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SOUR GAS PROCESSING
GAS PROCESSING OBJECTIVES Understanding the purpose of gas processing operations Dehydration NGL recovery Fractionation LNG manufacture Sweetening Sulfur recovery Know the main types of processes for each operation
Gas processing is the treatment used to reduce impurities to an acceptable content or to enhance the total gas stream value. The process is generally implemented in the order listed, starting with dehydration to permit transport of the gas stream or to prepare it for natural gas liquid (NGL) recovery. Fractionation is used to separate the NGL components and Liquefied natural gas (LNG) consists primarily of liquefied methane from a cryogenic process. If H2S or CO2 contaminate the gas, a gas sweetening process is used to remove these contaminants prior to dehydration and NGL recovery. H2S and CO2 are called acid gases; they form acids in the presence of water. “Sour gas” is a produced gas stream (associated or non-associated) that contains acid gas components. Sour gas processing is more than the sweetening step. Acid gas disposal is the primary consideration since economic, environmental, and safety issues all impact and frame the possible alternatives. One option is sulfur recovery that is used to convert H2S to sulfur. In addition sulfur disposal is a major component within the context of sour gas processing. Important points: Key Messages This section has a variety of options available for sour gas treating. The variety can cause confusion. Increased supply of sulfur requires that we consider “sulfur disposal” instead of “sulfur recovery”. H2S is extremely toxic. Selection of treating/disposal options requires careful analysis of technical, safety, health, environmental, and business factors.
Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing
SOUR GAS PROCESSING
Sour Gas Processing
Sour Gas Processing Objectives Understand why we sweeten gas Know the components removed in a gas sweetening process Understand the types of processes available Understand the S.H.E. (Safety Health Environmental) issues associated with sour gas
The first step in sour gas processing usually occurs after the gas has been gathered and compressed to a pressure suitable for treating. The gas from several field areas gathered at a central site typically is the most cost efficient method for gas sweetening. H2S and CO2 removal is the common definition of “gas sweetening” where the hydrocarbon components are sent on for dehydration and NGL recovery while the non-hydrocarbon acid components are sent to “acid gas disposal”.
Steps in Gas Processing
Mary Ann and 823
The sour gas processing actually consists of two separate fundamental steps: 1.) Gas sweetening to remove H2S and CO2 and 2.) Sulfur recovery/tail gas cleanup to enable disposition of the H2S and CO2 in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. The acid gas components in sour gas greatly add to OPEX and CAPEX of facilities. Most of the equipment shown in the photo would not be required if the gas were sweet.
Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing
Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 3 . the gas sweetening processes and sulfur recovery processes are outlined at the left for each of three parallel trains.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Jay Gas Plant -. regulatory. The additional considerations to the basic process steps arise due to economic. Regis In another plant layout. Other processing steps or acid gas/sour gas injection may yield improved economics and improved regulatory compliance. Note the tall incinerator stack at the far right of each plot area. Traditional Sour Gas Processing Sour Gas Processing Additional Considerations Other options to the traditional sour gas processing steps are shown in this schematic.St. This step gives the “sweet gas” of hydrocarbons and nitrogen (if any) in one stream and the “acid gas” of H2S and CO2 in the other stream. “Sour gas” consists of the hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon components that enter the gas sweetening process. Again this plant would be much smaller if processing only sweet gas. or plant construction time constraints. Most of the sulfur is recovered in a Claus plant and then any remaining H2S in the tail gas is removed in the tail gas cleanup unit (TGCU).
