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Analysis and Design Selection of Lightning Arrester for Distribution Substation
Nay Kyi Htwe
transformers and low voltage transformer. The analysis of electromagnetic transient is depended on operating voltage, lengths of the lines and contactor configuration. So, it can be chosen correctly the technical specifications of the apparatus of Lightning Arrester base on the amounts of receiving overvoltage. II. PHYSICAL PHENOMENON OF LIGHTNING Lightning is a huge spark caused by the electrical discharge taking place between the clouds, within the same cloud and between the clouds and the earth. The turmoil that is apparent inside a thundercloud is most impressive to the viewer. It shape changes continually, and one notes especially the development of the towering ‘thunderhead’. It is very easy to imagine the fierce updrafts with the cloud and the downdrafts near it surface which are matters of practical experience for aviators. It is generally accepted that the updraft is responsible for charge separation within the cloud, like some gigantic electrostatic generator, which leads to the creation of electric fields within and around the cloud and ultimately to the electric breakdown that is called lightning. III. WAVE SHAPE OF LIGHTNING STROKE The lightning stroke current rises to crest value very quickly and then starts decaying at a low rate as illustrated in Figure.1. The generalized wave shape can be characterized as: 1. Crest or peak value and it have been observed that the maximum value of this current is 400 kA. 2. The wave front line varies from 1 t 10 sec. 3. The time at which the stroke current reduces to 50 percent value of that crest value and it has been estimated that the time varies from 10 to 100 sec.
Abstract—Distribution substations feed power to the actual
consumers through distributors and service lines. The main equipments are generators and transformers. To protected these equipments and for stability purpose, over-voltages and over currents protection are important to consider. Lightning is one of the most serious causes of over-voltage. If the power equipments especially at outdoor substation are not protected, the over-voltage will cause burning of insulation. Lightning arrester can protect the damages of equipments. This paper describes the arrester type, lightning terminal and earthing plan of Dagon East substation in Myanmar. DynaVar station class and intermediated arrester (Vrated = 72kV and I charge (max) = 10kA) are used in this substation. Most of substation equipments are designed to match with the insulation coordination. If the insulation equipments are higher, the cost is also high. So, to relax this, the lightning arrester must be put in front of the protected equipments and protected zone. For this purposes, this paper specially indicates the safety and saving cost of equipments for overvoltage protection in distribution substation.
Keywords—Lightning arrester, Earthing plan, DynaVar station, Intermediated arrester.
I. INTRODUCTION UBSTATION design involves more than installing apparatus, protective devices and equipment. The significant momentary investment and required reliable continuous operation of the facility requires detailed attention to preventing surges from entering the substation facility. The effects of disturbances with limiting in a power system, which if allow to persist, may damage plant and interrupt the supply of electrical energy. Lightning is one of the most serious causes of over voltage. If the power equipment especially at outdoor substation is not protected the over-voltage will cause burning of insulation. Thus it results into complete shutdown of the power and the loss may run into cores of kyat. Electrical equipment can be damage due to over-voltage such as switching surge over-voltage, Lightning surge over-voltage, transient recovery voltage and power frequency temporary over-voltage in transmission line and receiving end of substation. It is important to protect power equipment against them wherever possible, consistent with sound economic. Lightning Arrester can protect the damages of electrical equipments. So, Lightning Arrester needed to install in the terminal end of the transmission line, substation, high voltage
Miss NayKyiHtwe is a student of Mandalay Technological University. (e-mail :naykyihtwe08@ gmail.com).
Figure.1 Generalized wave shape of lightning stroke
the over-voltage is di (3) V = I ×Z + l d d c c VII.e. thus limiting the transient voltages below the Basic Impulse Level of the apparatus. V. such as the single line-to-ground faults. To bring the system back to its normal operation mode as soon as the transient voltage is suppressed. This is suggested by Figure. The normal operation or operational mode includes the system under faulted condition. the impedance of the tower will be of concern. Engineering and Technology 48 2008 IV. a line having a surge impedance of Zs and the discharge current be Id.3. SELECTION OF LIGHTNING ARRESTER The lightning arresters are designated by the crest magnitude of the discharge current having 10×20 second wave shape which the arrester can safely pass without damage. If a tower is struck.e. It should also be able to interrupt the power-follow current and reseal itself under system fault conditions when the power-frequency voltage across it rises. STATIC CHARGING OF THE CONDUCTOR DUE TO A CHARG CLOUD Suppose that the cloud is positively charged. The return circuit would be completed by displacement current in the electric field. However. to interrupt the power-follow current and to reseal itself. The lightning arresters are designated as 8. Lightning arresters are the most effective means of protecting an electrical apparatus against traveling voltage waves caused by lightning and switching. 1. then the over-voltage due to a direct stroke is (1) Vd = I d × Zs When the traveling waves flow in one direction. This is very useful concept. flashover of the insulation will occur and a fault will be placed on the system. 