PSAK 50 dan 55 Overview

Dwi Martani Ketua Departemen Akuntansi FEUI Anggota Tim Implementasi IFRS

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Agenda

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Overview PSAK 50 dan 55 dan perubahanya Definisi Pengakuan, pengukuran, penyajian g p g p y j Ilustrasi dan Contoh

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Instrumen Keuangan 50,55,60
Instrumen Keuangan IAS 32 PSAK 50
• Definisi dan klasifikasi • Pemisahan liabilitas keuangan dan ekuitas • Akuntansi untuk instrumen keuangan majemuk. • Akuntansi untuk penarikan saham dan saham treasury • Saling hapus atas aset dan liablitas •

IAS 39 PSAK 55
Definisi, Definisi klasifikasi dan reklasifikasi • Pengakuan dan penghapusan • Pengukuran setelah pengakuan awal • Akuntansi untuk derivarif untuk diperdagangkan dan hedging.

IFRS 7 PSAK 60
Pengungkapan instrumen keuangan dan risiko

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Challenging issues from financial instruments Distinguishing between financial b t fi i l liability and equity instrument Recognition of “off-balance sheet” instruments including executory contracts Different accounting treating for hedging and trading instruments Separation of embedded derivatives 4 .

PSAK 55 (Rev.Transaksi PSAK 50 (1998): Investor Investasi dalam efek tertentu • Efek utang • Efek ekuitas PSAK 50 (Rev. 2010): Penerbit efek Penyajian Kewajiban keuangan dan Ekuitas saling hapus aset keuangan dengan kewajiban keuangan Revisi 2010 Puttable instrument PSAK 55 (1999): Investor Intrumen derivatif dan transaksi lindung nilai.2006): Investor/pemilik hak tagih Pengakuan dan pengukuran • Instrumen keuangan – Aset keuangan – Kewajiban keuangan e aj ba eua ga Aspek Perlakuan Akuntansi: Pengakuan. Penyajian dan Pengungkapan Instrumen derivatif Akuntansi lindung nilai PSAK 60 (Rev. Pengukuran.2010): Pengungkapan i t P k instrumen keuangan 5 .Perbandingan Pengaturan .

Perbedaan Pengaturan Ruang lingkup Pengakuan Kategori instrumen keuangan Fair value option al e Reklasifikasi Penurunan nilai Penghentian pengakuan 6 .

PSAK 50 R – Instrumen Keuangan Penyajian Skop meliputi seluruh tipe instrumen keuangan Definisi detail atas instrumen keuangan : aset keuangan. liabilitas keuangan dan instrumen ekuitas k it Instrumen ekuitas adalah kontrak yang memberikan k b ik kepada pemegangnya h k residu d hak id atas aset entitas setelah dikurangi dengan semua liabilitas Alokasi nilai buku instrumen keuangan untuk komponen ekuitas dan utang Nilai utang utang. ditetapkan terlebih dahulu 7 .

Aset dan liabilitas keuangan diakui ketika entitas mengambil bagian dalam suatu kontrak provisi atas suatu instrumen 8 .PSAK 50 R – Instrumen Keuangan Penyajian Pembelian saham diperoleh kembali (treasury stock) dicatat sebagai perubahan atas ekuitas sehingga tidak ada keuntungan/kerugian yang diakui Termasuk dalam definisi aset dan liabilitas keuangan adalah kontrak yang diselesaikan dengan instrumen ekuitas suatu entitas.

opsi.puttable instrument Instrumen yang mempunyai fitur opsi jual (puttable instrument) adalah instrumen keuangan yang memberikan hak kepada pemegangnya untuk menjual kembali instrumen kepada p j p penerbit dan memperoleh kas atau p aset keuangan lain atau secara otomatis menjual kembali kepada penerbit pada saat terjadinya suatu peristiwa yang tidak pasti di masa yang akan datang atau kematian atau purna karya dari pemegang instrumen. 9 . waran dikategorikan dan disajikan sebagai liabilitas keuangan. akan tetapi dapat dikategorikan sebagai instrumen ekuitas jika memenuhi syarat-syarat tertentu. kewajiban untuk menyerahkan bagian aset neto j y g secara prorata saat likuidasi. dan rights.PSAK 50 R (2010) – Instrumen Keuangan Penyajian Semua ketentuan tentang pengungkapan dipindahkan ke PSAK 60 (IFRS 7) Tambahan pengaturan khusus tentang : p puttable instrument .

PSAK 55 R – Instrumen keungan pengakuan dan Pengukuran ► Instrumen keuangan diukur pada pengakuan awal sebesar nilai wajar ditambah dengan biaya transaksi kecuali untuk instrumen yang diukur dengan menggunakan nilai wajar. 10 . ► Penghapusan (dererecognition) aset keuangan didasarkan atas kombinasi “risk and reward” dan pendekatan pengendalian. ► Restrukturisasi utang yang menyebabkan modifikasi p g gain/loss p pada saat substansial term dapat menghasilkan g penerbitan liabilitas baru. Evaluasi atas risk and reward diakukan sebelum evaluasi atas transfer pengendalian ► Pengakuan gain/loss atas penghapusan (extinguishment) liabilitas keuangan ketika utang baru diterbitkan memiliki persyaratan (term) yang berbeda dengan utang lama.

3. Aset keuangan yang ditetapkan untuk diukur pada nilai wajar g y g p p j melalui laporan laba rugi.PSAK 55 R – Instrumen keungan pengakuan dan Pengukuran Empat kategori aset keuangan: 1. dan Aset keuangan tersedia untuk dijual. 11 . Investasi dimiliki hingga jatuh tempo. Dua kategori liabilitas keuangan 1) Kewajiban keuangan yang diukur pada nilai wajar melalui laporan laba rugi 2) Kewajiban lain Pengukuran aset keuangan dengan menggunakan nilai wajar dalam arti luas Beberapa perbedaan dalam praktik dalam mengidentifikasi derivatif majemuk. 2. Pinjaman yang diberikan atau piutang. 4.

Pengukuran instrumen keuangan sebesar nilai amortisasi. premium dan diskon dimartisasi dengan menggunakan effective interest rate rate. pembatasan selama 2 tahun tidak boleh melakukan transfer antar kategori investasi. Aturan tainting atas held to maturity investment. 12 .PSAK 55 R – Instrumen keungan pengakuan dan Pengukuran Harga pasar atas aset yang dimiliki atau liabilitas yang akan dit bitk adalah h k diterbitkan d l h harga penawaran(bid price) d (bid i ) dan untuk aset yang akan dibeli atau liabilitas yang dimiliki adalah harga permintaan (asking price).

investasi HTM dan AFS instrumen utang dapat dilakukan jika memenuhi kriteria. ► Reklasifikasi menjadi atau keluar dari FVPL dilarang f yang didesain untuk tujuan hedging 13 .PSAK 55 R – Instrumen keungan pengakuan dan Pengukuran ► Bukti obyektif atas penurunan nilai aset keuangan dan penilaiannya dilakukan setiap tanggal laporan keuangan. ► Penilaian penurunan nilai dilakukan secara individu dan kolektif k l k if ► Pembalikan atas penurunan atas piutang.

PSAK 60 –

Instrumen Keuangan Pengungkapan

Secara lebih tegas mensyaratkan Entitas harus untuk mengungkapkan informasi yang memungkinkan pengguna laporan keuangan untuk mengevaluasi signifikansi instrumen keuangan terhadap posisi dan kinerja keuangan. Pengungkapan hirarki nilai wajar Tingkat 1 harga kuotasi pasar Tingkat 2 Input selain harga kuotasian (dapat diobservasi) Tingkat 3 Input yang bukan berdasar harga pasar Jenis dan tingkat risiko yang timbul dari instrumen keuangan Pengungkapak kualitatif (ekposure timbulnya risiko, tujuan, kebijak dan proses penelolaan risiko) Pengungkapan kuantatif (risiko kredit, risiko likuiditas, analisa sensitivitas)
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Klasifikasi Instrumen Keuangan
Definisi Instrumen Keuangan setiap kontrak yang menambah nilai aset keuangan entitas dan kewajiban keuangan atau instrumen ekuitas entitas lain
Aset Keuangan Kas Instrumen ekuitas entitas lain Hak kontraktual Kontrak diselesaikan dengan instrumen ekuitas entitas

Liabilitas keuangan Kewajiban kontraktual j Ekuitas Kontrak yang memberikan hak residual atas aset suatu entitas setelah ikurangi dengan seluruh kewajibannya
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kontrak yang diselesaikan dengan instrumen ekuitas entitas

Instrumen Keuangan
setiap kontrak yang menambah nilai:
► aset keuangan entitas , dan (disisi lain) g ( ) ► kewajiban keuangan atau instrumen ekuitas entitas lain.
►Aset Keuangan
Kas Instrumen ekuitas yang diterbitkan entitas lain Hak kontraktual: • untuk menerima kas atau aset keuangan lainnya dari entitas lain; atau • untuk mempertukarkan aset keuangan dengan entitas lain dengan kondisi berpotensi untung; atau Kontrak yang akan diselesaikan dengan penerbitan instrumen ekuitas entitas • nonderivatif • derivatif

►Kewajiban Keuangan
Kewajiban kontraktual: • untuk menyerahkan kas atau aset keuangan lain kepada entitas lain; atau • untuk mempertukarkan aset keuangan atau kewajiban keuangan dengan entitas l i d tit lain dengan k di i yang kondisi berpotensi tidak menguntungkan entitas; kontrak yang akan atau mungkin diselesaikan dengan menggunakan g gg instrumen ekuitas yang diterbitkan entitas dan merupakan suatu: • non derivatif; atau • derivatif

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Ruang Lingkup PSAK 50 & 55 Investasi Efek Utang dan Efek Ekuitas Kredit dan tagihan Utang Kas dan Setara Kas Derivatif Derivatif yang ditukarkan dengan kas atau aset keuangan lain atau instrumen ekuitas entitas Kotrak komoditi yang digunakan sendiri Jaminan keuangan Ekuitas PSAK 50 DiluarPSAK 50 & 5 Investasi di anak perusahaan. ventura Piutan sewa Utang sewa. perusahaan asosiasi. Utang Pajak dan Manfaat K M f t Karyawan Derivatif pada anak perusahaan. asosiasi d ventura i i dan Derivatif melekat Komitmen pinjaman yang tersedia untuk dijual Komitmen pinjaman lainnya Kontrak asuransi 17 .

