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Passive Fire Protection of Civilian Buildings
Passive fire protection (PFP)
is an integral component of the three components of structural fire protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slow the spread, through use of fire resistant walls, floors, and doors (amongst other examples). PFP systems must comply with the associated Listing and approval use and compliance in order to provide the effectiveness expected by building codes.
. is a system that includes: Active fire protection.Structural fire protection Fire protection in a building. offshore facility or a ship. which can include manual or automatic fire detection and fire suppression.
Structural fire protection Passive fire protection. prevents or slows the spread of fire from the room of fire origin to other building spaces. Organization into smaller fire compartments. limiting building damage and providing more time to the building occupants for emergency evacuation or to reach an area of refuge. which includes compartmentalisation of the overall building through the use of fire-resistance rated walls and floors. . consisting of one or more rooms or floors.
.Structural fire protection Fire prevention includes minimizing ignition sources. as well as educating the occupants and operators of the facility. and emergency procedures including notification for fire service response and emergency evacuation. ship or structure concerning operation and maintenance of fire related systems for correct function.
such as fire dampers. in most countries. Fire testing involves live fire exposures upwards of 1100 °C. follow suit in the main intentions of the basic standard for walls and floors. fire doors. . This is based. which is considered the critical temperature for structural steel. on the basic test standards for walls and floors. More items than just fire exposures are typically required to be tested to ensure the survivability of the system under realistic conditions. above which. etc. depending on the fire-resistance rating and duration one is after. 550 °C. floors and electrical circuits required to have a fireresistance rating) or ca. leading to collapse..Main characteristics The aim for passive fire protection systems is typically demonstrate in fire testing the ability to maintain the item or the side to be protected at or below either 140 °C (for walls. Smaller components. it is in jeopardy of losing its strength.
water can be seen to boil out of a slab. Gypsum wall board typically loses all its strength during a fire. The chemically bound water inside these materials sublimes. During fire testing of concrete floor slabs. The use of endothermic materials is established and proven to be sound engineering practice.Main characteristics To accomplish these aims. the unexposed side cannot exceed the boiling point of water. During this process. common endothermic building materials include concrete and gypsum wallboard. many different types of materials are employed in the design and construction of systems. . however. Once the hydrates are spent. the temperature on the unexposed side of an endothermic fire barrier tends to rise rapidly. For instance. Too much water can be a problem.
Main characteristics Concrete slabs that are too wet. they on their own bear no rating. that whatever the nature of the materials. which is why test laboratories insist on measuring water content of concrete and mortar in fire test specimens. The point is. however. PFP measures can also include intumescents and ablative materials. which bear a rating when installed in accordance with certification listings or established catalogues. They must be organised into systems. before running any fire tests. will literally explode in a fire. .
Main characteristics Passive Fire Protection measures are intended to contain a fire in the fire compartment of origin. are tested to determine the fire resistance rating of the final assembly. 2. 4 hour). as determined the local building code and fire code. 3. A certification listing provides the limitations of the rating. usually expressed in terms of hours of fire resistance (e. Passive fire protection measures.g. 1 1/2.. 1. 1/3. and fire doors. thus limiting the spread of fire and smoke for a limited period of time. . 3/4. fire walls. such as firestops.
which must move. which swell. in order to function. .Main characteristics Contrary to active fire protection measures. passive fire protection means do not typically require electric or electronic activation or a degree of motion. excluding grease ducts) and fire door closers. as well as all intumescent products. thus move. open and shut in order to work. Exceptions to that particular rule of thumb are fire dampers (fire-resistive closures within air ducts.
There are mainly two types of PFP. as the name suggest remains silent in your coating system till the eventuality of a fire. Moreover if the environment is corrosive in nature. as there are possibility of water seeping into (because of the porous nature of vermiculite) and there is little scope to monitor the corrosion aspects. but is very crude and aesthetically unpleasant. In vermiculite fire protection. Intumescent fire protection and vermiculite fire protection. then vermiculite option is not an advisable option.Main characteristics Passive fire protection (PFP). Intumescent fire proofing is a layer of paint which is applied along with the coating system on the structural steel members. this is a cheaper options as compared to an intumescent one. mostly a very thick layer. the structural steel members are covered with vermiculite materials. . The thickness of this intumescent coating is dependent on the steel section used.