2. the voltage to ground across the unfaulted phases will rise above the normal voltage level. The arrester must not go into conduction during this fault condition. VIII. to hold off the system voltage. Due to a direct discharge occurring between this cloud and another passing by cloud the charge on the cloud is neutralized then the charge on the line is no more a bound charge and is free to travel in both directions in the form of traveling waves. The voltage drop down the tower will appear across the line insulation. Distribution. OVERVOLTAGE DUE TO LIGHTNING STROKE In case of direct strokes. There are four different classes of arrester. To act like an open circuit during the normal operation of the system i. LIGHTNING ARRESTER dt Where Z c is the impedance of the earth conductor and l c is the inductance of the line conductor. cloud Stroke Earth Figure. VI. 10. This negative charge will be present right under the cloud and the portions of the line away from this point will be charge positively as illustrated in Figure.2 Static charging of the line due to a cloud The charge on the line will not flow since it is a bound charge. i. and 4.. Under several types of system faults. INTERACTION BETWEEN LIGHTNING AND THE POWER SYSTEM When lightning strikes a power line. This current will give rise to depend upon its wave shape and the impedances through which it flows. then the line will be charged to a negative potential by the electrostatic induction. To limit the transient voltage to a safe level with the minimum delay and fitter. and 3. Lightning arresters are connected across and apparatus to provide a Lowresistance path to ground. the equation is true. They 175 . and then disappear into the ground. thus leaving only the negative charge on the line. If this is excessive.2. The current comings into a tower have been postulated by lightning stroke from a cloud. a current is injected into the power system. when they travel in both directions..3 Lightning stroke from cloud to earth discharges a vast Capacitor Figure. 20 KA. The positive charge on the far ends of the line will however leak to the earth slowly through insulators metallic parts etc.World Academy of Science. Intermediate 3. A useful concept is to think of the cloud and earth as forming a vast capacitor which is being discharge by the stroke. Secondary The functions of a lightning arrester are 1. Station 2. the current is halved and the over-voltage is I × Zs (2) Vd = d 2 When the lightning stroke is on the earth wire or top of a tower.
5µs.6) but due to the advent of better material and Modern research it has been reduced varying to 2. On four wire distribution systems.75 (6) In case Extra High Voltage system LP in kV. arrester name plate. the average value may be taken as 1. LP=2. The discharge current from the arrester varies from a few hundred amperes to kilo-amperes and sometimes if is even 20 KA. at the arrester location. 1. The duty cycle rating is 60 kV rms and maximum discharge current is 10 kA.5µs discharge voltage = 163. where necessary. so. with solidly ground transformer neutral at every voltage level. stationary motor. EARTHING SYSTEM The frame of every generator. The system voltage is 66 kV and maximum continuous operation voltage is 48 kV rms. Maximum discharge voltage and discharge factor for the arrester is defined the maximum value of voltage which appears across the arrester terminals at the time of discharging if rated current determines its impulse level of protection.56 diameter holes. if is a general impression that if should be rated for most severe conditions of discharge currents says 20 A. Structure of Lightning Arrester In Figure.8 Figure.81 Dia 9.3 1. LS= 1. against corrosion.5 to 1. the maximum continuous operating voltage is 81% of the conventional 71% arrester installed on an affectively grounded neutral system.0kV maximum continuous operation voltage arrester is shown.3 1. this discharge factor was quite high (about 5.S) and LS is the minimum impulse insulation level in kV (crest valve) its value after allowing 10% as tolerance factor and 25% as margin factor can be obtained. The discharge factor if is. Its internal diameter is 9. LP = 2. there are three types.5 kV 2. (5) In the early designs of arresters.88E 0. and so far as particable.53EL IX.6 × 2 E =3.4 to 3. Maximum discharge voltage using an 8/20=148.4 kV 3.World Academy of Science. As the arrester is a protective device.8 kV Current wave-kV The maximum discharge voltage for a10kA impulse current wave produces a voltage wave cresting in 0.4 Section view of typical unit A.6 E is the rated arrester voltage KV (R.56 Dia 3 Holes at 120˚ On 10. clamp type terminal. Maximum switching surge protective level=116. this is computed as maximum system voltage divided by √3. It has 0. 0.56 Diameter 4 Holes Clamp Type Terminals Suitable for Use with CU DR AL Conductor 0. Every conductor used on earthing shall be of stranded as solid copper or suitable copper alloy.25 × 1. particular attention being given in these respects to the earthing leads at its point of connection with the earth electrode.0. coefficient of earthing is generally less than 80%.3 × power frequency withstand voltage in kV (RMS) = 2. Lightning Arrester Design At Dagon East substation. 1.37 EL For 80% arrester. and metallic parts of all transformer and regulating and controlling apparatus connected with supply shall be earthed by the owner by separate and distinct connection with earth. line to neutral. The coefficient of earthing is below 80 percent. DF= discharge voltage (crest value) of the arrester Rated voltage (RMS value) of the arrester 3. and shall be protected wherever liable to mechanical damage and also.25 to 0. On high voltage transmission systems the coefficient of earthing does not exceed 75%.3 × EL (7) For 75% arrester. Maximum 0. DynaVar station class and intermediate surge arresters are used. For grounded neutral systems.5 PVN 48.0 kV maximum continuous operation voltage Arrester 176 . LP = 2.7.M.7 diameters. The above ratio for arresters manufactured by different firms varies from 1.1× 1. For historical comparison.0 Dia BC Arrester Nameplate Figure. In resistance of Common Types of Earth-electrode. Pipes and rods (8) (9) 32. Engineering and Technology 48 2008 can safely discharge these current crests.5. Strip or conductor electrodes INTERMEDIATE CLASS DYNAVAR ARRESTER Application is based upon the maximum continuous operation voltage. Plates 2. B. X. 3 0. PVN 48. portable motor.