Jenis Instrumen Keuangan Instrumen Keuangan Aset Keuangan Aset Keuangan yang diukur p pada nilai wajar j melalui laporan laba rugi Investas dimiliki hingga j gg jatuh tempo Pinjaman diberikan dan Piutang Aset keuangan tersedia untuk dijual Liabilitas Keuangan Liabilitas Keuangan yang diukur pada nilai wajar melalui laporan laba rugi Kewajiban Lainnya Instrumen Ekuitas Instrumen Derivatif Derivatif Biasa Instrumen Lindung Nilai Atas Nilai Wajar Instrumen Ekuitas Biasa Instrumen Ekuitas Majemuk j Derivatif Melekat Atas Arus Kas Atas Investasi Neto pada Operasi Luar Negeri Instrumen Ekuitas Sinstesis 18 .

Kategori Aset Keuangan Pinjaman atau Piutang NO Bentuk Investasi dlm Utang YES YES Keinginan memegang YES Held to maturity NO Tujuan Spekulatif NO Available for Sale Trading YES Diukur dg Nilai Wajar No YES Nilai Wajar Nilai Beli 19 .

atau – merupakan derivatif (kecuali derivatif yang ditetapkan sebagai instrumen lindung nilai dan efektif).Aset/Kewajiban Keuangan yang Diukur pada Nilai Wajar melalui Laporan Laba Rugi Diperdagangkan: p g g – Diperoleh/dimiliki untuk tujuan dijual/dibeli kembali dalam waktu dekat (trading). Ditetapkan untuk dinilai pada Nilai Wajar melalui Laporan L b R i L Laba Rugi 20 . – Bagian dari portofolio instrumen keuangan tertentu yang memiliki pola ambil untung dalam jangka pendek.

Entitas memiliki maksud dan kemampuan untuk memiliki hingga jatuh tempo Kecuali: ditetapkan sbg aset dit t k b t keu pada nilai wajar melalui L/R. memenuhi definisi pinjaman yang diberikan dan piutang. ditetapkan sbg AFS. 21 .Investasi Dimiliki hingga Jatuh Tempo Kriteria: Aset keuangan non derivatif. Pembayaran P b tetap/telah ditentukan. Jatuh tempo telah ditetapkan.

ditetapkan sbg aset keu pada nilai wajar mel L/R. shg hrs diklasifikasikan sbg AFS. 22 . diklasifikasikan sbg AFS.Pinjaman Diberikan dan Piutang Kecuali: Kriteria: Aset keuangan non derivatif. dimaksudkan utk dijual dlm waktu dekat (trading). Pembayaran tetap/telah ditentukan. g . / l h di k tidak mempunyai kuotasi di pasar aktif. pinjaman yang diberikan/ piutang yg investasi awalnya tdk akan diperoleh kembali scr substansial (kecuali krn penurunan kualitas).

atau dinilai pada nilai wajar melalui L/R.Aset Keuangan Tersedia untuk Dijual Kriteria: Kriteria: Aset keuangan non derivatif. AFS. Ditetapkan sebagai AFS. Tidak diklasifikasikan sbg: sbg: pinjaman yang diberikan/piutang. p j / 23 . diberikan/piutang. dimiliki hingga jatuh tempo.

maka entitas tidak boleh melakukan saling hapus aset keuangan y g yang ditransfer dan liabilitas terkait 24 . dan l k k li h t j l h telah diakui t b t d berniat untuk menyelesaikan secara neto atau untuk merealisasikan aset dan menyelesaikan liabilitasnya secara simultan.Saling Hapus Aset keuangan dan liabilitas keuangan saling hapus dan nilai netonya disajikan dalam laporan posisi keuangan jika. dan hanya jika. Dalam akuntansi untuk transfer atas aset keuangan yang tidak memenuhi kualifikasi penghentian pengakuan. entitas: saat ini memiliki hak yang dapat dipaksakan secara hukum untuk melakukan saling hapus atas jumlah yang t l h di k i tersebut.

Ilustration In 2007 an entity enters into a contract that requires it to issue shares to the value of CU10.000 on 1 January 2010. 25 . This is a financial liability since the entity is y y required to settle the contract by issuing a variable number of shares based on a fixed monetary amount.

D Financial asset 26 . which ONE of the following types of instrument is best described as a contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting the liabilities? A Financial liability B Guarantee C Equity.Review In accordance with IAS32 Financial instruments: presentation.

which ONE of the following types of instrument is best described as a contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting the liabilities? A Financial liability B Guarantee C Equity. D Financial asset 27 .Review In accordance with IAS32 Financial instruments: presentation.

000 Nil D Nil CU15.000. B CU40. What amount for accounts receivable and accounts payable should be presented in Stone's statement of financial position. It is not normal business practice to settle the amounts net.000 CU15 000 28 . according to IAS32 Financial instruments: presentation? Accounts receivable Accounts payable A CU55. Stone also has an account payable to Knowles of CU15. CU15.000 .Review The Stone Company has an account receivable from The Knowles Company of CU55.000 .000 Nil C CU55.000. Local law allows the enforceable right of set-off of the recognised amounts.

Transfer / Reklasifikasi HTM Allowed when justified change intention or eng of tainting period Allowed under conditions TAINTING RULE No transfer into or out of trading FVTPL AFS .

Rare situation where reliable measure of fair value is no longer available Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed 1.Reclassification among Sub-categories • IAS 39 impose strict rules on reclassification of financial assets – Prevent earning management through selective recognition or non nonrecognition of gains or loss by reclassification Reclassification of financial asset From HTM AFS To Reason Change in intention or ability to hold Re-demonstrated positive intent and ability to hold. Accounting treatment Asset is remeasured at fair value Difference between carrying amount and fair q y value taken to equity Fair value carrying amount on that date becomes new amortized cost Previous gain/loss in equity amortized to income statement over remaining life using effective interest method Difference between new amortized cost and maturity amount amortized using effective interest method AFS HTM Loan FVTPL HTM or AFS HTM or AFS S HTM or AFS FVTPL None None None . 3. 1. 2. 2.

sebelumnya telah menjual atau mereklasifikasi investasi dimiliki hingga jatuh tempo dalam jumlah yang lebih dari jumlah yang tidak signifikan (more than insignificant) sebelum jatuh tempo f ) . jika dalam tahun berjalan atau dalam kurun waktu dua tahun sebelumnya.Tainting Entitas tidak boleh mengklasifikasikan aset keuangan g g sebagai investasi dimiliki hingga jatuh tempo.

atau (Terkait dengan k j di t t t yang b d di l (T k it d kejadian tertentu berada luar kendali entitas. kurang dari tiga bulan sebelum jatuh tempo) j t ht ) Setelah entitas telah memperoleh secara substansial seluruh jumlah pokok aset keuangan tersebut sesuai jadwal pembayaran atau entitas telah memperoleh pelunasan dipercepat. tidak berulang.Tainting Kecuali penjualan atau reklasifikasi tersebut dilakukan: p j Mendekati jatuh tempo atau tanggal pembelian kembali (contohnya. p j . dan tidak dapat diantisipasi secara wajar oleh entitas.

Pengukuran Awal Aset dan Kewajiban Keuangan Diukur pada nilai wajar melalui laba rugi Nilai wajar Tidak diukur pada nilai wajar melalui laba rugi Nilai wajar ditambah Biaya Transaksi (biaya transaksi expense) (biaya transaksi dikapitalisasi) 33 .

atau penjualan akibat kesulitan keuangan.Nilai Wajar Nilai Nil i di mana suatu aset d dapat di dipertukarkan atau k k suatu kewajiban diselesaikan antara pihak yang memahami dan berkeinginan untuk melakukan g transaksi wajar (arm’s length transaction) Bukan nilai yang akan diterima atau dibayarkan entitas dalam suatu transaksi yang dipaksakan. . likuidasi yang dipaksakan.

Pengukuran – Nilai Wajar .

Jika pasar tidak aktif. berkeinginan. dan model penetapan h d l t harga opsi ( ti pricing model) i (option i i d l) .Hirarki Penentuan Nilai Wajar* Kuotasi harga di pasar aktif. analisis arus kas yang didiskonto (discounted cash flow analysis). maka menggunakan teknik penilaian yang meliputi: penggunaan transaksi-transaksi pasar wajar yang terkini antara pihak-pihak yang mengerti. berkeinginan jika tersedia. referensi atas nilai wajar terkini dari instrumen lain yang secara substansial sama.

8% million. Question: What is the initial measurement amount of the loan? .Measurement .8%. Assuming the present value of IDR50 million over 5 years with monthly repayment at 10 8% interest rate is IDR30 10. Normal interest rate for 5 year loan to individual is 10.at initial recognition Case Study 1: Interest-free long-term loan to employees Bank grants IDR50 million interest free loan to an interest-free employee who has reached 5 years employment payable at end of 5th year.

000 or US$880? $ $ .Measurement .000 payable in full at end of 5th year plus 5% interest payable annually is equal to US$880 Question: At what amount shall the Bank record the loan at initial recognition .at initial recognition Case Study 2: Off-market loan with origination fee Bank lends US$1.000 to ABC Company repayable in full US$1 000 at end of 5th year Interest at 5% payable annually p y y Market rate of similar loan is 8% ABC Company pays the Bank credit facility fee of US$120 Present value at discount rate of 8% of US$1.US$1.

