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PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HOT METAL
Amit Chatterjee Adviser to the MD Tata Steel
IIT, Kharagpur, 26th October, 2010
PART - I IRONMAKING IN BLAST FURNACES
Present Scenario and General Features
IRON ORE TO LIQUID STEEL
30 - Fe2O3
Direct molten steelmaking Blast furnace and Smelting Reduction Liquid steel
Direct reduction Remelting DRI, HBI
Refining Hot metal
. the blast furnace still holds the dominant position. The blast furnace has remained up-to-date competitive with the new technologies.BLAST FURNACE IRONMAKING Amongst all the ironmaking processes. and Hot metal production rates of 8000-10.000 tpd. furnace availability ranging between 95-98% and campaign life of 15-20 years are benchmarks today. fuel rates of around 450-470 kg/thm (270-275 kg coke plus 175-225 kg coal).
m 3 In 2007.SIZE AND NUMBER OF BLAST FURNACES IN THE WORLD IN 2007 140 Number of BFs 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -5 00 50 1 -1 00 10 0 01 -1 50 15 0 01 -2 00 20 0 01 -2 50 25 0 01 30 300 0 01 -3 50 35 0 01 -4 00 40 0 01 -4 50 45 0 01 -5 00 50 0 01 -5 50 55 0 01 -6 00 0 130 80 59 63 38 35 34 8 21 9 7 4 0 BF inner volume. there were around 490 BFs varying in size from 500 to 6000 m3 inner volume .
KOREA .CHANGE IN SIZE OF BLAST FURNACES AT POSCO. S.
4 17.9 ~ 5.5 3.5 7. Mpta 4.5 6. of Furnaces 2 8 8 15 8 ~ 30 68 Combined inner vol..2 3.5 32 .0 ~ 2.2 14.BLAST FURNACES IN INDIA BF size. m3 (inner vol.5 61 Production.1 16. ‘000 m3 6.) > 3000 2000-3000 1500-1999 1000-1499 500-999 < 500 Total No.0 8.
0 .7 2. m3 4019 2308 3800 3800 ~ 4000 ~ 3800 ~ 3200 ~ 2600 ~ 4000 x 2 1680 x 2 < 500 Capacity.5 2.4 3.2 1.0 2.5 3.INCREASING BLAST FURNACE SIZE IN INDIA Steelworks Big BFs JWS Tata Steel . Mtpa 3.8 2.‘H’ Tata Steel .0 2..8 6. JSPL.‘G’ (after upgrdation) Tata Steel .‘I’ Big BFs Under project planning stage Vizag # 3 Bhilai # 0 IISCO Bokaro 2 – rebuild Tata Steel – KPO Medium and small BFs under construction JSW. Bhusan Various others Inner vol.0 1.
flux. It may be enriched with some pure oxygen. moisture.MACRO-FEATURES OF A BLAST FURNACE The furnace is a refractory lined steel shell filled with material viz. The highest temperature zone of the furnace (1900-2000OC) is at the level of tuyeres – the raceway. iron ore. . The process goes on continuously for several years till the furnace is shut down for repairs and modification. Most modern furnaces also inject pulverised coal. pellets. The inputs and outputs are represented per metric ton (i. sinter.e. Preheated air at 1000-1250O C is blown through tuyeres into the furnace. Exothermic combustion of coke and coal by oxygen of air gasifies carbon into CO and also provides heat. tonne) of hot metal. coke. from the stockline down to the bottom. etc.
BLAST FURNACE PLANT .
• Action of alkali and other vapours high temperature. Ordinary fireclay bricks containing 40-45% Al2O3 are used in the upper stack. There have been attempts to use silicon carbide bricks in the bosh region as inner refractory lining. • Abrasion by moving solid charges. Alumino-silicates and carbon are refractory materials most commonly employed for BF lining. 60% Al2O3 (known as high duty fireclay) is employed for lower stack. The hearth is cooled by water. • Effect of furnace design and operation. It has very high thermal conductivity. Carbon is the popular refractory in the hearth.BLAST FURNACE REFRACTORY LINING For containing heat. • Attack by molten slag and metal. . It is subjected to: • Carbon monoxide attack. lining is important. belly and bosh.
HOT BLAST STOVES .
