US ARMY PRIME POWER SCHOOL

Lab Report

Kinematics

SGT Conner, SPC Jenkins, CPL Bocker 6/6/2011

Introduction For the Module AC-5 Laboratory, Group 2 will attempt to demonstrate the properties of Kinematics, using six experiments covering position at a moment in time, velocity at a moment in time, acceleration from an inclined position, the properties of freefalling objects, determining a distance from a final position over a known amount of time, and the horizontal displacement of an object with a given initial velocity. For these laboratories we used the Data Studio Software to graph the varying properties of Kinematics. We will answer the questions posed at the end of each of the experiments we conducted from the Science Workshop Student Workbook for P01, P02, P03, and P05, and the questions given to us in the Kinematics Lab Student Handout for Part II, and Part III. Theory Using the data gathered from a physics experiment, we can obtain useful information about future properties of an object using Kinematics formulas. The properties of Kinematics are Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration. The variance of each of these properties will determine the state of another property. Displacement is the vector between the initial and final position of an object. The magnitude of displacement is the shortest distance between the initial and final position. This magnitude is measured in units of distance, which for our purposes will be inches(in) or meters(m) ∆x=x-x0

Velocity travel a start of time are

is the relationship of the time it takes an object to distance. Time is measured as the magnitude between the movement and the final movement or ∆t=t-t0. The units of seconds (s), minutes (min) or hours (hr)

a=v-v0/t-t0 or a=∆v/∆t m/s2 These can all be represented graphically as in the following figure: Figure 1.v= x-x0/ t-t0 or v=∆x/∆t m/s Acceleration is the change in velocity over the elapsed period in time. Since velocity is identified as unit of measurement divided by measurement of time. . acceleration is measured as the measurement of distance divided by the measurement of time squared.

Activity P01: Position and Time – Understanding Motion 1 (Motion Sensor) Concept Linear motion DataStudio P01 Position and Time.The equipment we used. as well as a brief visual of the experimental concept are as follows. These are directly from the Science Workshop Student Workbook.ds ScienceWorkshop (Mac) P01 Understanding Motion 1 ScienceWorksho p (Win) P01_MOT1. for each experiment.SWS .

3.Equipment Needed Motion Sensor (CI-6742) Qty 1 Equipment Needed Base and Support Rod (ME-9355) Qty 1 Bs a d ae n s p o ro u p rt d M tio o n Sno esr T o in rfa e te c Tb a le U d rs n in M tio 1 P s na dT e n e ta d g o n : o itio n im Questions 1. . In the Graph. 4. what is the slope of the line of best fit for the middle section of your plot? What is the description of your motion? (Example: “Constant speed for 2 seconds followed by no motion for 3 seconds.”) What would be the physical meaning of a steeper slope on the graph? What would be different about the motion if the slope were negative? 2. etc.

SWS Equipment Needed Motion Sensor (CI-6742) Qt y 1 Equipment Needed Base and Support Rod (ME9355) Qty 1 Bs a d ae n s p o ro u p rt d M tio o n Sno esr T o in rfa e te c Tb a le U d rs n in M tio 2 V lo itya dT e n e ta d g o n : e c n im .P02: Velocity and Time – Understanding Motion 2 (Motion Sensor) Concept Linear motion DataStudio P02 Velocity and Time.ds ScienceWorkshop (Mac) P02 Understanding Motion 2 ScienceWorkshop (Win) P02_MOT2.

For your best attempt.ds ScienceWorkshop (Mac) (See end of activity) ScienceWorkshop (Win) (See end of activity) Equipment Needed Q t y 1 1 1 Equipment Needed Qt y 1 1 1 Acceleration Sensor (CI-6558) Angle Indicator (inc.Question 1. how well did your plot of motion fit the plot that was already in the Graph? Activity P03: Acceleration on an Incline (Acceleration Sensor) Concept Linear motion DataStudio P03 Acceleration . w/ Track) Meter stick 1. w/ Track) Base and Support Rod (ME-9355) Dynamics Cart (inc.2 m Track System (ME9429A) .

how are the results affected? Try it. Activity P05: Acceleration of a Freely Falling Picket Fence (Photogate) Concept Linear motion DataStudio P05 Free Fall.ds ScienceWorkshop (Mac) P06 Free Fall Picket Fence ScienceWorkshop (Win) P06_FALL. What is the percent difference between your measured value for “g” and the accepted value for “g”? Remember. percent difference = measured − accepted × 100% accepted 2.Questions 1. If the mass of the cart is doubled.SWS Equipment Needed Q t y 1 Equipment Needed Qt y 1 Universal Table Clamp (ME-9376) Photogate/Pulley System (ME-6838) Picket Fence (ME-9377A) 1 .