The costs are deductible in arriving at the entity’s income tax liability.50 h Professional fees in respect of the share issue are CU50.000 x CU2.CU30.50) .000 ((100. The internal costs sho ld be recognised in profit or loss for the should period.000. The management of the entity estimates that costs t f t i 40% Th t f th tit ti t th t t incurred internally for time incurred working on the share issue are CU25.000. 39 . l f CU2.000).000 should be deducted from equity (CU50.Ilustrasi An entity issues 100. tax) Equity will increase by CU220.000 (CU50 000 net of 40% tax).000 new CU1 ordinary shares which have a fair value of CU2 50 per share. The professional fees are directly attributable to the transaction and CU30. The rate of tax is 40%.

Brokers f fees of CU2 were incurred in relation t th f i di l ti to the purchase. or as available for sale? At fair value thro gh al e through Available A ailable profit or loss for sale A CU34 CU32 B CU32 CU32 C CU32 CU34 D CU34 CU34 40 . In accordance with IAS39 Financial instruments: recognition and measurement at what amount should the financial asset i iti ll b t t h t t h ld th fi i l t initially be recognised if it is classified as at fair value through profit or loss.Review The Grovemet Company acquired a financial asset at its market value of CU32 B k l f CU32.

80 h P l id tifi d th f ll i t in l ti to the shareissue: (1) Professional fees of CU40.Review The Polar Company issued 200 new CU1 ordinary shares at a fair value of CU1 80 each. These costs are deductible in arriving at the entity's income tax liability. Polar identified the following costs i relation l f CU1. increase in equity in the statement of financial position of Polar as a result of the transaction will be A CU360 B CU332 C CU311 D CU320 41 . (2) Internal management time in managing the process of CU30 CU30. In accordance with IAS32 Financial instruments: presentation the presentation. The current rate of tax is 30%.

Pengukuran Setelah Pengakuan Awal a) Nilai wajar b) Biaya diamortisasi c) Biaya (penggunaan terbatas hanya jika aya (pe ggu aa te batas a ya j a nilai wajar tidak dapat ditentukan) PSAK 55 mengklasifikasikan: 4 kategori aset keuangan 2k t kategori k i kewajiban k jib keuangan Kategori tersebut menentukan metode yang digunakan untuk pengukuran selanjutnya 42 .

Biaya Amortisasi Jumlah saat pengukuran awal PLUS OR MINUS MINUS MINUS Penurunan Nilai Akumulasi amortisasi dg effectiv interest method Pembayaran 43 .

Suku bunga efektif Suku bunga y g menyamakan antara nilai awal aset g yang y dengan nilai kini dari pembayaran yang diterima di masa mendatang. Nilai Nil i awal aset k l t keuangan t termasuk bi k biaya t transaksi k i dan biaya lain terkait dengan perolehan/penerbitan aset/liabilitas keuangan Suku bunga efektif tidak selalu sama dengan suku bunga yang ditetapkan. Suku bunga efektif di S k b f ktif digunakan untuk mengitung k t k it amortisasi premium atau diskon 44 .

.Measurement . transaction costs.amortised cost (continued) The “effective i t Th “ ff ti interest rate” i th rate th t exactly t t ” is the t that tl discounts: • Estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the instrument or. when appropriate. a shorter period. p premiums or discounts p paid or received between contracting parties to the extent they are an integral part of the effective interest rate. to the instrument s instrument’s net carrying amount amount. • Should include all fees.

then 7% for the 3rd & 4th year.Measurement . Bond pays interest at each anniversary date at 5% for the first 2 d years.000. Company may prepay at the end of 4th year at amortised cost with no significant penalty.000 (including transaction costs).000 US$1.000. Company expects to redeem the bond after 4 years since market interest rate is expected to decline in long term. What is the effective yield? What will be the interest expense to be recognized in the profit & loss for each year? .amortised cost Example 1: Fixed-stepped interest rates Company issued 5-year US$1 000 000 bond with net proceeds of 5 year US$1. and 8% for the 5th year.

009.000) (70.000 (50.Measurement .009.577 60.017 1.000) (50.000.424 59.009.984 .984 0 2 3 4 1.070.019.407 1.424 1.amortised cost Example 1: Fixed -stepped interest rates (continued) Effective Yield 5.94235% Year Amortised cost at start of year Cash flows Amortization of interest expense Amortised cost at end of year 1 1.000) (1.000) 59.019.009.424 1.983 60.407 1.

Measurement . 31.7% payable annually (US$1.250 p . 2007. Principal amount of bond is US$1.7% = US$59 a year) What is the effective yield? What will be the interest income to be recognized in the profit & loss for each year? . Bond has fixed interest of 4.250 x 4.amortised cost Example 2: Fixed interest rate with discount Company purchased bond with 5 years maturity for US$950 plus US$50 transaction costs on Dec.

086 1 086 1.086 1.000 1.Measurement .136 1.041 1 041 1.250) + (59) .190 0 119 (1.041 1.amortised cost Example 2: Fixed interest rate with discount (continued) Effective Yield 10% Year Amortised cost at start of year Amortization of interest income Cash flows Amortised cost at end of year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 1.136 1.190 100 104 109 113 (59) (59) (59) (59) 1.

re-estimating the future interest payments normally has no significant effect on the carrying amount of the asset or liability.amortised cost Floating rate debt instruments Periodic re estimation of cash flows to reflect movements in re-estimation market interest rates does alter the effective interest rate.Measurement . it is amortised over the expected life of instrument. or changes in market rates since the floating rate was reset. If a floating rate financial asset or liability is recognized initially at an amount equal to the principal receivable or payable on maturity. . if it reflects interest that has accrued since interest last paid. Amortization of discount or premium: if it results from change in credit spread or other variables that are not reset to market rates. it will be amortised to the next date when interest rate is reset to market rates.

Pengukuran Selanjutnya Biaya Transaksi Keuntunga Bunga n atau dan Kerugian Dividen Nilai Wajar Penurunan Pembalikan Nilai Penurunan Nilai By default Laba rugi g Klasifikasi Neraca FVTPL HTM Nilai wajar Dibebankan Laba atau Laba atau By default rugi rugi y Dikapitalisasi p Biaya Diamortisasi Biaya Dikapitalisasi diamortisasi Laba rugi g Laba rugi g Pinjaman Diberikan dan Piutang - Laba r gi rugi Laba r gi rugi Laba r gi rugi .

Pengukuran Selanjutnya Laporan Keuntungan Jenis / Biaya Posisi atau Transaksi Keuangan Kerugian Nilai Wajar Utang/ Dikapitalisasi Ekuitas/ Dikapitalisasi AFS Ekuitas: Ek i Tidak dapat diukur secara andal/ Dikapitalisasi Harga H perolehan Nilai wajar Klasifikasi Bunga dan Dividen Penurunan Pemulihan Nilai Penurunan Nilai Laba Rugi Laba Rugi Pendapatan Laba Rugi komprehensif lain* Pendapatan Laba Rugi komprehensif lain* Laba Rugi L b R i Nilai wajar Laba Rugi Pendapatan komprehensif lain - Laba Rugi L b R i * Dibebankan ke laba rugi saat pelepasan atau terjadi penurunan nilai .

Initial recognition and subsequent measurement Category FVTPL Initial recognition Cost Subsequent measurement Fair value 1. Interest income recognized using effective interest method Amortized interest impairment loss and foreign interest. AFS Cost 1. exchange gain/ loss goes to income statement Amortized interest. 3. Change in fair value taken to equity Interest income recognized using effective interest method Debt instrument – impairment loss and foreign exchange gain/loss goes to income statement Hedged item – change in fair value attributable to hedged risk taken to income statement to offset gain/loss on hedging instrument 53 . 4. 1. 2. 2. 1 Treatment of changes in carrying amount Change in fair value to income statement. impairment loss and foreign exchange gain/ loss goes to income statement HTM Cost Amortized cost using effective interest method Amortized cost using effective interest method Fair value Loans and Receivables Cost 1.

December 2006 the cumulative gains recognised in respect of this asset in other comprehensive income are CU50.Ilustrasi An entity classifies as available-for-sale a financial asset with a fair value on initial recognition of CU150 At 31 CU150. Profit or loss for the year will include: Gain on sale of available-for-sale investments CU120 (CU320 proceeds – CU200 carrying amount (CU150 + CU50)) Reclassified to profit or loss CU50 (recognised in other comprehensive income for the year ended 31 December 2006) 54 . CU50 On 31 December 2007 the entity disposes of the asset for CU320.

according to IAS39 Financial instruments: recognition and measurement? (1) Held-for-trading financial assets are measured at amortised cost.Review Are the following statements concerning the measurement of financial instruments after initial recognition true or false. ( ) (2) Held-to-maturity investments are measured at fair value. y Statement (1) Statement (2) A False False B False True C True False D True True 55 .

recognition and measurement. At 31 December 20X5 the cumulative loss recognised in other comprehensive income was CU40 and the carrying amount of the investment was CU260. In accordance with IAS39 Financial instruments. what amount should be recognised in profit or loss in the yearended 31 December 20X6? A CU140 B CU180 C CU100 D Nil 56 . At 31 December 20X6 the issuer of the equity was in severe financial difficulty and the fair value of the equity investment had fallen to CU120.Review The Redmires Company acquired an equity investment a number of years ago for CU300 and classified it as available for sale.

Share Repurchase • Listed company buy back their own share to – Provide support for share price – Market signal of “undervaluation” – Improve earnings per share • Classified as “treasury shares” – Pool of repurchased shares • Accounting treatment – Deduct treasury shares from total shareholder’s equity – No gain or loss recorded on repurchase 57 .

