer fee-neer shwa-zeer poo-neer rawn-pleer oh-bay-eer (ah) ray-oo-seer gay-reer to build to finish to choose to punish to fill to obey to succeed to cure. Pronominal (Reflexive) Verbs These verbs are conjugated like normal verbs.) to wash (oneself) s'entendre bien to get along well to comb to get dressed to get married se dépêcher to hurry Note: When used in the infinitive. Other verbs like partir are sortir (to go out). the reflexive pronoun agrees with the subject of the sentence. such as after another verb. Je vais me coucher maintenant. but they require an extra pronoun before the verb. feel) and servir (to serve. I'm going to go to bed.aimer chanter chercher em-ay shahn-tay share-shay to like. Most indicate a reflexive action but some are idiomatic and can't be translated literally.

Verbs that are conjugated as -er verbs: Some -ir verbs are conjugated with -er endings. but commençons. manger-to eat mange mawnzh mangeons mawnzhohn mawn-zhay mawnzh commence commences commence commencer-to begin kohmawnz kohmawnz kohmawnz commençons commencez koh-mawnsohn koh-mawnsay manges mawnzh mangez mange mawnzh mangent commencent koh-mawnz 2. Examples: envoyer-to send (awn-vwah-yay). The c must have the accent (called a cedilla) under it to make the c sound soft. découvrir-to discover and souffrir-to suffer. couvrir-to cover. ouvrir-to open. Verbs that end in -yer: Change the y to an i in all forms except the nous and vous. For example: offrir-to offer. offrir-to offer j'offre zhaw-fruh offrons aw-frohn offres aw-fruh offre aw-fruh offrez aw-fray offrent aw-fruh 4. nettoyer-to clean (nuh-twah-yay). sit down je m'assieds mah-see-ay nous nous asseyons noo-zah-say-ohn tu t'assieds tah-see-ay vous vous asseyez il s'assied sah-see-ay ils s'asseyent vous-zah-say-yay sah-say-ee 30.Sample Irregular Pronominal Verb s'asseoir . The nous form of commencer isn't commencons. Verbs that add or change to an accent grave: Some verbs add or change to an accent grave (è) in all the forms except the nous and vous. The e has to stay so the g can retain the soft sound. acheter-to buy achètes ah-shet achète ah-shet achetez ahsh-tay espérer-to hope espères ess-pehr espère ess-pehr espérez ess-pay-ray j'achète zhah-shet achetons ahsh-tohn j'espère zhess-pehr espérons ess-pay-rohn achètent ah-shet espèrent ess-pehr 3. Verbs that end in -ger and -cer: The nous form of manger isn't mangons. essayer-to try (ess-ah-yay) envoyer-to send j'envoie zhawn-vwah envoyons awn-vwah-yohn envoies awn-vwah envoie awn-vwah envoyez awn-vwah-yay envoient awn-vwah . but mangeons. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 1.

and as a result or consequence of another action. He answered (or has answered) the telephone. Je n'ai pas aimé le concert. He didn't answer (or hasn't answered) . I didn't like the concert. you have to use the passé composé. Irregular Past Participles avoir to have eu (ew) connu cru had known believed ouvrir offrir pouvoir to open to offer ouvert (oovehr) offert opened offered was connaître to know croire to believe to be able to pu . Il a répondu au téléphone. All you need to learn are the past participles of the verbs. Regular Verbs: Formation of the Past Participle -er -é -re -u -ir -i Then conjugate avoir and add the past participle: J'ai aimé le concert. put the ne and pas around the conjugated form of avoir. You lived here? We finished (or have finished) the project. They filled (or have filled) the cups. Elles n'ont pas rempli les tasses. The passé composé is used for actions that happened only once. I liked the concert. The Past Indefinite Tense or Passé Composé You have learned the present indicative so far. 32. and jeter-to throw double the consonant in all forms except the nous and vous. which expresses what happens. Tu as habité ici? Nous avons fini le projet. They didn't fill (or haven't filled) the glasses. such as appeler-to call (ahp-lay). Elles ont rempli les tasses. appeler-to call j'appelle zhah-pell appelons ahp-lohn appelles ah-pell appelle ah-pell appelez ahp-lay appellent ah-pell 31. a specified number of times or during a specified period of time. but if you want to say something happened. or has happened.(zheh-tay) 5. To make it negative. is happening. Verbs that double the consonant: Some verbs. Il n'a pas répondu. or does happen now.

mourirmort. and they must agree in gender and number with the subject. make to read to put dit écrit été fait lu mis (me) permis had to said written been made read put permitted promised prendre apprendre comprendre surprendre recevoir rire savoir voir vouloir to take to learn to understand to surprise to receive to laugh to know to see to want pris (pree) appris compris surpris reçu (rehsew) ri su vu voulu (voolew) taken learned understood surprised received laughed known seen wanted permettre to permit promettre to promise promis 33. except venir-venu. devenir-devenu. revenir-revenu. and naître-né. and passer can sometimes be conjugated with avoir if they are used with a direct to devoir dire écrire être faire lire mettre to have to dû to tell to write to be to do. rentrer. Etre Verbs Sixteen "house" verbs and all pronominal verbs are conjugated with être. And five of these verbs. Conjugation of an être verb Je suis resté(e) Nous sommes resté(e)s Tu es resté(e) Il est resté Vous êtes resté(e)(s) Ils sont restés Elle est restée Elles sont restées You add the e for feminine and s for plural. monter. Vous can have any of the endings. She returned the book to the library. sortir. Elle a rentré le livre à la bibliothèque. descendre. The house verbs are: aller-to go arriver-to arrive entrer-to enter sortir-to go out partir-to leave tomber-to fall venir-to come devenir-to become revenir-to come back mourir-to die monter-to go up rester-to stay rentrer-to return home naître-to be born passer-to go by (pass) descendre-to go down Most have regular past participles. Conjugation of a Pronominal Verb Je me suis amusé(e) Nous nous sommes amusé(e)s Tu t'es amusé(e) Il s'est amusé Elle s'est amusée Vous vous êtes amusé(e)(s) Ils se sont amusés Elles se sont amusées .

Compare: Elles se sont lavées. Food and Meals / La Nourriture et Les Repas Breakfast Lunch Dinner Cup Slice Bowl Glass Fork Spoon Knife Plate Napkin Ice cream Juice Fruit Cheese Chicken Egg Cake Pie Milk Coffee Butter Water Ham Fish Tea Salad Jam Meat French fries Beer Wine le petit déjeuner puh-tee day-zhew-nay le déjeuner le dîner la tasse la tranche le bol le verre la fourchette la cuillère le couteau l'assiette (f) la serviette la glace le jus le fruit le fromage le poulet l'œuf (m) le gâteau la tarte le lait le café le beurre l'eau le jambon le poisson le thé la salade la confiture la viande les frites (f) la bière le vin day-zhew-nay dee-nay tahss trawnsh bohl verr foor-shett kwee-yehr koo-toh ah-syett ser-vyett glahss zhew fwee froh-mawzh poo-lay luff gah-toh tart leh kah-fay burr loh zham-bohn pwah-sohn tay sah-lahd kon-fee-chur vee-awnd freet bee-ehr vahn Salt and Pepper le sel et le poivre luh sell ay luh pwahv-ruh . s'écrire. and se téléphoner.There are only two cases with pronominal verbs where the past participle does not agree: 1. but elles se sont lavé les mains. 2. 34. such as se parler. With verbs where the reflexive pronoun is an indirect object. se demander. When the pronominal verb is followed by a direct object. se dire. se sourire. Ils se sont téléphoné.

Sugar Soup le sucre le potage soo-kruh poh-tawzh 35. Vegetables and Meat fruit apple apricot banana blueberry cherry coconut date fig grape grapefruit lemon lime melon olive orange peach pear pineapple plum prune raisin raspberry un fruit une pomme un abricot une banane une myrtille une cerise une noix de coco une date une figue un raisin un pamplemousse un citron un limon un melon une olive une orange une pêche une poire un ananas une prune un pruneau un raisin sec une framboise fwee pohm ah-bree-koh bah-nahn meer-tee suh-reez corn cucumber eggplant lettuce mushroom onion le maïs un concombre une aubergine la laitue un champignon un oignon les pois un piment une citrouille le riz des épinards une courge une tomate un navet des courgettes une viande du lard. bah-kohn beef-teck poo-lay kah-nar shev-ruh zhahm-bohn awn-yoh fwah boo-lett duh veeawnd kote-lett duh pork lah-pahn kote duh buf so-seess dahnd voh shuv-ruh-ee nwah duh kohpeas koh daht feeg reh-zahn pahm-pluhmoos see-trohn lee-mohn mel-ohn oh-leev oh-ranzh pesh pwahr ah-nah-nah prewn proo-noh reh-zahn sek frez pah-stek leh-goom ar-tee-sho ahs-pehrzh bett-rahv broh-coh-lee shoo cah-roht shoo-flir pepper potato pumpkin rice spinach squash tomato turnip zucchini meat bacon beef chicken duck goat lamb liver meatballs pork chop rabbit T-bone steak sausage turkey veal venison une pomme de terre pohm duh tehr frwahm-bwahz ham strawberry une fraise watermelon une pastèque vegetable artichoke une légume un artichaut asparagus des asperges beet broccoli cabbage carrot une betterave le brocoli un chou une carotte cauliflower un chou-fleur . Fruits. du bacon le bifteck un poulet un canard une chèvre le jambon l'agneau le foie des boulettes de viande une côtelette de porc un lapin une côte de bœuf la saucisse une dinde le veau un chevreuil mah-eez cohn-cohn-bruh oh-behr-zheen leh-tew shahm-peenyohn wawn-yohn pwah pee-mawn see-troo-ee reez ay-pee-nar koorzh to-maht nah-vay koor-zhett vee-awnd lar.

I drink wine all the time. but no fruit. I'm drinking some wine. I would like one piece of pie. or les and the proper contractions (called partitives) because in French you must also express surprise. He is eating some meat. To Take. So "je prends de la bière" literally means "I am having some beer" even though in English we would usually only say I am having beer. Eat or Drink Prendre-to take. 38. I am not drinking any wine. Je voudrais prendre du understand and surprendre . I would like to have some cheese. Note: When you want to say "I am having wine. Quantities assez de une assiette de beaucoup de une boîte de enough (of) un morceau de a piece of a plate of a lot of a box of un peu de une tasse de a little (bit) of a cup of une douzaine de a dozen of un paquet de un panier de une poignée de a packet of a basket of a handful of more a bunch of une tranche de a slice of trop de un verre de une bouteille de a bottle of un kilo de a kilo of too much." but manger is used in a general sense. comprendre . eat or drink (prawn-druh) prends prends prend prawn prawn prawn prenons prenez prennent pruh-nohn pru-nay prenn Boire-to drink (bwahr) bois bwah buvons bew-vohn bois bwah buvez bew-vay boit bwah boivent bwahv Other verbs that are conjugated like prendre: apprendre . Est-ce que je peux prendre un verre de vin? May I have a glass of wine? Je prends du vin. There is too much milk in the cup. such as Je mange le poulet tous les samedis. Commands . you never use partitives. We are having some rice and broccoli. The construction is always de or d' + learn. Je voudrais un morceau de tarte. l'.celery un céléri say-lay-ree 36. Il prend de la viande. la. Je bois du vin tout le temps. mais pas de fruit. Il y a trop de lait dans la tasse. many plus de a glass of un bouquet de Note: With quantities and negatives. Je ne prends pas de vin. Nous prenons du riz et du brocoli. 37." You must use de and le. I eat chicken every Saturday." the French translation is "Je prends du vin. Boire is literally the verb to drink and is also used in a general sense only. Manger is a regular verb meaning "to eat.