HOT BLAST STOVES 25-40% of the total BF gas generated is consumed in pre-heating the blast in hot blast stoves. The stove is a tall cylindrical (height 20-36 m. During heating cycle. a minimum of 3 stoves are required – one on cooling and two on heating. This requires 2-4 hours. which consist of refractory bricks arranged as a checker work. Then the combustion is stopped and air at room temperature is blown through the stove in the reverse direction. gets heated following contact with hot checker bricks. and a heat re-generator unit. The air. The hot flue gas heats up the bricks. Each furnace has at least three stoves. Since cooling is faster than heating. Then flows into the blast furnace through tuyeres. Lasts 1-2 hr. blown by turbo-blowers. This is the cooling cycle of the stoves. . the blast furnace gas is burnt with air in the combustion chamber. heat is exchanged with checker bricks. diameter 6-8 m) steel shell lined with insulating bricks inside. The interior of a stove has a combustion chamber. The stoves operate in cycles. As gases flows through the checker work.
DEVELOPMENTS IN BF IRONMAKING .
TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS IN BFs IN GERMANY AND EFFECT ON COKE RATE .
9 t/m3/day using conventional raw materials.IMPROVEMENTS IN BLAST FURNACES Maximum size of blast furnaces stabilised at about 15 m hearth diameter. inner volume of 5000-6000 m3.e 3.5 GJ. equivalent to 4 Mtpa. Coke consumption (without coal injection or other fuel) is at best about 450 kg/thm. with recoverable excess BF gas of energy value 3-4 GJ. i.15 Gcal or 12. Maximum output is 12000 tpd. Iron ore beneficiation becoming mandatory for reduction of slag volume from 300-350 kg/thm to 200 kg or even 100-150 kg/thm using high grade pellets (66-68%). Maximum productivity achieved 2. .8-2.
kg/thm PCI rate.0 50(S) 50(P) 1.54 9.3 4. kg/thm Slag rate. t/m3/day* Top pressure.25 4.67 4.66 2. kg/cm2 Oxygen enrichment.2 2.4 15. Ore (O).5 1. Corus Korea) BF 6 (Netherlands) BF 7 8600 3225 2. t/day Working volume. % Coke rate. kg/thm 10.6 70(S) 30(O) 2.47 2.54 9.84 10. Pellets (P) Al2O3 in sinter.5 365 125 236 10.2 1.233 3790 2. % Sinter (S).5 339 161 236 Kimitsu 3 (Japan) Nippon Steel (Japan) G Blast Furnace (Tata Steel) Production.0 85(S) 15(O) 1.4 93(S) 7(P) 1. m3 Productivity.OPERATIONAL FEATURES OF SOME BFs IN THE WORLD Parameter Posco (S.85 11 390 100 320 6750 2328 2.6/2.2 392 71(Oil) 286 5150 2308 2. % Burden.4 410 120 300 .7 2. % Coke ash.9 1.9 50(S) 50(P) 1.051 NA 2.
faster heat transfer to the solid burden. such as: • Faster gaseous reduction of iron oxides. since hydrogen has a much lower density than CO and N2. • Better bed permeability in the furnace. H2 gives several additional benefits. . • Higher thermal conductivity of the gas and consequently.AUXILIARY FUEL INJECTION INTO BLAST FURNACES Injection of hydrocarbons through the tuyeres generates H2 and CO in the combustion zone.
5 480.0 3.5 125. kg/thm 98. kg/thm 514 499. kg/thm 414 413 351 359 353 357 394 480 Coal.9-1.6 51 129. in many countries. coke consumption even as low as 270290 kg/thm has been achieved at coal injection rates of 190-220 kg/thm. with a coke to coal replacement ratio in the range of 0.1 473 497. .5 141 43 120 Oil.5 498 492 600 Today. kg/thm 1.08.TOTAL REDUCING AGENTS IN 1995 Country Japan USA France Germany Italy Netherlands UK India Coke.5 63 15 55 Others.2 40 Total.8 36. kg/thm 10.