Data Table Item slope of velocity Value .Prediction: Sketch a prediction below of a velocity vs. time graph for a freely falling object.

Calculate the slope.8 m/s2)? What factors do you think may cause the experimental value to be different from the accepted value? 3. How does the slope of your velocity versus time graph compare to the accepted value of the acceleration of a free falling object (g = 9. Is the slope positive or negative? Why? How can the sign of the slope be altered? Describe the motion of the tractor. Does the positive or negative slope indicate the tractor’s speed is increasing or decreasing? Using the graph. How does the mean of the acceleration from the table compare to the accepted value of the acceleration of a free falling object (g = 9. with time as the independent variable. Part II Determine the time it takes a dune buggy to move a specified distance. and record the graph with the slopes included. would a steeper slope indicate faster or slower motion? Repeat using a motion sensor. Develop an equation that best fits the motion of the tractor. . Construct a graph of the data (position vs.versus time acceleration (mean) Questions 1.8 m/s2)? acceptedvalue. time).experimentalvalue x100% acceptedvalue Reminder: percent difference = 2.

launch track. We will also verify our calculations by selecting an impact point for the object and by testing the calculations we made from the given velocity. Results P01 Position and Time The graph from Data Source. we will calculate the horizontal displacement of an object. with the closest match being the last attempt. Equipment needed: Computer. yardsticks. Questions 1. v=∆x/∆t. Data Studio Software. what is the slope of the line of best fit for the middle section of your plot?” The formula for finding a slope is m=(y-b)/x. using the equation for velocity. Ball Bearing. ruler. was “In the Graph. target. below. The answer posed in question 1. Thus. The graph shows us an object’s change in position over a period of time. using the .Part III Using the knowledge we have gained. We attempted this four times. Photogate. Did the ball bearing land where you expected? Why or why not? Explain where the differences between the actual and calculated impact point may occur in your system. shows the results of trying to match the velocity of an object to a benchmark. given an initial velocity.

. and that since the motion continued past the benchmarked time.graph we can say that the slope is . it indicates that there is a change in direction. We are asked “What would be the physical meaning of a steeper slope on the graph?” We know that a steeper slope would indicate a greater change in distance over a smaller period of time. Question 2. This would indicate a greater velocity.”) We can use the graph to gather that there was constant speed for more than 4 seconds. the distance continued to increase between the sensor and the object. asks “What is the description of your motion?” (Example: “Constant speed for 2 seconds followed by no motion for 3 seconds.194 for our closest match. “What would be different about the motion if the slope were negative?” by pointing out that when the direction of the slope changes. for an unknown amount of time (the screenshot of the graph cut off the continued motion). . We answer question 4. etc. since time is always represented as a positive magnitude. Using the graph from the benchmark we can see that a negative slope indicates the object moves closer to the sensor. In question 3.

“How well did your plot of motion fit the plot that was already in the Graph?” with “Our plot was a close match in acceleration. Our closest match was the second run. The graph shows the velocity changed at slightly different times than the bench mark. shown as the red line on the graph (not the red benchmark line). which is the equation a=∆v/∆t.we can answer question 1. the change in velocity over a change in time. and the match in time being off further.P02 Acceleration The results from the second experiment demonstrate our attempt to match acceleration. For our best attempt. . with the closes match being the change in velocity.

we can demonstrate that g is a constant.5cm to 4cm. remains consistent along the change in hight. and inversely affects the time it takes to move that distance. Even so.P03 Acceleration on an Incline Our results from experiment three indicate that the angle of incline that an object moves directly affects the velocity it moves on that incline. respectively. we can decrease the velocity of the object while increasing the time it takes for the object to move. and the angles decreasing from 11° to 1°. independent of how far an object moves along the x axis. We can show that g=∆a/∆tsinΘ. or 9. Data was only gathered for two angles.6cm track 4cm each attempt. with the height moving from 22. For the accepted changes we can show with the following table how gravity remains constant. It also becomes apparent that gravity. The equation for gravity can be shown as gsinΘ=∆a/∆t. By lowering a 117. showing that gravity in the downward is in fact a constant. due to a malfunction in the sensor. .8m/s2 . with Θ=arcsin(hight/length).

5 1 1 7 . and the time decrease. gravity remains a constant. “What is the percent difference between your measured value for “g” and the accepted value for “g”?” by using the formula below to show that there was a 7% difference for the first run and a 9% difference for the second. measured − accepted ×100% accepted percent difference = When we did as suggested in question 2. 6 9 1 . .H i g h t L e n g t h A n g l e a t g r u n 1 2 2 . how are the results affected?” we further demonstrated that while the velocity may increase with added weight. “If the mass of the cart is doubled.. 3 0 . 7 8 r u n 2 1 8 . 6 1 1 0 . 2 We answered question 1. 5 1 1 7 . 6 1 1 1 . 7 9 .

