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Vitamin C is an Essential Nutrient for Humans and Certain Other Animal Species

Vitamin C is an Essential Nutrient for Humans and Certain Other Animal Species

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Published by Adrian Amiranios

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Adrian Amiranios on Jun 09, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Vitamin C¶s Experiment

Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species, in which it functions as a vitamin. In living organisms, this vitamin is an anti-oxidant, since it protects the body against oxidative stress. It is also a cofactor in at least eight enzymatic reactions, including several collagen synthesis reactions that cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy when they are dysfunctional. Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is a common enzymatic cofactor in mammals used in the synthesis of collagen. Ascorbate is a powerful reducing agent capable of rapidly scavenging a number of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Freshwater teleost fishes also require dietary vitamin C in their diet or they will get scurvy. The most widely recognized symptoms of vitamin C deficiency in fishes are scoliosis, lordosis and dark skin coloration. Freshwater salmonids also show impaired collagen formation, internal/fin haemorrhage, spinal curvature and increased mortality. If these fishes a re housed in seawater with algae and phytoplankton, then vitamin supplementation seems to be less important, it is presumed because of the availability of other, more ancient, antioxidants in natural marine environment. In humans, vitamin C is essential to a healthy diet as well as being a highly effective antioxidant, acting to lessen oxidative stress; a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase in plants (APX is plant specific enzyme); and an enzyme cofactor for the biosynthesis of many important biochemicals. Vitamin C acts as an electron donor for important enzymes.

2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, (DCPIP) is a blue chemical compound used as a redox dye. Oxidized DCPIP is blue, reduced DCPIP is colorless. DCPIP is a redox dye commonly used as a monitor of the light reactions in photosynthesis because it is an electron acceptor that is blue when oxidized and colorless when reduced. It is part of the Hill reagents family. DCPIP is commonly used as a substitute for NADP+. The dye changes color when it is reduced, due to its chemical structure. The rate of photosynthesis light-dependent reaction can be measured with this property of DCPIP, because one of the stages of the light reaction is an electron transport chain that normally ends with the reduction of NADP+. When DCPIP is present, the light reaction also reduces it. The amount of DCPIP reduced can be found by measuring the solution's light transmittance with a spectrophotometer.

Vitamin C¶s Experiment

DCPIPH (pink) + Vitamin C ²²

DCPIPH2 (colorless)

Hypothesis: With the increase in Vitamin C¶s concentration, the color of DCPIP changes faster. So less volume of Vitamin C would be needed to change the color. And we are expecting to see higher concentration of Vitamin C in Orange juice and Black current juice than 1%. Variables: I. Dependant: Color change of DCPIP II. Independent: Concentration of Vitamin C III. Controlled: Volume of Indicator and the Juices, Time Instruments: Standard 1% vitamin C solution, fruit juices (orange, blackcurrant), 1% DCPIP solution, pipette, burette, beaker, tubes, syringe ‡ Desk was set up with all required equipment. ‡ 4 tubes were filled with different vitamin C concentrations (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00%), 2 tubes were filled with orange and blackcurrant juice samples and 1 tube was filled with indicator (DCPIP). ‡ Same volume (10cm3) of vitamin C and juices was used to indicate how many drops (1drop=0.1cm3) of each sample were required to change 3cm3 of indicators(DCPIP) blue color to colorless. ‡ Process was measured 3 times for each sample to avoid miscalculation and human error. ‡ All data was taken into the table, where it was analyzed to draw a graph and make a conclusion. ‡ Desk and equipment were cleaned and put where they belong.

Vitamin C¶s Experiment

The Volume of Juices in 1cm3 The Juices DCPIP / cm3 Vitamin C 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.25% Vitamin C 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.50% Vitamin C 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.75% Vitamin C 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.00% Orange 0.1 0.1 0.1 Juice Black current 0.23 0.23 0.23 Juice

Mean 0.3 0.2 0.17 0.1 0.1 0.23


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clusi As we expected t e vol e of Vit i C needed to change the color of DCPIP decreased as the concentration increased. B t we found out that the concentration of Vit i C in Orange juice is 1.00% and in Black current juice is around 0.50%. This is against our Hypothesis. Further E eri ents: We can do an experi ent comparing the concentration of natural orange juice and packed orange juice. Hum n Errors: Making more concentrations of pure Vit i C to find the exact concentration in orange juice and black current juice. The other thing we can do is to use a colorimeter to find the correct time of color change.

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