(Or: He doesn't like to work anymore) Nous ne voulons faire des achats que Il n'aime plus travailler. Ne... and the other part is between auxiliary and past participle.. tu and nous forms for commands.jamais ne. With ni. (Or: She doesn't hate anyone. but que in ne. Vous ne vous êtes pas ennuyé no longer never nothing only neither. Note: With using pronominal verbs as ne.que is placed directly before the noun it limits.. all articles are dropped except definite articles... . ne.aucun(e) not a single one ne. but Regarde! Watch! drop -s for -er verbs Same as verb form Allons! Let's go! Nous form Let's.nor ne..jamais. the pronoun precedes the verb. ne.pas. We want to go shopping only on Monday.nulle part nowhere The negatives are used exactly like ne.. She hates no one....... Vous form Tu form Polite and Plural Same as verb form Familiar Restez! Stay! Same as verb form.) Negatives with Passé Composé 1.. the pronoun is placed after the verb connected by a hyphen....... Tu te dépêches becomes Dépêche-toi! And in negative commands.. as in Ne nous reposons pas..pas.. Irregular Command Forms être (be) tu sois swah tu avoir (have) aie ay tu savoir (know) sache sahsh nous soyons swah-yohn nous ayons ay-yohn nous sachons sah-shohn vous soyez swah-yay vous ayez ay-yay vous sachez sah-shay Ne sois pas méchant à ta sœur! Don't be mean to your sister! N'ayez pas peur! Don't be afraid! Sachez les mots pour l'examen demain! Know the words for the exam tomorrow! 39. You were not bored. so the verb and nouns must also be changed to the singular.. More Negatives ne. Je n'ai ni caméra ni caméscope. We did ne. He no longer likes to work. Aucun(e) by definition is singular.. but Je n'aime ni les chats ni les Ne comes before auxiliary verb.que ne..Use the vous. Nous n'avons rien fait. Rien and personne may be used as subjects: Personne n'est ici....personne nobody ne. and ne..... Elle ne déteste personne..

L'étendard sanglant est levé. Holiday Phrases Merry Christmas Happy New Year Happy Thanksgiving Happy Easter Happy Halloween Happy Birthday Joyeux Noël Bonne Année Joyeuses Pâques Bonne Halloween Bon Anniversaire zhoy-uh no-ell bun ah-nay zhoy-uhss pawk bun ah-loh-ween bun sahnt-val-awn-tahn bohn ahn-nee-vair-sair Bonne Action de grâces bun ak-see-ohn de grahss Happy Valentine's Day Bonne Saint-Valentin The French National Anthem: La Marseillaise by Claude-Joseph Rouget de L'isle Allons enfants de la Patrie. Le jour de gloire est arrivé. Il n'a fait aucune faute.. I don't have a dog. Entendez-vous dans les campagnes Mugir ces farouches soldats. I'm having some bread and butter.aucun.. Negative: Ce n'est pas une chatte brune. It's not a brown cat.. Amour sacré de la Patrie... que la victoire Accoure à tes mâles accents. Indefinite: J'ai un chien. Conduis. marchons! Qu'un sang impur Abreuve nos sillons. Contre nous.nulle part.. que Ne comes before the auxiliary verb. Liberté. Marchons.. Que tes ennemis expirants Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire! Aux armes citoyens! Formez vos bataillons. marchons! Qu'un sang impur Abreuve nos sillons. * Use of ne . liberté chérie.. Marchons. Sous nos drapeaux... pas de: In negative sentences. Negative: Je ne prends pas de pain ou de beurre. ne. the partitives and indefinite articles become de before the noun (unless the verb is être.2. Aux armes citoyens! Formez vos bataillons. I am not having any bread or butter.personne. and ne... ne. ne. then nothing changes. soutiens nos bras vengeurs. vos compagnes..) Partitive: Je prends du pain et du beurre. 40. Verb is être: C'est une chatte brune. He listened to no one. de la tyrannie. Negative: Je n'ai pas de He made not a single mistake. I have a dog. l'étendard sanglant est levé. Il n'a écouté personne. It's a brown cat. Combats avec tes défenseurs. Ils viennent jusque dans nos bras égorger vos fils. but the other part is after the past participle. .

Translation by Percy Bysshe Shelley (1st verse) and Mary Elizabeth Shaw (2nd verse) (This is not a literal translation. The True North strong and free! From far and wide. death defying. we stand on guard for thee. Th'avenging arm uphold and guide Thy defenders. awake to glory. With glowing hearts we see thee rise. de foi trempée. We stand on guard for thee. O Canada. ye brave! Th'avenging sword unsheathe! March on! March on! All hearts resolved on victory or death. O sacred love of france. great and glorious. Car ton bras sait porter l'épée. undying. what myriads bid you rise: Your children. Ton histoire est une épopée Des plus brillants exploits. And thy dying enemies. terre de nos aïeux. Il sait porter la croix. a ruffian band Affright and desolate the land. to arms. wives and grandsires hoary. to arms. we stand on guard for thee.) The Canadian National Anthem: O Canada O Canada. Soon thy sons shall be victorious When the banner high is raised. Hark. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada. Et ta valeur. Shall behold thy triumph. amazed. hark. O Canada. Behold their tears and hear their cries. while peace and liberty lie bleeding? To arms. Protégera nos foyers et nos droits.Ye sons of France. To arms. see their tears and hear their cries! Shall hateful tyrants mischief breeding with hireling hosts. Fight with Freedom on their side. O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command. . ye brave! Th'avenging sword unsheathe! March on! March on! All hearts resolved on victory or death. Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux.

Pouvoir. according to whether they are used in the imperfect or the passé composé. croire. Savoir. and Vouloir These verbs change meanings. as well as for verbs that describe background and circumstances. Use the passé composé for actions that happened once and are done. être. but still the same endings. I had to (and did) I was able to (and did). Verb stems that end in -c must use a cedilla (ç) under the c to make it soft. use the nous form of the present tense and drop the -ons. time. Imperfect Tense This past tense corresponds to "was. espérer. verbs that express mental and emotional states that are descriptive in nature are generally used in the imperfect in a past context. These verbs are: aimer. succeeded I was supposed to j'ai dû j'ai pu pouvoir je pouvais I was capable . such as weather. or ongoing actions. received I must have. détester. avoir. To form the stem. continuous. Imperfect avoir devoir j'avais je devais I had j'ai eu Passé Composé I got. and préférer. Verbs stems endings in -g keep the e before all forms except nous and vous.41. were or used to." This tense is used for repeated. However. mental. Then add these endings: -ais -ions -ais -iez -ait -aient The only exception is être in which you must use the stem ét-. and emotional states. être étais ay-teh étions ay-tee-ohn étais ay-teh étiez ay-tee-ay était ay-teh étaient ay-teh commencer commençais commençais commençait koh-mawnseh koh-mawnseh koh-mawnseh manger koh-mawn-seeohn koh-mawn-seeay koh-mawn-say commencions commenciez commençaient mangeais mangeais mangeait mawnzheh mawnzheh mawnzheh mangions mangiez mangeaient mawn-zheeohn mawn-zheeay mawn-zhay Avoir. penser. and physical. Devoir.

42. discovered vouloir je voulais j'ai voulu I tried. insisted je n'ai pas voulu I refused The imperfect tense is also used with these constructions: être en train de + infinitive J'étais en train d'étudier quand vous êtes arrivés. Places / Les Endroits school bathroom locker drinking fountain store library office stadium cafe cafeteria movie theater church museum pool countryside beach theater park restaurant hospital l'école la toilette le coffre la fontaine le magasin la biblio(thèque) le bureau le stade le café la cafétéria le cinéma l'église le musée la piscine la campagne la plage le théâtre le parc le restaurant l'hôpital lay-kohl twah-lett koh-fruh fohn-ten mahg-ah-zahn beeb-lee-oh(teck) bur-oh stahd kah-fay kah-fay-tay-reeah see-nay-mah lay-glees mew-zay pee-seen kawn-pawn-yuh plahzh tay-ah-truh park res-toh-rawn loh-pee-tahl university bank l'université la banque loon-ee-vair-seetay bahnk gahr air-o-poor tay-lay-fone ah-par-tuh-mawn low-tell vee-lazh lew-zeen zhar-dan shah-toe kah-tay-drahl zoh-oh mon-u-mawn far-mah-see boosh-ree con-feess-ree train station la gare airport telephone apartment hotel village factory garden castle cathedral zoo bakery monument pharmacy butcher shop police station town hall l'aéroport le téléphone l'appartement l'hôtel le village l'usine le jardin le château la cathédrale le zoo le monument la pharmacie la boucherie la boulangerie boo-lanzh-ree candy store la confiserie la gendarmerie zhan-darm-ree la mairie mair-ee . decided. alors je n'avais plus faim. I was (in the process of ) studying when you arrived aller + infinitive J'allais sortir quand le téléphone a sonné.je n'ai pas pu savoir je savais I knew I wanted to j'ai su I couldn't. so I wasn't hungry anymore. I had just eaten. failed I found out. I was going to leave when the phone rang. venir de + infinitive Je venais de manger.

To Want and To Be Able To vouloir-to want (vool-wahr) veux vuh voulons voo-lohn veux vuh voulez voo-lay pouvoir-to be able to. The House / La maison House Appartment Bedroom Hallway Kitchen Storeroom Stairs Floor la maison l'appartement (m) la chambre le couloir la cuisine le débarras l'escalier (m) l'étage (m) meh-zohn ah-part-mawn shawm-bruh kool-wahr kwee-zeen day-bar-ah les-cahl-ee-ay lay-tahzh .post office home city supermarket delicatessen la poste la maison la ville le supermarché la charcuterie post may-zohn veel su-per-marshay shar-koot-ree square bookstore grocery store la place la librairie l'épicerie plahs lee-brair-ee lay-peess-ree pah-teess-ree pwah-son-eh-ree pastry shop la pâtisserie fish market la poissonnerie 43. Transportation by bike by bus by moped by car by subway on foot by plane by train by boat en vélo (m) en bus (m) en voiture (f) en métro (m) à pied (m) en avion (m) en train (m) en bateau (m) awn vay-low awn boos awn vwah-chur awn moh-toh awn may-troh ah pee-ay awn ah-vee-ohn awn trahn awn bah-toh en mobylette (f) awn moh-bee-lett by motorcycle en moto (f) 44. can (poov-wahr) peux peux peut puh puh puh pouvons pouvez peuvent poo-vohn poo-vay puhv veut vuh veulent vull Note: Voulez-vous? can mean Do you want? or Will you? 45.