CO2. Common sense actions could save your life or that of your colleagues: Be aware which wells and facilities have H2S Have H2S monitors on your person and know where safety masks (SCBA – Self Contained Breathing Apparatus) are located Know wind direction and escape to upwind locations Know that H2S is heavier than air and settles in low points (well cellars) and stays in enclosed vessels Know that H2S tends to associate with the vapor phase so be wary for vapor leaks at connections. which is also very toxic Odor threshold: 0. Acid Gases -.S. CS2. (heavier than air) Flammable limits: 4. In addition other sulfur species have a maximum specification limit. even in small concentrations H2S and water are corrosive.19 @ 59°F & 1 atm. and safety relief valves If you ever become complacent you will most likely die Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 4 . Mercaptans.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING REMOVAL of H2S. and COS are undesirable.3% to 46% in air (wider range than methane) Combustion: burning H2S produces sulfur dioxide (SO2). etc. SPEC < 50 ppmv cryogenic) CO2 Spec varies for other applications Sulfur Species Spec between 10 -100 ppm COS (carbonyl sulfide) CS2 (carbon disulfide) RSH (mercaptans) RSR (sulfides or thiophenes) Specification (spec) for gas going to a sales pipeline or into NGL recovery requires a very low level of H2S.E H2S kills faster than Hydrogen Cyanide You never knew what hit you -.H. CO2 and water are corrosive. or H.1% is fatal Blocks respiration and causes chemical asphyxiation Vapor Density: 1. instrumentation. SPEC < 4 ppmv) CO2 (carbon dioxide. These components can concentrate in NGL products H2S SAFETY HEALTH and ENVIRONMENTAL sometimes called S. The CO2 limit is about 50 ppm for cryogenic processing but can be much higher in certain situations. mechanical seals on pumps.06 to 1 ppm Olfactory fatigue: 50 to 150 ppm OSHA 8-hour TWA: 10 ppm The extreme toxicity of H2S requires special precautions at facilities and wells with this component.E. Any undesirable component must be removed to the specification limit for acceptance for sale or NGL processing. Why Remove Acid Gas Components? H2S is very toxic. CO2 will freeze in cryogenic processes.if you’re revived 1000 ppm or 0. Sulfides.form acids in water H2S (hydrogen sulfide. Some customers cannot accept CO2 in hydrocarbon feed streams.
which is then recycled as “lean solvent” to the absorber. The absorber is the sweetening unit while the stripper is part of the solvent regenerating unit. The sweet residue gas is ready for added processing and the “rich solvent” goes to the regenerator. In this step the acid gas components are removed from the solvent. The solvent essentially makes a continuous loop while the gas merely passes through the absorber. A few examples of the numerous solvents used are categorized by type of solvent and by the nature of its absorption process to remove the acid components. Most of the world’s sour gas is treated using solvent processes. These are listed in the bottom half. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 5 . These examples and categories are shown at the top half of the list.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Gas Sweetening ‘Solvent’ Process The most common sweetening processes use “solvents” to absorb the acid gas components and remove them from the incoming sour natural gas stream. Primary items are the absorber tower and the stripper tower. Gas Sweetening Processes Sweetening PFD The process flow diagram (PFD) for the typical sweetening process is shown in the schematic. In general concept it is much like the glycol dehydration PFD. In addition non-absorption processes are use to sweeten gas.
that is the H2S is removed (to the specification limit) but a significant portion of the CO2 is not (slips through). the sweet gas customer(s) must be willing to take the additional CO2.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Review of Absorber The key item is the absorber tower that contacts the down-flowing lean solvent on the trays (or packing) with the rising sour gas vapor. The rich solvent enters the top tray (or packing) and is stripped of H2S and CO2 by the rising vapors. The lean solvent is returned to the absorber while the overhead stripper gas plus the H2S and CO2 go to sulfur recovery/disposal. which leaves a sweet gas to exit the absorber overhead. The mixing also causes the solution to warm. However. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 6 . Selective processes generally require less CAPEX for downstream sulfur disposal options. Review of the Stripper Selectivity A wide variety of solvents can be used to remove H2S and CO2 or primarily H2S. A solvent that removes primarily the H2S is deemed selective. Absorber bottom temperatures are generally 70 to 80°C (160 to 180°F). The rich solvent with the acid gas components is sent to the stripper. The mixing action causes the solvent to absorb the acid gas components. More “selective” processes allow more CO2 to slip into the sweet gas. The stripper tower is the key item in the solvent regeneration procedure.
or tertiary by the number of alcohol groups attached to the nitrogen. Amine Solvents MEA .350 mole H2S per mole of MEA.Diglycolamine DIPA .349 mole H2S per mole of MEA. High loading values are desirable because they relate to lower solvent circulation rates and lower investment.Di Isopropanolamine MDEA . The common amines in each category are shown. The amine solutions are weak organic bases that have a chemical reaction with the weak acid solutions containing H2S or CO2. They are categorized as primary. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 7 .Methyl Diethanolamine TEA . Exiting the absorber tower.001 mole H2S per mole of MEA (monoethanolamine).UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Solvent Loading Solvent loading is the quantity of acid gas components contained per unit quantity of solvent.Tri Ethanolamine DEMEA -Diethyl Monoethanolamine Gas Treating Amines An amine solution is the most commonly used sour gas processing solvent. The pickup of acid gas is the difference or 0. The lean solvent loading is termed lean loading and the example shows this to be 0.Diethanolamine DGA . secondary.Monoethanolamine DEA . The example has this as 0. This acid – base reaction forms weak salts that decompose when heated. the solvent is rich with acid gas and the term rich loading is applied.