Cancellation of treasury shares .XX (XX.XXX XX XXX XX..Journal Entries Pertaining to Share Repurchase Initial repurchase of treasury shares Dr Cr Treasury shares ………………. Cash …………………………….XXX.XXX X XXX XXX $XX. Treasury shares………………... i Total shareholders’ equity ..XXX Cancellation of treasury shares Dr Cr Issued share capital capital………….XX XX. Less cost of treasury shares ……………………….XX X.………………………….XXX.XXX.XXX) $XX. XX.XXX.XXX XX.. Retained R t i d earnings ………………………………….XXX Repurchase of treasury shares p y Equity section after repurchase Issued share capital ………………………………. Total shareholders’ equity $XX.

maka harus dilakukan estimasi nilai yang dapat diperoleh kembali dan mengakui kerugian penurunan nilai .Ketentuan Umum – Penurunan Nilai Aset keuangan atau kelompok aset keuangan mengalami penurunan nilai apabila: Nilai tercatat/biaya perolehan diamortisasi > Nilai yang dapat diperoleh kembali Evaluasi atas apakah terdapat bukti objektif penurunan nilai harus dilakukan pada setiap tanggal neraca Bila terdapat bukti objektif penurunan nilai.

Bukti Objektif Penurunan Nilai Entitas harus melakukan evaluasi apakah terdapat bukti p p objektif penurunan nilai pada setiap tanggal neraca. Pelanggaran kontrak. Peminjam akan dinyatakan pailit atau melakukan reorganisasi keuangan lainnya. Restrukturisasi atau keringanan (konsesi) akibat pihak peminjam mengalami kesulitan. atau Kemungkinan besar bangkrut . seperti terjadinya wanprestasi atau tunggakan pembayaran pokok atau bunga. Hilangnya pasar aktif dari aset keuangan akibat kesulitan keuangan. Bukti Objektif antara lain: Kesulitan keuangan signifikan yang dialami penerbit atau peminjam.

meskipun penurunannya belum dapat diidentifikasi terhadap aset keuangan secara individual dalam kelompok aset tersebut. kondisi industri).Bukti Objektif Penurunan Nilai Penurunan yang dapat diukur atas estimasi arus kas masa datang y g p g dari kelompok aset keuangan sejak pengakuan awal aset dimaksud. . atau kondisi ekonomi nasional atau lokal yang berkorelasi dengan wanprestasi atas aset dalam kelompok tersebut (misalnya bertambahnya tingkat pengangguran di area geografis pihak peminjam turunnya harga komoditas atau memburuknya peminjam. termasuk: memburuknya status pembayaran pihak peminjam dalam kelompok tertentu (misalnya meningkatnya tunggakan pembayaran atau meningkatnya jumlah pihak peminjam kartu kredit yang mencapai batas kreditnya dan hanya mampu membayar cicilan bulanan minimal). komoditas.

Penurunan Nilai – Aset Keuangan yang Dicatat Berdasarkan Biaya Perolehan Diamortisasi Meliputi investasi dalam kelompok dimiliki hingga jatuh tempo p p gg j p serta pinjaman yang diberikan dan piutang Aset Individual yang Signifikan: Pertama kali harus dinilai secara individu Jika tidak ada bukti penurunan nilai saat penilaian individu-harus dinilai dalam kelompok yang sama karakteristik risiko kreditnya Penilaian Kelompok: Untuk aset-aset yang secara individu tidak signifikan dan asetaset lain Tidak dapat dievaluasi secara individual .

Penurunan Nilai Kolektif – Aset Keuangan yang Dicatat Berdasarkan Biaya Perolehan Diamortisasi Penurunan nilai kolektif aset keuangan yang dicatat berdasarkan biaya perolehan diamortisasi meliputi: 1. Aset keuangan yang signifikan secara individual yang tidak mengalami penurunan nilai b d il i berdasarkan evaluasi secara i di id l k l i individual. Kelompok aset keuangan sejenis yang tidak signifikan secara individual. . dan 2.

. baik secara langsung maupun menggunakan pos cadangan.Penurunan Nilai Kolektif – Aset Keuangan Biaya Perolehan Diamortisasi Jumlah kerugian diukur sebagai selisih antara nilai tercatat aset dengan nilai kini estimasi arus kas masa depan yang didiskonto menggunakan suku bunga efektif awal dari aset tersebut Nilai tercatat aset tersebut dikurangi. Jumlah kerugian yang terjadi di k i pada J l hk i j di diakui d laporan laba rugi.

. maka kerugian penurunan nilai yang sebelumnya diakui harus dipulihkan. Pemulihan t P lih tersebut tid k b l h mengakibatkan nilai b t tidak boleh kib tk il i tercatat aset keuangan melebihi biaya perolehan diamortisasi sebelum adanya pengakuan penurunan nilai pada tanggal pemulihan dilakukan.p p y . pada periode berikutnya.j g penurunan nilai berkurang. Jumlah pemulihan aset keuangan diakui pada laporan laba rugi rugi.Penurunan Nilai Kolektif – Aset Keuangan Biaya Perolehan Diamortisasi Jika. jumlah kerugian .

.Penurunan Nilai – Aset Keuangan yang Dicatat pada Biaya Perolehan Jumlah kerugian penurunan nilai diukur berdasarkan g p selisih antara nilai tercatat aset keuangan dengan nilai kini dari estimasi arus kas masa depan yang didiskontokan pada tingkat pengembalian yang berlaku di pasar untuk aset keuangan serupa Kerugian penurunan nilai tersebut tidak dapat dipulihkan.

maka kerugian penurunan nilai tersebut harus dipulihkan melalui laporan laba rugi rugi. nilai wajar i t il i j instrumen utang yang t diklasifikasikan dalam kelompok tersedia untuk dijual meningkat. . Jika.Penurunan Nilai – Aset Keuangan yang Tersedia untuk Dijual Ketika penurunan nilai wajar atas aset keuangan yang diklasifikasikan dalam kelompok tersedia untuk dijual telah diakui secara langsung dalam ekuitas dan terdapat bukti objektif bahwa aset tersebut mengalami penurunan nilai. maka kerugian kumulatif yang sebelumnya di k i secara l b l diakui langsung d l dalam ekuitas h k it harus dikeluarkan dari ekuitas dan diakui pada laporan laba rugi Kerugian penurunan nilai yang diakui pada laporan laba rugi atas investasi i t i t i instrumen ekuitas yang dikl ifik ik sebagai i t k it diklasifikasikan b i instrumen ekuitas yang tersedia untuk dijual tidak boleh dipulihkan melalui laporan laba rugi. Jik pada periode b ik t d i d berikutnya.

Impairment of Financial Assets • Requirements for impairment testing under IAS 39 – Required for all financial instruments except those measured at fair value – Only when there is objective evidence as a result of “loss event(s)” • Example of “loss event(s)” include: – – – – – – Issuer encounters significant financial difficulties. Default of payments Lender has to grant special concession to the borrower Borrower faces probable bankruptcy Disappearance of an active market Objective evidence on a decrease of estimated cash flows of the issuer • Accounting t t A ti treatment depends on how fi td d h financial asset i measured i l t is d 68 .

Impairment of Financial Assets Measured at Amortized Cost M d tA ti d C t
Procedures for assessing impairment (IAS 39: 63-65) 63 65)
Test for impairment for Financial Assets Individually Significant Individually Fail Pass Collectively tested with similar credit risk
69

Not Individually Significant Individually Fail Pass Collectively

Impairment of Financial Assets Measured at Cost

Example
– Unquoted equity instruments – Derivatives linked to unquoted equity instruments Carrying amount PV of estimated future cash flows

Impairment loss

=

-

Impairment loss cannot be reversed

70

Impairment of AFS Financial Assets

Changes in fair value of AFS taken to equity Decline in fair value must be determined Objective evidence of impairment Cumulative loss in equity transferred to income statement Debt instrument: Reversible Equity instrument: Non reversible
71

Decline in fair value Previous impairment loss

Acquisition Current fair cost value

XYZ Coy expects that Company A will not be able to repay all amounts due. As at December 31. A comparison of the original contractual cash flows and estimated expected cash flows follows: .Impairment of Amortized Costs Assets Example At January 1.000 to Company A.000. The effective interest rate on the loan is 8%. 2006. 2006. XYZ Coy lends $5.

000 3.000 2.350.000 2.390) 250.000.000.450.000 5.000 1.Impairment of Amortized Costs Assets Example Year Original Contractual C l Cash flow (5.000 1.413.000.000 5.000 1.550. 3.390) (4.000 3.650.000 8.350.9% Impairment Calculation C l l i ( .100.0% Expected Cash Flow C h Fl (5.000) 1.350.000.000 6.100.000) 250.000 8% 2006 2007 2008 2009 EIR .000.000 1.

777.103.516.388 586.413.610) (586 610) (586.000.778 - 2006 2007 2008 2009 .000.000 5.071 5 103 071 3.000 353.071 353 071 361.390 4.610) (586.000 250 000 2.000 5.364.100.610) (586.317 222.461 4 516 461 2.000 3.610 Valuation Allowance (586.610) Net Carrying Amount 4.222 250.Impairment of Amortized Costs Assets Example Year Accrued Interest Cash Received Loan Balance 5.350.

Loan 353.610) .000 250 000 (250. Allowance for doubtful debtors 2007 Dr Loan Dr.Impairment of Amortized Costs Assets Example Interest income recognition assuming the use of interest method Journal: 2006 Dr.071) 250. Cr. Provision for doubtful debtors 586.071 353 071 (353.000) (586. Interest income Dr.610 Cr. Cash d Bank D C h and B k Cr.

atau (b) entitas mentransfer aset keuangan yang memenuhi kriteria penghentian pengakuan p g p g . jika dan g g g j hanya jika: (a) hak kontraktual atas arus kas yang berasal dari aset keuangan tersebut berakhir.Penghentian Pengakuan Aset Keuangan Entitas menghentikan pengakuan aset keuangan.

