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Ti chnh cng Nghin cu tnh hng

Ci cch thu ru bia Thi Lan

Ci cch thu ru bia Thi Lan: Nhng li ch v mc tiu i khng


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Gn cui thng Tm nm 2005, B trng Ti chnh c k hoch gp Th tng trc cuc hp Ni cc vo u thng Chn ti quyt nh cch sa i sc thu tiu th c bit nh vo ru bia hin hnh Thi Lan. Vic ct gim thu thu nhp c nhn v doanh nghip, cc k hoch chi tiu y tham vng ca chnh ph, tr gip ti chnh cho cc cng dn b nn sng thn hi thng Mi hai nm 2004, chi ph tng cao trong h thng chm sc y t quc gia, v sc p ca cng chng i ct gim tnh trng s dng ru bia ca ngi Thi, tt c gp phn vo quyt nh ca chnh ph nhm nghin cu xem xt vic tng thu nh vo bia ru. Qu 4 nm 2004, chnh ph trin khai nhiu bin php dn sinh trc cuc bu c quc hi ang tin gn ti vo thng Hai nm 2005 nhm tranh th c tri. Chnh ph ha tng mc chi tiu nh nc vo cc d n h tng quy m ln v h tr pht trin kinh t c s tr gi khong ba ngn t Bt (tng ng 74 t -la M, tnh theo t gi 40 Bt 1 n 1 -la M). Ngoi ra, trong thng Mi 2004, Ni cc cng thng qua mt ngh quyt nhm xem xt gim thu thu nhp cho ngi c thu nhp thp v cc doanh nghip nh. Thm vo , thng Ging nm 2005, Ni cc thng qua gi cu tr tr gi 60 t Bt dnh cho nhng c nhn v cc doanh nghip Thi b nh hng ca sng thn, v hon tr chi ph cho cc hng hng khng a nhng ngi sng st tr v qu hng min 2 ph . Nhng chnh sch ny tng p lc khin chnh ph phi tm cch tng ngun thu cho ngn sch. Sau khi c c vo thng Hai nm 2005, chnh ph mi phi i mt vi mt thch thc khc. Chi ph ngy cng tng cho chng trnh y t quc gia i hi h tr nhiu hn na t ngn sch nh nc. Cc An ninh Sc khe Quc gia thuc B Y T Cng cng thng bo rng hng nm s cn thm khong 50 t Bt ti tr cho chng trnh chm sc y 3 t quc dn . Chnh ph bn lun c nn hay khng nn tng thu ru bia, cng nh thu tiu th c bit nh vo thuc l c tin ti tr cho chng trnh. Thng Su nm 2005, B Ti Chnh ra thng bo rng chnh ph Thi ang xem xt sa i thu tiu th c bit nh vo ru bia nhm gim mc tiu th ca ngi Thi, c bit l gii tr. Khung thu ru bia hin ti nh hu ht cc quc gia pht trin khng n thun da trn dung tch tht ca ru trong chai. ng ra, l mt h thng nh thu kt hp tnh thu tiu th c bit da trn c gi bn ru ln nng cn, min sao mang li ngun thu ln hn cho chnh ph. iu ny dn ti tnh trng mt s loi ru bia c hm lng cn thp li b nh thu cao hn cc loi ru bia c hm lng cn cao m bn vi gi r hn.
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Tnh hung ny c vit bi Aswin Techajareonvikul di s gim st ca Jay K. Rosengard, Ging vin chnh sch cng ti Trng Qun l Nh nc John F. Kennedy v Gim c Chng trnh khu vc ti chnh ca Trung tm Kinh doanh v Chnh ph, i hc Harvard. (1206) 1 Bo co quc gia Thi Lan thng Mi mt nm 2004, n v thng tin kinh t. 2 Bo co quc gia Thi Lan thng Ging nm 2005, n v thng tin kinh t. 3 Thai News Service, 21 thng Ging, 2005.

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gii quyt vn , cng chng cng nh cc vin nghin cu yu cu chnh ph noi theo hng i ca phn ln cc quc gia pht trin l p dng mt loi thu thun ty da trn nng cn m thi. Cng ty Bia Trch nhim Hu hn Boon Rawd sn xut ra bia Singha, mt trong nhng nh sn xut bia hng u ca Thi Lan rt hoan nghnh bc i ny ca chnh ph nhm sa i c cu thu ru bia da trn nng cn, v h ni rng khung thu ngh l ph hp vi cc tiu chun quc t cc nc nh Php, an 4 Mch, Phn Lan, v Anh Quc (xem Bng I) . Ba phng n chn la Vo thng By nm 2005, Cc Thu Tiu th c bit thuc B Ti chnh xut ba phng n la chn ci cch thu ru bia trong n lc nhm qun bnh cc mc tiu i khng: gim tnh trng s dng ru bia, bo v ngnh cng nghip ru bia ni a, v ti thiu ha tc ng ca vic thi hnh thu tiu th c bit i vi ngun thu ca ngn sch chnh ph. Phng n u tin l thu thu theo nng cn nguyn cht c trong tt c cc loi ru bia, da trn gi thanh ton l 500 Bt mt lt ru c nng cn nguyn cht. Phng n th hai l p dng mt thang thu tiu th ly tin tnh theo loi ru, kt hp thu tnh trn nng cn vi thu tnh theo gi c. Ru bia c di 8% cn s b tnh thu sut l 400 Bt mt lt cn nguyn cht, cng thm 55% gi tr. Thu nh vo ru bia c cn t 8 n 15% theo dung tch s l 600 Bt mt lt cn nguyn cht, cng thm 60% gi tr. Cn cc loi trn 15% theo dung tch cn th s tr thu tiu th c bit vi thu sut l 800 Bt mt lt cn nguyn cht cng thm 60% gi tr. Phng n cui cng tng t nh phng n th hai nhng c thu sut thp hn. Cc loi ru bia c cn thp hn 8% s b tnh thu 100 Bt mt lt cn nguyn cht, cng thm 60% gi tr. Cc loi ru c 15% cn theo dung tch v trn na th s b tnh thu sut l 250 Bt mt lt cn nguyn cht, cng thm 55% gi tr. D Ni cc c la chn phng n no i na th iu y cng s tc ng n ngi tiu dng v cc nh sn xut ru bia ni a, cng nh ngn sch chnh ph, bi v thu ru bia vn lun l ngun thu rt n nh cho ngn sch (xem Bng II). Bi cnh Trong qu kh, chnh ph iu tit nghim ngt ngnh cng nghip ru bia v kim sot mc thu tiu th c bit nh vo cc sn phm ru bia v hai l do. Th nht, thu ru bia c vai tr l ngun thu ngn sch n nh cho chnh ph. Trong nm ti kha 2004 (t thng Mi 2003 n thng Chn nm 2004), chnh ph thu c khong 69 t Bt thu tiu th c bit t sn xut v bun bn ru bia, chim khong 25% tng 5 thu tiu th c bit thu c hay 7% tng thu ngn sch ca chnh ph (xem Bng III). Th hai, chnh ph c mt mc tiu x hi: ci thin li ch kinh t x hi cho nhn dn, v duy tr lut php v trt t. Vic s dng ru bia qu c th gy ra hu qu tiu cc tim tng khng ch cho c nhn thi m cn cho x hi ni chung na. Bn phn v
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Thai News Service, thng Su nm 2005. 5 B Ti Chnh Thi Lan.