Skid-mounted rental unit at right circulates 3 gpm for fuel gas treating. Also removes mercaptans and carbonyl sulfides FLEXSORB-HP Catacarb Benfield Lurgi Vetricoke Potassium Carbonate Solvents Potassium carbonate solvents (K2CO3) are used for removal of large quantities of CO2. Potassium carbonate is usually limited to bulk removal operations. FLEXSORB®PS Hybrid A Hybrid of FLEXSORB®PS and Sulfolane gives good bulk removal and an improvement over Sulfinol. Technology Review Capacity Increase with FLEXSORB® FLEXSORB®SE Highly selective for H2S High capacity for H2S Not tertiary amine. which significantly reduce the initial capital and operating costs.000 gpm to treat 500 million scf per day of sour gas. such as the left photo of the Saudi Aramco DGA Plant at Shedgum circulating 10. Potassium Carbonate Solvents Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 8 . They allow the CO2 to slip through for further processing. FLEXSORB is a class of ExxonMobil solvents that are generally selective for H2S.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Sizes of Amine Plants The size of the sweetening plant can be very large. This chemical absorption process has the absorber tower and stripper tower schematic shown that is similar to the amine processes. Potassium carbonate cannot achieve the high purity achieved with amine solvent. but sterically hindered FLEXSORB®SE Hybrid Addition of Sulfolane to FLEXSORB®SE enhances mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide removal. The combination of high selectivity and high solution loading permit circulation rates to be reduced.
PS FLEXSORB-SE Hybrid Sulfinol – D Sulfinol – M Hybrid Solvents Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 9 . However there is a succession of recycle flash tanks downstream of the absorber. the solvent does not degrade as quickly. Also in some applications stripping gas can be used in lieu of a reboiler. The disadvantages are high-pressure requirements (6000 – 10000 kPa. Physical Solvents FLEXSORB . 800-1500 psi) and high heavy hydrocarbon co-absorption. Selexol Purisol Recitisol Propylene Carbonate The PFD for a physical solvent system is very similar to a chemical solvent system. The absorber tower and stripper tower components are the same and since no chemical reaction occurs. Physical solvents normally have lower heat requirements.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Physical Solvents The physical absorption solvents listed below do not react chemically but use physical attraction similar to lean oil or glycol absorption processes. There is generally a trade off with the physical solvent systems using more recycle horsepower and less heat and fuel gas.
Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Non-Regenerable / Scavengers Page 10 . Small quantities of H2S No CO2 removal Dispose of spent material Operation of scavenger systems can become very expensive with time due to the reoccurring fresh solvent purchase costs and the spent solvent disposal costs. The PFD has the same absorber tower and stripper tower arrangement as the amine processes. such as fuel gas. the non-regenerable scavenger processes can be used. energy required for regeneration. direct conversion. Gas Sweetening Processes Alternatives to solvent sweetening processes are the non-regenerable. and operating cost. This combination can reduce capital. and separation processes listed.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Hybrid Solvents Hybrid solvents combine chemical and physical absorption solvents to potentially achieve the best characteristics of each. dry bed. For very small quantities of sour gas.
The beds are usually regenerated with a heated side-stream of treated gas.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Non-Regenerable / Iron Oxide Iron sponge is another non-regenerable process. it does not have the bright yellow color of Claus sulfur because it contains impurities. The LO-CAT process is a liquid redox system that uses a chelated iron solution to convert H2S to elemental sulfur. Generally the sulfur from a LO-CAT unit cannot be sold. but considerably more molecular sieve is needed to do both. but the Stretford solution is toxic. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 11 . sometimes it can be given to farmers. Regeneration temperatures are 250 to 300°C (450600°F) The gas used to regenerate the beds must also be treated and can require a separate treating system. to iron oxide and elemental sulfur. The removal of H2S results in iron sulfides as follows: 2Fe2O3 ·H2O + 6H2S --> 2Fe2S3 + 8H2O Sometimes it may be re-oxidized or reverted. Exposure to H2S and mercaptans produces iron sulfides and iron mercaptides. It consists of wood shavings or wood chips impregnated with hydrated iron oxide for removal of H2S. Some operators have reported solids plugging. Direct Conversion LO-CAT Unit Dry Bed Removal of Acid Gas Dry bed methods use the molecular sieves similar to dry bed desiccant dehydration. The spent iron sponge is pyrophoric or self-heating and care should be taken when handling the spent material. The Stretford process is an older process that has similar performance. In fact the mole sieves can be used to sweeten and dehydrate simultaneously. The tower undergoing regeneration also has its pressure reduced to accelerate the regeneration procedure. The LO-CAT process is one of several processes that removes H2S and converts it to elemental sulfur in one unit operation. However. LO-CAT does not use toxic chemicals and produces no hazardous waste byproducts. with exposure to air.
