1. Who am I? 2. Laws of Robotics 3. Sixth sense & AI 4. Rise of machines
 4 Generation of Robots

5. Robot systems
 Controller  Sensor  Transformation MATRIX

6. Advantages 7. Impacts of Robotics on society 8. Termination


ROBOT---Mechatronic device consists of Brain (computer) and sensors and mechanical parts. There are four laws to be followed for Robo implimentation Robots predict like Human by applying ARRTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE concept to them. Then they can think like Humans that is they acquire SIXTH SENSE. RISE OF MACHINES that is ROBOT has undergone four types of step by step Generation. Robot is a combination of many systems such as Controller, Mobility, Sensor etc… The robot Hands are moved using the MATRIX Transformation techniques. Robots have advantage over many fields such as medical, space, agriculture etc… There are some dangerous things may happen by robots when they do dangerous jobs. Robot –The TERMINATOR which can terminate the given job without failure.

"Robotics is a tool for learning through experience and discovery." - Jeneva Westendorf


Introduction to Robots
"We don't remember a world without robots. For us, a robot is a robot. Gears and metal; electricity and positrons. Mind and iron! Human-made! If necessary, humandestroyed! But we haven't worked with them, so we don't know them. They're a cleaner better breed than we are."

Who am I?
 The word "robot' was coined by Karel Capek who wrote a play entitled "R.U.R." or "Rossum's Universal Robots" back in 1921. The base for this word comes from the Czech word 'robotnik' which means 'worker'.  But even before that the Greeks made movable statues that were the beginnings of what we would call robots.
 For the most part, the word "Robot" today means any man-made

machine that can perform work or other
performed by Humans.

actions normally

A robot is a machine that imitates the actions or appearance of an intelligent creature- usually a human & gathers information about its environment (senses) and uses that information (thinks) to follow instructions to do work (acts)
To qualify as a robot, a machine has to be able to do two things: 1) Get information from its surroundings 2) Do something physical–such as move or manipulate objects. This is the working definition of robots that Robotics exhibit developers used for this exhibit. Today technology is changing at incredible rates making the identification of a robot somewhat difficult. Things that we use everyday incorporate features beyond those of early robots.


Robots are ideal for jobs that require repetitive, precise movements. Human workers need a safe working environment, salaries, breaks, food and sleep. Robots don’t. Human workers get bored doing the same thing over and over,which can lead to fatigue and costly mistakes. Robots don’t get bored.

What are Robots Made Of?
Robots have 3 main components:
  

Brain - usually a computer Actuators and mechanical parts - motors, pistons, grippers, wheels, gears Sensors - vision, sound, temperature, motion, light, touch, etc.

With these three components, robots can interact and affect their environment to become useful.

What Do Robots Do?
Most robots today are used in factories to build products such as cars and electronics. Others are used to explore underwater and even on other planets.

Laws of Robotics
Laws of Robotics: # A robot must not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. # A robot must always obey orders given to it by a human being, except where it would conflict with the first law.

# A robot must protect it's own existence, except where it would conflict with the first or second law. Later, this "Zeroth Law" is added: # A robot must not injure a humananity or, through inaction, allow a humananity to come to harm.

Once the robots are used to fight wars, they turn on their human owners and take over the world.

The use of external sensing mechanisms allows a robot to interact with its environment in a flexible manner. This is in contrast to preprogrammed operations in which a robot is “taught” to perform repretitive tasks via a set of preprogrammed functions. The use of sensing technology to endow machines with a greater degree of intelligence in dealing with their environment is indeed an active topic of research and development in the robotics field. The function of robot sensors may be divided into two principal categories: 1. Internal state. 2. External State. Internal state sensors deal with the detection of variables such as arm joint position, which are used for robot control. External state sensors, on the other hand, deal with the detection of variables such as range, proximity and touch. External sensing is used for robot guidance as well as for object identification and handling. Although proximity,, touch, vision is recognized as the most powerful of robot sensory capabilities, Robot vision may be defined as the process of extraction, characterizing, and interpreting information from images of a threedimensional world. The process, also commonly referred to as machine or computer vision, may be subdivided into six principal areas: 1. Sensing. 2. Preprocessing. 3. Segmentation. 4. Description.