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Ci cch thu ru bia Thi Lan

trch nhim ca chnh ph l bo m hnh vi c trch nhim ca cng dn thng qua lut l v quy nh. Thng Hai nm 2005, B Ti Chnh thng bo trong bn thng u ca nm ti kha 2005 (t thng Mi 2004 n thng Ging nm 2005), Cc Thu Tiu th c bit thu c 6,9 t Bt, hay thp hn mc tiu ban u 6,7% m nguyn nhn ch yu l do nhng thay i trong c cu thu xe hi, cng nh c chin dch ca B Y T Cng Cng 6 tuyn truyn gim bt s dng thc ung c cn v thuc l . Tin tc cho rng Cc Thu Tiu th c bit ang nghin cu p dng mc thu cao nh vo vic kinh doanh ru bia vo nm 2005 gy ra v s d lun khc nhau. Nhng nh ph bnh xem nh l mt th nghim khc ca chnh ph nhm t c s thu ngn sch cp thit cho cc d n h tng c phc tho, trong lc nhng ai quan ngi nn say ru li xe li ng h bc i ny cho l phng tin ci thin tnh hnh y t quc dn bng cch gim bt s dng ru bia. Nm 2003, ngi Thi tiu th chng 7,9 t lt ru bia, tng 44,5% so vi nm 1993, cho d c s suy gim tiu th ba nm lin do cuc khng hong kinh t chu . Theo thng k mi nht ca T chc Y T Th gii, Thi Lan xp th nm trn th gii v mc tiu th ru bia tnh trn 7 u ngi. Ngoi ra, cng dn Thi s dng ru bia c xu hng l nhng ngi nm trong gii thu nhp thp nht. Theo mt cuc kho st do Cc Thng k Quc gia Thi Lan tin hnh trong nm 2004 th khong 37% ngi Thi trn 15 tui s dng ru bia c mc thu nhp trung bnh hng thng di 2.500 Bt, trong khi ch khong 13% trong s ny l c thu nhp trung bnh hng thng hn 10.001 Bt (xem Bng IV). Thu ru bia Thu ru bia Thi Lan kh cao v n c dng lm cng c chnh sch kim sot tnh trng s dng ru bia cng nhng vn nn lin quan n ru bia. C nm loi thu nh vo ru bia: 1) thu tiu th c bit, thng c gi l thu ru; 2) thu nhp khu; 3) thu ni a; 4) thu sc khe; 5) thu tr gi gia tng (xem Bng V). Vic thu thu ru bia do B Ti Chnh qun l thng qua ba c quan: 1) Cc Thu Tiu th c bit thu thu tiu th c bit ca mt s mt hng chuyn bit; 2) Cc Hi Quan chu trch nhim thu thu xut nhp khu; v 3) Cc Thu Thu nhp thu thu thu nhp, thu gi tr gia tng, mt loi thu kinh doanh c bit, v thu tem sn phm. - Thu tiu th c bit Thu tiu th c bit mt s quc gia thng c phn thnh bn loi chnh: 1) thu sut chuyn bit; 2) thu sut n nht; 3) thu sut theo gi; v 4) thu sut lin hp. Thu sut chuyn bit da trn nng cn trong ru bia, thng tnh bng n v tin t trn mi lt cn nguyn cht hoc n v tin t trn mi lt theo cn c trong hm lng. Th d nh Hoa K, thu tiu th c bit ca mt hng ru bia c tnh mc 13,50 -la M mt ga-lng cn nguyn cht, trong khi i Loan th thu sut tiu th c bit cho thc ung c cn qua ti ch bin c di

Intellinews-Asia Today, 10 thng Hai, nm 2005. 7 The Nation, 9 thng 3, nm 2005

Bin dch: L Vit nh Hiu nh: H.T.Du

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Ci cch thu ru bia Thi Lan

20% cn l 7 i t mt lt tnh trn mi cn trong hm lng . Thu sut n nht c tnh theo lng ru c nh, bt k hm lng cn l bao nhiu i na. Th d nh Singapore p dng thu tiu th c bit nh vo bia mc 3,70 -la Singapore mt lt, 9 bt k hm lng cn l bao nhiu . Thu sut theo gi c p dng vi t l phn trm gi tr sn phm. Thu sut kt hp l kt hp c ba loi trn. Thi Lan, thu sut kt hp gia hai loi thu sut c bit v thu sut theo gi c dng tnh thu nh vo ru bia. Nhn chung th h thng thu kha Thi Lan kh phc tp v thiu minh bch. Vic thu thu tiu th c bit do Cc Thu Tiu th c bit qun l ring cho cc mt hng ru sn xut trong nc, trong khi Cc Hi Quan thay mt cho Cc Thu Tiu th c bit thu thu tiu th c bit nh vo mt hng ru bia nhp khu. Trong trng hp ru sn xut ni a, thu tiu th c bit c xc nh bng gi tr ln hn ca mt Bt trn lt c cn nguyn cht v thu tnh theo t l phn trm ca gi m n c xc nh bng s ln hn gia gi ti thiu trc khi xut xng do Cc Thu Tiu th c bit thng bo v gi bn ca sn phm. Cc nh sn xut ru bia buc phi ng trc thu tiu th c bit da trn khi lng sn xut nu l bia, v dung tch ng chai nu l ru. Cc nh sn xut c giy php phi ng thu tiu th c bit trc khi vn chuyn ru ra khi xng. Sau khi ng trc thu tiu th c bit ri th tem thu tiu th c bit c dn ln mi chai di s gim st ca cc quan chc ca Cc Thu Tiu th c bit, hoc theo mt cch no khc do b ch nh. Trong trng hp ru nhp khu, th c s tnh thu kinh doanh l gi Ph tn-Bo him-Vn chuyn (gi l CIF) cng thm thu nhp khu, ph y ban u t, v cc thu khc nu c, nhng khng tnh thu Gi tr Gia tng (VAT). Ngha v thu tiu th c bit thi hnh khi sn phm xut ra khi xng ch to hay nh kho thu li trc khi chuyn giao sn phm, sau mi ti ngha v VAT. Cc doanh nghip nhp khu ru ng chai vi dung tch khng qu mt lt cng phi ng thu tiu th c bit bng cch dn tem thu tiu th c bit vo cha trc khi thng quan. Quy nh v ru o lut v ru s 2493 (nm 1950) l vn bn lut chnh chi phi tt c mi hot ng lin quan ti ru bia Thi Lan. Vn bn lut ny cho php b trng ti chnh ban hnh cc quy nh cp b khng ch ht nhng lnh vc nh thu sut nh vo ru bia, v hng dn v cc lut l, iu kin, v yu cu cn c vo m thi hnh. Xt v mt lch s theo o lut v Ru th vic sn xut ru hay s hu mt nh my ru u b cm nu cha c php ca Cc Thu Tiu th c bit, c quan ng vai tr php nhn chnh thc trong cng tc iu tit ngnh cng nghip ch bin ru bia. Tuy nhin vic t do ha ngnh cng nghip ru bia trong nm 1999 cho php ngi c iu kin np n xin giy php sn xut v bun bn ru bia.
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Tin s Somchai Ruchupan, Ch tch Vin Pht trin Siam, Alcohol Products Taxation: International Experieces and Selected Practices in Asia. Bi chun b cho Trung tm Thu v u t Quc t, Hi ngh Thu Tiu th c bit Asia, t ngy 2 n 4 thng Ba nm 2005. 9 Ti liu dn.