Consolidate subsidiaries (including SPEs) 2.Penghentian Pengakuan Aset Keuangan 1. Has entity transferred its right to receive cash flows? No Yes Has entity assumed obligation y g to pass through cash flows? Yes No Don t Don’t derecognise Derecognise Don’t derecognise Derecognise 5. Has entity transferred substantially all risks/rewards? No Yes Yes No 5. Has entity retained control of the assets? Yes Continue to recognise the assets to extent of continuing involvement . Have the rights to cash flows expired? g No Yes Derecognise g 4. Has entity retained substantially all risks/rewards? No 6. Do derecognition principles apply to part or all of assets? 3.

Penghentian Pengakuan Kewajiban Keuangan Entitas mengeluarkan kewajiban keuangan (atau bagian dari kewajiban keuangan) dari neracanya. jika dan hanya jika. yaitu ketika kewajiban yang ditetapkan dalam kontrak dilepaskan atau dibatalkan atau kadaluwarsa kadaluwarsa. Kewajiban keuangan tersebut berakhir. .

Penghentian Pengakuan Kewajiban Keuangan Pertukaran di antara peminjam dan pemberi pinjaman p j p p j yang saat ini ada atas instrumen utang dengan persyaratan yang berbeda secara substansial dicatat sebagai penghapusan (extinguishment) kewajiban keuangan awal dan pengakuan kewajiban keuangan baru. Demikian juga. modifikasi secara substansial atas ketentuan kewajiban keuangan yang saat ini ada atau bagian dari kewajiban keuangan tersebut dicatat sebagai penghapusan kewajiban keuangan awal dan pengakuan kewajiban keuangan baru. .

.Penghentian Pengakuan Kewajiban Keuangan Syarat syarat Syarat-syarat yang digunakan berbeda secara substansial apabila: Nilai kini arus kas yang didiskonto berdasarkan syarat-syarat didiskonto menggunakan suku bunga efektif awal. gg g . berbeda sedikitnya 10 persen dari nilai kini sisa arus kas yang didiskonto yang berasal dari kewajiban keuangan semula.

E g of partial derecognition – interest rate strip from the transfer of interest cash flows while principal cash flows remain with transferor 81 . all subsidiaries and special purpose entities are consolidated before derecognition (IAS 39:15) • Conditions for partial derecognition of financial asset (IAS 39:16) – Contains specifically identified cash flows – Forms fully proportionate share of cash flows – Forms fully proportionate share of specifically identified cash flows • E.g.Derecognition of a Financial Asset • Refers to the removal of the financial asset from the balance sheet – In a group.

Derecognition of a Financial Asset Derecognition of financial asset Gain/ (loss) recognized in income statement Entirety Sum of consideration received less carrying amount less cumulative gain/ loss recognized in equity Partial Sum of consideration received for part less carrying amount of part less proportionate share of cumulative gain/ loss recognized in equity 82 .

Derecognition of a Financial Asset Right to cash flows of the asset has expired Conditions for derecognition Transferred right to receive cash flows and substantially all risks and rewards i k d d Retained not substantially some risks and reward. and not retained control t l 83 .

and not retained control 84 .Derecognition of a Financial Asset Conditions for derecognition Right to cash flows of g the asset has expired Transferred right to receive cash flows and substantially all risks and rewards Retained not y substantially some risks and reward.

together with a put or call option that is deeply in-the-money Why it qualify Seller has transferred substantially all risks and rewards and is not obligated to repurchase the financial asset Seller is unlikely to be exposed to risk associated with changes in the fair value of the financial asset Why it does not qualify There is no transfer of substantial risk and rewards Highly unlikely that the option will become out-of-the-money before expiry and seller is likely to repurchase p y y p the asset 85 .Derecognition of a Financial Asset Event A sale. together with an option to sale repurchase at fair value of the asset at the time of repurchase A sale together with a put option held sale. by the buyer or a call option held by a seller that is deeply out-of-the-money Event A sale with an agreement by the seller to repurchase the same asset at a fixed price A sale.

cancelled or expired (IAS 39:39) Treatment of financial liability – Replacement of debt instrument should be treated as an extinguishment of original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability ( (IAS 39:40) ) – Partial derecognition permitted • • Gain/ (losses) reported in income statement as with financial asset 86 .Derecognition of a Financial Liability • Only when the borrower’s obligation relating to the liability are fully borrower s discharged.

aset keuangan. atau instrumen ekuitas Nilai tercatat awal suatu i t Nil i t t t l t instrumen k keuangan majemuk j k dialokasikan pada komponen ekuitas dan kewajiban: Komponen ekuitas yang dialokasikan adalah nilai sisa dari nilai wajar instrumen keuangan secara keseluruhan dikurangi dengan nilai komponen kewajiban yang ditetapkan secara terpisah Contoh: Obligasi Konversi .Instrumen Keuangan Majemuk Komponen-komponen tersebut harus diklasifikasikan p p secara terpisah sebagai kewajiban keuangan.

Compound Financial Instruments Definition of compound financial instruments Instruments that have both debt or equity instruments Accounting standards IAS 32 : Accounting from issuer’s perspective Example of convertible bond Issuer’s perspective Lower coupon rate leads to lower cash outflow Investor’s perspective Investor willing to accept lower coupon rate in exchange for the equity option f potential capital gain i i for i l i l i 88 Non-derivative host instrument and embedded derivative IAS 39: Accounting from investor’s perspective .

Controversies • Main issue: whether the debt and equity component should be separately recognized on balance sheet • IAS 32 – Requires debt and equity elements to be separated • More relevant information. resulting in the reflection of effective borrowing cost – Total proceeds allocated using incremental method • Fair value of debt instrument calculated from the present value of the cash flow from the instrument • Residual (total proceeds – FV of debt) allocated to equity component under “Capital Reserve – Equity option) 89 .

75 ordinary shares Effective interest of 10% per annum 90 .000 Repayable at 31 December 20x3 Annual coupon at 4% per annum Convertible at $1 of bond to 0.Illustration : Initial recognition of debt and equity Scenario Convertible bond issued at par on 1 Jan 20x1 Nominal value of $100.

000 x PVIFA10%.132 $85.3) ………..…………………………….947 75.000 x PVF10%.3) ……… PV of debt component …….Illustration : Initial recognition of debt and equity Debt Component PV of interest payment (2. Discount rate based on effect market interest rate of 10% 2.3 91 . PV of principal at maturity (100. PVIFA10%.079 Note: 1. $ 9.3 is PV of ordinary annuity at 10% for 3 periods 3. 3 PVF10% 3 is the PV of $1 at the end of period 3 at 10% discount 10%.

$85 079 $100. Value of equity = Nominal value – Value of debt component 92 .000 – Value of debt component = $100 000 000 . Bond issued at discount of $14. Discount of bond = Fair value – Nominal value 3.Illustration : Initial recognition of debt and equity Equity Component Value of equity = $100.000 $85.079 = $14.921 (equals to value of equity) because bond issue at par 2.921 Note: 1.000.

Illustration : Initial recognition of debt and equity Journal entry at date of issue Dr Dr Cr Cr Cash Unamortized discount on bond (B/S) 4% Bond payable (B/S) p y ( ) Capital reserve – Equity option (B/S) 100.000 14.921 100.000 14.921 Record debt and equity components of convertible bond 93 .

508 4.079 x 0. 94 .508 Unamortized bond discount ………… Cash …………………………………… 4.1 2. Interest expense is based on the effective interest rate of 10%: $85.000 Record interest expense using effective interest rate method Note: N t 1.$4. Amortization of bond discount is the difference between the effective interest expense and the cash interest p p paid: $8.000 .508 . .Illustration : Initial recognition of debt and equity Journal entry at year-end y y Dr Cr Cr Interest expense ……………………… 8.

.XXX XX XXX XX.XXX Interest paid for period ended 30 June 20x0 95 .XXX XX..Journal Entries Pertaining to Amortization of Bond Dr Cr Amortization of discount (I/S) ……….XXX XX. XX..XXX XX.. Cash (B/S) …………………………….XXX Amortization of discount for first half-year Dr Cr Interest expense (I/S) ……………….. Unamortized discount (B/S) ………… XX. Cash (B/S) …………………………….XXX Cash interest paid C hi t t id Or combined as follows Dr Cr Cr Interest expense (I/S) ………………. Unamortized discount (B/S) ………… XX.

2. Issue of paid-up shares on conversion. The balance in the discount on the bond adjusted proportionately dj t d ti t l 96 .Conversion of Bond Before or At Maturity Occurs: • At specific ti ifi time i t intervals t minimize dil ti l to i i i dilution effect • Only when there is economic interest The following are recorded when partial conversion occurs: 1.

XXX XX.XXX XXX.XXX XX XXX Conversion of bond to ordinary shares 97 .XXX XX.Jurnal Entries Conversion of Bond Conversion of bond Dr Dr Cr Cr Bond payable Capital reserve – Equity options Ordinary shares Unamortized discount on bond XXX.

lower equity Split accounting g Net earnings lower Lower carrying amount.Effect of the Separation of Debt and Equity Elements in a Compound Financial Instrument No split accounting g Net income Balance sheet Selected financial ratios Net profit margin Debt-equity ratio Return on equity Times interest earned Higher Higher Higher Higher Net earnings higher Higher carrying amount. higher equity Lower Lower Lower Lower 98 .

and convertible bonds – Include professional fees.Allocation of Transaction Costs • Cost incurred in issuing debt instruments. stamp duties. registration fees. and advertising costs Transaction cost on debt Accounted for as yield adjustments to the effective interest rate Transaction cost on equity Accounted for as deduction from equity after deducting any related income tax benefit 99 .