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because the distance directly proportional to time .8m/s2. with no movement along the x axis.P05 Acceleration of a Freely Falling Object In the fourth experiment we conducted. There is zero acceleration in the x direction. We showed in the third experiment that gravity is a constant acceleration of 9. or is moving along the y axis. we further showed that gravity is a constant force. Therefore. accelerating objects downwards.8m/s2. When an object in freefall. the slope of the graph showing a change in velocity over a period of time (∆v/∆t) should always equal 9. the only acceleration is gravity.

The variations were as small as +/.8 m/s2)?” was that velocity increased directly to 9.8t (v=9. We determined that using the below formula. so long as it did not move on the x axis. accepted value . . “How does the slope of your velocity versus time graph compare to the accepted value of the acceleration of a free falling object (g = 9.01. or 9%. “How does the mean of the acceleration from the table compare to the accepted value of the acceleration of a free falling object (g = 9.8 m/s2)?” and question 2.exp erimental value x100% accepted value Reminder: percent difference = The answer we arrived at for question 3.squared (d œ t2). “What factors do you think may cause the experimental value to be different from the accepted value?” is that due to outside forces. as well as the slightest variations in wind speed along the x axis could have influenced the falling gate. We showed with the graphs that the answer to question 1.8t.. such as aerodynamics of the object.

Data Table . time graph for a freely falling object.Prediction: Sketch a prediction below of a velocity vs.

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The tractor’s speed remained consistent throughout the time it moved. . and mover it towards the sensor. To demonstrate how variance in speed influances the angle. We calculated the slope as . This indicates a lower velocity. thus giving us an increasing direction away from the observed starting point. The equation that best fits this second movement is . this time using the sensor and Data Studio software. The slope was positive because we moved the object from the 0” end of a yard stick toward the 36” end. the slope of the graph would be a straight line. with time as an independent variable.Part II In part two of the experiment we determined the time it took a dune buggy to move a specified distance.312m/s. The steepness of the graph would indicate a higher velocity. We repeated the experiment. we would have had a negative angle. we used a different cart. regarles of wether it was positive or negative. Had we moved the object toward the observed start point of 0” from the 36” point. thus.05m/s. time). We constructed a graph of the data (position vs.

We also know from our data. Our object was a 1” diameter ball bearing.4 inches.55in/s. that the ball was moving in the x direction at 42. once the bearing entered free fall. at the end of the table. we know that gravity acts on an object at 32. When we plug in our data into the formula we get x=. from the computer. We can begin to plug in our data and solve for t.5 in/s.5(42. Since the table was 29. we can determine that the ball will be in free fall for exactly .8 inches off the ground. We then placed a target .67 inches. Since we determined the average velocity of the object was 42.25 inches above a table that was 29. with a starting point on a launch track of 9. which gives us x=16.392). The distance covered from the start of movement to the end of the track was 17. Taking the data we gathered from the first part.55) (.2 ft/s2.Part III The final part of the Kinematics lab had us move an object down a track in order to calculate the horizontal displacement of an object.5(v+v0)t. we could then determine how far the object would move along the x axis.55+42. 392 seconds. We learned from the lecture on kinematics that the formula for determining time was t=2s/a.8” off the ground. The formula for finding the displacement of an object is x=.

We realized that the time the bearing was in free fall was actually shorter than .2 inches above the ground. when the bearing left the table. We determined that there is a strict relationship between distance and time. and between velocity and time. When the experiment was conducted again.on the ground to predict where the bearing would impact. which gives us velocity. such as friction or air currents. This means that the table could only have been 26.368 seconds. we can therefore determine the future of an object. Conclusion During these six experiments. which gives us acceleration. from where it was supposed to be. we verified the properties of kinematics. If given different pieces of information.55+42. we can determine that the ball was only in free fall for t=2(15.55 the computer gave us. We looked again at where our target was placed and determined that the target had actually been off by an inch. It is our conclusion that the error was human.55)or . with the target in place. to include the equations being accurate. or the velocity must have been slower than the 42.67 inches from the table. Our accuracy was 15%. the impact point was 15.392 seconds after leaving the table. provided it is not acted on by outside net forces. and the data can speak for itself. .67)/ (42. This lab . If we enter our results back into the equation. This variance could be caused by several things.329 seconds.

proved several tools that we can use as a basis in future applications of physics. .

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