5. Recognition. 6. Interpretation. It is convenient to group these various areas of vision according to the sophistication involved in their implementation. We consider three levels of processing: low, medium and high level vision. Here, we shall treat sensing and preprocessing as low-level vision functions. This will take us from the image formation process itself to compensations such as noise reduction, and finally to the extraction of primitive image features such as intensity discontinuities.

By 2050 robot "brains" based on computers that execute 100 trillion instructions per second will start rivaling human intelligence
In terms of our six subdivisions, we will treat segmentation, description, and recognition of individual objects as medium-level vision functions.

High-level visions refer to processes that attempt to emulate cognition.
Artificial Intelligence:
 Sensing Learn about human and robotic vision systems, explore three modes of robotic sensing, and apply a robotic sensory mode to a specific task.  Thinking Human thinking (heuristic) and robotic thinking (algorithmic) will be explored as you gain an understanding of why a robot needs specific instructions.

Rise of the Robots
Nervous Tissue and Computation

If we accept that computers will eventually be come powerful enough to simulate the mind, the question that naturally arises is: What processing rate will be necessary to yield performance on a parallel with the human brain? By comparing how fast the neural circuits in the retina perform image-processing operations with how many instructions per second it

takes a computer to accomplish similar work, believe it is possible to at least coarsely estimate the information-processing power of nervous tissue and by extrapolation, that of the entire human nervous system. Motion detection in retina, if performed by efficient software, requires the execution of at least 100 computer instructions. Thus, to accomplish the retina's 10 million detections per second would require at least 1,000 MIPS. The entire human brain is about 75,000 times heavier than the 0.02 gram of processing circuitry in the retina, which implies that it would take, in round numbers, 100 million MIPS (100 trillion instructions per second) to emulate the 1,500-gram human brain. Personal computers in 1999 beat certain insects but lose to the human retina and even to the 0.1-gram brain of a goldfish. A typical PC would have to be at least a million times more powerful to perform like a human brain.

Certain dangerous jobs are best done by robots. Guided remotely using video cameras, the Mini-Andros can investigate–and defuse–bombs.

A Sense of Space Robots that chart their own routes emerged from laboratories worldwide in the mid 1990s, as microprocessors reached 100 MIPS. Most build two-dimensional maps from sonar or laser rangefinder scans to locate and route themselves, and the best seem able to navigate office hallways for days before becoming disoriented. Too often different locations in the coarse maps resemble one another. Conversely, the same location, scanned at different heights, looks

different, or small obstacles or awkward protrusions are overlooked. But sensors, computers and techniques are improving, and success is in sight.
Fast Replay

Income and experience from spatially aware industrial robots would set the stage for smarter yet cheaper ($1,000 rather than $10,000) consumer products, starting probably with small robot vacuum cleaners that automatically learn their way around a home, explore unoccupied rooms and clean whenever needed. Commercial success will provoke competition and accelerate investment in manufacturing, engineering and research. Vacuuming robots ought to beget smarter cleaning robots with dusting, scrubbing and picking-up arms, followed by larger multifunction utility robots with stronger, more dexterous arms and better sensors. Programs will be written to make such machines pick up clutter, store, retrieve and deliver things, take inventory, guard homes, open doors, mow lawns, play games and so on. New applications will expand the market and spur further advances when robots fall short in acuity, precision, strength, reach, dexterity, skill or processing power. Capability, numbers sold, engineering and manufacturing quality, and cost-effectiveness will increase in a mutually reinforcing spiral. Perhaps by 2010 the process will have produced the first broadly competent "universal robots," as big as people but with lizard like 5,000MIPS minds that can be programmed for almost any simple chore.

Robots also can go into dangerously polluted environments, like chemical spills or radioactive "hot zones" in nuclear power plants.

A first-generation universal robots will handle only
contingencies explicitly covered in their application programs. Unable to adapt to changing circumstances, they will often perform inefficiently or not at all. Still, so much physical work awaits them in businesses, streets, fields and homes that robotics could begin to overtake pure information technology commercially.

A second generation of universal robot with a
mouselike 100,000 MIPS will adapt as the first generation does not and will even be trainable. Besides application programs, such robots would host a suite of software "conditioning modules" that would generate positive and negative reinforcement signals in predefined circumstances. For example, doing jobs fast and keeping its batteries charged will be positive; hitting or breaking something will be negative. There will be other ways to accomplish each stage of an application program, from the minutely specific (grasp the handle underhand or overhand) to the broadly general (work indoors or outdoors). As jobs are repeated, alternatives that result in positive reinforcement will be favored, those with negative outcomes shunned. Slowly but surely, second-generation robots will work increasingly well.

