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The Japanese Occupation

T PHILIPPINES WAS BELIEVED TO BE OF STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE TO THE US T T. ROOSEVELT TO WOOD IN 1906, SAID THAT JAPAN HAD NO IMMEDIATE INTENTION OF MOVING AGAINST THE US T A YEAR LATER TO ELIHU ROOT, HE MENTIONED THAT HE WAS MORE CONCERNED OVER THAN JAPANESE SITUATION THAN NAY OTHER T HE WROTE AGAIN TO WOOD DIRECTING HIM HOW TO HOLD THE

T ROOSEVELT WROTE TO TAFT (SEC. OF WAR) THAT HE WAS CONSIDERING OF GIVING THE PHILIPPINES IMMEDIATE INDEPENDENCE TO AVOID JAPANESE ATTACK T AFTER THE COMMONWEALTH INAUGURATION, DOUGLAS MACARTHUR BECAME THE FIELD MARSHAL OF THE PHILIPPINE ARMY T MACARTHURS CONCEPT OF DEFENSE WAS TO BUILD UP A FILIPINO ARMY SUFFICIENTLY

NORTHERN PART OF FRENCH INDO-CHINA . CHINA PROPER WAS INVADED T IN 1940.JAPANS EXPANSION T LOOKING FOR TERRITORIES TO ACCOMMODATE THEIR EXCESS POPULATION AND MANUFACTURED GOODS T MANCHURIA WAS OCCUPIED IN 1932 T FIVE YEARS LATER.

1941.T JAPANESE TROOPS WERE CONCENTRATING IN SOUTHEAST ASIA THEREBY MAKING THE PHILIPPINES AS THE NEXT TARGET OF THE EXPANSION T JULY 26. PHILIPPINE RESERVED AND REGULAR FORCES WERE COMBINED WITH THE AMERICAN ARMY UNDER DOUGLAS MACARTHUR T UNITED STATES ARMY FORCES IN THE FAR EAST (USAFFE) T US. GREAT BRITAIN AND HOLLAND .

ADMIRAL K. 1941 . NOMURA T WAS SENT TO WASHINGTON TO DISCUSS AMERICAN-JAPANESE PROBLEMS T HE PRESENTED HIS GOVERNMENTS PEACE PROPOSAL TO SECRETARY OF STATE CORDELL HULL T JAPANESE BOMBERS SURPRISED PEARL HARBOR IN HAWAII. EARLY MORNING OF DECEMBER 7.

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ROOSEVEL AND HE WAR HULL SAID |IN ALL MY FIF Y YEARS IN PUBLIC LIFE I HAVE NEVER SEEN A DOCUMEN MORE CROWDED WI H INFAMOUS FALSEHOODS AND DIS OR IONS ON A SCALE SO HUGE} DECEMBER 8. US DECLARED WAR AGAINS JAPAN . 1941.

THE GENERAL SAID: "TO BYPASS THE PHILIPPINES WOULD ADMIT THE TRUTH THAT WE HAD ABANDONED THE FILIPINOS AND WOULD NOT SHED AMERICAN BLOOD TO REDEEM THEM. ROOSEVELT. MACARTHUR APPEALED TO PRES." . DRIVE THE JAPANESE FROM FORMOSA (NOW TAIWAN) AND ATTACK MAINLAND JAPAN FROM THERE (TO AVOID AMERICAN CASUALTIES IN THE PHILIPPINES).T THE ADMIRALS WANTED TO BYPASS THE PHILIPPINES. T GEN.

AND ALL HA HIS NA ION REPRESEN S. NO FOR VENGEANCE. NO FOR CONQUES .| WE ARE NOW IN HE MIDS OF WAR.} . BU FOR A WORLD IN WHICH HIS NA ION. WILL BE SAFE FOR OUR CHILDREN.

| WI H HE FULL APPROVAL OF HE NA ION AND OF HE EMPIRE, I PLEDGED HE WORD OF GREA BRI AIN ABOU A MON H AGO HA SHOULD HE UNI ED S A ES BE INVOLVED IN A WAR WI H JAPAN A BRI ISH DECLARA ION OF WAR WOULD FOLLOW WI HIN HE HOUR.}

JAPANESE OFFENSIVE
T TO STRIKE IMMEDIATELY AT THE RICH DUTCH AND BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA (MALAYA AND DUTCH EAST INDIES) T HAD TO DESTROY AMERICAN PACIFIC FLEET AT PEARL HARBOR IN ORDER TO NEUTRALIZE IT T ATTACK PHILIPPINES TO CUT AMERICAS LINE OF COMMUNICATION IN THE PACIFIC