Furniture / Les meubles Shelf Desk Chair Dresser Curtain Window Bed Door Closet Rug Lamp Nightstand Stereo Television VCR Remote Control Computer Radio Fridge Refrigerator Freezer l'étagère (f) le bureau la chaise la commode le rideau la fenêtre le lit la porte le placard le tapis la lampe la table de nuit la chaîne-stéréo la télé(vision) le magnétoscope la télécommande l'ordinateur (m) la radio le frigo le réfrigérateur le congélateur lay-tah-zhehr bewr-oh shehzh koh-mode ree-doh fuh-neh-truh lee port plah-car tah-pee lahmp tah-bluh duh nwee shen-stay-ray-oh tay-lay-vee-zee-ohn mahn-yeht-oh-scope tay-lay-koh-mahnd lor-dee-nah-tur rah-dee-oh free-go ray-free-zhay-rah-tir kon-zhay-lah-tur . patio la terrasse la cheminée le toit le garage la route le trottier le porche le sous-sol la cave le gazon le buisson l'arbre (m) le grenier/la mansarde grun-eeay/mahn-sard 46.Living Room Closet Room le living/le salon la penderie la pièce lee-veeng/sah-lohn pawnd-ree pee-ehss rayd-show-say sahl ah mawn-zhay sahl duh bahn teh-rahss shu-mee-nay twah gah-rahzh root troh-teeay porsh soo-sole kahv gah-zohn bwee-sohn lar-bruh Ground Floor le rez-de-chaussée Dining Room la salle à manger Bathroom Attic Chimney Roof Garage Driveway Sidewalk Porch Basement Cellar Lawn/grass Bush/shrub Tree la salle de bains Terrace.

Elle est plus grande que Colette. Mieux is used instead.(Coffee) Table Sink Bathtub Stove Oven Dishwasher Microwave Clothes Dryer Shower Pillow Mirror Ceiling Floor Armchair Clock Bedspread Vase Waste basket Bathroom sink Hair Dryer Couch/Sofa Iron Vacuum la table (basse) l'évier (m) la baignoire la cuisinière le four le lave-vaisselle tah-bluh (bahss) lay-veeay bahn-wahr kwee-zeen-yehr foor lahv-veh-sell mah-sheen ah lah-vay sesh-lahnzh doosh loh-ray-ay mee-rwahr plah-fohn plawn-shay foo-tuhee pawn-dewl koo-vruh-lee vahz lah-vah-boh seh-shwahr kah-nah-pay/soh-fah fair ah ruh-pahs-say ah-speer-ah-tur le four à micro-ondes foor ah mee-kroh-ohnd le sèche-linge la douche l'oreiller le miroir le plafond le plancher le fouteuil la pendule le couvrelit le vase le lavabo le séchoir la canapé/le sofa le fer à repasser l'aspirateur Washing Machine la machine à laver la corbeille/la poubelle kor-bayee/poo-bell 47. but plus bon is not used (just as more good or gooder is not used in English) so meilleur is used to mean better. Je suis plus intelligente que toi. Sample Sentences She is taller than Colette. Bien is an adverb meaning well. . but plus bien is not used either. Comparatives and Superlatives Comparatives aussi (adj or adv) que as (adj or adv) as moins (adj or adv) que less (adj or adv) than plus (adj or adv) que plus de (noun) que autant de (noun) que moins de (noun) que more (adj or adv) than more (noun) than as many (noun) as less (noun) than There are some irregularities among bon and bien. Bon is an adjective meaning good. I am smarter than you.

Elle est la plus belle femme de cette salle. I have more books than she. La cuisine est aussi grande que le salon. The more things change. de is used to mean in. If the idea is concrete. The kitchen is as big as the living room. He works less than she. Irregular Forms Adjective bon mauvais petit Comparative Superlative good meilleur/e better la/le meilleur/e best bad pire worse la/le pire less la/le moindre worst least small moindre Adverb bien well Comparative mieux Superlative best most worst least better le mieux more le plus worse le pis less le moins beaucoup much plus mal peu badly pis little moins Note: Only use the irregular forms of mauvais in the abstract sense. la or les before the comparative if you are using an adjective. you don't use any articles. C'est la plus grande ville du monde.Peter runs less quickly than me. If the adjective follows the noun. Sample Sentences It's the biggest city in the world. This neighborhood is the least expensive in Paris. Ils dorment plus. They sleep more. With adverbs. 48. C'est la punition la plus redoutable du monde. J'ai plus de livres qu'elle. She works the most courageously of everyone. We have as many cars as he. surrounding the adjective. . plus c'est la même chose. you may use plus/moins mauvais and le/la mauvais. Verbs can also be compared with plus/aussi/moins (+ que): Il travaille moins qu'elle. Elle travaille le plus courageusement de tous. Superlatives Simply add le. She is the most beautiful woman in this room. Pierre court moins rapide que moi. After a superlative. Ce quartier est le moins cher de Paris. always use le. as compared to English: Plus ça change. the superlative follows the noun also. In French. the more they stay the same. It's the most dreaded punishment in the world. Nous avons autant de voitures que lui.

49. Clothing pajamas jewelry necklace jeans pants pullover turtleneck raincoat bra slip coat swimsuit shorts bracelet charm t-shirt hat ring chain earrings pin sock shoe man's shirt skirt dress sandal boots jacket scarf tie belt man's suit slippers jacket underwear gloves le pyjama le bijou le collier le jean le pantalon le pull le col roulé l'imperméable (m) le soutien-gorge le jupon le manteau le maillot de bain le short le bracelet le porte-bonheur le tee-shirt le chapeau la bague la chaînette l'épingle (f) la chausette la chaussure la chemise la jupe la robe la sandale des bottes (f) la veste l'écharpe (f) la cravate la ceinture le costume des pantoufles le blouson les sous-vêtements des gants pee-zhah-mah bee-zhoo kohl-eeay zheen pahn-tah-lohn puhl kol roo-lay lahn-pehr-me-ah-bluh shu-meez-eeay soot-ee-ahn-gorzh zhoo-pohn mawn-toe tenn-ee may-oh-duh-bahn short brahs-lay port-bohn-ur tee-shirt shah-poh bahg shen-ett ay-pahn-gluh show-zett show-zer shu-meez zhoop robe sahn-dal bawt vest ay-sharp krah-vaht sahn-tewr kohs-toom ty-er pahn-toof-luh bloo-sohn soo-vet-mawn gawn woman's shirt le chemisier tennis shoes des tennis (m) les boucles d'oreilles (f) book-luh dor-ay woman's suit le tailleur .

" 51. dès que or aussitôt que (as soon as) and tant que (as long as. To Wear Mettre-to put on. Here are the irregular stems for the future tense (these will also be used in the conditional tense): Irregular Stems aller avoir courir devoir iraurcourrdevrpleuvoir pleuvrpouvoir pourrrecevoir recevrsavoir tenir valoir venir voir vouloir saurtiendrvaudrviendrverrvoudr- envoyer enverrêtre faire falloir mourir serferfaudrmourr- Other exceptions: For appeler and jeter. change the y to i. you drop the -e from -re verbs. Future Tenses: Simple and Anterior The futur simple expresses an action that will take place. the future is always used after quand or lorsque (when). For acheter. to say It looks good/nice on you say "Il/elle te va bien. add an accent grave." To say They look good/nice on you say "Ils/elles te vont promise and permettre .to permit. For nettoyer and payer. -ai -ons -as -ez -a -ont And of course. there has to be exceptions.50. Note: Porter is actually the verb to wear. but the French use mettre also. . in French. use the infinitive and add these endings that resemble those of avoir. When involving clothing. However. The future tense is used just like it is in English. The futur antérieur expresses an action that will have taken place before another future action. however. wear (met-truh) mets meh mettons met-tohn mets meh mettez met meh mettent met-tay mett Other verbs that are conjugated like mettre: promettre . For préférer.) To form the future tense. double the consonant. the accents all remain the same.

The three words in parentheses (bel. Before plural adjectives preceding plural nouns. they take a literal meaning. All other adjectives. right? Well. Resemblance (même and autre). except numbers. De vieux monuments. Age/Order (premier and dernier). . they take a figurative meaning. best meilleur petit vieux (vieil) meilleurs may-ur petits vieux puh-tee vyuh (vyay) nouveau (nouvel) nouveaux noo-voh (noo-vell) nouvelle nouvelles noo-vell Note: The masculine singular and plural are pronounced the same. go after the noun. and the meaning changes accordingly. they will have changed.jeter jetterai jetterons payer paierai paierons acheter achèterai achèterons préférer préférai préférons jetteras jetterez jettera jetteront paieras paierez paiera paieront achèteras achèterez achètera achèteront préféras préférez préféra préféront To form the futur antérieur. Remember that des means some. When they come back. as are the feminine singular and plural. Ex: Some old monuments. nouvel. Preceding and Plural Adjectives Masculine Adjective beautiful good dear nice big large young pretty long bad new little old Singular beau (bel) bon cher gentil grand gros jeune joli long mauvais Plural beaux bons chers gentils grands gros jeunes jolis longs mauvais Pronunciation boh (bell) bon share zhawn-tee grawn groh zhun zho-lee lohn mo-vay Singular belle bonne chère gentille grande grosse jeune jolie longue Feminine Plural belles bonnes chères gentilles grandes grosses jeunes jolies longues Pronunciation bell bon share zhawn-tee grawnd grohss zhun zho-lee lohng mauvaise mauvaises mo-vezz meilleure meilleures may-ur petite vieille petites vieilles puh-teet vyay better. A few adjectives can be used before or after the noun. ils auront changé. When used before the noun. you use de instead of des. An acronym to remember which ones go before the noun is BRAGS: Beauty. they will want to leave again. These are the most common adjectives that go before the noun. 52. As soon as they have returned. and when used after. Dès qu'ils seront revenus. there is an exception to that rule too. ils voudront repartir. and Size. Goodness. and vieil) are used before masculine singular words beginning with a vowel or a silent h. Quand ils reviendront. use the future of either avoir or être (whichever the main verb takes) and the past participle of the main verb.