1 kg coal at best replaces 1 kg coke. • Coal injection is normally accompanied by suitable oxygen enrichment of the air blast. RR can be more than 1. depends on the nature of the coal (particularly its volatile matter content). • In most cases.075mm). All these factors influence the Replacement ratio. • Coal injection rates above 100 kg coal/thm are quite common now-a-days and some modern furnaces have reached a level as high as 250 kg/thm. .COAL INJECTION INTO BLAST FURNACE • Pulverised coal injection (PCI) is a of considerable current interest. particle size distribution and mode of injection. • Choice of appropriate coal in terms of its ability to combust easily in the raceway. Sometimes. coal is ground to about 80% below 75 micron (0. referred to as Replacement ratio. • Typically.
Tata Steel India – 160. China – 190. PCI rate in 2008-09 : Japan. Baotou. JSPL. Avg. Taiwan – 120. . Korea. India – 130-140. China – 150.INCREASE IN GLOBAL AVERAGE PCI RATE Higher PCI calls for better coke. EU – 215.
PRESSURE DROP AT DIFFERENT COKE RATES .
LIMITATION OF COAL COMBUSTION IN THE RACEWAY .
.TATA STEEL Coke/Coal injection rate.FUEL RATE IN ‘G’ BLAST FURNACE. kg/thm 700 Coke rate 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 533 565 498 77 73 101 129 113 Coal rate 448 458 Gradual decrease in coke and increase in coal is seen.
CHARGING SYSTEM: BELL TYPE .
BELL-LESS TOP WITH ROTATING CHUTE LATEST IS GIMBLE TOP CHARGING SYSTEM .
. • Reduced dust emission owing to uniform distribution of fines. • Reduces tuyere losses and minimisation of scaffold formation. • Lower silicon content in hot metal and consistency in the hot metal quality. improved furnace life. • Improved efficiency of gas utilisation and indirect reduction. decreased coke rate. • Improved wind acceptance and reduced hanging as well as slips.ADVANTAGES ACCRUED FROM IMPROVED BURDEN DISTRIBUTION • Increased productivity.
CENTRAL WORKING AND WALL WORKING BLAST FURNACES .
stack and bosh regions to measure temperature.MONITORING BURDEN DISTRIBUTION The monitoring system for assessing distribution includes: • Heat flux monitoring equipment to measure the heat flow in different zones (both above and under the burden). . and tuyere probes to sample materials at the tuyeres level. • Thermocouples in the throat. • Mathematical models for charge distribution control. • Profile meters for the measurement of surface profiles. • Special instruments such as infrared probes to monitor the burden surface temperature. overall heat and mass balance and interpretation of probe data. devices in the stack region to measure individual layer thicknesses and local descent rate. • Stack pressure monitoring and pressure drop measurement along the furnace height.
BLAST FURNACE PROBING AND CONTROL .
II IRONMAKING IN BLAST FURNACES Mechanism of Reduction. Zones in a BF .PART . Blast Furnace Reactions.
. Utilisation of hydrogen as a reductant has definite advantage. This is meant to distinguish it from the reduction by solid carbon. Therefore. Disadvantage is -----. maximum of indirect reduction is the goal. Gas-solid reactions are much faster than reactions between two solids. which is called Direct Reduction.NOMENCLATURE OF REACTIONS IN A BF The reduction of iron oxides by CO and H2 is traditionally known as Indirect Reduction in blast furnace ironmaking.
• Combustion of coke and coal in front of tuyeres. . • Reduction of iron oxides by CO. • Gasification of carbon by CO2.: • Removal of moisture from the raw materials. • Reduction of FeO by carbon. CO2. major reactions may be classified into the following categories viz.BLAST FURNACE REACTIONS As the solid charges descend downwards. containing CO. hot metal) • Molten slag • Gas at a temperature of around 200OC. N2. • Dissociation of CaCO3 (where raw limestone added). moisture and dust particles. • Reduction of some other oxides of ore by carbon.e. The outputs from the furnace are: • Molten iron (i.
IMPORTANT BLAST FURNACE REACTIONS Gasification reaction: 2C + O2 = 2CO Boudouard reaction: 2CO = 2CO2 + C Solution loss reaction: C + CO2 = 2CO Water gas shift reaction: CO + H2O = H2 + CO2 Exothermic reaction Endothermic/ Exothermic (beyond 1000°C) reaction Endothermic reaction Mild Exothermic reaction .