TDEC. 8 CLARK FILED WAS BOMBED TAIR ATTACKS WERE CONDUCTED AGAINST DAVAO, BAGUIO, AND APARRI TDEC. 26, MACARTHUR DECLARED MANILA AS AN OPEN CITY TO SPARE FROM BOMBING, GUNS WERE WITHDRAWN TJAPANESE BOMBED MANILA IN

IN MEN AND MATERIAL. THE ENTIRE RESOURCES.} . ROOSEVELT SAID ON DEC. 28 |I GIVE TO THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES MY SOLEMN PLEDGE THAT THEIR FREEDOM WILL BE REDEEMED AND THEIR INDEPENDENCE ESTABLISHED AND PROTECTED.TTO ENSURE AMERICAN HELP. OF THE UNITED STATES STAND BEHIND THAT PLEDGE.

PARTICULARLY ON THE PHILIPPINES. WAS PLANNED CAREFULLY.TJAPANESE PREPARATION FOR THE WAR. TTHEY CHOSE TO LAND ON THE AREAS WERE THERE WERE NO SUFFICIENT MEN .

LAUREL. WAS RESTRAINED TO GO |NO. QUEZON WERE TO LEAVE FOR CORREGIDOR TQUEZON CALLED THE LAST MEETING OF HIS CABINET TJOSE P. THE PEOPLE MUST BE GIVEN NECESSARY PROTECTION. LAUREL. . 24.TDEC. SOMEONE WILL HAVE TO MEET THE JAPANESE. ACTING CHIEF OF JUSTICE. MACARTHUR INFORMED PRES.

|HOW FAR CAN I GO IN COOPERATING WITH THEM?} TMACARTHUR ANSWERED. IF ANYONE DOES THAT. I WILL SHOOT HIM WHEN I RETURN.} TLAUREL SWORN IN AS SECRETARY OF JUSTICE . BUT TAKE THE OATH OF ALLEGIANCE TO THE JAPANESE. |YOU CA DO ANYTHING.TLAUREL ASKED.

MAKE WHAT BARGAINS YOU HAVE TO WITH THOSE PEOPLE. YOU HAVE SOME TOUGH DECISIONS TO MAKE. DO IT FOR THE FUTURE OF THE . TRY TO PROTECT THE PEOPLE FROM JAPANS BRUTALITY AND AVARICE.TQUEZONS LAST INSTRUCTION: |DO THE BEST YOU CAN. TRY TO KEEP THE PHILIPPINES TOGETHER WITH ONE PIECE . BUT THE JOB MUST BE DONE.

THE FALL OF BATAAN AND CORREGIDOR T HEROIC DEFENSE OF THE FILIPINOAMERICAN IN BATAAN IRRITATED THE JAPANESE T US AND BRITAIN AGREED ON THE EUROPE-FIRST POLICY T LACK OF FOOD AND SCARCITY OF MEDICINE T MACARTHUR WAS ORDERED TO LEAVE FOR AUSTRALIA ON MAR. 11. 1942 .

TGEN. COMMANDER IN BATAAN. PAMPANGA T |DEATH MARCH} . WHICH WAS AN INDIVIDUAL SURRENDER. KING. SURRENDERED. T THE SURRENDERED FILIPINOAMERICAN TROOPS WERE FORCED TO MARCH FROM BATAAN TO SAN FERNANDO. EDWARD P.

GEN. PROCLAIMED THE END OF THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION AND THE PURPOSE OF THE JAPANESE EXPEDITION T TO EMANCIPATE THE FILIPINOS FROM THE OPPRESSIVE DOMINATION OF THE USA.REORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT T JANUARY 3. 1942. LETTING THE PHILIPPINES ESTABLISHED THE ~THE PHILIPPINES FOR THE FILIPINOS AS A MEMBER OF THE . COMMANDER-INCHIEF. MASAHARU HOMMA.

TCENTRAL ADMINISTRATIVE GOVERNMENT TSIX EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS HEADED BY COMMISSIONERS TJAPANESE ADVISER AND ASSISTANT ADVISER .

EDUCATIONAL POLICY T PROPAGATION OF FILIPINO CULTURE T DISSEMINATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF THE GREATER EAST ASIA COPROSPERITY SPHERE T SPIRITUAL REJUVENATION OF THE FILIPINOS T TEACHING AND PROPAGATION OF NIPONGGO T DIFFUSION OF ELEMENTARY AND .