follow these rules: Masculine Add -e If it already ends in -e. and -eille -et changes to -ète naturel inquiet Exceptions: muet coquet -en and -on change to -enne and -onne -er changes to -ère -f changes to -ve -c changes to -che Italien cher actif blanc Exceptions: public grec -g changes to -gue -eur changes to -euse if adjective is derived from verb -eur changes to -rice if adjective is not same as verb -eur changes to -eure with adjectives of comparison And a few completely irregular ones: long menteur mawn-tur menteuse mawn-tuhz kray-ahtreess ahn-fay-reeuhr ay-pehz fah-voh-reet frehsh créateur kray-ah-tur inférieur épais favori frais ahn-fay-reeuhr ay-peh fah-voh-ree freh créatrice inférieure épaisse favorite fraîche creator inferior thick favorite fresh. To form . just add an -s. Adjectives: Formation of Feminine All adjectives must agree in number and gender with the noun they modify. -el. cool 54. soft natural worried silent stylish Italian dear. -elle. Forming Plurals: Adjectives and Nouns To form the feminine plural.53. Most adjectives are given in the masculine form. so to change to the feminine forms. unless it already ends in an s. and -eil change to -ille. expensive active white public Greek long liar généreux zhay-nay-ruh généreuse Exceptions: faux roux doux foh roo doo naht-ur-ell ahn-kee-ay moo-ay koh-kay ee-tahl-eeahn share ac-teef blawn pooh-bleek grek lawn fausse rousse douce naturelle inquiète muette coquette Italienne chère active blanche publique grecque longue -il. then add nothing. add nothing -x changes to -se brun fatigué jeune brahn fah-tee-gay zhun brune fatiguée jeune Feminine brunn fah-tee-gay zhun zhay-nayruhs fohss rooss dooss naht-ur-ell ahn-kee-ett moo-ett koh-kett ee-tahl-eeenn share ac-teev blawnsh pooh-bleek grek lawng Adjective brown tired young generous false red (hair) sweet.

such as or (gold) and argent (silver). It can also be used in the sense of to represent. 56. add nothing. -eau adds an -x. Rendre + Adjective Normally. adjectives that are also nouns. But rendre + adjective means to make someone or something + adjective. These adjectives go after the noun. or l' to les.. such as On rend ses devoirs au professeur. just add an -s. And of course there are more exceptions. Tu me rends si heureuse! You make me so happy! Le fait qu'il ne possède pas de voiture le rend triste. Just remember to change the le. and if it ends in an x or s already. and final .the masculine plural. The addition of an e for the feminine form allows the last consonant to be voiced. such as bleu clair (light blue) and vert foncé (dark green). la. . bon marché or meilleur marché (inexpensive) never change. and the words chic (stylish). the verb rendre means to give something that you owe to someone. except in these cases: -al becomes -aux (exceptions: banal banals. vive mignon/nne parfait/e prêt/e triste malin/gne paresseux/euse généreux/euse célèbre décoré/e nervous nerveux/euse only seul/e amusing amusant/e touching émouvant/e funny heavy noisy dirty tired angry drôle lourd/e bruyant/e sale fatigué/e fâché/e annoyed irrité/e old âgé/e Note: Remember the first word is the masculine and the second is the feminine.. The fact that he doesn't have a car makes him sad. some adjectives are invariable and do not have femine or plural forms. More Adjectives short loud elegant court/e criard/e élégant/e different différent/e situated situé/e big curious gros/se curieux/euse tight.finals). Compound adjectives. 55. narrow étroit/e several pointed bright cute perfect ready sad clever lazy generous famous decorated plusieurs pointu/e vif.

du cheval leh-kee-tah-see-ohn. Il est C'est + adjective + à + infinitive is used when the idea has already been mentioned. it's impossible to learn Chinese in one year! Il est facile d'apprendre l'italien. while il est + adjective + de + infinitive is used when the idea has not yet been mentioned. C'est vs.57. 58. Est-ce qu'on peut apprendre le chinois en un an? Non. Sports and Hobbies Soccer Hockey Football Basketball Baseball Tennis Skiing Volleyball Wrestling Jogging Ice-skating Swimming Track and Field Bowling Softball Golf Bicycling Surfing French horn violin guitar drum tuba flute trombone clarinette cello harp le football le hockey le football américain le basket le base-ball le tennis le ski le volley la lutte le jogging le patin à glace la natation l'athlétisme le bowling le softball le golf le vélo le surf le cor d'harmonie le violon la guitare le tambour le tuba la flûte le trombone la clarinette le violoncelle la harpe luh foot-bahl luh hock-ee luh foot-bahl ah-mehr-ee-kahn luh bahs-kett luh base-bahl luh ten-ee luh skee luh voll-ee lah loot luh zhog-ing luh pah-tahn ah glahs lah nah-tah-see-ohn lat-lay-tees-muh luh boh-ling luh soft-bahl luh golf luh vay-low luh serf luh bee-cross kohr dar-moh-nee vee-oh-lohn gee-tahr tawn-boor tew-bah flewt trohn-bohn klah-ree-nett vee-oh-lohn-sell arp Horse-back riding l'équitation. c'est impossible à apprendre le chinois en un an! Can you learn Chinese in one year? No. It is easy to learn Italian. dew shuh-vahl Dirt/Motor biking le bicross .

Faire de + a sport means to play. Nous jouons de la clarinette. I can play the guitar. 59. Jouer à + a sport also means to play. We play the clarinette. Je peux jouer de la guitare. J'aime jouer au tennis. Nature sea stone made of stone sky river cloud thunderstorm hurricane umbrella marina tower wood wooden space star barn bridge farm field flower forest hill lake mountain ocean plant pond valley waterfall countryside country road street highway path la mer la pierre en pierre le ciel le fleuve le nuage l'orage l'ouragan la parapluie le port de plaisance la tour le bois en bois l'espace l'étoile la grange le pont la ferme le champ la fleur la forêt la colline le lac la montagne l'océan la plante l'étang la vallée le cascade la campagne le pays le chemin la rue la grande route le sentier mehr pee-ehr awn pee-ehr see-yel fluhv noo-awzh oh-rawzh or-aw-zhawn par-ah-ploo-ee por duh plez-ahns toor bwah awn bwah es-spahs ay-twahl grawnzh pohn fairm shawn flur for-eh koh-leen lahk mohn-tahn-yuh oh-say-awn plahnt ay-tawn vah-lay kahs-kahd kawn-pawn-yuh pay-ee shu-mahn rew grahnd root sahn-teeay . You play soccer. Tu fais du foot. as does jouer de + an instrument. Il veut jouer du tuba. He wants to play the tuba. I like to play tennis.

Sample Sentences: I buy some pants. or Je vous aime. He leaves her. They also go after the ne in a negative sentence and right before the verb. To Live vivre-to live. Habiter is another verb that means to live. A subjunctive form of vivire. I give the box to you. Elle ne l'aime pas. Nous allons avec elle. is often used in exclamations. Il la part. I give it to you. She doesn't love him. I buy them. Je vous la donne. The disjunctive always go after prepositions. J'achète des pantalons. After you. Après toi. The Direct and Indirect Object pronouns go before the verb even though in English they go after it. . Vivre is used to mean the state of being alive. Object Pronouns Subject je tu il elle I you he she Direct Object me (muh) me te (tuh) le la nous vous you him her us you Indirect Object me te to me to you Disjunctives moi (mwah) me toi (twah) lui elle nous vous you him her us you them them lui (lwee) to him lui nous vous to her to us to you nous we vous you ils they les them leur them leur to them eux (uh) to them elles elles they les Note: You have already learned the subject pronouns. He doesn't leave her. be alive (veevr) vis vee vivons vee-vohn vis vee vivez vit vee vivent vee-vay veev The past participle of vivre is vécu. They go before the conjugated verb forms. but it means to live in a place. Vive la France! Long live France! 61. Je les achète. Je vous donne la boîte.60. vive. (familiar) We go with her. or can be used alone for emphasis. I love you. Je t'aime. Il ne la part pas.

Note: When you have more than one pronoun. and an s if it is plural. Nous lui avons parlé. Il ne l'a pas aimé. or vous come first. 62. They listened to us. the pronouns go after the verb. The l' could mean him or her. Il l'a regardée. but it is unclear as to whether they are masculine or feminine. or vous. la. then moi. (Me and te become moi and toi in commands) nous. then le. They must have an s because they are plural. so you might not need to put the extra e on the past participle. You didn't live there. and la contract to m'. I didn't speak (or haven't spoken) to you. He didn't like it/her/him. I asked you for some bread. In commands. connected with a hyphen. If you have pronouns. I liked them. la. He watched her. Parts of the Body head hair face forehead cheek ear beard eye/s mustache mouth lip nose tongue tooth neck la tête les cheveux le front la joue l'oreille la barbe l'œil / les yeux la moustache la bouche la lèvre le nez la langue la dent le cou tet shuh-vuh frohn zhoo oh-ray barb uhee / yuh moo-stash boosh lev-ruh nay lawn dawn koo la figure / le visage fee-ger / vee-sawzh . Je les ai aimés. Je ne vous ai pas parlé. Nous ne l'avons pas fini. The same for nous and vous. Note: Add an e if the pronoun is feminine. but after the ne and before the form of avoir in negative sentences. or les. nous. or leur. We didn't finish (or haven't finished) it. te. direct object pronouns only must agree in gender and number with the past participle. te. and l' when they precede a vowel. You've listened to three of them. t'. then lui. In the passé composé with avoir. Elles nous ont écouté(e)s. or les come first. Je t'ai demandé du pain. We spoke to him/her. le. toi. Me. And the pronoun order changes a little too: Le. they go before the complete verb in regular sentences. Tu n'y as pas habité. me. then lui or leur. the same way je does. Vous en avez écouté trois.

Tu me fais mal. Tu as mal au genou? Your knee hurts? Il a mal aux orteils. .eyebrows eyelashes chin throat skin blood bone shoulder chest waist belly button back heart arm elbow wrist fist hand fingers body hip leg knee foot toes ankle thigh shin thumb nails les sourcils les cils le menton la gorge la peau le sang l'os l'épaule la poitrine la taille le nombril le dos le cœur le bras le coude le poignet le poing la main les doigts le corps la hanche la jambe le genou le pied les orteils la cheville la cuisse le tibia le pouce les ongles soor-see seel mawn-tohn gorzh poh sawn lohs ay-pohl pwah-treen tahee nohn-bree doh kir brah kood pwahn-yay pwahn mahn dwah kore ahnsh zhamb zhu-noo pyay or-tie shu-vee kweess tee-bee-ah pooss ohn-gluh stomach / belly l'estomac / le ventre less-to-mah / vawn-truh To say something hurts or that you have an ache. J'ai mal à l'estomac. Her arm hurts. His toes hurt. I have a stomach ache. However. Ne lui faites pas mal. you can use avoir mal à (body part): J'ai mal à la tête. Don't hurt him / her. I have a headache. You're hurting me. use faire mal (to hurt) plus the indirect pronoun. if someone is causing you pain. Elle a mal au bras.