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o lut v Ru cung cp c s tnh thu ru bia da trn c cch tnh chiu theo gi v khi lng ca hm lng cn (xem Bng VI). Thu sut p dng s l thu sut mang li ngun thu cao hn cho chnh ph. chi tr thu tnh theo gi, th gi tr ca c s thu tnh nh sau: 1. i vi ru bia sn xut ni a, gi trc khi xut xng. Nu nh khng c gi trc khi xut xng hoc c nhiu gi trc khi xut xng, p dng gi do Tng Cc trng thng bo. 2. i vi ru nhp khu, tng ca gi CIF, thu nhp khu, l ph c bit theo lut qun l xc tin u t v thu v cc l ph khc nu c do Sc lnh Hong gia hng dn, nhng loi tr thu tr gi gia tng. Nhm mc ch tnh thu ru da trn c s chiu theo gi, Cc Thu Tiu th c bit ban hnh nhng thng bo v vic thit lp cc mt bng gi th trng cho mt hng ru bia nhm mc ch tnh thu ru bia, m sau ny c th c tu chnh. Theo o lut v Ru bia th ru bia c phn loi nh sau: 1. 2. Ru bia ln men, ru khng sn xut bng cch chng ct, k c ru ln men pha trn vi ru ct c hm lng cn khng vt qu 15 ; v Ru ct, ru lm bng cch chng ct, k c ru chng ct trn vi ru ln men c nng cn vt qu 15 . Cc phn loi ca ru ct c phn ra nh sau: a) b) c) d) e) Ru -ty-lic, ru ct c nng cn hn 80%; Ru trng, ru ct khng pha trn hoc thm mu c nng cn di 80%; Ru ghp, ru ct lm t ru -ty-lic hoc ru trng c pha trn vi nng cn di 80%; Ru pha, ru ct lm t ru -ty-lic c pha trn c nng cn di 80%; v Ru c bit, ru ct sn xut theo quy trnh c bit c nng cn di 80%, bao gm (i) whisky, brandy, rum, gin hoc cc loi ru ngoi nhp khc; v (ii) ru Cao Lng, Trng Xun, hay cc loi ru tho dc khc ca Trung Quc.

- Thu quan (thu nhp khu): Thu nhp khu c nh vo hng nhp khu, k c cc thc ung c cn. Thi Lan, thu nhp khu do Cc Hi Quan thuc B Ti chnh thu v qun l. Cc Hi Quan thu thu nhp khu vi cc loi ru khc nhau da trn thu sut theo gi hoc thu sut c bit, bt c bn no thu c nhiu tin thu hn cho chnh ph l tnh. Thng th thu sut p dng da trn thu sut theo gi, v cc sn phm nhp khu c gi CIF cao (xem Bng VII).

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- Thu a phng: Thu a phng thng c thu lm ngn sch cho chnh quyn a phng. Tuy nhin k t nm 1984, thay mt B Ni V, Cc Thu Tiu th c bit thu thu a phng nh vo ru bia sn xut trong nc , cn Cc Hi Quan thu thu i phng nh vo ru bia nhp khu. Chnh ph quy nh thu a phng bng 10% ca thu tiu th c bit cho c hai trng hp. - Thu Sc Khe: Thu sc khe l mc thu tnh thm vo ru v thuc l dnh cho T chc Tng Cng Sc Khe ca Thi Lan (Sc Khe ngi Thi). T chc Sc Khe Ngi Thi c thit lp thng qua iu khon T chc Tng Cng Sc Khe trong nm 2001 h tr cc hot ng nng cao sc khe th cht, tr lc, v x hi cho nhn dn Thi. Trong nm 2005, T chc Sc Khe Ngi Thi nhn c khong 55 triu -la M t thu tiu th c bit nh vo thuc l v ru. Thu sc khe nh vo ru bia c tnh mc 2% thu ru bia. - Thu gi tr gia tng: Thu gi tr gia tng (VAT) c thc thi Thi Lan vo nm 1992 thay cho thu doanh thu. Tng Cc Thu chu trch nhim thu v qun l thu VAT. i vi ru bia sn xut a phng th c s tnh thu VAT l tng ca gi tr trc khi xut xng cng vi thu tiu th c bit, v thu a phng, trong khi i vi ru nhp khu th c s tnh thu VAT da trn gi CIF cng vi thu hi quan, thu tiu th c bit, v thu a phng. Vo nm 2005, thu VAT l 7%. Ngnh cng nghip ru bia ca Thi Lan Ngnh cng nghip ru bia ca Thi Lan ch yu l ru chng ct v bia. Nm 2003, hai mt hng ny chim ln lt 31% v 65% dung lng; 38% v 43% gi tr ca tt c 10 cc loi ung c cn c bn (xem Bng VIII v IX) . Hai sn phm ny gp phn rt ln vo s thu ngn sch ca chnh ph t thu tiu th c bit. Th trng bia: Tng th trng bia Thi Lan trong nm 2003 khong chng 155 t 11 Bt vi ba phn khc chnh da trn gi gm: 1) bia bnh dn; 2) bia tiu chun; 3) bia cao cp v siu cao cp. Tt c cc loi bia u c qung co v khuyn mi rm r v c th phn bit chng qua chnh sch tip th v quy cch bao b. - Bia bnh dn: Bia bnh dn l loi sn phm ch yu c gi thp c sn xut trong nc. Nm 2003, phn khc ny chim khong 78% lng bn ra v 47% doanh s 12 Thi Lan (xem Bng X v XI) . Bia bnh dn u cng c bn thng qua rt nhiu i l v c cha trong loi bao b khc nhau, k c chai, lon, v thng. Nh cc thng hiu bnh dn chim phn ln th trng nn cc nh sn xut c th tn dng c li th nh quy m v khuyn mi cng phn phi sn phm ca h trn c nc. Ngi tiu dng phn khc ny rt nhy cm vi gi, m bao gm c nhng ngi thay i s thch chuyn t ru trng gi r sang bia. Gi bn l ph bin cho mt chai 640 ml dao ng t 30 n 35 Bt. Cc nhn hiu bia bnh dn chnh Thi Lan l Chang Beer, Archa Beer, Leo Beer, v Thai Beer.

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Euromonitor, Alcoholic Drinks in Thailand, thng Su, 2005. 11 Ti liu dn. 12 Ti liu dn.

