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Rock Physics and Fluid Substitution Modeling

Rock Physics and Fluid Substitution Modeling

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Published by Arun Kumar Nagar
integrated log seismics geology
integrated log seismics geology

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Published by: Arun Kumar Nagar on Jun 11, 2011
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See Crossplot options and operations on for more information on the crossplot toolbar options.

All crossplots are fully interactive. Changing a constant on one crossplot automatically changes

the value in other crossplots and in the zone control file. Changing the zone parameter in the

zone control file automatically changes the corresponding point on the crossplot.

A constant can be interactively changed on the crossplot by grabbing any of the points marked

with . To move a point click once on it then move it and click on the new location to position

it.

It is recommended to click on to shown only the affected zone parameters left of the crossplot.

IMPORTANT: There is a threshold value which is the distance between the wet clay point

perpendicular to the clean line. Petrolog will automatically reject this cross plot if the threshold is

below a cut of value fixed in the program. This is to avoid obtaining noisy Vclay when the

resolution is too small to be representative.

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FIGURE 1: Density-Neutron-VclayCrossplot

Figure 1 is the default presentation of the Density-Neutron-Vclaycrossplot for all models except

for the SSS model which has 2 extra points displayed. See SSS below.

The D-N crossplot is the most critical cross plot since it is not only used as a clay indicator but

also to compute PHIT and PHIE. The positioning of the dry and wet clay points are critical.

There are 5 points that are can be modified and from left to right:

y Point 1:(Phinm, Rhoma). This is the clean matrix line. For Sandstone RHOMA should

be set at 2.65. If a fixed matrix model is used for carbonates use the appropriate

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RHOMA. It is important to note that the RHOMA is not used to compute porosity when

the CPX or CXP No PEF models are used. See Compute Porosity

y Point 2 (Phin2, 2.2) This point is used to position the clean line when calculating the

Vclay from D-N . See Density Neutron

y Point 3 (-, RhoDryCl) This is the dry clay point and only the RHOB dry is needed since

the point must fall on the line joining the wet clay point to the 100% point outside the

chart. The Dry clay point is critical in calculating PHIT and since logs do not ever record

dry clay since it does not exist in nature, this point must be determined from core

measurements in a laboratory. Most companies take cores in sands with limited clay

content and the clays within a sand do not necessarily have the same properties as the

adjacent shales. Errors in PHIT can be expected in high Vclay if insufficient core results

are available.

y Point 4 (PhinMax, -) This set a PHImax cut off to limit the porosity calculated See

Compute Porosity The Neutron point value is calculated automatically so that the lines

fall on the appropriate Neutron chart used. It is different for different logging companies

and Neutron tools.

y Point 5 (Phinc, Rhobc) This is the wet clay point use both in the determination of Vclay

from D-N, D-S and SN and also in computing PHIE and PHIT see Compute Porosity

When changing the wet clay point the M clay and N clay values are automatically

recomputed see 1.4: MFACT vs. NFACTPhinc is also used in calculating VN. See

Neutron

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FIGURE 2: Density Neutron Crossplot with SSS model on

The 5 points described above are complemented by two new points.

y Point 6 (PhinSilt, RhobSilt) This point is used in the Vsilt calculation see Compute

Lithology and the Porosity determination. See Compute Porosity

y Point 7 (PhinSand, RhobSand) This point is used in the Vsilt calculation see Compute

Lithology and the Porosity determination. See Compute Porosity

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The SSS model has other applications than only computing the Silt. Regardless of the position of

the Silt point, the porosity of the silt point uses RHOMA for determining PHI silt. PhiSilt is

automatically calculated and changed in the zone control file shown in figure 3. However, the

user can manually change the value of PhiSilt for specific applications.

Example: The presence of heavy minerals like pyrite nodes will affect almost exclusively the

density log and the points will fall downward towards an apparent silt point. Correspondingly,

the calculated porosity will be pessimistic. One solution is to increase the value of PhiSilt so that

the porosity remains high even if RHOB increases and fall to 2.65 or higher.

FIGURE 3: D-N crossplot zone parameters

Changing the values in Figure 3 will move the points in Figure 2 and vice versa.

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The Bad Hole Display flag is normally off and only the D-N points that are in good hole

conditions are plotted when Off.

The PHIN matrix is set so that the clean line falls parallel to the sandstone line where porosity is

above 15%. This value is negative to compensate for the Neutron log non-linear sandstone

response in lower porosity readings and may be different depending on the Neutron tool used.

PHIN matrix is used only for the Density-Neutron clay indicator and it is not used for any other

purpose.

IMPORTANT NOTES about the Density-Neutron log

The density-Neutron log is probably the best tool to help the Petrophysicist identify the type of

formation or lithologies of a given zone. The appearance of this cross plot is very useful and here

are some useful indicators:

y Points fall in a relatively straight line from the clean sandstone line to the wed clay

points: This is typical of a laminated clay sequence.

y Points falls downward towards the dry clay point. This is typical of a dispersed clay

sequence.

y Points falls along the sandstone line then towards the wet clay point. This is typical of a

Silty-Shaly-Sand model.

The distribution pattern or the direction of the clay points are also affected by the clay type and

many clay types are listed by name in figure 1. The density value for most clay types are

reasonably constant and in the general direction shown in Figure 1. On the other hand, the

Neutron response to a clay type can vary enormously since it is directly dependant on the amount

of de-watering a clay has been subjected to.

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