3 Fe2O3(s) + CO (g) = 2 Fe3O4 (s) + CO2 (g) Fe3O4(s) + CO (g) = 3 FeO (s) + CO2 (g) 3 Fe2O3(s) + H2 (g) = 2 Fe3O4 (s) + H2O (g) Fe3O4(s) + H2 (g) = 3 FeO (s) + H2O (g) • Inward diffusion of reactant gas through the pores of the solid chemical reaction FeO (s) + CO = Fe (s) + CO2 (g) FeO (s) + H2 = Fe (s) + H2O (g) • Outward diffusion of the product gas (CO2 or H2O) through the pores. • Transfer of the product gas from the solid surface into the bulk gas across the boundary layer.MECHANISM OF IRON OXIDE REDUCTION • Transfer of reactant gas to the solid surface (CO or H2) across the gas boundary layer around the piece of solid. .
IRON OXIDE REDUCTION
Reaction kinetics of iron ore reduction determines the rate at which iron oxides are converted to metallic iron. The rate of any chemical reaction increases as the temperature increases. As a result, reaction kinetics is not generally a matter of great concern in blast furnaces. This is contrary to the reaction rates in DR processes. Owing to lower temperatures, the reactions are slower. Hence, the production rate of DR processes is generally lower than that in blast furnaces.
IRON OXIDE REDUCTION
Iron oxide reduction is complex because the oxide charged undergoes a series of changes, step-by-step before the conversion to the final product. The slowest step in the entire process chain determines the overall reaction rate and is referred to as the rate controlling step. Chemical reactions are either homogeneous (if a single phase is involved) or heterogeneous (if two or more phases are involved). The solid-state reduction of iron oxides is heterogeneous, involving solid and gas phases separated by an interface. For the chemical reactions to occur, the reactants must reach the interface and the products must move away. The movements of reactants and products are affected by several factors – any of which can be rate controlling.
RATE CONTROLLING STEPS IN IRON OXIDE REDUCTION
Rate of iron oxide reduction depends on the rates of heat and mass transfer across the gas-flow boundary layer at the outer surface of the solid phase. When the reaction rate is controlled by this factor, it is known as "Boundary Layer Control". Rate of diffusion of reducing gas inwards and product gas outwards through the reduced iron layer can control the rate of reduction. This phenomenon is generally associated with large ore particles, and known as "Gaseous Diffusion Control" or "Iron Pore Control." Chemical reaction at the wustite-iron interface can be rate controlling. In such a case, the rate of reduction per unit area of the remaining iron-oxide surface is found to be constant with time. Mechanism is known as "Interfacial Reaction Control" or "Phase Boundary Reaction Control". When both gaseous diffusion control and interfacial reaction control combine to influence the rate of reduction, the mechanism is referred to as "Mixed Control."
SCHEMATIC OF IRON ORE REDUCTION
Topo-chemical reduction has three concentric layers – magnetite.REDUCTION OF IRON OXIDES Topo-chemical type reduction Partially reduced porous iron oxide Importance of porosity assessed by microscopic examination of reduced iron oxide. Porous oxides has similar structure in individual particles. metallic iron – each layer same shape as outer surface in case of dense oxides. wustite. .
In case of hydrogen. Therefore. reduction by hydrogen is faster than carbon monoxide. • Magnetite reduced by hydrogen contains grains of wustite completely enveloped in dense layers of metallic iron.REDUCTION OF IRON OXIDE BY H2 VS. • Solid-state diffusion of ferrous iron through wustite much greater than gaseous diffusion of hydrogen or CO through ore particles. metallic iron layers consist of almost pure pearlite. carbon is available to complete the reduction. . • Carbon can diffuse very rapidly in austenite so that at the interface between austenite and wustite. In CO reduction. CO Reduction by hydrogen Reduction by CO • Initially. reduction is incomplete. solid-state diffusion in the stack region is not the rate controlling step in BF ironmaking.
Nucleation and growth of iron crystals results in shrinkage and large increase in porosity of the metallic phase. Followed by shrinkage to metal phase. oxygen lattice is unchanged. 4-5% shrinkage in final product. Wustite has variable composition – composition changes from equilibrium with magnetite to equilibrium with metallic iron. facilitates redn. no volume increase. For magnetite ores. oxygen atoms arranged in close-packed hexagon structure. oxygen atoms undergo major readjustment.STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN IRON OXIDE REDUCTION Hematite → Magnetite → Wustite → Metallic iron • • • • • • • • • • • • • In hematite. Transformation of hematite to magnetite – 25% increase in volume. magnetite first oxidised to hematite and then reduced. In first stage of reduction. Iron atoms diffuse to fill vacant sites in lattice. In magnetite and wustite. . Results in 25% increase in volume. volume change is small. Often. Explains why reducibility of magnetite is very poor. Total increase in volume during complete reduction of hematite:25-27%. Further. the structure is FCC. During magnetite to wustite transformation. opens-up structure. 7-13% increase during transformation to wustite.