) at the beginning of the sentence and then add est-ce que.e. negative expressions remain in their usual place (i. it may follow a preposition. aren't we. où. Quel beau jour! What a beautiful day! 6) With negative questions. don't you. Tu ne travailles pas? Est-ce que te ne travailles pas? Ne travailles-tu pas? Pourquoi n'as-tu pas travaillé? Asking Questions with the Passé Composé Only the auxiliary verb (avoir or être) and the subject pronoun are inverted. However. Instead of Vous parlez anglais? use Parlezvous anglais? But if you invert il. It is equivalent to isn't it. 4) With interrogative words. il or on. you don't use peux. etc. Asking Questions 1) Invert the subject and verb form and add a hyphen. such as elle. It contracts to Est-ce qu' before a word beginning with a vowel. or on. You can also use interrogative words (quand. but puis. and it can be used with inversion or with est-ce que. A-t-il été surpris? Was he surprised? T'es-tu amusé? Did you have fun? 64.63. put Est-ce que (ess kuh) at the beginning. what) agrees with the noun it modifies. won't you. The past participle follows. you must put a t between the verb form (if it ends in a vowel) and the subject for ease of pronunciation. elle. etc. Puis-je? (pweezh) is Can I? 2) Add n'est-ce pas? (ness pah) to the end of the sentence. Quelle est la date? A quelle heure partez-vous? Quels bagages est-ce que vous prenez? Notice that the forms of quel can also be used in exclamatory sentences. It precedes the noun or the verb être. around the verb. Parle-il anglais? is incorrect and must become Parlet-il anglais? And je is usually only inverted with pouvoir or devoir. if je is inverted with pouvoir. or verb and subject if inverted). 3) If the question requires a yes or no answer. you can also use inversion: Quand tes parents partent-ils en vacances? Or you can use an interrogative with est-ce que and normal word order: Pourquoi est-ce que vous êtes ici? 5) Quel (which. Interrogative Pronouns To ask about people: Long Form Subject Direct Object Object of Preposition Qui est-ce qui Qui est-ce qui est venu? Qui est-ce que Qui est-ce que tu as vu? Preposition + qui est-ce que A qui est-ce que tu as parlé? Short Form Qui Qui est venu? Qui Qui as-tu vu? Preposition + qui A qui as-tu parlé? Translation Who came? Whom did you see? Whom did you speak to? To ask about things: Long Form Subject Direct Object Qu'est-ce qui Qu'est-ce qui est arrivé? Qu'est-ce que Qu'est-ce que tu as fait? Short Form No short form Que Qu'as-tu fait? Translation What happened? What did you do? . comment.

Les voitures font du bruit. the verbs agrees with the noun that follows. Qu'est-ce que Luc veut faire aujourd'hui? What does Luc want to do today? Qu'est-ce que les autres ont fait? What did the others do? 2. When followed by a conjugated form of être. Qu'est-ce que c'est que is used to ask for a definition. With qui and quoi. Interrogative pronouns are usually masculine singular. Verb Agreement: a. Qui étaient Les Trois Mousquetaires? 3. Forms of Lequel Lequel is a pronoun that replaces the adjective quel and the noun it modifies. Quelle est la date? What is the date? Qu'est-ce qui est bon? What is good? 65. Qui Marie a-t-elle vu? Whom did Marie see? De quoi Marc a-t-il besoin? What does Marc need? b. Qu'est-ce que (or qui) vs. Qu'est-ce que c'est que le camembert? What is "camembert"? Quel est le problème? What is the problem? b. the short form is not used. quel is used if être is followed by a noun and qu'est-ce qui is used if être is followed by anything other than a noun. However. if the sentence contains more than a subject and verb. Exception: when qui is followed by a conjugated form of être. Quel: a. With que. Qu'est-ce qui fait du bruit? Les enfants sont arrivés. It expresses Which one? Adjective Singular Masculine Quel livre lis-tu? Plural Quels livres lis-tu? Singular Lequel lis-tu? Pronoun Plural Lesquels lis-tu? Feminine Quelle page lis-tu? Quelles pages lis-tu? Laquelle lis-tu? Lesquelles lis-tu? Lequel contracts with à and de in the plural and masculine singular forms: . Use of Inversion when Subject is Noun: a. and quel asks for specific information. or if the verb is in a compound tense (such as the passé composé). Qui est arrivé? b. Que veut Jean? What does Jean want? Que font les autres? What are the others doing? c. inversion pattern is regular. the noun subject must be inverted directly.Object of Preposition Preposition + quoi est-ce Preposition + quoi What did you talk que De quoi as-tu about? De quoi est-ce que tu as parlé? parlé? 1.

That's what I said. De. (or: the one of William) Il porte ses propres livres et ceux de sa sœur. celles-ci ou celles-là? Which flowers do you like. When there is no specific antecedent. but they are not often used alone. (or: those of his sister) Quelles fleurs aimes-tu. There are four forms. He is carrying his own books and his sister's. Voici ce dont j'ai besoin. not people. Those who work hard succeed. I eat things that are good. ce is added as an artificial one. . Je mange des choses qui sont bonnes. J'aime ça. That's the one I'm talking about.Singular Masculine à + lequel = auquel de + lequel = duquel Feminine à + laquelle = à laquelle Plural à + lesquels = auxquels de + lesquels = desquels à + lesquelles = auxquelles de + laquelle = de laquelle de + lesquelles = desquelles 66. Je mange des chose que j'aime. no antecedent qui is subject que is object avoir besoin is followed by de It's a restaurant where they serve restaurant is a place fish. or that/those when replacing a noun. If the relative pronoun is the direct object of the clause. Singular celui celle Plural ceux celles Donnez-moi mon billet et celui de Guillaume. use dont. I eat things that I like. use qui. I like that. use que. If the antecedent is a place or time. Here is what I need. C'est ce que je disais. dont and -ci or -là usually follow them Masc. These words signal a relative clause which explains the noun called the antecedent. But it can refer to only things. these (ones) or those (ones)? Ceux qui travaillent dur réussissent. If the verb of the dependent clause requires the preposition de. C'est un restaurant où on sert les poissons. 67. use où. Give me my ticket and William's. Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns join sentences together. Demonstrative Pronouns Demonstrative pronouns translate to the one(s). C'est celui dont je parle. qui. The indefinite demonstrative pronouns ceci (this). Take this. Fem. If the relative pronoun is the subject of the clause. cela (that) and ça (this/that) refer to indefinite things or ideas. que. Prenez ceci.

que. In French. They can be added to -même to mean -self. chez. or dans for y. number or quantity.68. His friends and he. C'est n'est que lui. They are also used with ne. elle-même = herself 4. partitive. As mentioned above. It's only him. to emphasize a subject.. they like to eat. Disjunctive Pronouns 1. in . Me. Moi. They replace prepositional phrases. Y et En Y and en are both pronouns that go before the verb. not things. sous. in these cases: se fier à s'habituer à penser à rêver à to trust to get used to to think about to dream about s'intéresser à to be interested in 2. en. if the preposition is à. except in a command. the phrases will begin with à (or any contraction of it). ils aiment manger. Ses amis et lui. However. To Read. with être à (to belong to) or in compound subjects. I am hungry. They can also be used alone. Ce livre est à moi! That book is mine! 3. there are two possible rules: à + person = indirect pronoun à + person + à = disjunctive pronoun.. and de (or any contraction of it) or a number for en. To Laugh lire-to read (leer) lis (lee) lisons (lee-zohn) lis lit lisez (lee-zay) lisent (leez) dire-to say/tell (deer) dis (dee) disons (dee-zohn) dis dit dites (deet) disent (deess) rire-to laugh (reer) ris (ree) rions (ree-ohn) ris rit riez (ree-ay) rient (ree) 69. En (awn) means some or some (of them). j'ai faim. Y (ee) means it or there. 70. sur. disjunctives are mostly used after prepositions and can only replace people. They cannot replace people unless the person is introduced with an indefinite article. or of it. To Say / Tell. Remember that they go before the verb.

To Write. Je vais y aller. Il y est. Je vais aller à Atlanta.which they follow the verb and are connected with a hyphen. and J'en (zhawn). voir-to see vois (vwah) croire-to believe crois (krwah) écrire-to write écris (aykree) voyons (vwahyohn) croyons (krwahyohn) écrivons (ay-kreevohn) vois voit voyez (vwah-yay) voient (vwah) crois croit croyez (krwah-yay) croient (krwah) écris écrit écrivez (ay-kree-vay) écrivent (ay-kreev) You can usually tell by using the verbs in English. 72. Verbs that take indirect objects use prepositions after the verb. Ne or Je plus y or en all contract to N'y (nee). J'y vais. Il est dans le tiroir. Téléphoner (à) and Obéir (à) both take indirect objects in French but you can't tell that in English. N'en (nawn). it would be "Je la vois" (direct). you can tell by the à that follows the infinitive. Answer the telephone! Answer it! (formal) Stay there! (familiar) Don't stay there! (familiar) En voulez-vous? J'ai trois sœurs." (indirect) But don't always count on English to help you out. I have three (of them). Répondez au téléphone! Répondez-y! Restes-y! N'y reste pas. It is in the drawer It is there. I am going there. I am going to Detroit. In this case. We say "I see her" or "She believes him" or "He writes to them. 71. Je vais à Détroit. The -er verbs also add the -s they lost when forming the you (familiar) command. Sample Sentences Do you want some apples? Voulez-vous des pommes? Do you want some? I have three sisters. J'y (zhee). J'en ai trois." In French. "Elle le croit" (direct) and "Il leur écrit. To See. I am going to go to Atlanta. Voir-to see (vwahr) and croire-to believe (krwahr) take a direct and écrire-to write (ay-kreer) takes an indirect. When you have a conjugated verb plus an infinitive (vais and aller). Animals . To Believe Verbs take a direct object if they do not need a prepostition to connect it to the noun. Treat them like pronouns. the y or en go in between the two verbs. Note: Notice y and en don't go after the verb in negative commands. I am going to go there.

penguin whale bird turkey swan eagle owl monkey kangaroo zebra rhinoceros lion elephant beaver deer fox squirrel raccoon ant bee wasp caterpillar butterfly ladybug mosquito flea grasshopper fly worm fish snake turtle bear buffalo camel giraffe rat tiger wolf frog toad le pingouin la baleine l'oiseau le dindon le cygne l'aigle le hibou le singe le kangouru le zèbre le lion l'éléphant le castor le cerf le renard l'écureuil la fourmi l'abeille la guêpe la chenille la papillon la coccinelle le moustique la puce la sauterelle la mouche le ver le poisson le serpent la tortue l'ours le buffle le chameau le girafe le rat le tigre le loup la grenouille le crapaud pahn-goo-ahn bah-lehn lwah-zoh dahn-dohn seen-yuh lehg-luh ee-boo sahnzh kawn-goo-roo zeh-bruh lee-ohn lay-lay-fawn kah-stor serf ruh-nar lay-cur-uhee foor-me lah-bay gep shu-nee pah-pee-yon koh-see-nell moo-steek pewss soht-rell moosh vehr pwah-sohn sair-pawn tor-tew loor boof-fluh shahm-oh zhee-rahf rah tee-gruh loo gruh-noo-ee krah-poh hippopotamus l'hippopotame lee-poh-poh-tahm le rhinocéros ree-noh-say-ros le raton laveur rah-tohn lah-vur .