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- Bia tiu chun: Cc loi bia tiu chun c sn xut ch yu trong nc, 13 chim 13 % lng bn ra v 27% doanh thu trong nm 2003 (xem Bng X v XI) . Cc loi bia tiu chun ch yu nhm ti nhm ngi tiu dng th c mi lc ln hn th trng i chng v chng thng c gi cao hn cc loi bnh dn, nhng thp hn cc loi bia cao cp. Gi bn l ph bin cho mt chai 640 ml t 40 n 45 Bt. Cc loi bia tiu chun lun trong th phi ginh git th phn vi c bia bnh dn v bia cao cp nhp khu. Mt trong nhng nhn hiu bia tiu chun thnh hnh Thi Lan l Singha Beer. - Bia cao cp v siu cao cp: Cc loi bia cao cp v siu cao cp chim khong 14 9% lng bn ra v 25 doanh thu trong nm 2003. Phn khc ny ch yu l cc nhn hiu bia quc t. Hu ht cc loi bia cao cp c sn xut trong nc, nhng cc loi bia siu cao cp th thng c nhp khu. Cc loi bia ny ny nhm ti i tng ngi tiu dng th c mi lc tng i cao v du khch. nhng ni ng dn c, mt s lng ln cc nhn hiu cao cp v siu cao cp trn ngp khp ni, c bit trong cc khch sn, nh hng v qun ru. Cc loi bia cao cp t tin hn cc loi bia bnh dn v bia tiu chun kh nhiu. Cc nh sn xut thng s dng cch ng gi cu k nhm thu ht ngi tiu dng th. Gi bn l ph bin cho mt chai 640 ml vo khong 50 Bt. Heineken l loi bia cao cp c a chung nht Thi Lan v c sn xut ngay trong nc. Th trng Ru Th trng ru Thi Lan vo nm 2003 t ti 135 t Bt phn khc chnh: 1. Ru trng v ru tho dc ca Trung Quc; 2. Ru mu, ru whisky trn, v ru scotch whisky pha hoc chun; v 3. Ru cao cp nhp khu (xem Bng XII v XIII). - Ru trng v ru tho dc Trung Quc: Ru trng v ru tho dc Trung Quc l loi ru thnh hnh nht v c gi thp nht Thi Lan. Ru trng c chng ct t mt ma ti a phng, trong khi ru tho dc Trung Quc c sn xut t cn hoc ru trng ngm vi tho dc Trung Quc. Th ru ny ch yu c tiu th cc vng nng thn v c cho l loi ung c cn va ti tin nht. Cc loi ru chnh trong phn khc ny l Ruang Khao, Pai-Thong v Trng Xun. Mc d nhiu ngi tiu dng cng quan tm n ngun gc ca ru bng cch nhn vo bao b ng gi, th nhng nhn hiu cng khng phi l mt yu t quan trng trong phn khc ny so vi cc phn khc khc. Gi bn l ph bin cho mt chai 625 ml dao ng t 50 n 80 Bt i vi ru trng v 75 n 90 Bt i vi ru tho dc
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Ti liu Ti liu Ti liu

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Ti chnh cng Nghin cu tnh hung

Ci cch thu ru bia Thi Lan

Trung Quc. Phm vi gi cho mt mu m ng gi c quyt nh bi cc mc hm lng cn rt a dng, ru c cn cao th t hn ru c cn thp. - Ru mu, Whisky trn, v Scotch Whisky pha hoc chun: Ru mu ch yu l cc loi whisky v rum ni a, chng ct t mt ma hoc np. Mc d ru mu c tiu th trn ton quc, th nhng mi min ca Thi Lan li c s thch khc nhau. Khc vi ru trng v ru tho dc Trung Quc, nhn hiu l mt yu t rt quan trng trong phn khc ny. Cc nhn hiu ph bin gm c Sang Som, Mehkong, v Mungkorn Thong do Cty Hu hn C phn Cng Thai Beverage sn xut. Phn khc ny ngy cng tr thnh ch nhm ca cc cng ty ru quc t. Chin lc ca h l cung ng cc loi whisky pha nhp khu va ti tin (nhng loi pha trn gia cn -ty-lic vi ru mch-nha lu), v ru scotch whisky chun hoc scotch whisky pha nhp khu. Loi ru whisky pha c a chung rng ri nht l Master Blend do hng Pernod Ricard sn xut, trong khi ru scotch pha bn chy nht l 100 Pipers, cng do hng Pernod Ricard sn xut. Cn i vi ru scotch whisky chun hoc pha mang nhn hiu quc t th c Johnny Walker nhn v Spey Royal, c hai u do hng Diageo sn xut. Gi bn l ph bin cho mt chai 700 ml khong 115 n 140 Bt cho cc loi ru mu sn xut trong nc, 150 n 165 Bt cho ru whisky pha, 240 Bt n 290 Bt cho Scotch whisky pha, v xp x 580 Bt cho scotch whisky chun. - Ru Cao cp Nhp khu: Ru cao cp nhp khu gm c tt c cc nhn hiu quc t k c ru trng nhp khu (nh vodka, tequila v gin) v ru mu nhp khu (nh whisky mch nha cao cp, rum, v brandy). Phn khc ny rt manh mm vi v s chng loi quc t trn ngp mi ni, c bit trong cc khch sn, nh hng v qun ru. Ru cao cp nhp khu l mt khc th trng tng i thu hp Thi Lan v chng t hn cc loi chng ct ti a phng rt nhiu v v vy vt qu ti tin ca i a s ngi tiu dng Thi. Cc thng hiu a chung trong chng loi ny gm c Johnny Walker Nhn en (do hng Diageo sn xut), Chivas Regal (do hng Pernod Ricard sn xut), v VSOP (do hng Regency sn xut). Gi bn l cho mt chai 700 ml ru cao cp nhp khu nhn chung trn 500 Bt ty vo cht lng sn phm. Nhng i th chnh trong ngnh Ngnh cng nghip ru bia t lu do chnh ph c quyn kim sot. Mc d ngnh cng nghip ny c t do ha vo thng Ging nm 2000 mi cho cnh tranh, nhng chnh ph vn tip tc duy tr mt ch iu tit cao, v th trng vn cn 16 do mt s cc cng ty ln hn thng tr . Cc hng chnh trong ngnh cng nghip ny Thi Lan l Cng ty Ru Bia Boon Rawd (gi tt l Boon Rawd) v Cng ty Hu hn C phn Cng Thai Beverage (gi tt l Thai Beverage). Trong khi Boon Rawd tp trung vo bia, th Thai Beverage rt mnh c hai th trng bia v ru. Nm 2003, Thai Beverage l cng ty dn u th trng chim khong 70% th phn bia tr gi 170 t
16

Tin s Somchai Ruchupan, Ch tch Vin Pht trin Siam, Alcohol Products Taxation: International Experieces and Selected Practices in Asia, 7 thng Hai, 2005.