REDUCTION OF METAL OXIDES BY CO .
REDUCTION OF IRON OXIDE BY CO .
REDUCTION OF IRON OXIDE BY HYDROGEN .
Height of BF BF NOMENCLATURE .
ZONES IN A BLAST FURNACE .
there is a ‘runway’ or ‘race-way’ in front of each tuyeres which is first horizontal and then becomes vertical while expanding. The charge gets heated from 200°C at the stock line to 1100-1200°C at the bottom of the stack. In this zone the burden is completely solid. Tuyere or Combustion Zone: End of slope. The furnace walls are either parallel and then taper down. Hearth: Below the tuyere region and cylindrical Some coke descends into hearth to form the ‘deadman’. Most of reduction occurs by gas-solid contact. or are entirely tapering down resulting in reduction the sectional area by about 20-25% . parallel walls Except central column of coke. in front of each tuyere exists. . Number of combustion zones. entire charge is molten. This is because of decrease in the apparent volume of the charge. Entire charge is molten and stratifies into slag and metal layers – tapped separately. Oxygen of the blast burns coke to CO. Belly: The cylindrical portion below the stack Metallic burden begins to soften and fuse as it travels.DETAILS OF THE ZONES Stack: Wall slopes outwards in downwards direction Extends from the stock line to the mantle level. Gangue and flux combine to form the slag. Bosh: Below the belly and sloping inwards in downwards direction Burden begins to melt except coke. Thus.
TUYERE AREA IN A BLAST FURNACE .
MECHANISM OF SILICON REDUCTION .
This is known as Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature (RAFT). Heat content of flame = mass of gas in the flame × average specific heat of gas × (RAFT − 298) Change in Operating Variable Blast temperature raised by 1000C Blast oxygen raised by 1% Blast moisture raised by 5g/Nm3 1% methane added to blast Change in RAFT . 0C +82 +53 -28 -56 . its temperature is calculated.CONCEPT OF RAFT From sensible heat of the flame.
• Use of higher top pressure. Productivity can be increased by: • Screening of solid charges before charging into the furnace to eliminate fines below a certain size • Agglomeration of fines by sintering. . • Improved facilities for metal and slag evacuation. pelletising • Proper top charging device to make the distribution of burden size as uniform as possible in any horizontal section. • Use of higher hot blast temperature.PRODUCTIVITY OF BLAST FURNACES BF productivity is defined as tonnes of hot metal produced per day per cubic metre of inner/working volume. • Use of superior quality iron oxide burden. • Use of oxygen enriched blast. • Use of better quality coke.
PRODUCTIVITY AS FUNCTION OF SLAG RATE .
ACCEPTABLE COKE FOR BLAST FURNACES Suitability assessed in terms of: Room temperature strength High temperature strength Chemistry Size Reactivity For blast furnaces in India. Size at tuyere level? Lower productivity of Indian furnaces essentially on account of poor coke. ‘acceptable’ values are: • Room temperature strength : M10 7. CRI 25 (max.0 (max. .).. • Size : Suit iron oxide feed. Alkali 0.35% max.). Emphasis on coke quality.) • High temperature strength: CSR 64 (min. • Chemistry: Ash 15-17% min.
4%) Coke (3.2%) Fluxes (25.7%) Coal & Tar injection .TYPICAL COST BREAK UP FOR HOT METAL (1. (2.3%) (4.4%) Ore & Scrap (5.1%) Others (6.7%) Blowing Refractories cost (47.5%) Maintenance (2.5%) Relining (1.2%) Labour & Admn.
PART .III SMELTING REDUCTION ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF IRONMAKING .