however more solvent may be necessary to break the azeotrope and allow complete separation.Ryan Holmes Ryan-Holmes is a cryogenic process that uses a solvent to prevent CO2 freezing.Membranes Feed Gas Permeate SPIRAL WRAP Feed Gas Permeate HOLLOW FIBER Residue Gas C2 CH4 N2 O2 CO2 H2S H2 H20 C2 Residue Gas Membranes provide direct separation of gas components with no moving parts. however premature plugging and performance degradation have kept acceptance limited to special cases. Issues: Gas purity Membrane integrity Plugging Much work is being done to improve membrane run times. Acid Gas Separation . CH4 N2 CO2 H2S SLOW PERMEATION RATES FAST H2O Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 12 . The cold temperature cryogenic facility could integrate NGL recovery. nitrogen rejection. Cryogenic Separation Acid Gas Separation . The CO2 can be removed from the NGL via traditional fractionation. Most cryogenic sweetening systems must make allowances for CO2 freezing in the system. Membranes are ideal for offshore and fuel gas treating. and liquefaction.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Cryogenic separation processes could be used for a sour gas stream containing 20% to 80% acid gases.
low H2S/CO2 ratio Exchanger leaks Vessels foaming. flooding. impurities. which is a hybrid of sulfolane (tetrahydrothiophene dioxide) and DIPA (di-isopropanolamine) or MEA (monoethanolamine). FeS. The most common is MDEA (methyldiethanolamine) and the second is Sulfinol.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING The sour gas treating options are listed and each process identifies the ExxonMobil plants. off-spec solvent concentration Hydrocarbon (HC) contamination. oxygen. solvent carryover Varying composition or unknown feed impurities: paraffins. mercury Inadequate regeneration. or plugging plus corrosion or mechanical damage Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 13 . sulfur.Operational Issues - Issues relating to sour gas processing operations are: Off specification gas. ExxonMobil Sour Gas Processing Gas Sweetening Facilities . BTX’s.
Selection of treating/disposal options requires careful analysis of technical. Acid gas pickup should be high in order to reduce circulation rate. FLEXSORB PS Other Ryan Holmes Molecular Sieves Iron Sponge. H2S must be removed for sale or NGL processing of the gas.H2S CO2 Removal H2S and CO2 are the main acid gas components removed in a sweetening process. SHE. markets. DGA. Purisol Disposal mechanism Hybrid Solvents Sulfinol. Sour gas treating is a costly complex operation. Scavengers Membranes Process selection is largely dependent on the quantity of H2S and of CO2 in the feed stream. product specs. H2S is extremely toxic. The cost and design of gas sweetening units depend on gas composition. COS. Sweetening Process Selection Summary -. and local regulations. sulfur. however CO2 might be retained to control the BTU content of the gas or for subsequent processing and use in enhanced recovery projects. and business factors. which can reduce absorber tower size and reduce the heat duty needed to regenerate the solvent. MDEA Inlet gas composition High Performance Amines Heavy hydrocarbons (especially aromatics) FLEXSORB SE Mercaptans.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Sour Gas Processing Processes Used at ExxonMobil Locations Process Selection Chemical Solvents (Reaction) H2S concentration Traditional Amines CO2 concentration MEA. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 14 . DEA. pressure. Diamondoids Potassium Carbonates Operating pressure and temperature Physical Solvents (Absorption) Treated gas specifications Selexol. There are a wide variety of options available for sour gas treating. etc Promoted MDEA Mercury.