Bin dch: L Vit nh Hiu nh: H.T.Du

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Ci cch thu ru bia Thi Lan

Bt ca Thi Lan, trong khi Boon Rawd xp th hai vi khong 20% th phn. Trong 17 cng nm y, Thai Beverage cng nm 57% th trng ru ni a tr gi 135 t Bt . - Boon Rawd: Hng bia u tin ca Thi Lan, Boon Rawd c thnh lp vo nm 1933 do mt ngi thuc dng di qu tc v l mt doanh nhn thnh t, ng Phraya Bhirom Bhakdi. Trong nm 2005, Boon Rawd c ba nh my bia hot ng vi cng sut mi nm khong 800 triu lt, cng vi 6 nh my sn xut nc x-a v nc ung nm ri rc trong nc. Boon Rawd sn xut bia vi nhn tn nh l Singha Beer, Leo Beer, v Thai Beer. Ngoi ra, Boon Rawd cn gia cng cho cc hng Asahi, Mittweida, v Kloster, cng l nh nhp khu c quyn ca hng Miller Lite, Miller Genuine Draft, v Corona Extra Thi Lan (xem Bng XIV). - Thai Beverage: Thnh lp nm 2003 thng qua mt lot nhng ti t chc v cng c, cng ty Thai Beverage l nh sn xut hng u ca Thi Lan trong lnh vc ru bia, v l mt trong nhng hng nu bia v ct ru hng u ca c khu vc ng Nam . Lch s ca cng ty Thai Beverage bt u vo thp nin 1980 khi c ng nm a s c phiu ca cng ty trng thu do chnh ph Thi t chc xy dng v a vo hot ng 12 nh my chng ct Thi Lan. Thai Beverage hin thi s hu v hot ng hai nh my bia c tng cng nng khong 9,7 triu hec-t-lt v 16 nh my chng ct ru c tng cng sut chng 90 triu thng. Cc sn phm chnh ca Thai Beverage vn l ru mnh, nhng n nm 1995, hng tung ra mt hng Chang Beer. Ch cn khong 5 nm, Chang Beer tr thnh mt hng dn u th trng. Cc loi ru mnh ni ting ca Thai Beverage l Sangsom, Mekhong, v Mungkorn Thong. Cc sn phm khc ca Thai Beverage gm c nc ung, nc x-a, v cn cng nghip (xem Bng XV). Chi ph x hi ca tnh trng tiu th ru bia Tiu th ru bia nhiu hn: Nm 2003, B Y T Cng Cng a ra mt bo co cho thy rng ngi dn Thi tiu th cc thc ung c cn ngy mt nhiu hn. Trong thp nin t 1988 cho n 1997, tiu th ru bia tng gp i t 721,8 triu lt n 18 1.604,3 triu lt . Mt cuc kho st do B Y T tin hnh vo gia hai nm 1996 v 1997 cng cho thy rng mt phn ba dn s Thi c ung ru. Mc d n ng c kh nng ung ru bia nhiu gp ph n n bn ln, th nhng trong giai on t 1996 n 2003 th t l dn s n ung ru bia tng ln mi nhm tui, c bit l t tui 19 15 n 19 . Nhng kt qu tng t cng c pht hin qua mt cuc kho st khc do Vin Dn S v Nghin Cu X hi ca i hc Mahidol tin hnh, cho thy rng mt 20 phn ba thanh thiu nin Thi tui t 15 n 24 c ung ru bia (xem Bng XVI) . Ngi dn Thi ni ting l snh t chc l hi, k c l hi truyn thng hoc ca nc ngoi. Theo T chc Lng Nng Th gii th mc tiu th ru bia tnh trn u ngi ca ngi dn Thi trong nm 2000 cn cao hn c Php, Nht, Philippines, v Hoa K

17

Euromonitor, Alcoholic Drinks in Thailand, thng Su, 2005. 18 B Y T Cng Cng, H s Sc kho Thi Lan 20012004. 19 Ti liu dn. 20 Vin Nghin cu Dn s v X hi, i hc Mahidol, Survey of Situation of Thai Youths, 1998.

Bin dch: L Vit nh Hiu nh: H.T.Du

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(xem Bng XVI) . Ngi Thi c mc thu nhp di ra dnh chi xi tng i thp hn cc nc khc; th nhng iu ny khng h to ra vt cn cho nim am m cc thc ung c cn ca h, do ngi tiu dng thng c cho mua chu, c bit l ti nhng ca tim tp ha a phng. Hn na, tnh hnh thc ung c cn l c sn quc gia r tin v gi bia cng r tin nhan nhn khp ni c xu hng thc y nhu cu lp ngi tiu dng c thu nhp thp hn, c bit nhng khu vc nng thn. Tc ng Kinh t Rt kh xc nh tc ng kinh t tht s ca tnh trng tiu th ru bia. Theo mt cuc nghin cu do Tin s Nipon Poapongsakorn tin hnh th chi ph kinh t ca vic tiu th ru bia c tnh vo khong t 13 t Bt cho n 34 t Bt trong nm 2003, hay khong 0,22 n 0,56% ca GDP danh ngha ca nm y (5.930 t Bt). C ba chi ph kinh t chnh lin quan n tnh trng tiu th ru bia: 1) ph tn y t v chi ph thi gian pht sinh do ngi ung b bnh lin quan n ru bia; 2) thit mng v tn tt do cc tai nn lin quan n ru bia; v 3) mt ti sn, ph tn vt cht, v lc c gia nh. Th nhng nghin cu cng ch c tnh hai chi ph u m thi. T 22 n 38% chi ph c tnh l chi ph chm sc y t t, chi ph thi gian dnh cho bnh tt lin quan n ru bia 22 v vng mt c quan, cn phn cn li l nhng thit hi cho x hi. co dn ca cu i vi mt hng ru bia Ru bia rt nhy cm vi gi. Nghin cu Tc ng ca Thu Ru bia i vi Gi v Mc Tiu th Ru bia vo thng Su nm 2005 ca Tin s Nipon Poapongsakorn cng tnh ton cc hm s cu cho hu ht cc thc ung c cn sn xut ti ni a, ngoi tr ru trng. Kt qu cho thy ru co dn theo gi v co dn i vi thu nhp ca n cng ln hn mt. co dn ca cu i vi gi c dnh cho ru trng, ru mu, v bia ln lt l -2,73, -1,56, v -2,68 (xem Bng XVIII). Cc bc k tip B trng Ti Chnh phi tho lun vn ny vi Th tng v phi kt thc trc mt phin hp Ni cc, nh vo ngy 6 thng Mi hai, nm 2005, ra quyt nh cui cng v thu ru bia. Cc nh sn xut ni a tng cng chin dch ku gi thu sut c li cho h, trong khi gii truyn thng tp trung ch vo hu qu s xy ra nu thu sut thay i. C cu thu mi cn phi xt n c nhng mi quan tm ca nhng ngi ch trng sc kho ln li ch ca cc nh sn xut ni a. Chnh ph cn nn xem xt nhng kha cnh no a ra quyt nh y? Chnh ph cn nn cn i cc mc tiu khc nhau nh th no? Cui cng, chnh ph nn chn phng n no y?

21

21

Yonyout Kschondham, Advertisements of Alcoholic Drinks and Losers, T chc Tng cng Sc kho Ngi Thi, 2004. 22 Nghin cu Tc ng ca Thu Ru bia i vi Gi v Mc Tiu th Ru bia vo thng Su, 2005.

10

Bin dch: L Vit nh

Hiu nh: H.T.Du

Chng trnh Ging dy Kinh t Fulbright

Ti chnh cng Nghin cu tnh hung

Ci cch thu ru bia Thi Lan

Bng 1

Thu tiu th c bit mt s quc gia


Thu ru c bit hay Thu tiu th bng % Gi bn l Bia Ru nho Ru mnh 8,0% 20,0% 20,0% 24,0% 25,0% 50,0% 5,8% 9,4% 27,7% 15,0% 15,0% 47,0% 34,2% 17,6% 41,5% 30,0% 45,5% 58,5% 38,0% 36,0% 67,0% 8,8% 3,1% 33,2% 6,6% 0,0% 13,8% 20,0% 40,0% 27,0% 11,0% 0,0% 20,0% 200,0% 200,0% 200,0% 25,0% 30,0% 60,0% 20,0% 9,4% 45,8% 15,3% 20,0% 30,0% 6,2% 0,0% 22,3% 25,9% 33,8% 67,1% khng c thng tin khng c thng tin khng c thng tin khng c thng tin khng c thng tin khng c thng tin

Quc gia Argentina Australia Bulgaria Chile Denmark Dominican Republic Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Jordan Mexico Netherlands Peru Spain Sweden United Kingdom (2) United States (2)

Tem tiu th Khng Khng C Khng C C Khng C Khng C C Khng C Khng C C Khng Khng Khng

Ngun: T chc Y t Th gii, Bo co Tnh hnh Ton cu: Chnh sch v Ru bia, 2004, Ch thch: (1) Bng ny c trch dn bi mt cuc kho st ca WHO tin hnh bng cch t nhng cu hi cho nhiu quc gia khc nhau cung cp cc chi tit v mt thu sut c bit nh vo ru bia hoc thu tiu th c bit tnh theo phn trm ca gi bn l, dnh ring cho mi nhm bia, ru nho, v ru mnh (2) Khng phc p