) Ça t'a plu? Did you like it? Ils se plaisent à Londres. Dominique likes this dog. You were hungry because you hadn't eaten at all. Tu me manques. Manquer has several meanings: to miss. Faire plaisir à can also be used to mean "to delight or to like. 75. 74. I miss you. I am happy to see you again. so that literally it translates to "something or someone pleases. Plaire and Manquer plaire-to please. to lack. She missed the train." Cette chienne plaît à Dominique. Manquer à means "to fail to do. To say that someone likes something. It's formed with the imperfect tense of avoir or être and the past participle of the main verb. They failed to do the homework. Cela me fait plaisir de vous revoir. (Literally: You are missing to me) Ils ont mangué à les devoirs. be lacking manque mawnk manquons mawn-kohn mawn-kay manques mawnk manquez manque plaît pleh plaisent plehzz mawnk manquent mawnk The past participle of plaire is plu. Vous aviez faim parce que vouz n'aviez pas du tout mangé. I had not finished my work when he arrived. They enjoy being in London. or to regret the absence (miss). ." As a reflexive verb. The last meaning uses inverted word order just like plaire.73. Imperfect of avoir or être avais avions avais aviez avait avaient étais étions étais étiez était étaient + past participle Je n'avais pas fini mon travail quand il est arrivé. enjoy plais pleh plaisons pleh-zohn plais pleh plaisez pleh-zay manquer-to miss." Elle a manqué le train. Vous manquez de courage. se plaire means to enjoy being somewhere. You lack courage. Pluperfect This compound tense is used for flashbacks or anything that had happened before the time of the narration. Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pronouns refer to no one or nothing in particular. This tense is comparable to the passé composé. such as someone or something. (Literally: This dog is pleasing to Dominique. you have to switch the subject and object around.

while chaque is an adjective that describes a noun. Déjeuner du matin Jacques Prévert Il a mis le café Dans la tasse Il a mis le lait Dans la tasse de café Il a mis le sucre Dans le café au lait Avec la petite cuiller Il a tourné Il a bu le café au lait Et il a reposé la tasse Sans me parler Il a allumé Une cigarette Il a fait des ronds Avec la fumée Il a mis les cendres Dans le cendrier Sans me parler Sans me regarder Il s'est levé Il a mis Son chapeau sur sa tête Il a mis Son manteau de pluie Parce qu'il pleuvait Et il est parti Sous la pluie Sans une parole Et moi j'ai pris Ma tête dans ma main Et j'ai pleuré. . sur un arbre perché. I took My head in my hand And I cried.d'autres chacun somewhere quelque part not one. every).ne some (fem) anything anyone anywhere nowhere quelques-unes n'importe quoi n'importe qui n'importe où ne. Chacun is a pronoun and replaces a noun.. Translated by Lawrence Ferlinghetti.. Breakfast Jacques Prévert He put the coffee In the cup He put the milk In the cup of coffee He put the sugar In the café au lait With the coffee spoon He stirred He drank the café au lait And he set down the cup Without a word to me He lit A cigarette He made smoke-rings With the smoke He put the ashes In the ashtray Without a word to me Without a look at me He got up He put His hat upon his head He put his raincoat on Because it was raining And he left In the rain Without a word And I..nulle part Do not confuse chacun with chaque (each. The Crow and the Fox Jean de la Fontaine Master crow..others each quelque chose (de + adjective) quelques-uns un(e) autre plusieurs certains.... none aucun. on a tree perched.someone/body quelqu'un something some (masc) another several some.. from Paroles by Prévert Le Corbeau et le Renard Jean de la Fontaine Maître corbeau.

The fox seized it. Lui tint à peu près ce langage: <<Eh bonjour. He opened his mouth wide. and dropped his prey. Monsieur du Corbeau. Et pour montrer sa belle voix. but a little late. mais un peu tard. Cette leçon vaut bien un fromage sans doute. if your song Is comparable to your feathers. si votre ramage Se rapporte à votre plumage.Tenait en son bec un fromage." At these words.>> A ces mots. You are so pretty! You seem to me beautiful! Without lying. Que vous êtes joli! que vous me semblez beau! Sans mentir. This lesson is well worth a cheese without doubt. Learn that every flatterer Lives at the expense of those who listen to him. laisse tomber sa proie. Apprenez que tout flatteur Vit aux dépens de celui qui l'écoute. Master fox. Maître renard. Le renard s'en saisit." The crow. You are the Phoenix of these woods. And to show his beautiful voice. Jura. the crow was overcome with joy. qu'on ne l'y prendrait plus. . Held him with almost this language: "Well hello. le corbeau ne sent pas de joie. Swore. and said: "My good mister. par l'odeur alléché. honteux et confus. Il ouvre un large bec. ashamed and embarrassed. that he would never be taken again. et dit: <<Mon bon monsieur.>> Le corbeau. Vous êtes le phénix des hôtes de ces bois. by the odor attracted. Mister Crow. Held in his beak a cheese.

I don't speak it. It's a matter of your future. not to dispose of. It is necessary to turn left. Il reste (there remains) Il reste une chambre. not a receipt. Humeur means mood. Une recette is a recipe. not formal. Although I study this language. it's a matter of. while originel refers to origins. Il lui faut aller à l'école. however much) J'ai beau étudier cette langue. Actuel and actuellement mean current and currently. it's about) De quoi s'agit-il? What's is about? Il ne s'agit pas de ça! That's not the point! Il s'agit de ton avenir. . I have three days left. we will go out. Il n'en reste plus. Il vaut mieux + infinitive (it is better) Il vaut mieux prendre le bus. Avoir beau (although. not humor. There is one room left. Formel is used to mean strict. not an advertisement.76. Colloquial Expressions Il faut + infinitive (it is necessary. not an injury. He must go to school. Original means new or innovative. Fournitures refers to supplies. Une injure is an insult. It's better to learn languages than politics. Il me reste trois jours. False Cognates Les faux-amis or false cognates are a common pitfall among language students. It is better to take the bus. One must do homework. Il s'agit de (it's a question of. Il vaut mieux apprendre les langues que la politique. The following are some common words that you may be deceived by: Abus is used to mean excess or overindulgence. despite the fact. and usually not abuse. Disposer means to arrange or to have available. Il faut faire les devoirs. je ne la parle pas. one must) Il faut tourner à gauche. not furniture. Notice that il faut and il reste can both take an object pronoun to indicate a person. Il a beau faire froid. There are no more left. Although is it cold. Avertissement is a warning. nous sortirons. 77.

so that afin que/pour que 79. whereas après avant vraiment puis un tas de trop même assez au plus au moins plus tard quoique/bien que comme même si pourtant donc depuis à moins que jusqu'à tandis que ah-preh ah-vawn vray-mawn pwee ahn tah duh troh mem ah-say oh plew oh mwahn plew tar kwah-kuh/bee-ahn kuh kohm mem see pour-tawn dohnk duh-pwee ah mwahn kuh zhews-kuh tawn-dee kuh ah-fahn kuh/pewr kuh dès que/aussitôt que day kuh/oh-see-toh kuh in order that. More Useful Words after before really then a lot of too much same rather at most at least later although as as soon as even though however therefore since unless until while. simply take the feminine form of an adjective and add -ment to the end. . If the masculine form ends in -e. Adjectives ending in -ent or -ant take the endings -emment and -amment. you just add the -ment to that.78. Adverbs bien mieux mal peu déjà bientôt ici là dedans dehors souvent well better badly little soon here there inside often quelquefois sometimes toujours vite donc always quickly therefore yet now early late maybe (n)ever nowhere already encore maintenant tôt tard jamais nulle part quelque part somewhere outside peut-être d'habitude usually To form an adverb.

they are usually followed by que. sans doute. sing. perhaps) can be deceiving. masc. A Few Irregular Adverbs vrai gentil bref précis vraiment gentiment brièvement précisément profond profondément Note: Adverbs are placed right after the verb in a simple tense. The forms of tout follow the verb in a simple tense and go between the auxiliary and past participle in a compound tense. sing. . tout precedes and agrees with the noun. Everything's fine. masc. Tout can also be used with direct object pronouns. Je ne peux pas tout faire. toute la journée tous les enfants the whole train the whole day all the kids toutes les mères all the moms As a pronoun. Adverbs of opinion and time usually go at the beginning or end of the sentence. it then means everything and is invariable. Adverbs of time and place generally follow the past participle. In negative sentences.Masculine Feminine naturel heureux lent facile probable intelligent brillant récent naturelle lente facile probable brillante récente Adverb naturellement lentement facilement probablement brillamment récemment heureuse heureusement inelligente intelligemment Note: Some adverbs such as actuellement (currently. now) and éventuellement (possibly. pas precedes the adverb. Forms of Tout As an adjective. It can also reinforce the subject as in: Ils sont tous là. pl. fem. sûrement. most adverbs are placed between the auxiliary verb and past participle. I can't do everything. They are all here. and probablement. pl. 80. When peut-être and sans doute begin a sentence or clause. tout le train fem. except with peut-être. Tout va bien. With the passé composé. tout can be used alone.

" The verb of the active sentence is changed into a past participle (mange becomes mangée. notice the agreement!) preceded by a form of être. The object of the active (la souris) becomes the subject of the passive sentence preceded by "par. Elles ont été inspirées par Van Gogh. The active form. In this case. On a donné un cadeau à ma mère. le chat mange la souris is made passive thus: La souris est mangée par le chat.. I woke up. He had been killed by French soldiers. To express an action that has been going on.Je les ai toutes. 82. I didn't have them all. it cannot be transformed into the passive voice. . On lui a dit de retrouver le collectioneur au musée. il y a. on is used in the active construction. Passive Voice As in English. If a verb takes an indirect object. que) is used with the present tense. She is carried by John. the passive voice in French is composed of a tense of the verb to be and a past participle. Passive: J'ai été réveillée par quelque chose. Any transitive verb with a direct object can be made passive. depuis (or il y a . Il avait été tué par les soldats français. I have them all. Je ne les ai pas tous eu. Note: The s of tous is pronounced when tous is a pronoun. He was told to meet the collector at the museum. They were inspired by Van Gogh.. My mother was given a present. Notice how pronominal verbs change from active to passive: Active: Je me suis réveillée. Depuis. Idiomatic Expressions with Tout en tout cas tout le monde tout de suite de toute façon tout à fait in any case everyone right away anyway completely toutes sortes de all kinds of pas du tout malgré tout tout à l'heure not at all in spite of it all in a little while 81. Elle est portée par Jean. I was awakened by something. and pendant in past contexts 1. The subject in the active sentence (le chat) becomes the object of the passive.

when I volunteered to drive. Nous conduisions depuis deux heures. I rented a car for two weeks. How long have you had your computer? I've had it for two years. J'ai loué une voiture pendant une semaine. But for an action that was completed some time ago. 83. Je conduis depuis longtemps. I haven't driven since I've been married. depuis is used with the imperfect. 2. also with the passé composé. J'ai appris à conduire il y a deux ans. To express an action that you have not done for some time. pendant is used. 4. To express an action that was done for a period of time. Shopping box VCR camera camcorder film watch handkerchief perfume wallet radio electric razor size (shoes) size inch search greeting card la boîte le magnétoscope le caméscope la pellicule la montre le mouchoir le parfum le portefeuille la radio la pointure la taille le pouce la recherche la carte de vœux bwaht mah-nyet-oh-scope kawm-ay-scope pell-ee-kool mohn-truh moosh-wahr par-foom port-fuhee rahd-ee-oh pwan-toor tah-ee poos ray-ohn ruh-shersh cart duh vuh l'appareil-photo (m) lah-pah-ry foh-toh le rasoir électrique raz-wahr ay-lek-treek department (in store) le rayon . use il y a. use depuis with the passé composé. I learned to drive two years ago. usually with the passé composé.Je l'ai depuis deux ans. Je n'ai pas conduit depuis mon mariage. 3. Depuis quand avez-vous votre ordinateur? Ça fait deux ans que je l'ai. But to express an action that had been going on for some time when something else happened. Depuis combien de temps avez-vous votre ordinateur? Il y a deux ans que je l'ai. I have been driving for a long time. We had been driving for two hours quand j'ai proposé de prendre le volant.