ExxonMobil Upstream Sulfur Recovery Units The numerous ExxonMobil sulfur recovery units (SRU) are listed. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 15 .E. The variations of the Claus process are represented at the plants depend on the nature of the acid gas and local regulations. Disposition of H2S Disposition of H2S is the step after sour gas sweetening. (Safety Health Environmental) issues associated with sour gas. Typically the H2S is converted to sulfur in the Claus sulfur recovery plant with a small remaining quantity converted in the tail gas cleanup unit.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Sulfur Recovery/Disposal Sulfur Recovery/Disposal Objectives Understand why we recover or dispose of sulfur compounds Understand the effect of CO2 on the processes Understand the types of processes available for sulfur recovery and tail gas cleanup Understand there are significant S. The acid gas components must be processed to remove H2S or they must be injected.H.
ExxonMobil has the “dubious” distinction of producing the most sulfur. Along with being the largest oil company. Sulfur production occurs worldwide since oil and gas operations containing H2S are common. absorb with seawater. AG Injection Compress and inject acid gas in an appropriate subsurface location. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 16 . and discharge in the ocean. Claus Sulfur Recovery Unit The Claus sulfur recovery unit pictured is typical of the various installations. The facility has thermal (furnace) and catalyst (reaction or converter) sections to obtain the necessary high conversion of H2S to elemental sulfur (96 – 98%). Seawater Scrubbing Oxidize to SO2. H2S and Sulfur Species Disposal Options Traditional SRU/TGCU Convert to elemental sulfur and hopefully sell it. A portion of the H2S is burned to form SO2. which is then reacted with the remaining H2S feed to yield elemental sulfur.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING ExxonMobil Sulfur Production Need sulfur? We can make you a special deal.
98 % Reheat: Vaporized entrained sulfur Avoid sulfur condensation Reactor (Converter): Promotes Claus reaction Alumina catalyst Sulfur condenser: Remove sulfur Reduce sulfur loses Sulfur Recovery Units Effects of H2S Enrichment The conversion of H2S to sulfur is shown on the chart as Sulfur Recovery %.Sulfur Recovery Units THERMAL SECTION 60 . which reduces the cost of the facility.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Technology Description . It is a function of the % H2S in the acid gas feed stream. This occurs because less inert CO2 must be processed in the system SRU Feed Conditioning Acid Gas Enrichment (AGE) Sometimes acid gas enrichment (AGE) can be added to increase the H2S content in the Claus feed.65% Burner: Burn 1/3 of H2S to SO2 Reaction Furnace: Time for thermal reaction Most of sulfur is formed Waste Heat Boiler: Recover heat Sulfur Condenser: Remove sulfur CATALYTIC SECTION 93 . Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 17 . The recovery is highest and the investment capital is lowest for cases with high H2S content acid gas.
reheaters. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 18 . the run down pits are shown at upper right. and waste heat units. SULFUR SALES OR DISPOSAL?? Claus Sulfur Recovery Units -Operational Issues- Disposition of H2S The Claus plant does not convert 100% of the H2S to sulfur. Catalyst deactivation sulfation coking sulfur condensation thermal degradation Excessive emissions due to off-design performance H2S and/or solids buildup in rundown pit Significant amounts of CO2 increase OPEX and CAPEX Poor reaction furnace performance due to burner or internals failure Hydrocarbon (HC) contamination Aromatics in acid gas Low H2S/CO2 ratio Exchanger leaks in condensers. The catalytic converter is shown at upper left. so a small quantity remains for disposal. and the sulfur storage tanks are at bottom.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING LaBarge SRU Some SRU components in the LaBarge sulfur recovery unit are pictured. The tail gas cleanup unit (TGCU) is used convert the small remaining amount to sulfur or to recycle any remaining H2S back to the Claus unit.
shows a widespread geographic and process range. the catalyst is regenerated with hot vapor directly from the first converter. The plant name. ExxonMobil Tail Gas Cleanup Units Amoco CBA (Sub Dew Point TGCU) The Amoco Cold Bed Adsorption (CBA) method is an example of the extended Claus process. The elemental sulfur desorbs and is removed in the condenser. The tail gas cleanup units of ExxonMobil are listed. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 19 . followed by country location and process option. When the bed is saturated with sulfur.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Approaches to Tail Gas Cleanup The sulfur compounds remaining in the tail gas from the Claus unit must be converted and the basic approaches are listed. Some of the processes recycle H2S back to the front of the SRU. The higher conversion of H2S to sulfur at the lower temperatures causes the improved recovery. It operates at a sub-dew point temperature and the sulfur vapor is adsorbed on the catalyst. The tail gas cleanup unit (TGCU) is generally an extension of the Claus process that increases H2S conversion.