11

Bin dch: L Vit nh Hiu nh: H.T.Du

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Bng 2

Thu nhp ngn sch v chi tiu cng


(vt: Triu Bt) 1999 Tiu th (1) - T nhn - Chnh ph C cu tng vn c nh T nhn - Xy dng - Thit b Khu vc cng - Xy dng - Thit b Thay i hng tn kho Chi tiu v tiu dng v hnh thnh tng vn Cng thm: Xut khu hng ho v Dch v Chi tiu cho tng sn lng ni a v nhp khu Tr bt : Nhp khu hng ho v Dch v Chi tiu cho tng sn lng ni a Cng thm: Sai bit thng k Tng sn lng ni a (GDP) Thu tiu th c bit tnh theo % ca Thu ngn sch Thu tiu th c bit tnh theo % ca GDP Danh ngha Chi tiu Cng tnh theo % ca GDP Danh ngha
Ngun: Ngn hng Thailand

2000 3.320.732 2.762.925 557.807 1.081.420 679.147 144.411 534.736 402.273 274.786 127.487 42.744 4.444.896 3.287.284 7.732.180 2.862.305 4.869.875 52.856 4.922.731 22,2% 3,4% 15,1%

2001 3.522.129 2.941.012 581.117 1.181.315 784.681 161.735 622.946 396.634 275.025 121.609 55.774 4.759.218 3.380.750 8.139.968 3.047.574 5.092.394 41.108 5.133.502 24,2% 3,7% 15,1%

2002 3.717.175 3.113.524 603.651 1.243.148 865.687 195.909 669.778 377.461 262.731 114.730 56.607 5.016.930 3.499.004 8.515.934 3.134.265 5.381.669 64.374 5.446.043 25,0% 4,0% 16,1%

2003 3.990.999 3.360.621 630.378 1.425.269 1.038.274 241.161 797.113 386.995 263.721 123.274 57.926 5.474.194 3.886.566 9.360.760 3.485.272 5.875.488 54.874 5.930.362 25,5% 4,4 % 17,1%

3.128.154 2.595.113 533.041 965.899 535.537 125.633 409.904 430.362 338.047 92.315 -15.294 4.078.759 2.703.308 6.782.067 2.120.348 4.661.719 -24.640 4.637.079 23,6% 3,6% 15,4%

12

Bin dch: L Vit nh Hiu nh: H.T.Du

Chng trnh Ging dy Kinh t Fulbright

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Bng 3

Phn loi Chi tit Thu Tiu th c bit thng 7 nm 2003


(vt: Triu Bt) Sn phm 1. Du la v cc Sn phm Du la 2. Thuc l 3. Ru 4. Bia 5. Xe hi 6. Thc ung khng cn 7. Thit b in 8. Xe gn my 9. Bnh c-quy 10. Nc hoa 11. Sn phm pha l 12. Thm len 13. Bi l 14. Du thuyn 15. Cht gy tn hi O-zn (CFCs) 16. cm thch v hoa cng ci bin 17. ua nga 18. Gn 19. Hp m v qun ru 20. Nh tm Th hoc tm hi v mt-xa 21. Dch v in thoi 22. Cc loi khc Tng cng Ngun: Cc Thu Tiu th c bit Ni a 6.378.89 2.302,48 1.439,71 3.092,52 4.414,59 592,64 185,82 127,31 24,33 7,28 0,19 1,62 3,24 0,44 0 0 3,17 21,63 4,69 13,08 961,44 16,61 19.591,68 Nhp khu 20,36 614,7 426,31 6,54 762,18 1,13 8,97 0,18 26,63 3,87 1,85 0,1 1,94 5,04 8,9 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,49 1.891,19 Tng cng 6.399.25 2.917,18 1.866,02 3.099,06 5.176,77 593,77 194,79 127,49 50,96 11,15 2,04 1,72 5,18 5,48 8,9 0 3,17 21,63 4,69 13,08 961,44 19,1 21.482,87

Bng 4

T l Cng dn Thi trn 15 tui c S dng Ru bia


Thu nhp thng tnh theo Bt (-la M) (1) < 2.500 Bt (62,5 -la) T 2.501 5.000 Bt (t 62,5 125,0 -la) T 5.001 10.000 Bt (125,0 250,0 -la) > 10.001 Bt (250,0 -la) Tng cng
Ngun: Cc Thng k Quc gia, Thi Lan Ch thch: (1) T gi gi nh 40 Bt n 1 -la M

Tng 37,2% 29,5% 20,5% 12,8% 100,0%

Gii tnh Nam 35,0% 30,1% 21,4% 13,5% 100,0% N 48,9% 26,7% 15,5% 8,9% 100,0%

13

Bin dch: L Vit nh Hiu nh: H.T.Du

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Bng 5

Cc cch tnh mu v thu ru bia


Thu ru bia Sn lng (ml.) Hm lng cn Khi lng I. Thu tiu th c bit a) Da trn thu sut c bit Ti a (Bt / lt cn) Hin hnh (Bt / lt cn) Thu tiu th c bit (Bt) b) Da trn thu sut theo gi Ti a (Bt / lt cn) Hin hnh (Bt / lt cn) Trc khi xut xng hoc gi CIF (1) (Bt) Thu tiu th c bit (Bt) Ru Trng Mu 625 750 40,0% 250 17,5 43,0% 323 138,94 Bia Ghi ch Bia Chang 6.40 Tnh theo chai 6,4% 41 5,91

Tnh theo chai p dng mc ln hn gia Thu sut c bit v Thu sut theo gi Thu sut lut nh Thu sut p dng Thu sut p dng * Lng cn Thu sut lut nh Thu sut p dng Thu sut p dng * Gi trc khi xut xng hoc gi CIF 60% ca gi CIF dnh cho ru nhp khu 10% ca Thu tiu th c bit 2% ca Thu tiu th c bit 7% ca gi sau thu Khng tnh bn s v bin t bn l

400 70 17,50

400 240 77,40

100 100 4,1

50% 25% 24,9 6,24

50% 50% 277,87 138,94

60% 55% 10,75 5,91

II. Thu quan nhp khu III. Thu ni a IV. Thu sc kho V. Thu gi tr gia tng (VAT) Thu sut VAT Gi c sau thu (Bt) Tng s thu nh vo ru bia (Bt)

0,0 1,75 0,35 2,33 7% 33,30 21,93

166,72 13,89 2,78 42,01 7% 600,20 364,34

0,0 0,59 0,12 1,22 7% 17,37

7,84 I+II+III+IV+V

Ghi ch: (1) Trung tm nghin cu v ru

14

Bin dch: L Vit nh Hiu nh: H.T.Du

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Bng 6

Thu sut ca thu tiu th c bit


Loi ru bia Ru bia ln men: Bia Ru nho v ru mu lm t nho Ru ln men ni a Loi khc Ru chng ct: Ru trng Ru hn hp Ru pha Ru c bit Brandy Whisky Loi khc Ngun: Cc Thu Tiu th c bit, B Ti chnh Thu sut theo gi % 55% 60% 25% 25% 25% 50% 50% 40% 50% 50% Thu sut c bit Bt / n v 100 100 70 70 70 240 400 400 400 400