86. Infinitives followed by Prepositions Some infinitives take à or de before another infinitive.84. Verb + à aider s'amuser apprendre arriver chercher commencer consister Verb + de accepter arrêter avoir envie avoir honte avoir peur avoir raison avoir tort finir interdire menacer oublier permettre promettre refuser . Post Office and Bank letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbox mail slot address label packing tape package postmark rubber band ink pad string la lettre la carte postale le timbre la boîte à lettres la fente l'adresse l'étiquette le ruban adhésif le paquet le cachet de la poste l'élastique le tampon encre la ficelle teller bill check ATM key lock filing cabinet notepad credit card security camera security guard safe le caissier / la caissière le billet le chèque le chéquier le guichet automatique la clé la serrure le classeur le bloc-notes la carte de crédit la caméra de surveillance le gardien le coffre-fort la cabine téléphonique checkbook return address l'expéditeur safety deposit box le coffre drive-thru window le drive-in 85. To Receive Recevoir-to receive (ruh-suh-vwahr) reçois ruh-swah recevons ruh-suh-vohn reçois ruh-swah recevez ruh-suh-vay reçoit ruh-swah reçoivent ruh-swahv The past participle of recevoir is reçu.

She's feeding the baby. that when you mean "to tell someone to do something. He's having his apartment painted. Faire Causative Faire + an infinitive is called the faire causative." Suivez le guide! Follow the guide! Suivez les instructions. Le bébé mange. 88. I'm fixing the car. He's painting his apartment. To Follow Suivre-to follow (sweev-ruh) suis swee suivons swee-vohn suis swee suivez swee-vay suit swee suivent sweev The past participle of suivre is suivi. Il fait peindre son appartement. . Follow the instructions." French uses the verb + the indirect object + de + the infinitive. 87. The baby is eating. I'm having the car fixed. I'm taking a math class." or "to cause someone to do something.continuer donner encourager enseigner s'exercer s'habituer hésiter insister inviter renoncer réussir songer choisir décider défendre demander se dépêcher dire empêcher essayer être heureux être obligé éviter s'excuser regretter remercier rêver risquer venir (to have just) Note." Je répare la voiture. however. Elle fait manger le bébé. Je fais réparer la voiture. Suivre can also be used with school subjects to mean "to take a course. Il peint son appartement. It translates to "have something done by someone or cause something to be done by someone. Je suis un cours de maths.

without quotation marks. And in past tenses.>> que sa famille avait loué une villa. 89. However. It works the same way in French as it does in English. Il leur a fait apprendre les verbes. Direct Discourse Main verb is present Main verb in past Indirect Discourse Il me dit: <<Je pars en vacances Il me dit qu'il part en vacances et et ma famille a loué une villa. . Je la fais réparer. 2. the past participle remains invariable. Elle m'a demandé qui j'avais vu.) Remember to use que to introduce each dependent clause. Il m'a dit: <<Je pars en vacances Il m'a dit qu'il partait en vacances et et ma famille a loué une villa. 3.When replacing the object with a pronoun. if the main verb is in a past tense. Note that if the main verb is in the present tense. the following tense changes occur: Present ---> Imperfect Passé Composé --> Pluperfect (The Imperfect and Pluperfect do not change. In questions. quand. Il les leur a fait apprendre. using quotation marks and the original wording. Où. He had them learn the verbs. what someone has said or written. = interrogative word + declarative sentence Il m'a demandé à quelle heure j'allais revenir. and adjust personal pronouns and possessive adjectives. ce que Elles m'ont demandé ce que j'avais dit. He had them learn them. the following (rather uncomplicated) changes occur: 1. Direct and Indirect Discourse Direct discourse relates exactly what someone has said or written. Interrogative pronouns are a little trickier: qui est-ce qui qui est-ce que qu'est-ce qui qu'est-ce que Il m'a demandé qui était resté. comment.>> que sa famille a loué une villa. Yes/no questions = si + declarative sentence Je t'ai demandé si tu avais faim. I'm having it fixed. Indirect discourse relates indirectly. qui ce qui Ils m'ont demandé ce qui s'était passé. the pronoun precedes faire. etc. no tense changes occur when using indirect discourse.

90. nous dormions (imperfect) jusqu'à midi. But remember to drop the -e on -re verbs. -ais -ions -ais -iez -ait -aient Also. then the imperfect tense is used. est-ce que je serais (conditional) plus heureuse? If I were in another family. the future ending is pronounced ay and the conditional like eh. we would (used to) sleep until noon. The past conditional is formed by using the conditional of avoir or être and a past participle. use the infinitive and add the imperfect endings. Actually. Quand nous étions (imperfect) en vacances. would I be happier? However. you use the same irregular stems and exceptions for the conditional that are used for the future tense. Office / School Supplies CD-Rom disk document computer monitor keyboard mouse printer memo fax machine le CD-Rom le disquette le document l'ordinateur l'écran le clavier la souris l'imprimante say-day-rohm dees-kett doh-koo-mawn lor-dee-nah-tewr lay-krawn klah-vyay soo-ree lahn-pree-mahnt calculator eraser notebook folder pencil case ruler pencil sharpener pencil pen scissors glue binder chalk chalkboard backpack school bag la calculatrice la gomme le cahier le plieur la trousse la règle le taillecrayon le crayon le stylo les ciseaux la colle le classeur la craie le tableau le sac à dos le cartable kal-kew-lahtrees gohm ky-yay plee-ur troos rehg-luh tie-krah-yohn krah-yohn stee-loh see-zoh kohl klah-sur kreh tahb-loh sahk ah doh kar-tahb-luh note duh sehrla note de service veess le télécopieur tay-lay-koh-pee-ur photocopier la photocopieuse foh-toh-coh-pee-uz typewriter software file cabinet briefcase la machine à écrire le logiciel le dossier le placard la serviette mah-sheen ah aykreer loh-zhees-ee-al dohs-syay plah-kar sehr-vee-ett 91. Conditional Tenses: Present and Past The present conditional tense corresponds to "would." It is used after the imperfect in a conditional sentence. do not confuse the conditional would with the would that expresses a repeated action in the past. To form. Si j'étais (imperfect) dans une autre famille. . it is difficult to understand the differences in spoken French and most people pronounce them the same anyway. Most conditionals sentences begin with si (if). When we were on vacation. However. You may have noticed that the future and conditional forms for je seem to be pronounced the same. It corresponds to "would have" and is used in hypothetical sentences. If would means used to.

je me repose. Si + present tense + present. I would have understood. 3. j'aurais compris. Il deviendrait roi s'il avait plus de courage. Repose-toi si tu es fatigué. Si + pluperfect + past conditional Si j'avais su. je me reposerai. the verb tenses change. It is possible to have past conditional with the imperfect. I rest. They must be in the other clause. If I'm tired. Si + imperfect + present conditional Si j'étais riche. I would buy a castle. sentences When si (if) is used in sentences of condition.. If I had known. or future Si je suis fatiguée..Il n'aurait jamais dit ça! He would have never said that! If. If I am tired tomorrow. He would become king if he had more courage. (This is a rule in English too. you can't say "If I will go tomorrow") 92. you can never have the future or conditional tenses directly following si.. 2. Si je suis fatigué demain. and it is also possible to have present conditional with pluperfect. Rest if you're tired. imperative. However. je pourrais acheter un château. I will rest. 1. Parts of a Car / At the Gas Station horn hood brake steering wheel le klaxon le capot le frein le volant directional signal le clignotant license plate brakelight car window door gas tank wheel tire bumper fender oil air conditioning heater battery gas cap gas pump door handle la plaque d'immatriculation le stop la voiture la vitre la portière le réservoir la roue le pneu le pare-chocs l'aile l'huile la climatisation le chauffage la batterie le bouchon de réservoir d'essence la pompe à essence la poignée de portière windshield wipers les essuie-glaces dashboard accelerator headlights windshield motor trunk body (of car) driver's license gasoline traffic lights oil hubcap air hose le tableau de bord l'accélérateur les phares le pare-brise le moteur le coffre la carrosserie le permis de conduire l'essence les feux l'huile l'enjoliveur la pompe à air . These pretty much correspond to English usage. If I were rich..

93. To Drive
Conduire-to drive (kohn-dweer) conduis kohn-dwee conduisons kohn-dwee-zohn conduis kohn-dwee conduisez kohn-dwee-zay

conduit kohn-dwee conduisent kohn-dweez The past participle of conduire is conduit. Other verbs conjugated like conduire are: traduire - to translate, produire - to produce, and construire - to construct.

94. Travelling / At the Airport
suitcase clothes passport diary traveler's check dictionary flight baggages Franc bill coin change cent arrival Where is/are...? passport check customs entrance lost and found information exit taxi stand restroom la valise les vêtements le passe-port le journal le chèque de voyage le dictionnaire le vol les bagages le franc le billet le pièces la monnaie le centime l'arrivée Où est/sont... vah-leez vet-mawn pahss-por zhoor-nal zheck duh voy-ahzh deek-see-ohn-nair vohl bah-gazh frahnk bee-yay pee-ess moh-nay sawn-teem lah-ree-vay oo ay/sohnt bur-oh duh shahnzh doo-awn lawn-tray lay zob-zhay troo-vay rawn-sain-yuh-mawn sore-tee tahks-ee twah-lett

currency exchange le bureau de change la douane l'entrée les objets trouvés les renseignements la sortie les taxis les toilettes

le contrôle des passeports con-trol duh pahss-por

Note: When asking Where is/are..., Où est is the singular form and Où sont is the plural form, even if it's singular in English. Where is the entrance? would be Où est l'entrée? and Where is the lost and found? would be Où sont les objets trouvés? Directional Words

right there here over there to the right of to the left of

juste là ici là-bas à droite de

zhoost lah ee-see lah bah ah dwaht duh

across from between next to near far (from)

en face de awn fawz duh entre à côté de près de loin de awn-truh ah koh-tay duh preh duh lwahn duh

à gauche de ah gohsh duh too dwah duh-vawn dare-ee-air

straight ahead tout droit in front of behind devant derrière

at the end of au fond de oh fohn duh at the top of en haut de awn oh duh

95. Special Uses of Devoir
Devoir is one of the trickiest verbs to translate and use in French. The following is a list of the different meanings of devoir used in various tenses. must, have to probably Je dois étudier. Il doit être malade. I must (have to) study. He's probably sick. He had to leave. She was supposed to sing tonight. You will have to pay money. You should eat fruits. They should have played.