Sulfur Disposal Sulfur disposal is currently a problem since the worldwide production from sulfur recovery plants exceeds the demand. With new technology sulfur emissions can be kept below 100 ppm during normal operations. The stack is approximately 100 m high to allow sufficient dispersion of unrecovered sulfur dioxide. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 20 . are Incineration (Thermal Oxidizer) The tail gas is fired with auxiliary fuel gas to achieve a stack temperature of approximately 1000 ºC. The tail gas is mixed with hydrogen and undergoes a reduction reaction over the cobalt molybdenum catalyst.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING SCOT Process BSR with Amine Absorption The Shell Claus Offgas Treating (SCOT) process has a reduction section and an H2S selective absorption section. Any remaining sulfur compounds incinerated to form sulfur dioxide (SO2). Most sulfur compounds are converted to H2S that can be recovered in a selective amine process to be recycled to the Claus plant.
Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 21 . 174. and cools in descent to arrive at bottom as pellets. This view of the Quirk Creek plant and sulfur storage shows the size of a 200. The sulfur falls.000 Tons of Sulfur Prilled Sulfur Sulfur can be made into pellets for shipment to manufacturing plants for sulfuric acid or similar uses. and a person could fall into molten sulfur if the surface gives away. Bubbles of molten sulfur can migrate within the sulfur block. The right photo shows the pellets being removed for bulk shipment by rail or barge or for bagging to be shipped in smaller quantities.000 tonne block and indicates the magnitude of the potential problem. The liquid sulfur is piped the top of the prilling towers at left. Some forecasts predict there will over one billion metric tonnes of sulfur stored in Alberta alone by 2099. similar to rain drops.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Tengiz One large accumulation of sulfur is at Tengiz. The people walking on this block are potentially at hazard for their lives.
Acid gas disposal ABB SO2 Seawater Scrubbing Acid Gas Injection Seawater Scrubbing of SO2 The seawater scrubbing steps are: H2S is converted to SO2 in an incinerator. the sulfur must be returned to land. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 22 . A countercurrent packed bed absorber is used. Two options are listed.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Offshore Sulfur Disposal When sulfur recovery is required in fuel systems offshore. The first requires processing to convert H2S to SO2 and the second uses injection into approved salt water aquifers. The spent quench water and absorber wash water are returned to the sea. The treated gas is vented via fuel gas fired incinerator. Additional seawater is used to absorb approximately 98-99% of the SO2 from the gas. Technology Review . Hot effluent from an acid gas incinerator is quenched with seawater. Acid gas disposal is an option to sulfur recovery and tail gas cleanup. An ASME vessel is filled with sulfur production and is carried to shore on a workboat for disposal.
impurities. and rotor dynamics Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 23 . sparing. wellhead and packers. Picture shows unit delivered to Statoil's Åsgard B platform Injection into approved subsurface locations is an option. injectivity. Only applicable to reasonably small quantities of sulfur Significant quantities of CO2 in the acid gas adversely affect the economics. maintenance. Sour Gas / Acid Gas Injection Acid Gas / Sour Gas Injection -Operational Issues- Number of wells Completions: Materials for tubing string.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING SO2 Seawater Scrubbing -Operational IssuesOperational issues regarding seawater scrubbing are: Seawater must be available. For sour gas injection dehydration is required at an intermediate pressure to minimize the corrosion problem. Large quantities of seawater are required. materials. toxicity. Reservoir: Volume. Reliable quenching is essential. Sour gas injection will have the hydrocarbon components whereas acid gas injection would be primarily the H2S and CO2. injection pressure containment . seals. The facility will typically have multistage compression. communication with other zones Facilities: Horsepower. fresh water will not work.
0 to 99. and business factors. It must be disposed of safely. and local regulations. markets. CO2 mixed with the H2S adds to the disposal cost and complexity. Unit 24 Sour Gas Processing Page 24 . Sometimes acid gas enrichment is required.UNIT 24 SOUR GAS PROCESSING Summary H2S Recovery and Disposal H2S has no value and cannot be vented. SHE. H2S is extremely toxic. 99. The cost and design of sulfur recovery units depend on acid gas composition.9% of the H2S must be recovered. Selection of disposal options requires careful analysis of technical.
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