Injectant. kg/thm kg/thm 1950 1965 1970 1980 1000 600 525 500 0 0 50 50 Total reductant.PROGRESSIVE REDUCTION IN BF COKE CONSUMPTION OVER THE YEARS Year Coke rate. kg/thm 1000 600 575 550 Comments Lean local ores Rich seaborne ores Oil injection/high blast temperature/ oxygen enrichment High top pressure/burden distribution and permeability control Coal injection/improved sinter coke quality Increased coal/gas/oil injection Continued use of metallics in the burden 1990 2000 2010 400 325 250 125 175 250 525 500 500 .
oC Si in hot metal.2 1482 0. area/ d t/m2 hearth Case A 0 482 482 59.6 1475 0.2 1487 0. kg/thm Coke. % Hot metal temperature.27 Case C 149 334 483 61. g/Nm3 Oxygen in blast.4 48. oC Humidity. % Gas utilisation.2 1141 16 21 50.4 51.DEPENDENCE OF BLAST FURNACES ON COKE Parameter Coal. % . kg/thm Production. kg/thm Total fuel.24 Case B 106 376 482 59.0 1478 0.33 Blast temperature.28 Case D 173 305 478 58.8 1177 6 22.4 1129 30 21 49.1 1159 10 22.
FORECAST OF TECHNOLOGIES TO BE ADOPTED FOR HOT METAL PRODUCTION Non-coking coal 100 New SR technologies 75 Fine ore Pellets Lump ore 50 Coking coal Conventional BF route 25 Sinter Pellets Lump ore 2000 YEAR 2025-2030 .
pellets Coke from metallurgical coal and PCI Conventional Fine ores Lump ore Coke from metallurgical coal Scrap Scrap SR hot metal using noncoking coal DRI using NG. NG.EMERGING TRENDS IN INPUTS TO IRON/STEELMAKING Future Recent Lump ore. synthetic gases Scrap substitutes .coking coal Non-coking coal. sinter. non.
FUNDAMENTALS OF SMELTING REDUCTION Off-Gas (Critical in economics of all SR processes) Pre-reduction Unit Pre-reduced Ore Smelting Reduction Vessel Pre-Reduction Iron Ore/ Pellets Hot Reducing Gas Post Combustion Final Reduction Melting Coal Gasification Coal Oxygen/Air Hot Metal Pre-reduction Degree. Extent of Post Combustion and Heat Transfer Efficiency are critical for success of all SR processes. .
coal. Coke. lump ore. pellets oil. waste iron oxides Coal. tar. electricity Hot metal (synthetic hot metal) for EAF / EOF steelmaking . essentially for BOF blast furnace natural gas steelmaking Smelting reduction Ore fines. Hot metal including mini sinter. oxygen.RAW MATERIALS USED IN BLAST FURNACES AND IN SMELTING REDUCTION Process Oxide Feed Reductant Product Blast furnace Lump ore.
FLOWSHEET OF SINGLE STAGE. TWO STAGE AND THREE STAGE SR PROCESSES Ore Gas Ore Reduction Coke Reduction and melting DRI Coal Melting Slag Metal O2 Melting Slag Metal O2 Slag Metal Coal Gas DRI Coke Gasification Gas Gas Ore Coal Gas Reduction O2 Gas Single stage Two stage Three stage .
the principal advantage of high temperature operation in SR processes is: faster rates of reaction and prevention of sticking problems associated with solid-state reactions (intrinsic in DR processes).SALIENT FEATURES OF SR (1) • SR involves both reduction and smelting. • In an ideal SR reactor. followed by removal of the remaining oxygen in liquid phase reduction reactions in step two. • In actual practice. . most SR processes utilise two steps – the removal of oxygen from the ore in the solid state to varying extents in step one. i. all the reduction reactions should take place in the liquid state in a single step. • Any SR process involves the extraction of metal values from the ore following liquid phase reduction by non-coking coal. • Compared with DR processes. in the strictest sense.e. melting accompanied by chemical reaction(s).
the effective utilisation of the generated by-product gas is extremely important. • Simpler one-step processes involving simultaneous reduction and smelting still not fully proven.SALIENT FEATURES OF SR (2) • Smelting reduction processes are thus either two-step processes with separate pre-reduction and smelting reduction steps (such as Corex and HIsmelt). • Generally. . the use of export gas makes or breaks the cost structure of SR processes . • All SR processes consume fairly large volumes of coal that generates large amount of export gas.