Intumescent coatings are applied as an intermediate coat in a coating system (primer. nice finish.Main characteristics For calculation of DFT (dry film thickness) a factor called Hp/A (heated perimeter divided by cross sectional area) is used. Because of the relatively low thickness of this intumescent coating (350-700 micrometers). it should be noted that in the eventuality of a fire. PFP systems can provide fire ratings of up to 120 minutes and even more. PFP systems are highly recommended in infrastructure projects as they can save precious human lives and assets. The PFP system will only delay this by creating a layer of char in between the steel and fire. intermediate and top/finish coat). . intumescent coatings are preferred aesthetically and performance-wise. and anti-corrosive nature. the steel structure will eventually collapse once the steel attains the critical core temperature (around 450 degrees Celsius or 850 degrees Fahrenheit). Depending upon the requirement.
for instance. It forms part of a fire-resistance rated wall or floor and this wall or floor forms part of a fire compartment. . can also be seen as a system. as a whole. An installed firestop. which. which forms an integral part of the overall fire safety plan of the building. is a system that is based upon a product certification listing.Main characteristics PFP in a building can be described as a group of systems within systems.
Examples This I beam has a fireproofing material sprayed onto it as a form of passive fire protection. .
.glass using multilayer intumescent interlayer technology to meet the test standards. The International Building Codes (IBC) allows this glass to be installed as a fire-rated wall. They can also be used to eliminate the need for sprinklers.Examples fire-resistance rated walls Firewalls not only have a rating. this will not affect the other side. Fire-resistance glass . as a trade-off. and can be used in 60 minute and 120 minute fire resistance rated assemblies. The glass is optically clear. they are also designed to sub-divide buildings such that if collapse occurs on one side.
avoids the passage of fire. The PYRANOVA® Planline system provides fire protection with an appealing look in which the glazing fits flush to the frame construction.Examples SCHOTT PYRANOVA® . applied in fire resistant glazing. which foams in the case of fire. PYRANOVA® meets the safety and insulated fire resistant requirements of many applications. .Special glass for integrity and insulation fire resistant glazing. is incorporated between the panes. in double glazed or butt jointed systems. laminated composite glass. consisting of at least two float glass panes. PYRANOVA® fire-resistant glass is a clear. PYRANOVA®. A transparent fire resistant layer. smoke and heat radiation.
. apartments on one side and stores on the other side of the occupancy separation. for instance a 2 hour closure is acceptable for use in a 3 hour fire separation. The lowered rating is then referred to as a fire protection rating. so long as the fire separation is not an occupancy separation or firewall. Canada de-rates closures. both for firestops. For instance. where different uses are on each side. where.Examples fire-resistance rated floors occupancy separations (barriers designated as occupancy separations are intended to segregate parts of buildings. unless they contain plastic pipes and regular closures. closures (fire dampers) Sometimes firestops are treated in building codes identically to closures.
grease ducts are made of minimum 16 gauge (1. .6 mm) sheet metal. whereby the ducting is either inherently manufactured to have a specific fireresistance rating. and certified openings for cleaning. all welded. deep fryers and doubledecker and conveyor-equipped pizza ovens to grease duct fans.Examples firestops grease ducts (These refer to ducts that lead from commercial cooking equipment such as ranges. In North America. OR it is ordinary 16 gauge ductwork with an exterior layer of purposemade and certified fireproofing.
Examples cable coating (application of fire-retardants. valves. electrical or mechanical services. liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vessels. bulkheads or decks below either 140 °C for electrical items or ca. to reduce flamespread and smoke development of combustible cable-jacketing) spray fireproofing (application of intumescent or endothermic paints. which are either endothermic or intumescent. vessel skirts. or fibrous or cementitious plasters to keep substrates such as structural steel. 500 °C for structural steel elements to maintain operability of the item to be protected) .
Examples fireproofing cladding (boards used for the same purpose and in the same applications as spray fireproofing) Materials for such cladding include perlite. intumescent epoxy. . including fire-resistive wraps and tapes to protect speciality valves and other items deemed to require protection against fire and heat²an analogy for this would be a safe) or the provision of circuit integrity measures to keep electrical cables operational during an accidental fire. calcium silicate. vermiculite. gypsum. MicroTherm enclosures (boxes or wraps made of fireproofing materials. DuraSteel (cellulose-fibre reinforced concrete and punched sheet-metal bonded composite panels).
non-combustible. vibration and moisture resistant.Examples Durasteel is a unique. It requires no foundations when installed and is maintenance free with a 40 year design life. seismic. high performance fire protection composite panel that provides 4 hour fire protection. . in addition to being blast.
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