A third generation of robots to learn very quickly from
mental rehearsals in simulations that model physical, cultural and psychological factors. Physical properties include shape, weight, strength, texture and appearance of things, and how to handle them. Cultural aspects include a thing's name, value, proper location and purpose.

Psychological factors, applied to humans and robots alike include goals, beliefs, feelings and preferences. Developing the simulators will be a huge undertaking involving thousands of programmers and experiencegathering robots. The simulation would track external events and tune its models to keep them faithful to reality. It would let a robot learn a skill by imitation and afford a kind of consciousness. Asked why there are candles on the table, a third-generation robot might consult its simulation of house, owner and self to reply that it put them there because its owner likes candlelit dinners and it likes to please its owner. Further queries would elicit more details about a simple inner mental life concerned only with concrete situations and people in its work area.

Fourth-generation universal robots with a
humanlike 100 million MIPS will be able to abstract and generalize. They will result from melding powerful reasoning programs to third-generation machines. These reasoning programs will be the far more sophisticated descendants of today's theorem provers and expert systems, which mimic human reasoning to make medical diagnoses, schedule routes, make financial decisions, configure computer systems, and analyze seismic data to locate oil deposits and so on. Properly educated, the resulting robots will be come quite formidable. In fact, I am sure they will outperform us in any conceivable area of

endeavor, intellectual or physical. Inevitably, such a development will lead to a fundamental restructuring of our society. Entire corporations will exist without any human employees or investors at all. Humans will play a pivotal role in formulating the intricate complex of laws that will govern corporate behavior. Ultimately, though, it is likely that our descendants will cease to work in the sense that we do now. They will probably occupy their days with a variety of social, recreational and artistic pursuits, not unlike today's comfortable retirees or the wealthy leisure classes.

Robot Systems

Robots are comprised of several systems working together as a whole. The type of job the robot does dictates what system elements it needs. The general categories of robot systems are:
     

Controller Body Mobility Power Sensors Tools

The controller is the robot's brain and controls the robot's movements. It's usually a computer of some type which is used to store information about the robot and the work environment and to store and execute programs which operate the robot.

The control system contains programs, data algorithms, logic analysis and various other processing activities which enable the robot to perform.

The picture above is an AARM Motion control system. AARM stands for Advanced Architecture Robot and Machine Motion and it's a commercial product from American Robot for industrial machine motion control. Industrial controllers are either non-servos, point-to-point servos or continuous path servos. A non-servo robot usually moves parts from one area to another and is called a "pick and place" robot. The non-servo robot motion is started by the controller and stopped by a mechanical stop switch. The stop switch sends a signal back to the controller which starts the next motion. A point-to-point servo moves to exact points so only the stops in the path are programmed. A continuous path servo is appropriate when a robot must proceed on a specified path in a smooth, constant motion. Mobile robots can operate by remote control or autonomously. A remote control robot receives instructions from a human operator. In a direct remote control situation, the robot relays information to the operator about the remote environment and the operator then sends the robot instructions based on the information received. This sequence can occur immediately (real-time) or with a time delay.

Autonomous robots are programmed to understand their environment and take independent action based on the knowledge they posses. Some autonomous robots are able to "learn" from their past encounters. This means they can identify a situation, process actions which have produced successful/unsuccessful results and modify their behavior to optimize success. This activity takes place in the robot controller.


The body of a robot is related to the job it must perform. Industrial robots often take the shape of a bodyless arm since its job requires it to remain stationary relative to its task. Space robots have many different body shapes such as a sphere, a platform with wheels or legs, or a ballon, depending on it's job. The free-flying rover, Sprint Aercam is a sphere to minimize damage if it were to bump into the shuttle or an astronaut. Some planetary rovers have solar platforms driven by wheels to traverse terrestrial environments. Aerobot bodies are balloons that will float through the atmosphere of other worlds collecting data. When evaluating what body type is right for a robot, remember that form follows function.

How do robots move? It all depends on the job they have to do and the environment they operate in. In the Water: Conventional unmanned, submersible robots are used in science and industry throughout the oceans of the world. You probably saw the Jason AUV at work when pictures of the Titanic discovery were broadcast. To get around, automated underwater vehicles (AUV's) use propellers and rudders to control their direction of travel.

