Ohio State Studies/U.

of Michigan The first factor, labeled consideration, involves the degree of two-way communication and consultation, mutual trust, respect, and warmth a leader exhibits toward his followers. A leader would receive a high score on consideration if his subordinates would agree with descriptions such as "He makes those feel at ease when talking to them," "He is friendly and approachable," "He looks out for the personal welfare of group members," "He puts suggestions into operation." On the other hand a leader would receive a low score on consideration if his subordinates disagreed with these descriptions. With employee-oriented leadership, leaders are totally focused on organizing, supporting, and developing the people in their teams. It's a participative style, and it tends to encourage good teamwork and creative collaboration. In practice, most leaders use both task-oriented and people-oriented styles of leadership. The second factor, labeled initiating structure, involves the degree to which the leader defines and organizes relationships among group members and establishes well-defined channels of communication and methods of accomplishing the group's task. A leader would receive a high score on initiating structure if his subordinates would agree with descriptions such as "He assigns people to particular tasks," "He schedules the work to be done," "He asks that group members follow standard rules and regulations," "He emphasizes deadlines." On the other hand, a leader would receive a low score on initiating structure if his subordinates disagreed with these descriptions. Highly task-oriented leaders focus only on getting the job done, and they can be quite autocratic. They actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize, and monitor. However, because task-oriented leaders don't tend to think much about the well-being of their teams, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, with difficulties in motivating and retaining staff.

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