Bng 7

Thu nhp khu i vi cc loi ru khc nhau


Sn phm Brandy Ru Trung Quc Gin Ru mnh Cc loi ru mnh khc Rum Xa-k Whisky Ngun: Cc Hi quan, B Ti chnh Thu sut c bit (Bt / lt) 120 120 120 120 120 120 10 120 Thu sut theo gi (% ca gi tr CIF) 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60%

15

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Bng 8

Doanh s thc ung c cn tnh theo nhm v khi lng


(vt: Triu lt) 1999 Bia Ru to / ru l Thc ung c cn c gia thm hng Ru nho Ru mnh 828,1 10,5 39,9 610,5 2000 921,5 11,8 47,2 663,8 2001 1.072,60 14,6 52,8 680,6 2002 1.285,70 17 59 670 2003 1.420,30 19,1 62,4 676,4

Tng thc ung c cn 1.489,10 1.644,20 1.820,60 2.031,80 2.178,30 Ngun: Thng k chnh thc (Phng Thu Tiu th c bit, Cc Hi quan), Bo ch Thng mi (Brandage Magazine, DB Asia, Economics Magazine, Justdrinks,com, Krungthep Turakij, Prachachart Turakij, Siam Future Development, Siam Turakij, Thansettakij, Thai Farmers Bank Research Center, The Nation), nghin cu cng ty, phng vn thng mi.

Bng 9

Doanh s thc ung c cn tnh theo nhm v gi tr


(vt: Triu Bt) Bia Ru to / ru l Thc ung c cn c gia thm hng Ru nho Ru mnh 1999 115.091,2 940,1 42.455,7 107.471,6 2000 118.571,4 1.046,9 52.402,3 118.922,9 2001 128.543,2 1.475,7 59.918,9 125.556,5 2002 144.280,7 1.888,0 64.344,2 131.801,5 2003 154.459,2 2.291,6 68.065,9 135.358,1

Tng doanh s thc ung c cn 265.958,6 290.943,5 315.494,3 342.314,4 360.174,8 Ngun: Thng k chnh thc (Cc Thu Tiu th c bit, Cc Hi Quan), Bo ch Thng mi (Brandage Magazine, DB Asia, Economics Magazine, Justdrinks,com, Krungthep Turakij, Prachachart Turakij, Siam Future Development, Siam Turakij, Thansettakij, Thai Farmers Bank Research Center, The Nation), nghin cu cng ty, phng vn thng mi.

16

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Bng 10

Doanh s bia tnh theo phn nhm (Sub Sector): tng khi lng 19992003
vt: Triu lt Lager (Bia ) - Cao cp - Tiu chun - Bnh dn en Bia Stout (Mnh) Khng cn / cn thp 1999 825 84 272 468 0 2 0 2000 918 104 219 594 0 3 0 2001 1.069 109 206 753 0 3 0 2002 1.282 120 194 967 0 3 0 2003 1.410 128 186 1.102 0 3 0

Tng 828 921 1.072 1.285 1.420 Ngun: Thng k chnh thc (Cc thu tiu th c bit, Cc hi quan), bo ch thng mi (Brandage Magazine, DB Asia Economics Magazine, Justdrink.com, Krungthep Turakij, Prachachart Turakij, Siam Future Development, Siam Turakij, Thansettakij, Thai Farmars Bank)

Bng 11

Doanh s bia tnh theo phn nhm (Sub Sector): Tng gi tr 19992003
vt: Triu Bt Lager (Bia ) - Cao cp - Tiu chun - Bnh dn en Bia Stout (Mnh) Khng cn / cn thp 1999 114.123,7 24.779 59.311 30.033 0 967 0 2000 117.496,9 30.754 48.139 38.602 0 1.074 0 2001 127.434,5 32.473 45.547 49.413 0 1.108 0 2002 143.117,3 36.261 43.373 63.482 0 1.163 0 2003 153.265,3 38.660 42.170 72.434 0 1.193 0

Tng 115.091,2 118.571,4 128.543,1 144.280,7 154.459,2 Ngun: Thng k chnh thc (Cc thu tiu th c bit, Cc hi quan), bo ch thng mi (Brandage Magazine, DB Asia Economics Magazine, Justdrink.com, Krungthep Turakij, Prachachart Turakij, Siam Future Development, Siam Turakij, Thansettakij, Thai Farmars Bank)

17

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Bng 12

Doanh s ru tnh theo phn nhm (Sub Sector): Tng khi lng 19992003
vt: Ngn lt 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Whisk(e)y 14.722,7 18.145,4 23.890,9 32.965,3 37.578,0 - Whisky mch nha Scotch 93,4 86,5 88,9 87,2 91,3 - Whisky Scotch pha 14.414,4 16.632,0 22.059,4 30.797,6 35.161,7 - Bourbon / whiskey M khc 214,9 212,8 196,0 203,8 209,9 - Whisky Nht 0,0 1.214,1 1.546,6 1.876,7 2.115,1 Brandy v Cognac 5.220,6 5.814,7 6.094,2 6.220,9 6.389,3 - Brandy 5.012,6 5.581,4 5.827,5 5.928,9 6.090,8 - Cognac 208,0 233,3 266,7 292,0 298,5 Ru trng nhp khu 564,7 809,5 1.061,4 1.360,5 1.611,3 - Gin 283,5 358,1 473,4 609,7 705,5 - Vodka 281,2 451,4 588,0 750,8 905,8 Rum 118,6 147,4 189,7 228,3 249,2 - Rum trng 91,1 119,2 161,3 198,8 217,4 - Rum en 27,5 28,2 28,4 29,5 31,8 Tequila (v mezcal) 264,2 353,3 409,5 465,3 496,8 Ru mi 399,7 464,9 533,4 587,5 601,8 - Ru mi gc kem 52,4 58,6 60,7 61,7 63,5 - Ru mi ng 47,2 54,1 71,6 74,4 77,8 - Cc loi ru mi khc 300,1 352,2 401,1 451,4 460,5 Cc loi ru khc (k c ru 589.250,5 638.020,3 648.455,1 628.217,2 629.512,5 trng ni a) Tng 610.541,0 663.755,5 680.634,2 670.045,0 676.438,9 Ngun: Thng k chnh thc (Cc Thu Tiu th c bit, Cc Hi Quan), Bo ch Thng mi (Brandage Magazine, DB Asia, Economics Magazine, Justdrinks,com, Krungthep Turakij, Prachachart Turakij, Siam Future Development, Siam Turakij, Thansettakij, Thai Farmers Bank Research Center, The Nation), nghin cu cng ty, phng vn thng mi.