One area of research suggests that an underwater robot like RoboTuna could propel itself as a fish does using its natural undulatory motion. It's thought that robot that move like fish would be quieter, more maneuverable and more energy efficient. On Land: Land based rovers can move around on legs, tracks or wheels. Dante II is a frame walking robot that is able to descend into volcano

craters by rapelling down the crater. Dante has eight legs; four legs on each of two frames. The frames are separated by a track along which the frames slide relative to each other. In most cases Dante II has at least one frame (four legs) touching the ground. An example of a track driven robot is Pioneer, a robot developed to clear rubble, make maps and acquire samples at the Chornobyl Nuclear Reactor site. Pioneer is track-driven like a small bulldozer which makes it suitable for driving over and through rubble. The wide track footprint gives good stability and platform capacity to deploy payloads. Many robots use wheels for locomotion. In the Air/Space: Robots that operate in the air use engines and thrusters to get around. One example is the Cassini, an orbiter on its way to Saturn. Movement and positioning is accomplished by either firing small thrusters or by applying a force to speed up or slow down one or more of three "reaction wheels." The thrusters and reaction wheels orient the spacecraft in three axes which are maintained with great precision.

Robot arm kinematics deals with the analytical study of the geometry of motion of a robot arm with respect to the fixed reference coordinate system without regard to the forces/moments that cause the motion. Thus, kinematics deals with the analytical description of the spatial displacement of the robot as a function of time, in particular the relations between the joint variable space and the position and orientation of the end-effector of a robot arm. There are two fundamental problems in robot arm kinematics. The first problem is usually referred to as the direct (or forward) kinematics problem, Second problem is the inverse kinematics (or arm solution) problem. Since the independent variables in a robot arm are the joint variables, and a task is usually stated in terms of the reference coordinate frame, the inverse kinematics problem is used more frequently.

Denavit and Hartenberg [1955] proposed a systematic and generalized approach of utilizing matrix algebra to describe and represent the spatial geometry of the links of a robot arm with respect to a fixed reference frame. This method uses a 4*4 homogeneous transformation matrix to describe the spatial relationship between two adjacent right mechanical links and reduces the direct kinematics problem to finding an equivalent 4*4 homogeneous transformation matrix that relates the spatial displacement of the hand coordinate frame to the reference coordinate frame.


Power for industrial robots can be electric, pneumatic or hydraulic. Electric motors are efficient, require little maintenance, and aren't very noisy. Pneumatic robots use compressed air and come in a wide variety of sizes. A pneumatic robot requires another source of energy such as electricity, propane or gasoline to provide the compressed air. Hydraulic robots use oil under pressure and generally perform heavy duty jobs. This power type is noisy, large and heavier than the other power sources. A hydraulic robot also needs another source of energy to move the fluids through its components. Pneumatic and hydraulic robots require maintenance of the tubes, fittings and hoses that connect the components and distribute the energy.

Two important sources of electric power for mobile robots are solar cells and batteries.

Sensors are the perceptual system of a robot and measure physical quantities like contact, distance, light, sound, strain, rotation, magnetism, smell, temperature, inclination, pressure, or altitude. Sensors provide the raw information or signals that must be processed through the robot's computer brain to provide meaningful information. Robots are equipped with sensors so they can have an understanding of their surrounding environment and make changes in their behavior based on the information they have gathered. Sensors can permit a robot to have an adequate field of view, a range of detection and the ability to detect objects while operating in real or nearreal time within its power and size limits. Additionally, a robot might have an acoustic sensor to detect sound, motion or location, infrared sensors to detect heat sources, contact sensors, tactile sensors to give a sense of touch, or optical/vision sensors. For most any environmental situation, a robot can be equipped with an appropriate sensor. A robot can also monitor itself with sensors.



As working machines, robots have defined job duties and carry all the tools they need to accomplish their tasks onboard their bodies. Many robots carry their tools at the end of a manipulator. The manipulator contains a series of segments, jointed or sliding relative to one another for the purpose of moving objects. The manipulator includes the arm, wrist and end-effector. An end-effector is a tool or gripping mechanism attached to the end of a robot arm to accomplish some task. It often encompasses a motor or a driven mechanical device. An end-effector can be a sensor, a gripping device, a paint gun, a drill, an arc welding device, etc. There are many examples of robot tools that you will discover as you examine the literature associated with this site. To get you going, two good examples are listed below. Tools are unique to the task the robot must perform.

