# Production of Induced Force

Production of Voltage

Linear DC Machine

DC Mahines

Taosif Iqbal

April 19, 2011

Taosif Iqbal

Production of Induced Force

Production of Voltage

Linear DC Machine

Contents

Production of Induced Force Production of Voltage Linear DC Machine The Linear DC Machine as a Motor The Linear DC Machine as a Generator Problem in Linear DC Machine Rotating DC Machines

Taosif Iqbal

Production of Induced Force

Production of Voltage

Linear DC Machine

**Production of Induced Force
**

A current carrying conductor present in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld of ﬂux density B, would produce a force to the conductor/wire.

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F = i(lxB)
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. would produce a force to the conductor/wire.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Production of Induced Force
A current carrying conductor present in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld of ﬂux density B.

would produce a force to the conductor/wire. F = i(lxB)
Taosif Iqbal
.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Production of Induced Force
A current carrying conductor present in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld of ﬂux density B.

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.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Production of Voltage
If a conductor moves through a magnetic ﬁeld. voltage will be induced between the terminals of the conductor at which the magnitude of the induced voltage is dependent upon the velocity of the wire assuming that the magnetic ﬁeld is constant.

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Production of Voltage
If a conductor moves through a magnetic ﬁeld. eind = (vxB)l
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. voltage will be induced between the terminals of the conductor at which the magnitude of the induced voltage is dependent upon the velocity of the wire assuming that the magnetic ﬁeld is constant.

eind = (vxB)l
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. voltage will be induced between the terminals of the conductor at which the magnitude of the induced voltage is dependent upon the velocity of the wire assuming that the magnetic ﬁeld is constant.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Production of Voltage
If a conductor moves through a magnetic ﬁeld.

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Linear DC Machine
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.

Taosif Iqbal
.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Linear DC Machine
Linear DC machine is the simplest form of DC machine which is easy to understand and it operates according to the same principles and exhibits the same behaviour as motors and generators.

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Linear DC Machine
Linear DC machine is the simplest form of DC machine which is easy to understand and it operates according to the same principles and exhibits the same behaviour as motors and generators.
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.

i = Vb −eind R
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. current will ﬂow according to Kirchoﬀ’s law.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
When switch is closed.

i = Vb −eind R eind = 0 due to stationary bar. current will ﬂow according to Kirchoﬀ’s law.
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.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
When switch is closed.

a force will be induced on the bar.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
When switch is closed. As the current ﬂows down through the bar. i = Vb −eind R eind = 0 due to stationary bar. current will ﬂow according to Kirchoﬀ’s law. F = iBl
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.

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
When switch is closed. a force will be induced on the bar. As the current ﬂows down through the bar. eind = vBl
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. and a voltage appears across the bar. current will ﬂow according to Kirchoﬀ’s law. its velocity will increase. i = Vb −eind R eind = 0 due to stationary bar. F = iBl When the bar starts to move.

eind = vBl The current ﬂowing in the bar will be reduced. and a voltage appears across the bar. This is given by: Vb = eind = vsteadystate bl → vsteadystate = Vb bl
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. F = iBl When the bar starts to move. a force will be induced on the bar. This occurs when eind has risen all the way up to equal Vb . current will ﬂow according to Kirchoﬀ’s law.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
When switch is closed. its velocity will increase. i = Vb −eind R eind = 0 due to stationary bar. As the current ﬂows down through the bar. In result the bar will reach a constant steady-state speed where the net force on the bar is zero.

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Starting of linear DC machine
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Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Motor
Assume the linear machine is initially running at the no-load steady state condition:
Taosif Iqbal
.

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Motor
Assume the linear machine is initially running at the no-load steady state condition: What happen if an external load is applied?
Taosif Iqbal
.

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Motor
Assume the linear machine is initially running at the no-load steady state condition: What happen if an external load is applied?
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application of the force Fload will result in a net force on the bar in the direction opposite the direction of motion.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Motor
Assume the linear machine is initially running at the no-load steady state condition: What happen if an external load is applied?
A force Fload is applied to the bar opposing the direction of motion. Fnet = Fload − Find
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. Since the bar was initially at steady state.

As soon as that happen.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Motor
Thus. the bar will slow down (the resulting acceleration a = Fnet /m is negative). the induced voltage on the bar drops (eind ↓= v ↓ Bl).
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.

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Motor
Thus. the bar will slow down (the resulting acceleration a = Fnet /m is negative). the induced voltage on the bar drops (eind ↓= v ↓ Bl). As soon as that happen. the current ﬂow in the bar will rise: i ↑=
Vb −eind ↓ R
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.