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Bng 13

Doanh s ru tnh theo phn nhm (Sub Sector): Tng gi tr 19992003


tnh theo triu Bt 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Whisk(e)y 14.472,0 17.665,3 23.293,6 31.327,3 35.509,1 - Whisky mch nha Scotch 172,5 159,5 164,8 161,7 170,7 - Whisky Scotch pha 14.061,3 16.215,7 21.560,8 29.341,8 33.280,5 - Bourbon / whiskey M khc 238,2 234,4 217,5 226,6 233,9 - Whisky Nht 0,0 1.055,7 1.350,5 1.597,2 1.824,0 Brandy v Cognac 3.919,1 4.443,5 4.793,6 5.158,8 5.369,9 - Brandy 3.464,7 3.932,8 4.204,8 4.508,8 4.701,2 - Cognac 454,4 510,7 588,8 650,0 668,7 Ru trng nhp khu 721,7 1,007,5 1,298,9 1,680,5 2,030,1 - Gin 266,5 320,1 400,9 518,7 608,0 - Vodka 455,2 687,4 898,0 1,161,8 1,422,1 Rum 115,7 145,6 189,9 235,1 259,9 - Rum trng 90,3 119,7 163,6 207,0 229,0 - Rum en 25,4 25,9 26,3 28,1 30,9 Tequila (v mezcal) 392,8 551,4 656,7 774,1 846,6 Ru mi 617,3 716,5 837,5 930,2 958,4 - Ru mi gc kem 65,2 73,8 76,7 78,3 80,9 - Ru mi ng 52,8 61,0 81,9 84,6 87,2 - Cc loi ru mi khc 499,3 581,7 678,9 767,3 790,3 Cc loi ru khc (k c ru 87.232,9 94.393,0 94.486,3 91.695,6 90.384,1 trng ni a) Tng 107.471,5 118.922,8 125.556,5 131.801,6 135.358,1 Ngun: Thng k chnh thc (Cc Thu Tiu th c bit, Cc Hi Quan), Bo ch Thng mi (Brandage Magazine, DB Asia, Economics Magazine, Justdrinks,com, Krungthep Turakij, Prachachart Turakij, Siam Future Development, Siam Turakij, Thansettakij, Thai Farmers Bank Research Center, The Nation), nghin cu cng ty, phng vn thng mi.

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Bng 14

Cc mt hng ca hng Boon Rawd


Bia Lager Singha
Bia lager cao cp nu t nhng thnh phn cht lng cao nht, "Singha" l loi bia nguyn cht 100% mch nha la mch mi v m thm ngon c sc cng thm hng ht b mnh m. Bia ti Singha Tch t mi v ti ngon ca bia ti vo trong lon , Bia ti Singha s dng quy trnh cht lc v thanh trng c bit bo m cht lng v v ti ngon lin tc. Bia ti Lager Loi bia ti Singha khng kh trng theo phng php Pasteur cung cp tinh tu ca bia ti trong thng thc s m v ti mt. Bia Leo "Bia Leo l mt loi bia mang y hng v c hu m du d chu.

Quy cch
Lon 330 ml. Chai 355 ml. Chai 630 ml. Quy cch

Nng cn

6,0%

Nng cn

Lon 330 ml.

5,0%

Quy cch

Nng cn

Thng 30 lt

6,0%

Quy cch Chai/lon 330 ml.

Nng cn

6,0% Chai 630 ml. Thai Beer Mt loi bia siu mnh c 6,5 trng khi cn. Quy cch Lon 330 ml. 6,0% Chai 630 ml. Kloster Beer Mt loi bia lager cao cp quc t cung cp hng v tinh t v m du. Quy cch Chai/lon 330 ml. 5,2 % Chai 630 ml.

Nng cn

Nng cn

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Bng 15

Cc mt hng ca hng Thai Beverage


White Spirits 40 Degrees Ru Trng c hm lng cn 40 c ch to bng mt quy trnh ln men c bit s dng nhng thnh phn cht lng chn lc cao cp nht, Thnh phn ch yu l mt ma. Quy cch Chai 150 ml. Chai 330 ml. Chai 625 ml. Ru Rum Sang Som L nhn hiu ru mu ca cng ty v nhn hiu ru mu hng u ca Thi Lan, ru rum Sang Som Rum L loi rum c cha 40% hm lng cn pha trn vi cn -ty-lic cht lng cao cng ru mnh 5 nm tui ng trong thng bng g si. Quy cch Chai 300 ml. Chai 350 ml. Chai 700 ml. Chai 750 ml. Mehkong Rum Ru rum Mehkong l nhn hiu ru mu bn chy hng th ba ca Thi Lan v nc ting nh vo hnh nh biu tng cho ru rum Thi Lan, Mehkong l ru rum mnh pha trn c 35% hm lng cn pha vi ru -ty-lic cht lng cao. Quy cch Chai 188 ml. Chai 375 ml. Chai 750 ml. Ru rum Mungkorn Thong Ru rum Mungkorn Thong (hay cn gi l Rng Vng) l mt loi rum c 35% hm lng cn pha trn t ru -ty-lic cht lng cao vi nhng thnh phn v tho dc c tuyn chn c bit. Bia Chang ot Huy chng Vng ti gii thng Bia Quc t Australia vo nm 1998, Bia Chang l mt loi bia bnh dn c ch to bng quy trnh cht lng cao vi nhng thnh phn c tuyn chn c bit, nh mch nha nhp khu t chu u v ht-b t Hoa K. Shinobu Sake Ru Xa-k Shinobu c sn xut t loi go Japanika, l chng loi go cht lng cao nht dng sn xut ru xa-k. Quy cch Chai 188 ml. Chai 375 ml. Chai 750 ml. Quy cch Chai/lon 330 ml. 6,4% Chai 640 ml. 35,0% 40,0% 40,0%

Nng cn

Nng cn

Nng cn

35,0%

Nng cn

Nng cn

Quy cch

Nng cn

Chai 330 ml.

15,0

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Bng 16

T l s dng ru bia trong dn chng c tui t 11 tr ln


Nhm tui (nm) 1991 1996 2001 2003

Tng cn Ngun: Mt bng ti phn tch ca C s D liu Kho st Sc kho v An sinh ca B Y T Cng Cng.

Bng 17

Mc tiu th Ru bia hng nm tnh trn u ngi

Ngun: C s d liu tiu th ru ca WHO, c cp trong Yongyout Kachondham, Advertisements and Consumption of Alcohol and Losses, T chc xc tin sc khe Thi Lan, 2003.

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Bng 18

co dn ca cu i vi thc ung c cn
co dn ca cu Ru mu Ru trng Bia Ru mnh nhp khu Ru nho nhp khu

Gi ca Ru mu -1,56 3,77 0,32* Ru trng 1,06 -2,73* 1,25* Bia -0,17 1,3 -2,68 Ru mnh nhp khu -0,61 Ru nho nhp khu -0,6 Thu nhp 1,5 2,61 1,1 0,29 2,83 Qung co -0,02* -0,15* 0,11* 0,24 0,22 Ngun: Tin s Nipon Poapongsakorn, Tc ng ca Thu Ru i vi Gi Ru v Mc Tiu th Ru (Thng Su, 2005) Ch thch: (*) Chnh lch khng ng k theo con s thng k tnh t 0 mc tin cy l 95%.

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11-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-49 50-59 > 60 g

Nam 0,0 21,7 59,5 66,7 68,6 66,2 65,1 56,1 38,0 53,7

N 0,0 2,1 5,4 9,2 11,9 15,3 15,6 14,2 8,5 9,5

Nam 0,2 20,8 56,0 67,6 67,7 69,0 65,8 59,9 36,8 50,1

N 0,1 1,0 5,7 6,9 9,5 12,2 12,9 10,1 6,3 7,4

Nam 0,0 19,9 55,8 68,1 67,0 69,2 67,5 58,7 37,0 55,9

N 0,0 1,9 7,2 10,2 12,3 14,2 14,2 11,5 5,7 9,8

Nam 0,5 33,5 70,4 75,7 76,5 73,3 73,0 64,5 41,9 60,8

N 0,4 5,6 11,8 16,8 20,0 19,2 21,7 14,4 8,6 14,5