1 = 72.6kV Continuous Operating Voltage (kV) rms = 48.T.4 363. LIGHTNING EARTHING In earthing system.7 shows the earthing plan of Dagon East substation. The type of arrester is outdoor type. 1. IEEE Working Group D5.6 29.World Academy of Science. The author is indebted to all her teachers who give her knowledge from M. insulation level. U Tin Swe “Power System Analysis Part 3” 177 . DETAILED DESIGN DATA For incoming side and outgoing side. lightning shielding and design of lightning arrester are presented.1996 “Guide for Direct Lightning Stroke Shielding of Substation”. Table.8 XIII.0kV Normal Discharge Current (8 /20µs) kA = 10kA 1/50 Impulse Spark over Voltage = 163.389 33kV for Outgoing Side 36 93. Ground voltage peak value and switching surge withstand voltage are also shown in Table.5kV Frequency (Hz) = 50Hz Type = outdoor D.U and Y.1 = 36kV Continuous Operating Voltage (kV) rms = 24kV Normal Discharge Current (8 /20µs) (kA) = 10kA Frequency (Hz) = 50Hz Type = outdoor Rated Voltage (kV) Discharge Voltage on 100% Arrester (kV) Insulation Level for 100% Arrester (kV) Minimum Impulse Insulation Level on 100%(kV) Power Frequency withstand Voltage on 100% (kV) Ground Voltage Peak Value(kV) Require Switching Surge Withstand Voltage (kV) 151. the author would like to express her indebtedness and gratitude to her beloved parents.63 107. DynaVar station class and intermediate arresters are used.1. Specification of Lightning Arrester for Incoming Side Incoming side of Dagon East substation. XII.6 164. the professional engineers. Inc Anderson 1987 “Transmission Line Reference Book”.U in Myanmar. 66kV Lighting Arrester(70mm2 PVC Coated Wire) = 50' 2. the maximum discharge current is 10kA and MCOV are 48kVrms and 24kVrms.9 59.168 Figure. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Firstly. for their kindness.6 188.Graham 1970 “New Electric Library” Vol-2 IEEE Std 998. support.78 732. minimum impulse insulation level and power frequency withstand voltage base on 100% arrester are as shown in Table.8 75. the basis theory of lightning.1. System nominal voltage = 33kV Rated normal Voltage = 33 × 1. lightning arresters with PVC coated wire and cable lug are used. John Willey & Sons. Specifications of Lightning Arrester for Outgoing Side The followings are the specifications of lightning arrester for outgoing side of Dagon East substation.28 215. 70mm2 Cable Lug = 2 No Figure. understanding during the whole course of this work and encouragement to attain ambition without any trouble. Second Edition Substations Committee ANSI/ IEEE 1989 ” IEEE Standard for Gapped Silicon-Carbide Surge Arresters for AC Power Circuit” Franked. Engineering and Technology 48 2008 C.1. the specifications of lightning arrester are as follow. REFERENCES XI. The rated voltages of arresters are 72kV and 36kV.T.76 284.       Allan Greenwood 1923 “Electrical Transients in Power System” Second Edition.6 One Line Diagram of East Dagon 30MVA Substation System nominal voltage = 66kV Rated normal Voltage = 66 × 1. the students who facing the overvoltage condition and protection coordination of distribution substation. CONCLUSION In this paper. The lightning arrester in this paper is provided for overvoltage protection in distribution substation. 33kV Lighting Arrester(70mm2 PVC Coated Wire) = 100' 3. This paper will help and give the electrical knowledge of the protection system in distribution substation which coach to the technicians. the discharge voltage. Detailed Design Data Sheet System Voltage 66kV for Incoming Side 72.
7 Dagon East Sub-station Earthing Plan 178 .8 CT PT DS Body Earth Figure.World Academy of Science. Engineering and Technology 48 2008 R=2 R=2 Lightning Earth 30MVA× R R=2 30MVA Body Earth Lightning Earth 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 2 Pole DS LA PT CT CB 10´ 10´10´ 10´10´ 10´ CB CT PT DS 66kV LA 66kV TR: 30 MVA 33kV LA 66kV Switch Yard 10MVA×R Neutral Earth 33kV TR: 10 MVA CB 100VA Neutral Earth Switch Gear Panel Earth Ring System LA Earth 100kVA R=2 Lightning Arrester Transformer DS Earth LA Earth Lightning Arrester R = 1.
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