. PHIL. LAUREL AS THE PRESIDENT T HE BELIEVED THAT FILIPINOS COULD STAVE OFF SPIRITUAL DEVASTATION ONLY BY RESORTING NATIONALISM AS A WAY OF LIFE T PROPAGATED TAGALOG AS THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE T TEACHERS HAD TO OBTAIN LICENSE T TEACHING OF TAGALOG. 1943 T JOSE P.JAPANESE ­SPONSORED REPUBLIC T PROCLAIMED ON OCTOBER 14.

THE REPUBLIC T JAPANESE DID EVERYTHING IN THEIR POWER TO CONVINCE THE FILIPINOS T KALIBAPI. AQUINO SR. AND AVANCEÑA AS VICE-PRES T LAUREL: |uDEMOLISHING ALL BARRIERS IN THE WAY OF OUR SINGLE PURPOSE AND COMMON DETERMINATION TO MAKE OUR INDEPENDENCE STABLE.. LAUREL AS PRES. LASTING .

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS T MASSIVE LOOTING T FILIPINOS LOST THEIR SOCIAL AND MORAL BALANCE T MANY FILIPINO SOLDIERS DIED T SCARCITY OF FOOD T LAUREL APPEALED TO THE PEOPLE TO PLANT EVERY INCH OF GROUND TO VEGETABLES T HE CREATED THE NATIONAL DISTRIBUTION CORPORATION .

LAURELS GOVERNMENT T LOYAL TO THE PEOPLE AND WORKED HARD TO SOFTEN THE IMPACT OF THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION ON THE MORAL AND PHYSICAL NERVES OF THE FILIPINOS T THOSE WHO SUFFERED AND FACED DEATH. AND SURVIVED WERE AND ARE GRATEFUL TO LAUREL AND HIS COLLEAGUES T MEN WHO HAD A FALSE SENSE OF .

YOU WOULD HAVE BEEN THE EDITOR OF THE .TA MAN WHO ENJOYED THE LUXURY OF THE AMERICAN MAINLAND DURING THE WAR BOASTED THAT THOSE WHO COLLABORATED WITH THE JAPANESE WOULD BE JAILED. HAD YOU BEEN HERE DURING THE ENEMY OCCUPATION. T AN OLD MAN HEARD HIM SAID | AMANG.

SOCIAL CONDITIONS T INHUMAN TORTURES T WOMEN WERE RAPED T SUSPECTED THAT ALMOST ALL FILIPINOS WERE GUERILLAS T CRIMES AGAINST PERSON AND PROPERTIES MULTIPLIED .

CULTURAL ASPECTS T ENGLISH PLAYS WERE ADAPTED INTO TAGALOG T JAPANESE DISCOURAGED THE FILIPINOS FROM WRITING IN ENGLISH T LIWAYWAY. JAPANESE ENCOURAGED THE DEVELOPMENT OF TAGALOG MORE THAN THE . ONLY TAGALOG WEEKLY PUBLICATION T NO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION T HOWEVER.

The Liberation .

LED BY LUIS TARUC T GUERILLAS COMMITTED HORRIBLE CRIMES BUT CAN BE FORGIVEN T DIFFICULT TO BEHAVE LIKE HUMAN BEINGS IN A MATTER OF LIFE AND .GUERILLA WARFARE T JAPANESE THREATENED THOSE WHO REFUSED TO COOPERATE WITH THEM T USAFFE OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS ORGANIZED GUERILLA UNITS T HUKBALAHAP.

GUERILLAS FUNCTIONS TTO AMBUSH OR KILL ENEMY SOLDIERS AND CIVILIANS TTO RELAY IMPORTANT INTELLIGENCE REPORTS TO MACARTHUR IN AUSTRALIA TTO LIQUIDATE SPIES AND JAPANESE SYMPATHIZERS .

1 19944.1943 T OSMEÑA SUBMITTED A RESOLUTION TO THE AMERICAN CONGRESS ASKING THAT THE PROVISION OF THE CONSTITUTION REGARDING THE SUCCESSION BE WAIVED T IN LESS A YEAR. AUG.GOVERNMENT-IN-EXILE T QUEZONS TERM WOULD END ON NOV. 15. QUEZON DIED AND OSMEÑA SUCCEEDED THE PRESIDENCY .

GREATEST NAVAL BATTLE IN .BATTLE OF THE PHILIPPINE SEA T ON JUNE 19. THE BATTLE OF THE PHILIPPINE SEA BEGAN T ADMIRAL WILLIAM HALSEY SUGGESTED THAT THE INVASION MUST BEGIN IN LEYTE AND NOT IN MINDANAO AND THAT THE DATE MUST BE ACCELERATED T CENTRAL PHILIPPINE ATTACK FORCE (NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN) T THE BATTLE FOR LEYTE GULF.