Allocation of Transaction Costs to Debt and Equity Components Amount allocated to debt component: = Fair value of debt component Total proceeds of convertible bond x Transaction costs Amount allocated to equity component: = Value of equity component Total T t l proceeds of convertible b d d f tibl bond x Transaction costs 100 .

000 Equity component (CU300.000 101 . The conversion details are 100 shares for each bond to be exercised after 5 years but before the redemption date in 10 years time. the following amounts should be recognised: Proceeds of bond issue (3.000 convertible.000 less CU250.000) CU50.Ilustrasi An entity issues 3.000 Fair value of liability component CU250.000 x CU100) CU300. The fair value of similar 10 year bonds with no convertible element is CU250. with a nominal interest rate of 5%. At the date of issuance of the financial instrument. 10-year bonds at CU100 each.000.

Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities Offsetting Refers to the reporting of a recognized financial asset/ liability as a single net financial asset/ liability in the balance sheet Conditions (IAS 32:42) Currently has a legal enforceable right to set off recognized amounts Prohibiting of offsetting when Financial assets pledged as collateral or set aside in trust Obligations expected to be paid off through insurance claims 102 Intends to either settle on net basis. or realize asset and settle liability simultaneously Creation of “synthetic” instrument Different counterparties involved .

Evaluation of Fair Value as a Basis of the Measurement of Financial Instruments Arguments for fair value accounting Fair value g accounting Discourage earning management Provide relevant and useful information to users of financial statements Cost accounting Opportunities for earning management Reluctance of loan managers to foreclose problem loans 103 .

Evaluation of Fair Value as a Basis of the Measurement of Financial Instruments Undue fluctuations in reported earnings Arguments against fair value accounting Reliability issues Does not reflect purpose 104 .

Tanpa investasi awal neto atau nilainya lebih kecil dari nilai kontrak sejenis yang memberi pengaruh yang sama terhadap perubahan faktor pasar.Derivatif Instrumen keuangan atau kontrak lain dengan karakteristik: Nilainya berubah akibat dari perubahan variabel yang mendasari ( t suku b d i (spt k bunga. Diselesaikan pd t Di l ik d tanggal t t t di masa l tertentu mendatang. h harga. . nilai t k il i tukar. dll).

sale or usage requirements Requires little or no initial investment Settled at a future date 106 .Derivative Financial Instruments A derivative is a financial instrument that meets the following three criteria: Its value changes in response to a change in an “underlying” Scope Exemption: IAS 39:5 exempts contracts which meet the definition of a derivative from the standard if the contract is entered into to meet the entity’s usual purchase.

p persyaratan untuk diakui terpisah p Terdapat p y . future contract Derivatif Melekat (Embedded derivative) Komponen dari hybrid/combined instrument. Didalamnya terdapat kontrak utama non derivatif. swap. Misalnya option. forward contract.Karakteristik Derivatif Derivatif yang berdiri sendiri (Freestanding derivative). Sebagian arus kas yg berasal dari instrumen yang digabungkan bervariasi seperti d i tif yg b di i di b k b i i ti derivatif berdiri sendiri.

and speculators Various companies p Foreign exchange g g rate Commodity prices Interest rate Producers and consumers Financial institutions 108 . foreign exchange forward contract Future contracts e. financial institutions.Derivative Financial Instruments Example of derivative instruments and their underlying Types of derivative instruments Option contracts (call and put) Forward contracts e. commodity futures Swaps Underlying Security price Used by Producers.g.g. Producers trading firms firms.

Option-type derivatives such as call and put options. 1 Forward type derivatives such as forward contracts future contracts contracts. Embedded derivatives 109 . Manage market risk 2. Reduce borrowing cost 3.Derivative Financial Instruments • Use of derivatives 1. caps and collars and warrants 3. and swaps 2. 3 Profit from trading or speculation • Types of derivatives 1. Free standing derivatives 4.

Forward Contracts • An agreement between two parties (counterparties) whereby one party agrees to buy and the other party agrees to sell a specified amount (notional amount) of an item at a fixed price (forward rate) for delivery at a specified future date (forward date) Can either be a forward purchase contract or a forward sales contract. depending on the perspective of the counterparties • “A” Company Sells Forward Contract “B” Company “Forward sales contract” “Forward purchase contract” 110 .

Forward Contracts • Not standardized contracts as they are not traded on an exchange – They entail counterparty risks – They are can be tailored to specific needs of counterparties – They involve lower transaction costs • Fair value of forward contract: Notional x amount where (‫׀‬Current forward rate – contracted forward rate ‫)׀‬ (1+r) t Contracted forward rate is forward rate fixed at inception Current forward rate is forward rate for remaining period to maturity r = discount rate t = period to maturity At inception date. the fair value of a forward contract is nil. 111 .

Future Contracts • A future contract is similar to a forward contract except that it is a standardized contract and is traded on an exchange Futures contracts are marked-to-market and settled on a daily basis Futures contracts require payment of a margin deposit which has to be maintained throughout the contract period Wide range of exchange-traded future contracts – Commodity futures – Interest rate futures – Currency futures y • • • 112 .

Put option – right. but not obligation to buy 2.Option Contracts • Contract that gives holder the right but not the obligation to buy or sell a specified item at a specified price 2 type of option contracts 1. Call option – right. but not obligation to sell • • Can be American option (exercisable anytime to expiration) or European option (exercisable only on maturity date) Can also be customized (not traded) or standard contract quoted on exchange (listed options) • 113 .

Option Contracts • Main features – Purchaser (holder) pays premium to seller (writer of option) – Holder has the right. while write has obligation to p g perform – Asymmetrical pay-off profile • Holder has limited loss (due to premium) and unlimited gain • Writer has limited gain and unlimited loss g Relationship between the strike price and the underlying Strike price> Underlying y g (spot price) Holder of call option Holder of put option Out-of-the-money In-the-money Strike price> Underlying y g (spot price) At-the-money At-the-money Strike price> Underlying y g (spot price) In-the-money Out-of-the-money 114 . but not obligation to perform.

Option Contracts • Fair value of option contract Fair value of an option = Intrinsic value + Time value Listed options = quoted price Not traded options = Valuation model ( Black-Scholes model) Diminishes over time Zero at expiration Call option = Max [0. Notional amount x (Strike price – Spot Price) Tan & Lee Chapter 9 ©2009 115 . Notional amount x (Spot price – Strike Price) Put option = Max [0.

Embedded Derivatives • Derivative that is part of a hybrid financial instrument Hybrid Instrument Host Instrument Embedded derivative: Linked to underlying and change in underlying causes change in cash flow • Example is bond whose ultimate proceed are linked to price of commodity. or to a consumer price index 116 . such as oil.

with changes in fair value recognized in profit and loss There is a separate instrument with same terms as the embedded derivative Tan & Lee Chapter 9 ©2009 117 .Split Accounting of Embedded Derivatives • IAS 39 requires embedded derivatives to be separately recognized from the host instrument and accounted for in the same way as a stand-alone derivative if the following conditions are met: Conditions for separation of embedded derivative Economic characteristics and risk of host instrument are not closely related to that of the derivative Hybrid instrument is not measured at fair value.

k keseluruhan k t k l h kontrak yang digabungkan diperlakukan sebagai aset/liabilitas keuangan yang dimiliki untuk diperdagangkan .Derivatif Melekat Entitas yang diharuskan untuk memisahkan derivatif melekat dari kontrak utamanya. namun tidakdapat mengukur derivatif melekatnya secara t i h maka k terpisah.

Accounting for Derivatives Default accounting treatment for derivatives under IAS 39: • Derivatives are classified under the Fair Value through Profit or Loss category and changes in their fair values are taken to income statement • Exception . case. the derivative follows hedge accounting rules 119 .when a derivative is designated as a hedge of an identified risk and the hedge is effective In this case accounting for effective.

Accounting for Forward Contract At inception During life of contract Dr Forward Contract (asset) Cr Gain on forward contract Closing position or at expiration Dr Cash Cr Forward contract No journal entry as j y fair value is nil or Dr Loss on forward contract Cr Forward Contract (liability) j Adjust fair value and record gain/loss Dr Forward contract Cr Cash Close out and record net settlement of contract 120 .

Accounting for Future Contract

At inception

During life of contract Dr Cash Cr Gain on future contract

Closing position or at expiration Dr Cash Dr Gain on future f t re contract Cr Margin Contract Dr Cash Cr Loss on future contract Cr Margin Contract Close out and recover margin deposit
121

Dr Margin deposit Cr Cash

or Dr Loss on futures contract Cr Cash

p y Record payment of initial margin deposit

Record daily y settlement of future contracts

Accounting for Purchased Option Contract

At inception

During life of contract Dr Option Contract Cr Gain on option contract

Closing position or at expiration Dr Cash* Dr Gain on option contract Cr Option Contract Dr Cash* Cr Loss on option contract Cr Option Contract
(* assume expires in-the-money)

Dr Option contract (asset) Cr Cash

or Dr Loss on option contract Cr Option Contract p

p y Record payment of initial margin deposit

Adjust for fair value j and record gain/loss

Close out and record net settlement of contract
122

Accounting for Written Option Contract

At inception

During life of contract Dr Option Contract Cr Gain on future contract

Closing position or at expiration Dr Option contract Cr Gain on Option Contract (Expires out-of-themoney) Dr Option contract Dr Loss on option Cr Cash (Expires in-the-money)

Dr Cash Cr Option contract (liability)

or Dr Loss on futures contract Cr Option Contract p

Record payment of p y initial margin deposit

Adjust for fair value j and record gain/loss

Close out and record net settlement of contract
123

Hedging • Propose is to neutralize an exposed risk – Loss on hedge item offset by gain on hedging instrument – Reduce volatility than preserve gains • Other ways of hedging through non-derivative derivatives – Money market instruments (money market hedge) – Natural hedge (offsetting foreign currency assets and liability in the same currency) • Special accounting rules called “hedge accounting applies when hedge accounting” derivatives are used for hedging purposes 124 .