Advantages of Robotics
The advantages are obvious - robots can do things we humans just don't want to do, and usually do it cheaper. Robots can do things more precise than humans and allow progress in medical science and other useful advances.

Educational Goals
Robotics was designed to introduce the science behind the design and operation of robots, and after interacting with the exhibit, you will be able to: 1. Define a robot as a machine that gathers information about its environment (senses) and uses that information (thinks) to follow instructions to do work (acts). 2. Recognize the advantages and limitations of robots by comparing how robots and humans sense, think, and act and by exploring uses of robots in manufacturing, research, and everyday settings. 3. Understand your connection with technology and create an excitement about science and math that will prepare you for a workplace in which computer, robotics, and automation are common and essential. Each major thematic area of the exhibit has specific educational goals accomplished using hands-on activities that compare how human and robotic systems sense, think, and act.


Robots have many applications. Industrial robots have long been used for welding and painting. Laboratory robots are used for many repetitive tasks in chemistry, biology and clinical chemistry labs. Medical robots are being designed for Computer Assisted Surgery. In space, robots are being used for unmanned missions to planets, comets and asteroids.

The Impact of Robotics on Society
Robotics and Sensors in Crop Production
   

To develop robotic systems for selective harvesting of field crops. To develop sensors for locating fruit by robotic harvesters. To develop sensors for determining fruit ripeness and for predicting shelf-life nondestructively, and To develop sensors for site-specifically application of chemicals onto individual plants.

Statement of Problem:
Intelligent machines must be capable of sensing the environment and properties of the bio-materials which it is handling. Robotic harvesting requires sensors to detect and precisely locate all the fruit. In many cases the robot must also determine ripeness in order to selectively harvest only the fruit ready for market. Research at Purdue University and the Agricultural Research Organization (Volcani Center) in Israel has developed the robotic manipulators, machine vision and image processing technologies necessary to harvest musk melons. The VIPROMPER (Volcani Institute - Purdue University Robotic Melon Picker) traveling at 2 cm/sec with a manipulator speed of 75 cm/sec was able to detect over 93% of the fruit, and successfully picked more than 85% of the melons.


Current Activities:
Visible features of plants enable humans to distinguish weeds from crops, and to see individual parts of plants. A machine vision and image processing system capable of extracting and classifying these same features could be used to initiate a spot sprayer or other control technology. The general objective of this research is to develop sensor technologies which permit chemicals to be applied site-specifically on plants in a manner which minimizes the quantity required to control crop pests. The specific objectives are: 1. Develop machine vision hardware and image processing software to locate small seedlings, distinguish weeds from the cultivated crop, and measure parameters which affect the quantity and location of chemical to be applied; 2. Develop image processing and pattern recognition algorithms which can interpret the sensed data in real-time, and; 3. Develop artificial intelligence algorithms (expert systems, neural networks, etc.) capable of making real-time decisions concerning when and how much chemical to apply, based on perceived conditions. The first step to complete these objectives is to create a database of multispectral, digital, images of plants which contain the desired features. This database of plant images is currently being created, and will become accessible to cooperators over the World Wide Web to test and evaluate the performance of image processing and pattern recognition algorithms.


Today’s Robotics:
Today, robots are enjoying resurgence. Faster and cheaper computer processors make robots smarter and less expensive. Meanwhile, researchers are working on ways to make robots move and "think" more efficiently. Although most robots in use today are designed for specific tasks, the goal is to make universal robots, robots flexible enough to do just about anything a human can do.

Problems with Robotics
 As with any machine, robots can break and even cause disaster.  They are powerful machines that we allow to control certain things.  When something goes wrong, terrible things can happen. Luckily, this is rare because robotic systems are designed with many safety features that limit the harm they can do. There's also the problem of evil people using robots for evil purposes. This is true today with other forms of technology such as weapons and biological material.  Of course, robots could be used in future wars. This could be good or bad. If humans perform their aggressive acts by sending machines out to fight other machines, that would be better than sending humans out to fight other humans.  Steams of robots could be used to defend a country against attacks while limiting Human casualties. Either way, human nature is the flawed component that's here to stay.


The ROBOT which terminates every job within a shortest period has no termination.

Human brain has boundaries up to which it thinks, but for Computers no limitations .That is we have to use the brain up to the capacity of neurons in our brain. But there is no limit to computer memory.

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