Present Tense Passé Composé

had to (and did), Il a dû partir. must have was supposed to, used to have to will have to should should have Elle devait chanter ce soir. Tu devras payer l'argent. Vous devriez manger les fruits. Ils auraient dû jouer.

Imperfect Future Conditional Past Conditional

96. Cosmetics / Toiletries
toothbrush toothpaste dental floss hair brush comb shampoo curling iron la brosse à dents le dentifrice le fil dentaire la brosse le peigne le shampooing le fer à friser hair spray la laque hair dryer le sèche-cheveux nail polish le vernis à ongles mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne le mascara le rouge à lèvres la poudre le savon la maquillage le parfum l'eau de cologne

shaving cream la crème à raser razor mousse le rasoir la mousse

97. Present Participle
Present participles can be used as adjectives, as verbs, or like a qui clause. When an adjective, it agrees with the noun it modifies. When a verb, it is invariable. Preceded by en, (equivalent to while, by, upon or in), it corresponds to the English -ing verb form. Used without en, the present participle can act like a qui clause and can also replace a causative cause. To form this participle, drops the ons ending of the nous form in the present tense and add -ant. Three exceptions: avoir être savoir Est-ce que tu rêves en dormant? En ouvrant le frigo, j'ai trouvé quelque chose à manger. N'ayant pas assez d'argent, il a volé le livre. ayant étant sachant Do you dream while sleeping? By opening the fridge, I found something to eat. Not having enough money, he stole the book.

Elle a vu un corbeau tenant dans son bec un poisson. She saw a crow holding a fish in his beak.

98. Abbreviations / Slang
owner la propriétaire proprio apéro dico auto labo ciné photo micro fac diapo pub

drink before dinner l'apéritif dictionary car laboratory cinema photography microphone college slide advertising demonstration soccer le dictionnaire l'automobile le laboratoire le cinéma la photographie le microphone la faculté la diapositive la publicité

la manifestation manif le football foot

television friendly terrific

la télévision sympathique sensationnel

télé sympa sensas

99. Past Infinitive
The past infinitive is used to express something that has already happened. Verbs such as s'excuser, regretter, and remercier are often used in this tense. It is formed with the infinitive of the auxiliary verb (avoir or être) and the past participle of the main verb. And the past participle can have agreement as well, with either the subject or the object, depending on the sentence. Whenever après is followed by a verb, it is always a past infinitive. And note that negative expressions precede an infinitive. Je vous remercie d'être venus. Excusez-moi d'être arrivé(e) en retard. Après avoir fini mes études, je veux devenir professeur. Elle regrette de ne pas avoir posé la question. I thank you for coming (or having come.) Excuse me for arriving (or having arrived) late. After finishing (or having finished) my studies, I want to become a teacher. She regrets not asking (or having asked) the question.

100. In the Ocean
scuba diver le plongeur sous-marin wet suit flipper la combinaison de plongée la palme shipwreck helm anchor l'épave la barre l'ancre

oxygen tank la ballon d'oxygène snorkel mask starfish jellyfish sea urchin sea horse seaweed fishing line le tube pour masque sous-marin le masque l'étoile de mer la méduse l'oursin l'hippocampe les algues la ligne de pêche

treasure chest le trésor barnacle coral seashell wave sand bubble clam crab la bernacle le corail le coquillage la vague le sable la bulle la palourde le crabe

To Die Mourir-to die (moo-reer) meurs muhr mourons moo-rohn meurs muhr mourez moo-ray meurt muhr meurent muhr 102. The subjunctive is used in dependent clauses introduced by the word que. The main clause must express . Subjunctive Mood If a sentence expresses a subjective statement of hook le hameçon 101. the subjunctive mood is used. In Space astronaut space shuttle control panel satellite spaceship alien asteroid space suit lunar rover l'astronaute la navette spatiale le tableau de bord le satellite la soucoupe volante l'extra-terrestre l'astéroïde le scaphandre de cosmonaute la jeep lunaire beaker test tube galaxy Earth moon sun planet rings crater stars comet rocket robot nebula le vase à bec l'éprouvette la galaxie la terre la lune le soleil la planète les anneaux la cratère les étoiles la comète la fusée interplanétaire l'automate la nébuleuse landing capsule la capsule d'atterrissage space station solar pannel la station spatiale la panneau solaire meteor shower la pluie de météores constellation solar system la constellation le système solaire laboratory le laboratoire 103.

NOT: Tout le monde veut que tout le monde vienne. This is also the form for the ils/elles form of the subjunctive. Je doute que la situation soit juste. penser/croire/trouver (negative and interrogative forms only) Conjunctions avant que pour / afin que jusqu'à ce que à moins que bien que / quoique il faut que . tu. etc.personal opinions or feelings and have a different subject from the dependent clause. Drop the -ent of present form. For je. (shows judgment and opinion) Tout le monde veut que venir. (use infinitive. and -e. il/elle. and add: -e -es -e -ions -iez -ent Irregular Forms avoir aie (ay) aies ait ayons ayez aient vouloir veuilles veuille vouliez puisses sois (swaw) sois soit être soyons soyez soient pouvoir puissiez puissent fasse fasse faire fassions fassent fasses fassiez ailles aille aller aille (eye) allions alliez aillent savoir saches sachiez sache sachent pleuvoir veuille (vuhee) voulions puisse (pweess) puissions sache sachions veuillent puisse pleuve Here is a list of common expressions that are followed by the subjunctive: Verbal Expressions douter suggérer vouloir proposer avoir peur regretter craindre être content/triste/désolé(e)/surpris(e). Nous and vous use the imperfect forms. same subject) To form the subjunctive. the infinitive is used. drop the -ent and add -e. I doubt that the situation is just. If the two subjects are the same. use the ils/elles form of the present indicative tense. -es.

Plural Fem. C'est le mien. She has hers. vaut mieux que il est important que il se peut que il est possible que il est temps que c'est dommage que However. Voilà la tienne. not yours! Ils aiment leur voiture. but you should be able to recognize it for reading purposes. 104. pas le tien! That's mine. Simple Past Tense The simple past tense is used in works of literature in place of the passé composé and is never spoken. Note. -us -ûmes -us -ûtes 4th conj. also. We like ours. Nous aimons la nôtre. that the subjunctive is not used with espérer or il est probable. He has his bag. Masc. mine yours ours yours theirs le tien Fem. Elle a le sien. -er (1st) -ai -âmes -as -âtes -ir / -re (2nd) -is -is -îmes -îtes 3rd conj. That's my apple. Il a son sac. Singular Masc. les tiennes le mien la mienne les miens les miennes la tienne les tiens his/hers/its le sien la sienne les siens les siennes le nôtre la nôtre le vôtre la vôtre le leur la leur les nôtres les nôtres les vôtres les vôtres les leurs les leurs C'est ma pomme. Here's yours. And when using avant before an infinitive. à moins que. this is not the case in French. They agree in gender and number with noun they replace as well. Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace nouns used with possessive adjectives. For some reason. They like their car. the construction is avant de + infinitive. You most likely will never need to form this tense. and bien que / quoique use the subjunctive whether there is a change in subject or not. jusqu'à ce que. although the subjunctive may be used with these words in other Romance languages. -ins -înmes -ins -întes . douter.

The following are the stems for irregular verbs sorted according to which conjugation they use: 1st aller all2nd craindre craigndire davoir 3rd e4th tenir tvenir v- connaître conncroire devoir recevoir savoir vouloir être lire pouvoir crdreçsvoulflp- prendre prdormir écrire faire mettre voir dormécrivfmv- 106.-a -èrent -it -irent -ut -urent -int -inrent The first two conjugations are the endings for all regular verbs. Make-Believe Stuff dragon fairy elf giant tower knight squire le dragon unicorn la fée shield le lutin sword le géant lance la tour ax le chevalier drawbridge le pont-levis l'écuyer crown court jester le fou king minstrel armor dungeon moat castle le troubadour queen l'armure princess le donjon prince les douves throne le château le trône le prince la princesse la reine le roi la couronne la hache la lance l'épée l'écu la licorne . and some irregular verbs.

.... on dit.. on dit. En France. asteure à cette heure bienvenu de rien c'est pas varjeux c'est pas terrible il mouille il pleut pantoute pas du tout présentement maintenant tiguidou c'est d'accord tu es fin tu es gentil achaler / gosser déranger quelqu'un avoir les yeux dans la graisse de binnes avoir l'air fatigué .107. l'arrêt une broue des bébelles un bécyque des bidoux / du foin un bluet une calotte une caisse populaire un char une canneberge le déjeuner un dépanneur le dîner la fin de semaine un frigidaire une lampe de poche un minou une patente une piastre un pitou le souper En France... on dit... le stop une bière des jouets une bicyclette de l'argent une myrtille une casquette une banque une automobile une airelle le petit déjeuner un petit magasin brailler le déjeuner chauffer le week-end débarquer (d'un char) un réfrigérateur une lampe-torche un chat une chose un dollar magasiner un chien minoucher le dîner un film caresser embarquer (dans un char) faire dur faire ses emplettes faire ses commissions ou son épicerie se promener dans les magasins monter (dans une voiture) avoir mauvaise mine descendre (d'une voiture) conduire un véhicule pleurer Au Québec. Quebec French Differences in vocabulary: Au Québec. on dit..

chu en retard. backer." 5. spinner. avoir un good time. puncher. checker. There is a reduction of the pronoun "il" to"y": Y'est malade. "tu es parti" is pronounced "tsu es partsi. slaquer. "viens icitte" (ici). Many people end their statements with: T'sais? (a reduction of: tu sais) Franglais used in Quebec: Bummer. as well as a reduction of "elle" to "a" ("elle a" becomes "aa"): Aa pas le temps." 2. And the old pronunciation for the "oi" sound is still used: "moi" and "Québécois" are pronounced "moé" and "Québécoés. "Chu" is a contraction for"je suis": Chu fatigué. Y'a pas le temps. An affrication of the consonants "t" and "d" before the vowels "u" and "i." For example.une vue Differences in pronunciation: 1. aa mal au dos. rusher. "mon litte" (lit). tripper. faire son show. être opène. 4. "Tu" is often added after questions: Il en veut-tu? Tu m'écoutes-tu? Je l'ai-tu? 6. . spotter. A "t" sound still exists in the expressions: "il fait frette" (froid). 3. être cheap.

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