Rationale of Hedge Accounting • Arises because of the mismatch of income-offsetting effect between income offsetting hedged item and hedging instrument Situations requiring hedge accounting – Hedge item and hedging instrument are measured using different bases (One is at cost while the other is at fair value) – Hedged item yet to be recognized in financial statement – Different treatment for changes in fair value (changes taken to equity while the other is taken to income statement) • 125 .

Risks That Qualify for Hedge Accounting Interest rate risk Foreign exchange risk Spec c s s Specific risks that qualify for hedge accounting Price risk Credit risk Risks must be specific risk. not general business risks Possible for a derivative to hedge more than one risk 126 .

it must be explicitly documented at inception . fair value is used – If broken into time value and intrinsic value. permissible to use intrinsic value.Qualifying Hedging Instruments (IAS 39: 72 – 73) • Instruments that qualify include: – Designated derivatives (except written options) – Embedded Derivatives – Designated non-derivatives financial asset/ liability that hedge foreign non derivatives exchange risks only • Value used to determine hedge effectiveness – If used in its entirety. However. p y p • If derivative is used as a hedge of more than 1 risk – Individual designated component must meet hedge accounting criteria – Permissible for portion of notional amount to be designated 127 .

Qualifying Hedged Items (IAS 39: 78 -79) Qualify • Financial assets and liabilities with exposure to changes in fair value Non-financial assets exposed to foreign exchange or price risks Firm commitment Highly p g y probable forecast transaction with exposures to future cash flows Net investment in foreign entity 128 Do not qualify • Held-to-maturity instruments (regardless of fixed rate or variable rate) Investment in an associated company • • • • • .

Criteria for Hedge Accounting (IAS 39: 88) Conditions t b met f h d accounting t apply C diti to be t for hedge ti to l Enterprise must have exposure to risk that affects income statement Derivative contract specifically entered to hedge underlying exposure Hedge must be highly effective Effectiveness of hedge can be reliably measured Hedging relationship must be formally documented at the inception of the hedge 129 .

or an identified portion of such asset. which is attributable to a particular commitment risk and could affect profit or loss” (IAS 39:86a) Hedge of “the exposure to variability in cash flows that (i) is attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability (such as all or some future interest payment on variable debt instrument )or a highly probable future transaction. liability or firm commitment. and (ii) could affect profit or loss” (IAS 39:86b) Hedge of the foreign currency risk associated with a o e g ope at o ose a c a statements a e equ ed foreign operation whose financial state e ts are required to be translated into the presentation currency of the parent company 130 Cash flow C h fl hedge Hedge of a net investment in a foreign entity .Classification of Hedging Relationships Causes Fair value hedge Explanation Hedge of “the exposure to changes in fair value of a recognized asset or liability or an unrecognized firm commitment.

kewajiban.Jenis Lindung Nilai Lindung nilai atas nilai wajar: suatu g j lindung nilai terhadap eksposure: pe uba a perubahan nilai wajar atas aset atau a aja kewajiban yang telah diakui p y g . yang dapat diatribusikan pada risiko tertentu dan dapat memengaruhi laporan laba rugi . atau komitmen pasti tersebut. atau bagian yang telah diidentifikasi dari aset. atau komitmen pasti yang belum diakui.

dan dapat memengaruhi laporan laba rugi.Jenis Lindung Nilai Lindung nilai atas arus kas: suatu lindung nilai terhadap eksposur variabilitas arus kas yang: dapat di t ib ik pada risiko t t t yang t k it d t diatribusikan d i ik tertentu terkait dengan aset atau kewajiban yang telah diakui ( (misalnya seluruh atau sebagian pembayaran bunga y g y g di masa depan atas utang dengan suku bunga variabel) atau yang dapat diatribusikan pada risiko tertentu yang terkait dengan prakiraan transaksi yang kemungkinan besar terjadi. .

Classification of Hedging Relationships • The designation of a derivative as a fair value hedge or a cash flow hedge is determined by the hedged risk. that is. whether the entity has a fair value exposure or a cash flow exposure An exception where a derivative can be designated as either a fair value hedge or a cash flow hedge is where the hedged risk is the foreign exchange risk of a firm commitment • 133 .

Jenis Lindung Nilai Lindung nilai atas investasi neto g pada operasi di luar negeri Sa a sepe t Sama seperti Lindung Nilai Arus Kas du g a us as Effective Hedge to be disclosed in Equity Capital p Non effective hedge to be disclosed in P/L Foreign Operation in Foreign Currency Area .

Akuntansi Lindung Nilai
Perlakuan akuntansi khusus bagi transaksi hedging g g g yang mencakup instrumen hedging dan hedge item, yang bertujuan untuk memastikan keuntungan atau kerugian atas instrumen hedging dan hedge item diakui dalam laporan Laba Rugi periode yang sama. Jika tidak diterapkan, k Jik tid k dit k kemungkinan missmatch antara ki i t h t keuntungan/kerugian instrumen hedge dengan keuntungan/kerugian hedge item g g g Tidak seluruh lindung nilai dapat memenuhi persyaratan untuk Hedge Accounting menurut PSAK 55

Kriteria

Pada  saat dimulainya  lindung nilai  terdapat penetapan dan  Pada saat dimulainya lindung nilai terdapat penetapan dan pendokumentasian formal atas hubungan  lindung nilai dan   tujuan manajemen  risiko entitas  serta strategi pelaksanaan   lindung nilai.  li d il i Lindung nilai diharapkan akan sangat efektif dalam rangka  saling hapus atas perubahan nilai wajar atau perubahan arus  saling hapus atas perubahan nilai wajar atau perubahan arus kas  Untuk lindung nilai atas arus kas, suatu prakiraan transaksi  Untuk lindung nilai atas arus kas suatu prakiraan transaksi yang merupakan subjek dari suatu  lindung nilai harus  bersifat kemungkinan besar  terjadi dan  terdapat eksposur  perubahan arus kas yang dapat memengaruhi laporan laba  b h k d t hi l l b rugi

Kriteria (Lanjutan)
● ●

Efektivitas lindung nilai dapat diukur secara andal Efektivitas lindung nilai dapat diukur secara andal Lindung  nilai  dinilai  secara  berkesinambungan  dan   ditentukan bahwa efektivitasnya sangat tinggi sepanjang ditentukan  bahwa efektivitasnya  sangat  tinggi  sepanjang  periode pelaporan keuangan di mana lindung nilai tersebut  ditetapkan

Ketidakefektifan lindung nilai dicatat di laba atau rugi Keuntungan atau kerugian di ekuitas ditransfer ke laba atau rugi Dihitung 4. diakui di ekuitas Keuntungan atau kerugian dari hedging instrument Penyesuaian atas hedged item Langsung diakui di laba atau rugi Untuk perubahan nilai wajar yang disebabkan hedged risk. N/A Pada saat yang sama dengan hedged item diakui g g di laba atau rugi . Lindung Nilai Arus Kas Jika efektif.Perlakuan Akuntansi Lindung Nilai atas Nilai Wajar W j 1. keuntungan atau kerugian langsung diakui di laba atau rugi By default 2. N/A 3.

Hedge Effectiveness Hedge is ineffective 125% Hedge is effective 100% Hedge is effective 80% Hedge is ineffective .

Assessing Hedge Effectiveness • IAS 39:9 . hedge effectiveness is assessed on inception – Comparison of the principal or critical terms – Historical analysis – Correlation analysis 140 . and – Retrospectively on an ongoing basis • • On inception.The degree to which changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item that is attributable to a hedged risk are offset by changes in the fair value or cash flow of the hedging instrument Hedge effectiveness is evaluated – Prospectively on inception of hedge.

Assessing Hedge Effectiveness • • During the duration of hedge.8 08 1. hedge effectiveness is assessed on dollar-offset method: Hedge effectiveness ratio (HER): Hedge effectiveness Changes in fair value or future cash flow of hedging instrument = (or delta ratio) Changes in fair value or future cash flow of hedged item 0.25 12 Effective hedge (IAS 39: AG 105b) • Exceptions for effective hedge even if HER falls out of range – IAS 39 a o s hedge e ect e ess to be assessed o cu u at e bas s S allows edge effectiveness on cumulative basis if hedge is designated and conditions are properly documented Tan & Lee Chapter 9 ©2009 141 .

Time value (options) or interest (forwards) 2. Intrinsic (options) or spot element (forwards) – Excluded time value taken to income statement as per default treatment – Should result in highly effective hedge. while time/interest component does not – If critical terms of hedging instruments and hedged item are exactly the same. HER should be equal or around 1 142 .Assessing Hedge Effectiveness • Exclusion of time value of certain derivatives to be excluded from hedge relationship – Derivative separated into 2 component 1. as intrinsic/ spot component moves in tandem with underlying.

Accounting for a Fair Value Hedge Hedged Item (recognized asset or liability or firm commitment) Change in fair value Hedging Instruments Change in fair value Income statement Gain (loss) on hedging instrument offset loss (gain) on hedged item Balance sheet Change in fair value adjusted against carrying amount Change in fair value adjusted against carrying amount 143 .