• Another use of the export gas is in shaft furnace. the cost of the hot metal made can be as much as 50% higher than blast furnace hot metal. calorific value 7500KJ/Nm3) the process itself becomes totally uneconomical. .gas. • Adequate credit can be obtained by selling cogenerated electrical power from the Corex off gas.SALIENT FEATURES OF SR (3) • Unless the net export gas from any Corex plant can be utilised (extent of generation 1650 Nm3/thm. DRI production adjacent to the Corex furnace. • If no credit is given to the off.
REDUCTION STEPS IN SR • Reduction by solid carbon • Reduction by carbon dissolved in Iron • Reduction of molten FeO by CO .
.REDUCTION OF SLAGS BY SOLID CARBON A liquid boundary layer is expected to exist on the slag side of the slag / carbon interface. after which the following steps come into play: FeO + CO = Fe + CO2 (at gas / slag interface) CO2 (gas /slag interface) transported to CO2 (carbon /gas interface). CO2 + C = 2CO (at carbon / gas interface)CO (carbon / gas interface) transported to CO (gas / slag interface). FeO must be transported to the nucleation site in the following manner: FeO (l) + C (s) = Fe (l) + CO (g) FeO (bulk) transported to FeO (slag /gas interface) A halo is formed.
REDUCTION OF SLAGS BY CARBON DISSOLVED IN IRON Taking desulphurisation as an example. a three step mechanism has been proposed: FeS(iron) = FeS (slag) FeS (slag) + CaO (slag) = FeO (slag) + CaS(slag) FeO (slag) + C (iron) = Fe(l) + CO(g) .
0 . • FeO less than 48%.7aSiO2).REDUCTION OF MOLTEN FeO BY CO • Reduction rate of slags is independent of the FeO concentration in the range 67. pCOk) where. (aFeO. mol/cm2 .0. The rate equation is: (R’ / Ao) = exp (-32300 / RT – 1. .s Ao = Reaction surface area.37). (1. • Reduction rate of iron oxide by CO follows a first order rate law for the reversible reduction of stoichiometric FeO. R’ = Rate constant.aFe. K The activation energy was determined to be 135 kJ/ mol. cm2 T = Reaction temperature.0%.7 to 48. pCO . the reduction is dependent on the fraction reacted and the partial pressure of CO.
GJ/thm 25 20 15 10 5 0 Fastmelt Hismelt Corex Redsmelt Blast Furnace Gas Credit Net Energy .NET ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND GAS CREDIT OF SR PROCESSES vis-a-vis BF 35 30 Energy.
5 mtpa. Capacity : 300.125.000 tpa.000-900. Coal properties can be varied over a small range (Indian coal?) • Finex – Capacity : 1. Process not proven. • FastMelt – 2 operating plants mainly for smelting solid wastes from ISPs. Process development complete. RHF Combined with Melting / Smelting • Inmetco – Capacity .000 tpa .000.2-1.5 mtpa. Slag separation by partial melting is unique.000 tpa. Process almost ready.000-1.000 tpa First and leading SR process. some coke often used.MAJOR SMELTING PROCESSES Vertical Shafts • MBF – Capacity : 30. • Romelt – Capacity : 200.200.000 tpa. Rotary Hearth Furnace but no plant despite efforts.000 tpa.000-1.60. Suitable for zinc-bearing iron ores. Process still under development Bath Smelting Processes • HIsmelt – Capacity : 600. Very promising. including in India and (RHF) Japan • ITmk3 – Capacity : 0.000.000-1. Capacity – 150. Russian process with tremendous promise.000 tpa (covers very wide range) • Corex – 5 operating plants. • Ausmelt – Capacity : up to 2. Very high volumes of off-gas. • Tecnored – Capacity : 150.000-1.5 mtpa.
Rio Tinto.000 tonnes of hot metal in total till March 2006.16 50 . Mitsubishi and Shougang (of PR of China) agreed to construct a 0.8 Mtpa plant at Kwinana in Western Australia after pilot plant tests were completed at the same location.20 62 . most popular SR process. Has been stopped thereafter. mm 62 .65 8 .65 8 . Typical iron oxide Lump ore Pellets Sinter Fetotal Grain size.30 • HIsmelt – Nucor.55 10 .COMMERCIALISED SR PROCESSES • Corex – Many operating units. The plant had produced more than 37. .