As soon as that happen. the induced voltage on the bar drops (eind ↓= v ↓ Bl). the current ﬂow in the bar will rise: i ↑=
Vb −eind ↓ R
Thus. the bar will slow down (the resulting acceleration a = Fnet /m is negative).Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Motor
Thus. the induced force will rise too: F ↑= i ↑ Bl
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.

the current ﬂow in the bar will rise: i ↑=
Vb −eind ↓ R
Thus. and the bar again travels in steady state condition.
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. the induced force will rise too: F ↑= i ↑ Bl Final result → the induced force will rise until it is equal and opposite to the load force. As soon as that happen. but at a lower speed.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Motor
Thus. the induced voltage on the bar drops (eind ↓= v ↓ Bl). the bar will slow down (the resulting acceleration a = Fnet /m is negative).

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Motor
Now. there is an induced force in the direction of motion and power is being converted from electrical to mechanical form to keep the bar moving.
Taosif Iqbal
.

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Motor
Now. The power converted is Pconv = eind I = Find v → An amount of electric power equal to eind i is consumed and is replaced by the mechanical power Find v → MOTOR
Taosif Iqbal
. there is an induced force in the direction of motion and power is being converted from electrical to mechanical form to keep the bar moving.

there is an induced force in the direction of motion and power is being converted from electrical to mechanical form to keep the bar moving.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Motor
Now. The power converted is Pconv = eind I = Find v → An amount of electric power equal to eind i is consumed and is replaced by the mechanical power Find v → MOTOR The power converted in a real rotating motor is: Pconv = τind ω
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.

Taosif Iqbal
. A force in the direction of motion is applied.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Generator
Assume the linear machine is operating under no-load steady-state condition.

Taosif Iqbal
. A force in the direction of motion is applied.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Generator
Assume the linear machine is operating under no-load steady-state condition.

A force in the direction of motion is applied.
The applied force will cause the bar to accelerate in the direction of motion. and the velocity v will increase.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Generator
Assume the linear machine is operating under no-load steady-state condition.
Taosif Iqbal
.

Find = ilB will push bar to left side. and the velocity v will increase. opposite to the applied force.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Generator
Assume the linear machine is operating under no-load steady-state condition.
The applied force will cause the bar to accelerate in the direction of motion. the current now ﬂows ↑ through the bar. When the velocity increase. eind > Vb the current direction will be reversed.
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. eind = V ↑ Bl will increase and will be larger than Vb . A force in the direction of motion is applied.

and the bar will move at a higher speed than before.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Generator
End result → the induced force will be equal and opposite to the applied force. The linear machine now is converting mechanical power Find v to electrical power eind i → GENERATOR
Taosif Iqbal
.

so Electrically. if eind > Vb → generator or eind < Vb → motor whether the machine is a motor or a generator. both induced force (motor action) or induced voltage (generator action) is present at all times.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
The Linear DC Machine as a Generator
End result → the induced force will be equal and opposite to the applied force. and the bar will move at a higher speed than before.
Taosif Iqbal
. The only diﬀerence is whether the externally applied force is in the direction of motion (generator) or opposite to the direction of motion (motor). The linear machine now is converting mechanical power Find v to electrical power eind i → GENERATOR NOTE: The same machine acts as both motor and generator.

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Problem in Linear DC Machine
Problem in Linear DC Machine
Taosif Iqbal
.

the speed of the bar is zero. eind = 0.1
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. The current ﬂow at start is: i = Vb = 250 = 2500A R 0.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Problem in Linear DC Machine
Problem in Linear DC Machine
At start.

Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Problem in Linear DC Machine
Problem in Linear DC Machine
At start.1 How to prevent → insert an extra resistance into the circuit during starting to limit current ﬂow until eind builds up enough to limit it:
Taosif Iqbal
. the speed of the bar is zero. The current ﬂow at start is: i = Vb = 250 = 2500A R 0. eind = 0.

the speed of the bar is zero. eind = 0. The current ﬂow at start is: i = Vb = 250 = 2500A R 0.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Problem in Linear DC Machine
Problem in Linear DC Machine
At start.1 How to prevent → insert an extra resistance into the circuit during starting to limit current ﬂow until eind builds up enough to limit it:
Taosif Iqbal
.

1 How to prevent → insert an extra resistance into the circuit during starting to limit current ﬂow until eind builds up enough to limit it:
Taosif Iqbal
.Production of Induced Force
Production of Voltage
Linear DC Machine
Problem in Linear DC Machine
Problem in Linear DC Machine
At start. the speed of the bar is zero. The current ﬂow at start is: i = Vb = 250 = 2500A R 0. eind = 0.