000 Price of gold was $352 per ounce 1/11/20x3 Sold forward contract on 10.Illustration g y (fair value hedge) g ) Hedge of inventory ( Scenario 31/10/20x3 Inventory of 10.000 ounces of gold Carried at cost of $3 000 000 ($300 per ounce) $3.000.000 ounce for forward price of $350 ounce 10 000 Forward contract matures on 31/3/20x4 31/12/20x3 Forward price f 31/3/20 4 contract was $340 per ounce and spot price F d i for 31/3/20x4 t t d t i of gold was $342 per ounce Hedge effective ratio of 1 on 31/12/20x3 144 .

Illustration g y (fair value hedge) g ) Hedge of inventory ( 1/11/20x3 No entry or just a memorandum entry as the fair value of the forward contract is nil 31/12/20x3 31/12/20 3 Dr C Cr Forward contract ……………….000 00. 100..000 100.000 100 000 Gain on forward contract: 10.. Ga o o a d co t act Gain on forward contract ……..000 Taken to income statement 100.$352) 145 .000 x ($342 .000 Gain on forward contract: 10.000 x ($340 -$350) Dr Cr Loss on inventory ……………… Inventory ………………………. 100.

120..000 Gain on forward contract: 10.$342) Dr Cr C Cash …………………………….300.000 Gain on forward contract: 10.Illustration g y (fair value hedge) g ) Hedge of inventory ( 31/3/20x4 Inventory is sold to third-party at $330 per ounce (also maturity date of forward contract Dr Cr Forward contract ……………….300. 3.000 3.000 x $330 . Gain on forward contract …….000 x ($330 -$340) Dr Cr Loss on inventory ……………… Inventory ……………………….000 x ($330 .000 3 300 000 146 Sale of inventory: 10..000 100 000 100.. 100.000 120.. Sales S l …………………………….

Accounting for a Cash Flow Hedge Effective Cash Flow Hedge (IAS 39:95) Effective portion of gain/ loss Recognized directly in equity through q y g statement of changes in equity Ineffective portion of gain/ loss Recognized in profit or loss 147 .

Accounting for a Cash Flow Hedge Cash flow hedges are applicable to the following: Forecasted transactions involving financial and non nonfinancial assets/liabilities which will result in cash inflow/ outflow Interest rate swaps Other transactions which affect future cash flows 148 .

Illustration Effective and ineffective portions of a cash flow hedge Scenario 1/1/20x1 Entered into futures contract to hedged forecast transaction at 30/4/20x1 Classified as cash flow hedge Period di P i d ending 31/1/20x1 28/2/20x1 31/3/20x1 30/4/20x1 ∆ i fair value in f i l of future contracts $100 90 103 ( ) (38) ∆ i present value of in l f expected future cash flow $(105) (80) (105) 45 149 .

Illustration Effective and ineffective portions of a cash flow hedge Determination of effective and ineffective portions of a cash flow hedge Lesser of two cumulative amount in absolute terms (c) $100 185 290 245 Ineffective Effective portion portion credited/ credited/ (debited) to (debited) to income equity in statement current in current period) period $100 85 105 (45) $0 5 (2) 7 Period ending 31/1/20x1 28/2/20x1 31/3/20x1 30/4/20x1 Cumulative ∆ in FV of future contracts (a) $100 190 293 255 Cumulative ∆ in PV of expected cash flow (b) $(105) ( (185) ) (290) (245) 150 .

Ilustrasi An entity has entered into a hedging relationship. and the following gains and losses arise: Hedged item – gain of CU500 H d d it i f Hedging instrument – loss of CU600 The effectiveness of the hedge is calculated as: CU600 / CU500 = 120% the hedge is therefore assessed as being highly effective. 151 . At the year-end the entity assesses the fair value of the hedged item and hedging instrument.

Ilustrasi An entity has hedged future cash flows on a financial liability using an interest related derivative.000 remaining (the ineffective portion) is recognised in profit or loss for the period. The CU2.000. g % The additional interest costs relating to the derivative are CU20. The effectiveness of the hedge has been ssessed at 90%. 152 . CU18.000 of the interest costs are recognised in other comprehensive income.

153 . – Unlike a fair value hedge or a cash flow hedge. loan.25.Hedge of a Net Investment in a Foreign Entity • Hedge risk is foreign exchange risk – Applies to foreign operations whose functional currencies are the currencies of the country where the foreign operations are located – Closing rate method may result in significant translation loss from depreciating currencies p g • Accounting treatment similar to cash flow hedge Cumulative change in fair value of hedging instrument (A) Cumulative translation difference on net investment (B) Hedge effectiveness = – Hedge is effective if the delta ratio is between 0.8 and 1. example. a non-derivative is allowed to be the hedging instrument for example a foreign currency instrument.

Illustration Hedge of a Net Investment in a Foreign Entity Scenario Functional currency is the dollar ($) Acquired 100% interest in foreign company (functional currency is FC) 31/12/20x3 Exchange rate is $1.78 to FC1 Foreign company reported net profit of FC380.000 Foreign currency translation reserves showed $15.000 (credit balance) 31/12/200x4 31/12/200 Exchange rate is $1.000 154 .85 to FC1 Loan of FC1 200 000 at 5% interest taken to hedge foreign investment FC1.70 to FC1 Average rate is $1.200.

400) (195. 2.. Loan payable ………………….000 x $(1.70-1. Translation loss for 20x4 Foreign currency translation reserves (credit balance) $(180.000 The loan payable is designated as a hedge of the net investment: FC1.200.400) Journal entries for parent 31/12/20x3 Dr Cr Cash …………………………….Illustration Hedge of a Net Investment in a Foreign Entity Translation difference in foreign investment’s FS for 31/12/20x4 On net assets on 1/1/20x4 (FC 1.000 x $(1.000 2 200 000 2. On net profit for 20x4 (FC380..000 FC1 200 000 x spot rate of $1 85 t t f $1.200..200.85) …………….85 155 ..000) (30.85) …….200.400) $(210.70-1.

Foreign currency translation reserves ………………………… 180..Illustration Hedge of a Net Investment in a Foreign Entity 31/12/20x4 Dr Cr Interest expense ……………….800 Interest expense during the year at 5% x FC1 200 000 x $1 78 FC1..800 102. Cas Cash ……………………………. 106. Exchange gain ………………….78 Dr C Cr Cr Accrued interest ………………. Accrued interest ……………….000 Taken T k to equity i 4.$1.000 $1...000 0 .200.000 x ($1.800 106.85) 156 .70 ..000 Exchange gain on FC loan taken directly to equity: FC 1.800 to offset translation loss Settlement of accrued interest at year-end Dr Cr Loan payable …………………. 106.000 180.200.

Discontinuation or Termination of Hedge Accounting Consideration for discontinuation or termination of hedge accounting Hedging instrument has reached maturity date or is closed off or terminated Criteria for hedge accounting is no longer met Hedge designation is revoked Accounting treatment depends on type of hedge 157 .

Evaluation of Hedge Accounting • Objective of hedge accounting – Reflect effectiveness of hedging activities of a firm – Reduce volatility of reported earnings • Compliance with hedge accounting may result in considerable expenditure of resources There are challenges in compliance with hedge accounting criteria for macro hedges Issue is whether the additional costs of compliance more than offset the benefit of applying hedge accounting • • 158 .

159 PSAK 60 : INSTRUMEN KEUANGAN PENGUNGKAPAN .

Ringkasan Pengaturan mengenai p g g p g g pengungkapan instrumen keuangan yang berbeda dari pengaturan sebeluma: Ruang lingkup mengatur yang sebelunya belum diatur Signifikansi dari instrumen keuangan Penjelasan lebih rinci mengenai risiko likuiditas .

Secara lebih tegas mensyaratkan entitas untuk mengungkapkan informasi yang memungkinkan pengguna laporan keuangan untuk mengevaluasi signifikansi instrumen keuangan terhadap posisi g g pp dan kinerja keuangan.Signifikansi Instrumen Keuangan Instrumen keuangan signifikan mempengaruhi g g p g posisi keuangan perusahaan. .

Pengungkapan Laporan Posisi Keuangan Kategori Aset Keuangan dan Liabilitas Keuangan Aset Keuangan Atau Liabilitas Keuangan yang Diukur Pada Nilai Wajar Melalui Laporan Laba Rugi Reklasifikasi Penghentian Pengakuan Agunan g Penyisihan Kerugian Kredit Instrumen Keuangan Majemuk Dengan Beberapa D i tif M l k t B b Derivatif Melekat Wanprestasi Dan Pelanggaran .

Pos-pos Penghasilan.Pengungkapan Laporan Laba Rugi Komp. Beban. Keuntungan atau Kerugian Pengungkapan Lainnya Kebijakan Akuntansi Akuntansi Lindung Nilai Nilai Wajar .

Jenis dan Tingkat Risiko yang Timbul Pengungkapan Kualitatif g g p Pengungkapan Kuatitaif Risiko kredit Aset keuangan yang melewati jatuh tempo atau mengalami penurunan nilai Agunan dan peningkatan kualitas kredit yang diperoleh Risiko likuiditas Risiko Pasar Analisis Sensitivitas Pengungkapan risiko pasar lainnya .

disclosures which of the following best describes the risk that an entity will encounter if it has difficulty in meeting obligations associated with its financial liabilities? A Liquidity risk.Review In accordance with IFRS7 Financial instruments: disclosures. q y B Credit risk C Financial risk D Payment risk 165 .

2010 ct.Main References Standar Akuntansi Keuangan g Dewan Standar Akuntansi Keuangan Materi Publik hearing PSAK 50. Enrst & Young IAS Plus International Financial Reporting Standards – Certificate Learning Material The Institute of Chartered Accountants. 55 dan 60 IFRS Deloitte Slide Sharing Session Overview on the Impac of PSAK 50 and 55 (Revised 2006)Per June 28. England and Wales 166 .

id atau dwimartani@yahoo.ac.TERIMA KASIH Dwi Martani Departemen Akuntansi FEUI martani@ui.com 08161932935 167 .

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