FLOW SHEET OF THE COREX PROCESS .
30-0. It can accept high alkali containing ores without any build-up inside the reactor.09%. etc. . • The process is capable of operating at 50-115% of its nominal capacity. phenol. Si=0. • It takes only half an hour to stop the plant and four hours to restart it. whenever required. P depends on inputs). cyanides.80%.5%. SOx. • Specific melting capacity is higher than in blast furnacesproductivity of the order of 3-3. • It has outstanding environmental superiority in comparison with the blast furnace process in terms of generation of dust.SOME KEY FEATURES OF COREX • Is a shaft furnace-based process. S=0.5 t/m3/d can be achieved. NOx.02-0. • Hot metal quality is comparable with blast furnaces (C=4.04.
FLOW SHEET OF THE FINEX PROCESS .
• Non-coking coal is also briquetted before use in melter gasifier. Also. • After fluidised bed reduction. Finex is certainly of interest to ISPs. • Hot metal composition same as BF. • Corex in Posco uneconomical owing to restrictions on coal and iron oxide size (top size and under size). often required 10% coke to ensure hearth permeability. • Range of complete scale of production yet to be established. Whether it can be used to supply limited tonnages of hot metal to EAFs? .SOME KEY FEATURES OF FINEX • Posco developed Finex process to utilise iron ore/non-coking coal fines not suitable for charging to their Corex plant. • Finex actually able to utilise iron ore in the form of fines. fine DRI is hot briquetted before melting in a melter gasifier (similar to Corex).
FLOW SHEET OF HISMELT PROCESS .
HISMELT FLOW OVERVIEW .
Demo plant not proven on sustained basis at full capacity. with separate pre-reduction. 10-38% VM and 5-12% ash have been used in Pilot/Demo plant. air blast. • Utilisation of export gas not as critical as in the case of processes like Corex on account of in-bath smelting. • Coals with 50-70% FC.05% P and <0. etc.3 ± 0. phosphorus and silicon levels are extremely low viz. better.05 Si%. Typical coal rate reported – 640-690 kg/thm. • Hot metal contains 4. < 0. Hot metal production economics under Indian conditions still not proven. • Can be single stage process. • Pre-reduction of iron oxide and oxygen enrichment of hot air (1200°C) blast provide substantial productivity enhancement.SOME KEY FEATURES OF HISMELT • Incorporates many BF features – hot blast stoves.15% carbon. . • Process can use high phosphorus iron ore – can be of significance in India since many Indian ores have high phos.
PROCESS FLOW SHEET OF ITmk3 .
shut down and change in production rate. SOx and particulate matter emissions. haematite as well as pellets made of taconite (low-grade iron ore found in USA) have been processed.5 mtpa) Mesabi Nuggets at North-Eastern Minnesota. • The process is flexible as far as the type of iron ore that can be used.SOME KEY FEATURES OF ITmk3 • First step produces iron nuggets in a very short reduction time (10-12 min) along with some slag removal in a RHF. Over last 10-12 years has gone through laboratory. Nuggets melted in EAFs. . nearly same composition as blast furnace pig iron. • Emits at least 20% less carbon dioxide than blast furnaces.e. Magnetite. 0. • High-purity iron nuggets contain 96-97% iron and 2. • Overall less NOx.5-3. • Easy start-up. Coal consumption reported to be 500 kg/t nuggets. Could be of immense interest to Indian Secondary Producers in future.0% C. i. A commercial plant (0. small pilot plant and demonstration plant testing.05 S. USA has been started.
• It is essential to optimise post-combustion ratio (PCR). and heat transfer efficiency (HTE). multiple phases and intense bath turbulence. Ideal SR process should be of single-stage configuration to recover iron from iron ore directly through liquid phase reduction. • SR reactions are by nature quite complex – major reasons are elevated temperature. degree of pre-reduction. . • In all SR processes. and carbon dissolved in iron. gaseous CO.SUMMARY OF SMELTING REDUCTION • SR designates processes in which iron oxide is reduced at high temperature to liquid iron essentially using non-coking coal and oxygen. a substantial portion of the iron oxide charged enters into the slag phase and is reduced by solid carbon particles. • SR processes utilise several distinct thermo-chemical configurations.
Kharagpur.Ironmaking BF and SR THANK YOU IIT. 26th October 2010 .
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