THE LIBERATION OF MANILA T JAPANESE MARINES BEGAN A SERIES OF ATROCITIES IN MANILA LEADING TO THE DEATH OF THOUSANDS T VENGEANCE FOR NOT COLLABORATING WITH THE JAPANESE T AMERICAN AND ALLIED PRISONERS WERE LIBERATED (UST CAMPUS) T IN THE DARKNESS OF THE NIGHT. THEY SANG GOD BLESS AMERICA AND STAR SPANGLED BANNER .

THE RETURN OF THE COMMONWEALTH T MACARTHUR ORDERED THE ORGANIZATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT T TEMPORARY SEAT OF COMMONWEALTH WAS IN TACLOBAN. 15. THE GREAT MORAL ISSUES OF SOCIAL JUSTICE AND RIGHTEOUSNESS AND HUMAN DIGNITY ARE FOUGHT IN THE PHILIPPINES TODAY. . |THE CAUSE OF DEMOCRACY AND LIBERTY. OSMEÑA. 23. THE RIGHT OF EVERY PEOPLE TO GOVERN ITSELF AND TO BE SECURE AGAINST AGGRESSION. 1944 T NOV. LEYTE ON OCT.

PROCLAIMED THE LIBERATION OF THE ENTIRE PHILIPPINES TO THE ENEMY . 27.TON FEB. TURNED THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT TO OSMEÑA T ON JULY 4. MACARTHUR. 1945. GEN. WHO HAD TAKEN OVER THE GOVERNMENT AS MILITARY ADMINISTRATOR.

TRUMAN AND CHURCHILL. HIROSHIMA WAS BOMBED T AUGUST 9.THE END OF THE WAR T MACARTHUR CARRIED THE WAR RIGHT AT JAPANS DOOR T JULY 26. ISSUED THE POTSDAM PROCLAMATION CALLING JAPAN TO SURRENDER UNCONDITIONALLY OR FACE |PROMPT AND UTTER DESTRUCTION} T AUGUST 6. NAGASAKI WAS ALSO .

TAUGUST 15. JAPAN SIGNED THE TERMS OF SURRENDER ON BOARD OF THE BATTLESHIP MISSOURI AT TOKYO BAY. JAPAN UNCONDITIONALLY ACCEPTED THE DEMAND FOR SURRENDER TSEPTEMBER 2. .

LITTLE BOY FAT MAN .

Hiroshima before bombing .

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Hiroshima Today .

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Nagasaki Today .

AND THE RELINQUISHMENT OF AMERICAN SOVEREIGNTY OVER . T THE TREATY PROVIDED FOR THE RECOGNITION OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES AS OF JULY 4. 1946.T ON JULY 4. 1946. REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES SIGNED A TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO GOVERNMENTS.

..OUR COMMERCIAL RIVALS IN THE ORIENT . 2) THAT WE COULD NOT TURN THEM OVER TO FRANCE AND GERMANY .THAT WOULD BE BAD BUSINESS AND .. AND ONE NIGHT LATE IT CAME TO ME THIS WAY. 1) THAT WE COULD NOT GIVE THEM BACK TO SPAINTHAT WOULD BE COWARDLY AND DISHONORABLE."WHEN I NEXT REALIZED THAT THE PHILIPPINES HAD DROPPED INTO OUR LAPS I CONFESS I DID NOT KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH THEM..

AND THEY WOULD SOON HAVE ANARCHY AND MISRULE OVER THERE WORSE THAN SPAIN'S WARS. AND UPLIFT AND CIVILIZE AND CHRISTIANIZE THEM. AND BY GOD'S GRACE DO THE VERY BEST WE COULD BY THEM. AS OUR FELLOW- . AND 4) THAT THERE WAS NOTHING LEFT FOR US TO DO BUT TO TAKE THEM ALL.THEY ARE UNFIT FOR SELF-GOVERNMENT . AND TO EDUCATE THE FILIPINOS.|3) THAT WE NOT LEAVE THEM TO THEMSELVES .

ANDRES BONIFACIO. HISTORY HAS IT THAT AGUINALDO ORDERED ALSO THE ASSASSINATION OF . HIS BROTHERS AND THEIR FOLLOWERS. AGUINALDO'S GOONS MURDERED THESE FREEDOM FIGHTERS.TGENERAL AGUINALDO DECLARED PHILIPPINE "INDEPENDENCE" OVER THE DEAD BODIES OF THE KATIPUNAN FOUNDER.